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Integration of ZnO Nanowires with Nanocrystalline Diamond Fibers

Provided herein is a method for the synthesis and the integration of ZnO nanowires and nanocrystalline diamond as a novel hybrid material useful in next generation MEMS/NEMS devices. As diamond can provide a highly stable surface for applications in the harsh environments, realization of such hybrid structures may prove to be very fruitful. The ZnO nanowires on NCD were synthesized by thermal evaporation technique.
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Process for making reinforcing elastomer-clay nanocomposites

A process for producing a natural rubber nanocomposite containing exfoliated organically modified montmorillonite and maleic anhydride grafted elastomer in a dispersion of natural rubber and reinforcing filler/inert filler wherein the cured nanocomposite has improved mechanical properties compared to conventional rubber compound containing a mixture of the reinforcing filler, carbon black and the inert filler, CaCO3. Economic and financial information of the patent are as follows. The inno
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Metadichol ® Nano particle and applications ( patent pending)

Metadichol®*(anagram METHODICAL) is a product produced from the waste of our agricultural industry and is present in small amounts in our foods we consume on a daily basis as most of it is lost in our food processing. We suffer from diseases because our immune system gets weakened over time and  leads to death. A enhanced immunity is the key to a longer life. All diseases are reducible to passive or active disturbances of cells. One can mitigate diseases by correcting and manipulating the
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Lateral Molecular Force Microscope - Easy Access IP

Detection techniques currently used in scanning force microscopy impose limitations on the geometrical dimensions of the probes and, as a consequence, on their force sensitivity and temporal response. The University of Bristol invention is a scanning probe microscopy system based on a probe detection method that uses scattered evanescent electromagnetic waves. The patented detection system senses where the probe tip actually is in relation to the specimen and also the actual movement of the
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Nanostructure-Enhanced stereo-electrodes for fuel cells and biosensors

This application provides nanostructure-enhanced stereo-electrodes. The application also provides novel ways to manufacture nanostructure-enhanced electrodes. In some embodiments, the invention also provides methods of use for devices equipped with the nanostructure-enhanced stereo-electrodes.
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Fabrication of microstructures integrated with nanopillars along with their applications as electrodes in sensors

This invention presents microstructures enhanced with nanopillars. The invention also provides ways for manufacturing nanopillar-enhanced microstructures. In some embodiments, the invention also provides methods of use for the nanopillar-enhanced microstructures.
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Biomolecular nano device

Methods for measuring environmental parameters using chemical recording are provided. In some embodiments, the methods include generating a polymer comprising an ordered series of chemical units, wherein the position and number of each chemical unit in the polymer is indicative of a reading of the environmental state variable at a given point in time. The presently disclosed subject matter also provides compositions that can be employed in and/or that employ the disclosed methods for recording e
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Up and Down Conversion Systems for Production of Emitted Light from Various Energy Sources

A system for energy upconversion and/or down conversion and a system for producing a photostimulated reaction in a medium. These systems include 1) a nanoparticle configured, upon exposure to a first wavelength ?1 of radiation, to generate a second wavelength ?2 of radiation having a higher energy than the first wavelength ?1 and 2 ) a metallic structure disposed in relation to the nanoparticle. A physical characteristic of the metallic structure is set to a value where a surface plasmon resonan
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Compositions and Methods for Growing Copper Nanowires

A method of synthesis to produce gram-scale quantities of copper nanowires in an aqueous solution, wherein the copper nanowires are dispersed in said solution. Copper nanowires grow from spherical copper nanoparticles within the first 5 minutes of the reaction. Copper nanowires can be collected from solution and printed to make conductive films (preferably <10,000 O/sq) that preferably transmit greater than 60% of visible light.
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Functionalized Metal-coated Energy Converting Nanoparticles, Methods for Production Thereof and Methods for Use

A functionalized nanoparticle, having a core, optionally having a shell on at least a portion thereof, wherein the core contains a material that can convert applied X-ray energy into emitted UV energy and wherein the shell, when present, contains a plasmonics active material; wherein the nanoparticle has on a surface thereof at least one psoralen compound capable of activation by the emitted UV energy, and the use of the functionalized nanoparticle in a method of treating a cell proliferation di
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Nanoparticle Targeted Drug Delivery to the Lungs Using Extra-testicular Sertoli Cells

A method of delivering a compound of interest to the lungs of a subject by the intravenous injection of Sertoli cells loaded with a plurality of chitosan nanoparticles coupled with the compound of interest is provided. Testis-derived rat Sertoli cells were pre-loaded with chitosan nanoparticles coupled with or without the drug curcumin, pre-labeled with a fluorescent cell marker and then injected intravenously into the control or asthmatic mouse model host. Intact pre-loaded, pre-labeled Sertoli
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Nanometer-scale Electromechanical Switch and Fabrication Process

The present invention describes nano-scale fabrication technique used to create a sub-micron wide gap across the center conductor of a coplanar waveguide transmission line configured in a fixed-fixed beam arrangement, resulting in a pair of opposing cantilever beams that comprise an electro-mechanical switch. Accordingly, a nanometer-scale mechanical switch with very high switching speed and low actuation voltage has been developed. This switch is intended primarily for application in the RF/mic
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Polyacrylate Nanoparticle Drug Delivery

Drug delivery of resistance reversal agents by polyacrylate nanoparticles for treatment of drug (e.g. chloroquine) resistant malaria. Also provided are drug delivery by polyacrylate nanoparticles of ciprofloxacin for treatment of anthrax.
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Microfluidic Device for Controlled Aggregation of Spider Silk

The present invention is directed to a device and method of controlling the phase separation of one or a mixture of two or more spider silk proteins, leading to the defined and controllable assembly of the said silk protein(s) to defined morphologies, such as spheres, nano fibrils, threads, etc.
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Producing polymer coated metal containing nanoparticles, comprises forming anionic macroinitiators solution in solvent, adding polymerizable monomer, polymerizing, adding sulfide, metal salt and homog

Producing polymer coated metal containing nanoparticles comprises: preparing a solution of anionic macroinitiators in an aprotic organic solvent; adding at least one anionically polymerizable monomer to the solution; anionically polymerizing at room temperature; adding aliphatic or aromatic sulfide; adding a solution of at least one organo soluble metal salt in an aprotic organic solvent; adding a homogeneous reducing agent; precipitating the obtained particles with an organic solvent; and separ
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Producing metal-containing nanoparticles coated with polymers, useful e.g. for producing inks, comprises preparing anionic macro-initiator solution, adding monomer, polymerizing, and adding sulfide an

Producing metal-containing nanoparticles coated with polymers, comprises: preparing a solution of an anionic macro-initiator in an aprotic organic solvent; adding at least one anionic polymerizable monomer to the above solution; anionic polymerizing the above resulting solution at room temperature; adding an aliphatic or aromatic sulfide; adding a solution of at least one organo-soluble metal salt in an aprotic organic solvent; adding a homogenous reducing agent; precipitating the formed particl
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High-powered Electrochemical Energy Storage Devices and Methods for their Fabrication

The present invention relates to electrochemical storage devices, such as supercapacitors, batteries, etc., and more particularly to such devices that comprise an electrochemically active coaxial nanowire. The invention particularly concerns such devices in which the coaxial nanowire comprises an inner core of a transition metal oxide and an axially surrounding outer shell composed of an electroconductive organic polymer, such as poly(3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). The invention particula
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Lateral Two-terminal Nanotube Devices and Method for their Formation

An apparatus, system, and method are provided for a lateral two- terminal nanotube device configured to capture and generate energy, to store electrical energy, and to integrate these functions with power management circuitry. The lateral nanotube device can include a substrate, an anodic oxide material disposed on the substrate, and a column disposed in the anodic oxide material extending from one distal end of the anodic oxide material to another end of the anodic oxide material. The lateral n
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Approach to contacting nanowire arrays using nanoparticles

An in situ approach toward connecting and electrically contacting vertically aligned nanowire arrays using conductive nanoparticles is provided. The utility of the approach is demonstrated by development of a gas sensing device employing the nanowire assembly. Well-aligned, single-crystalline zinc oxide nanowires were grown through a direct thermal evaporation process at 550 DEG C. on gold catalyst layers. Electrical contact to the top of the nanowire array was established by creating a contiguo
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Nanodevice Arrays for Electrical Energy Storage, Capture and Management and Method for their Formation

An apparatus, system, and method are provided for a vertical two-terminal nanotube device configured to capture and generate energy, to store electrical energy, and to integrate these functions with power management circuitry. The vertical nanotube device can include a column disposed in an anodic oxide material extending from a first distal end of the anodic oxide material to a second distal end of the anodic oxide material. Further, the vertical nanotube device can include a first material dis
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Transparent Nanowire Transistors and Methods for Fabricating Same

Disclosed are fully transparent nanowire transistors having high field-effect mobilities. The fully transparent nanowire transistors disclosed herein include one or more nanowires, a gate dielectric prepared from a transparent inorganic or organic material, and transparent source, drain, and gate contacts fabricated on a transparent substrate. The fully transparent nanowire transistors disclosed herein also can be mechanically flexible.
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Self-assembly and Mineralization of Peptide-amphiphile Nanofibers

Peptide-amphiphilic compositions capable of self-assembly into useful nanostructures.
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Energy Transfer Through Surface Plasmon Resonance Excitation on Multisegmented Nanowires

Disclosed herein is energy transfer on multisegmented nanowires via surface plasmon resonance excitation of visible light, such as solar energy, absorbed by metals sensitive to visible light and transferred to metals insensitive to visible light. The nanowires are prepared with controllable gap sizes between different segments by on-wire lithography (OWL).
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Infrared-reflecting Films and Method for Making the Same

There is provided single layer infrared-reflecting films and a method of making the same that provide enhanced reflectivity in an 800 nanometer to 2500 nanometer infrared waveband. The method comprises providing a substrate, depositing onto the substrate a mixture of an oxide matrix material and either a conductive metal dopant or a higher valence cation, and producing the infrared-reflecting film.
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Titanium dioxide, single-walled carbon nanotube composites

The present invention provides titanium dioxide/single-walled carbon nanotube composites (TiO2/SWCNTs), articles of manufacture, and methods of making and using such composites. In certain embodiments, the present invention provides membrane filters and ceramic articles that are coated with TiO2/SWCNT composite material. In other embodiments, the present invention provides methods of using TiO2/SWCNT composite material to purify a sample, such as a water or air sample.
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Polymer Nanofilm Coatings

Disclosed herein are nanofilm coatings for implantable medical devices comprising a diblock or triblock copolymer (PEO-PMMA or PMOXA-PDMS-PMOXA, respectively). Such nanofilms, may be used, for example, as amphiphilic supports for therapeutic agents. These materials are conducive towards the formation of active substrates for a suite of biological and medical applications.
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System and Methods of Laser Assisted Field Induced Oxide Nanopatterning

A method of forming a nanoscale pattern on a substrate surface. In one embodiment, the method includes the steps of providing a substrate having a surface; providing a nanoscale pattern forming device, comprising an elongated cantilever that has a tip portion proximate an end of the elongated cantilever; and controllably illuminating at least the tip portion of the cantilever with a beam of substantially coherent monoenergetic particles when the cantilever moves relative to the substrate to form
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Plasmonic-driven Synthesis of Nanoprisms from Isotropic and Anisotropic Gold Cores

A nanoprism having a prismatic silver shell formed about a gold core and a process of forming the same are disclosed. The process includes irradiating a mixture of gold and silver nanoparticles with a narrow band of wavelengths capable of exciting the surface plasmon resonance of the gold.
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Multicomponent Nanorods

Multicomponent nanorods having segments with differing electronic and/or chemical properties are disclosed. The nanorods can be tailored with high precision to create controlled gaps within the nanorods or to produce diodes or resistors, based upon the identities of the components making up the segments of the nanorods. Macrostructural composites of these nanorods also are disclosed.
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Transparent Electrical Conductors Prepared from Sorted Carbon Nanotubes and Methods of Preparing Same

Various methods related to the preparation of transparent electrical conductors based on carbon nanotubes having enhanced optical and electrical properties are disclosed. In some embodiments, the methods involve employing carbon nanotubes that have been presorted according to electronic type and/or optical absorbance for use in transparent electrical conductors. Other embodiments involve use of carbon nanotube bundles that have been pre-sorted according to bundle density.
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Electrical Nanotraps for Spectroscopically Characterizing Biomolecules Within

A method that combines on-wire-lithography (OWL) nanogaps, an electric field concentrating technique, and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is disclosed for sensitive detection of analytes with small sample sizes in a chip format.
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Methods of coating surfaces with nanoparticles and nanoparticle coated surfaces

Solutions containing oppositely-charged nanoparticles (NPs) deposit "patchy" coatings of alternating charge distribution on various types of materials, including polymers, elastomers, and semiconductors. Surface adsorption of the NPs is driven by cooperative electrostatic interactions and does not require chemical ligation or layer-by-layer schemes. The composition and the quality of the coatings can be regulated by the types, charges, and the relative concentrations of the NPs used and by the p
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Near-field Nano-imager

An imaging device. In one embodiment, the imaging device includes a plurality of first electrode strips in parallel to each other along a first direction x, wherein each first electrode strip has an elongated body with a first surface and an opposite, second surface and a thickness n1. The imaging device also includes a plurality of second electrode strips in parallel to each other along a second direction y that is substantially perpendicular to the first direction x, wherein each second electr
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Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes with Metallic Moieties

A method of functionalizing carbon nanotubes with metallic moieties is disclosed. Carbon nanotubes are first associated with one or more binding moieties to provide carbon nanotubes encapsulated by the binding moieties. The encapsulated carbon nanotubes are then contacted with a metal salt or a metal complex that binds to the binding moieties. Reduction of the metal salt or metal complex provides carbon nanotubes functionalized with metal nanoparticles
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Nanoscale, Spatially-controlled Ga Doping of Undoped Transparent Conducting Oxide Films

An article of manufacture comprising a nanowire and methods of making the same. In one embodiment, the nanowire includes a Ga-doped trace formed on a surface of an indium oxide layer having a thickness in nano-scale, and wherein the Ga-doped trace is formed with a dimension that has a depth is less than a quarter of the thickness of the indium oxide layer. In one embodiment, the indium oxide layer, which is optically transparent and electrically insulating, comprises an In2O3 film, and the thick
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Generation of Photomasks By Dip-pen Nanolithography

A method of forming a photomask using a microtip is disclosed herein. The method can include depositing a sacrificial pattern on a substrate using a microtip, forming a mask layer over the sacrificial pattern, and removing the sacrificial pattern and a portion of the mask layer disposed on the sacrificial pattern to form a photomask.
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Halide Ion Control of Seed Mediated Growth of Anisotropic Gold Nanoparticles

Methods of forming nanoprisms or nanorods from gold seed particles by adding controlled amounts of iodide ion to the growth solution are disclosed.
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Etching and Hole Arrays

Lithographic and nanolithographic methods that involve patterning a first compound on a substrate surface, exposing non-patterned areas of the substrate surface to a second compound and removing the first compound while leaving the second compound intact. The resulting hole patterns can be used as templates for either chemical etching of the patterned area of the substrate or metal deposition on the patterned area of the substrate.
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Highly-dispersed Carbon Nanotube-reinforced Cement-based Materials

A composite cement material is prepared from cement material and carbon nanotubes, wherein the carbon nanotubes are present from about 0.02 wt% to about 0.10 wt % based on weight of cement material. The process for preparing such cement compositions includes sonicating a mixture of a surfactant, water, and carbon nanotubes; and blending the dispersion and the cement material to form a cementitious paste. The process may also include curing the cementitious paste. The composite cement materials a
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Multifunction Nanoconjugates for Imaging Applications and Targeted Treatment

The present invention relates to nanoconjugates. In particular, the present invention provides nanoconjugates for diagnostic (e.g., imaging), research, and clinical (e.g., targeted treatment) applications.
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Monodisperse Single-walled Carbon Nanotube Populations and Related Methods for Providing Same

The present teachings provide methods for providing populations of singlc- walled carbon nanotubes that are substantially monodisperse in terms of diameter, electronic type, and/or chirality. Also provided are single-walled carbon nanotube populations provided thereby and articles of manufacture including such populations.
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Nanoparticle-Based Colorimetric Detection of Cysteine

The invention provides methods to detect cysteine which employ oligonucleotide functionalized nanoparticles.
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Controlled Agent Release and Sequestration

Disclosed are nanostructures having nanoprisms and agents, such as diagnostic and/or therapeutic agents. Nanoprisms with a surface plasmon resonance in the near-infrared convert irradiation, such as from a laser into heat selectively to allow the dissociation, such as dehybridization of oligonucleotide duplexes, of agents associated with the nanoprism surface. These nanostructures show morphological, chemical, and functional stability under hours of irradiation. Further disclosed are methods of
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Inhibition of Bacterial Protein Production By Polyvalent Oligonucleotide Modified Nanoparticle Conjugates

The present invention is directed to oligonucleotide-modified nanoparticle conjugates and methods of inhibiting bacterial protein production.
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Nanoscale Lamellar Photoconductor Hybrids and Methods of Making Same

An article of manufacture and methods of making same. In one embodiment, the article of manufacture has a plurality of zinc oxide layers substantially in parallel, wherein each zinc oxide layer has a thickness d1, and a plurality of organic molecule layers substantially in parallel, wherein each organic molecule layer has a thickness d2 and a plurality of molecules with a functional group that is bindable to zinc ions, wherein for every pair of neighboring zinc oxide layers, one of the plurality
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Nucleic Acid Functionalized Nanoparticles for Therapeutic Applications.

Materials and methods for modulating cellular uptake of functionalized nanoparticles are provided. Also provided are materials and methods for modulating the effectiveness of a therapeutic agent with a functionalized nanoparticle.
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Methods for Sorting Nanotubes By Wall Number

The present teachings provide methods for sorting nanotubes according to their wall number, and optionally further in terms of their diameter, electronic type, and/or chirality. Also provided are highly enriched nanotube populations provided thereby and articles of manufacture including such populations.
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Particles for Detecting Intracellular Targets.

Methods describing the use of nanoparticles modified with binding moieties are provided.
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Molecule Attachment to Nanoparticles.

Disclosed herein are molecule-modified nanoparticles and methods of making and using the same. More specifically, disclosed herein are molecule-modified nanoparticles wherein the molecule is attached to the surface of the nanoparticle via an oligonucleotide. Also disclosed are methods of preparing nanoparticles having oligonucleotides and molecules (e.g., biomolecules, such as proteins, peptides, antibodies, lipids, and/or carbohydrates) attached to the nanoparticle surface, wherein the oligonuc
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Localized Delivery of Nanoparticles for Therapeutic and Diagnostic Applications

The present invention is directed to compositions and methods of localized delivery of a functionalized nanoparticle.
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Intracellular Delivery of Contrast Agents with Functionalized Nanoparticles

The present invention is directed to compositions and methods for intracellular delivery of a contrast agent with a functionalized nanoparticle.
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Sorting Two-dimensional Nanomaterials By Thickness

The present teachings provide, in part, methods of separating two-dimensional nanomaterials by atomic layer thickness. In certain embodiments, the present teachings provide methods of generating graphene nanomaterials having a controlled number of atomic layer(s).
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Separation of Carbon Nanotubes in Density Gradients

The separation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), by chirality and/or diameter, using centrifugation of compositions of SWNTs in and surface active components in density gradient media.
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Delivery of Oligonucleotide-Functionalized Nanoparticles

The present invention relates to compositions and methods for delivering an oligonucleotide-functionalized nanoparticle.
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Multiplexed Scanometric Assay for Target Molecules

The present invention is directed to compositions and methods of use of a functionalized nanoparticle having a catalytic metal deposit.
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Metastable Nanoparticle Ink Compositions and Images Made Therefrom

Self-erasing inks in which both the printing and self-erasure of color images can be controlled by the dynamic/non-equilibrium aggregation of photoresponsive surface-coated nanoparticles contained in a carrier film are provided. The aggregation is a reversible aggregation that is triggered by a photo-induced transformation in ligands within the surface coating on the nanoparticles. Methods for forming images using the inks are also provided.
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Nanodiamond Particle Complexes

The present invention provides various functionalized nanodiamond particles. In particular, the present invention provides soluble complexes of nanodiamond particles and therapeutic agents, for example insoluble therapeutics, anthracycline and/or tetracycline compounds, nucleic acids, proteins, etc.
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Silicon Pen Nanolithography

Disclosed are methods of lithography using a tip array having a plurality of pens attached to a backing layer, where the tips can comprise a metal, metalloid, and/or semi-conducting material, and the backing layer can comprise an elastomeric polymer. The tip array can be used to perform a lithography process in which the tips are coated with an ink (e.g., a patterning composition) that is deposited onto a substrate upon contact of the tip with the substrate surface. The tips can be easily levele
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Block Copolymer-assisted Nanolithography

In accordance with an embodiment of the disclosure, a method for forming submicron size nanostructures on a substrate surface includes contacting a substrate with a tip coated with an ink comprising a block copolymer matrix and a nanostructure precursor to form a printed feature comprising the block copolymer matrix and the nanostructure precursor on the substrate, and reducing the nanostructure precursor of the printed feature to form a nanostructure having a diameter (or line width) of less th
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Force Feedback Leveling of Tip Arrays for Nanolithography

A method of leveling a polymer pen array includes contacting a pen array with a surface and measuring a total force exerted on the surface by the pen array, the pen array being disposed at a first angle with respect to a first axis of the surface and a second angle with respect to a second axis of the surface; tilting one or both of the pen array and the surface to vary the first and second angles of the pen array with respect to the surface; measuring the total force exerted by the tilted pen a
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Oligonucleotide Specific Uptake of Nanoconjugates

Disclosed are nanoparticles functionalized with an oligonucleotide and a domain, wherein the domain increases cellular uptake of the nanoparticles. The domain is a sequence of nucleobases or phosphate groups, such as a poly thymidine (polyT) sequence or a phosphate polymer (C3 residue) and may be located 5' to the oligonucleotide, 3' to the oligonucleotide, within, or colinear with the oligonucleotide. Usage of the nanoparticles including modulating gene regulation is contemplated.
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Magnetic Nanostructures As Theranostic Agents

The present invention relates to magnetic nanostructures as theranostic agents, which provide dual function as diagnostic and therapeutic agents. In particular, the present invention relates to compositions comprising magnetic nanostructures and their use as targeted therapeutic agents for cancers (e.g., medulloblastoma) and Alzheimer's disease and related diseases and conditions.
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Templated Nanoconjugates

The present disclosure is directed to compositions comprising templated nanoconjugates and methods of their use.
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Nanostructures Suitable for Sequestering Cholesterol

Articles, compositions, kits, and methods relating to nanostructures, including those that can sequester molecules such as cholesterol, are provided. Certain embodiments described herein include structures having a core-shell type arrangement; for instance, a nanoparticle core may be surrounded by a shell including a material, such as a lipid bilayer, that can interact with cholesterol and/or other lipids. In some embodiments, the structures, when introduced into a subject, can sequester cholest
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Primary Carbon Nanoparticles

The present invention provides monodisperse primary carbon nanoparticles, and methods of preparation and use thereof. In particular, the present invention provides surface-modified monodisperse primary carbon nanoparticles, and methods of preparation and use thereof.
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Polymer-graphite nanocomposites via solid-state shear pulverization

Polymer-graphite compositions and related methods of using solid-state shear pulverization as can be used to affect one or more physical properties thereof.
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Thermoelectric Compositions Comprising Nanoscale Inclusions in a Chalcogenide Matrix

Composites comprising a continuous matrix formed from compounds having a rock salt structure (represented by the structure "MQ") and inclusions comprising chalcogenide compounds having a rock salt structure (represented by the structure "AB") are provided. Composites having the structure MQ-ABC2, where MQ represents a matrix material and ABC2 represents inclusions comprising a chalcogenide dispersed in the matrix material are also provided.
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"Click" Nanoparticle Conjugates

Modified nanoparticles are disclosed. More specifically, nanoparticles modified with an agent through a triazole linkage are disclosed. Also disclosed are methods of preparing modified nanoparticles and methods of using these modified nanoparticles.
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Nanomolar [beta]-lactamase inhibitors

New carboxyphenyl-glycylboronic acid transition-state analog inhibitors, representative of a class of compounds effective against class C [beta]-lactamase AmpC. The new compounds improve inhibition by over two-orders of magnitude compared to analogous glycylboronic acids, with Ki values as low as 1 nM.
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A Drawing Process for the Continuous Fabrication of Nanofibers Made of a Variety of Materials

Direct-write techniques are provided for the high speed (up to millimeter per second) and continuous fabrication of elongated nanostructures such as nanofibers. The nanofibers may be of an ionic solid, a hydrated salt, a molecular solid, or aggregated colloidal particles such as semiconductor particles. The nanofibers may also be converted to other forms.
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Method of Fabricating a Planar Semiconductor Nanowire

A composition comprises a semiconductor substrate having a crystallographic plane oriented parallel to a surface of the substrate and at least one planar semiconductor nanowire epitaxially disposed on the substrate, where the nanowire is aligned along a crystallographic direction of the substrate parallel to the crystallographic plane. To fabricate a planar semiconductor nanowire, at least one nanoparticle is provided on a semiconductor substrate having a crystallographic plane oriented parallel
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Medium Scale Carbon Nanotube Thin Film Integrated Circuits on Flexible Plastic Substrates

The present invention provides device components geometries and fabrication strategies for enhancing the electronic performance of electronic devices based on thin films of randomly oriented or partially aligned semiconducting nanotubes. In certain aspects, devices and methods of the present invention incorporate a patterned layer of randomly oriented or partially aligned carbon nanotubes, such as one or more interconnected SWNT networks, providing a semiconductor channel exhibiting improved ele
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Metal Nanoparticle Inks

Stabilized silver particles comprise particles comprising silver, a short-chain capping agent adsorbed on the particles, and a long-chain capping agent adsorbed on the particles. The short-chain capping agent is a first anionic polyelectrolyte having a molecular weight (Mw) of at most 10,000, and the long-chain capping agent is a second anionic polyelectrolyte having a molecular weight (Mw) of at least 25,000. The stabilized silver particles have a solid loading of metallic silver of at least 50
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Dna Sequencing and Amplification Systems Using Nanoscale Field Effect Sensor Arrays

In one aspect, described herein are field effect chemical sensor devices useful for chemical and/or biochemical sensing. Also provided herein are methods for single molecule detection. In another aspect, described herein are methods useful for amplification of target molecules by PCR.
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Synthesis of Nanoparticles By Fungi

Systems and methods for synthesizing silver nanoparticles (SNPs) using Trichoderma fungi have been developed. In an aspect, Trichoderma reesei was used for the extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles. In the biosynthesis of metal nanoparticle by a fungus, one or more enzymes or metabolites are produced that reduce a salt to its metallic solid nanoparticles through a catalytic process.
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Surface enhanced raman spectroscopy on optical resonator (e.g., photonic crystal) surfaces

Highly sensitive Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) sensors are described in the form of a optical resonator and a metal nanostructure deposited on surface of the optical resonator. In one embodiment the optical resonator is in the form of a photonic crystal, but other optical resonators are contemplated. Examples are described in which the resonant near-fields of a large-area replica molded photonic crystal efficiently couples light from a laser to dielectric-metal "post-cap" nanostruct
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Method of Forming a Nanoscale Three-demensional Pattern in a Porous Semiconductor

A method of forming a nanoscale three-dimensional pattern in a porous semiconductor includes providing a film comprising a semiconductor material and defining a nanoscale metal pattern on the film, where the metal pattern has at least one lateral dimension of about 100 nm or less in size. Semiconductor material is removed from below the nanoscale metal pattern to create trenches in the film having a depth-to-width aspect ratio of at least about 10: 1, while pores are formed in remaining portions
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Nanofiber Covered Micro Components and Method for Micro Component Cooling

A device including a micro component having an external surface and a nanofiber covering on at least a portion of the external surface of the micro component. A cooled micro component system further includes a droplet spray system for spraying liquid droplets onto the nanofiber covering to cool the micro component. In an example method for cooling a micro component, droplet spray is directed onto a nanofiber covering that covers at least a portion of the micro component. The directing is control
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Method of Forming an Array of High Aspect Ratio Semiconductor Nanostructures

A new method for forming an array of high aspect ratio semiconductor nanostructures entails positioning a surface of a stamp comprising a solid electrolyte in opposition to a conductive film disposed on a semiconductor substrate. The surface of the stamp includes a pattern of relief features in contact with the conductive film so as to define a film- stamp interface. A flux of metal ions is generated across the film-stamp interface, and a pattern of recessed features complementary to the pattern
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Mechanical Nanoresonator for Extremely Broadband Resonance

In an embodiment, provided are nanoresonators, nanoresonator components and related methods using the nanoresonators to measure parameters of interest. In an aspect, provided is a nanoresonator component comprising an elongated nanostructure having a central portion, a first end, and a second end and an electrode having a protrusion ending in a tip that is positioned adjacent to the elongated nanostructure. The electrode is used to impart a highly-localized driving force in a perpendicular direc
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Temperature-Dependent Nanoscale Contact Potential Measurement Technique and Device

The present invention provides a microcantilever capable of independently measuring and/or controlling the electrical potential and/or temperature of a surface with nanometer scale position resolution. The present invention also provides methods of manipulating, imaging, and/or mapping a surface or the properties of a surface with a microcantilever. The microcantilevers of the present invention are also capable of independently measuring and/or controlling the electrical potential and/or tempera
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Colorimetric Sensor Arrays Based on Nanoporous Pigments

A colorimetric array includes a substrate, a first spot on the substrate, and a second spot on the substrate. The first spot includes a first nanoporous pigment that includes a first nanoporous material and a first immobilized, chemoresponsive colorant. The second spot includes a second nanoporous pigment that includes a second nanoporous material and a second immobilized, chemoresponsive colorant. The first nanoporous pigment is different from the second nanoporous pigment.
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Nanoconjugates and Nanoconjugate Formulations

The invention provides a drug-polymer nanoconjugate that includes a drug covalently bonded to a polymer. The nanoconjugate can include a block copolymer coating and/or an albumin coating. The drug of the drug-polymer nanoconjugate can be one or more of a variety of therapeutic agents linked to the polymer through ether or thioether linkages formed from hydroxyl or thiol groups of the drug. The albumin coating can substantially or completely retard or prevent aggregation of the nanoconjugates in
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Raman-active Reagents

Raman Active Reagents (ERLs) are developed which use a nanoparticle substrate substantially covered with a mixed monolayer derived from a Raman active reporter molecule and an analyte binding molecule that both bind to the surface of the nanoparticle and thereby avoid the necessity for separate synthesis of a bifunctional linker molecule in making the ERL.
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Semiconductor Heterostructure Nanowire Devices

Nanowire devices comprising core-shell or segmented nanowires are provided. In these nanowire devices, strain can be used as a tool to form metallic portions in nanowires made from compound semiconductor materials, and/or to create nanowires in which embedded quantum dots experience negative hydrostatic pressure or high positive hydrostatic pressure, whereby a phase transitions may occur, and/or to create exciton crystals.
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Synthesis and Use of Nanocrystalline Zeolites

Embodiments of the present invention relate to a method for synthesizing nanocrystalline zeolites, the method comprising contacting starting products that comprise a solvent, a silicon source, a cation base, an organic template, and an aluminum source, or any combination thereof sufficient to produce a zeolite gel by hydrolysis, heating the zeolite gel sufficient to produce a first batch of zeolite crystals and a first clear solution, separating the first batch of zeolite crystals from the first
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Redox polymer nanoparticles

The invention provides nanoparticles and nanoparticle conjugates comprising one or more redox-active species, methods of making nanoparticles and nanoparticle conjugates, and methods for using nanoparticles and nanoparticle conjugates, for example, as diagnostic agents for the detection of various analytes.
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Clay-isocyanate Nanodispersions and Polyurethane Nanocomposite Produced Therewith

Nanodispersions of inorganic clays in isocyanate may be created via pre-exfoliation, delamination, or both of the clay and subsequent mixing with isocyanate. In an embodiment, such an isocyanate nanodispersion is reacted with an isocyanate-reactive material or substrate to form a polyurethane nanocomposite.
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Optical Element with an Anti-Fog Layer and Method for its Production

An optical element is provided with a fog reducing polymer layer. A reflection reducing nanostructure is formed on the surface of the fog reducing polymer layer.
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Method of Fabricating Monolithic Nanoscale Probes

A monolithic pair of nanoscale probes, including: a substrate having a cavity that extends from a surface of the substrate into its body; a dielectric layer formed on the substrate; a pair of nanoscale probe precursors formed over the dielectric layer; a plurality of sub-monolayers of electrode material selectively atomic layer deposited over the pair of nanoscale probe precursors. The dielectric layer includes a window that extends through it to the cavity of the substrate such that a portion o
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Method and system for detecting damage in aligned carbon nanotube fiber composites using networks

Methods and structural defect detectors for detecting a structural defect in composites are presented. An exemplary method includes forming a nanocomposite including a plurality of nanotubes mechanically aligned in a principal direction within a polymer matrix. A voltage is applied to the nanocomposite and a resistance of the nanocomposite is measured using the applied voltage to detect the structural defect. An exemplary structural defect detector includes a nanocomposite including a plurality
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Single-wall Carbon Nanotube Supercapacitor

A supercapacitor comprising a cathode, an anode, a first single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) film electrode adjacent the cathode, a second SWNT film electrode adjacent the anode, and separator disposed between the first and second electrodes. The SWNT film electrodes may be manufactured by a non-filtration process comprising depositing the SWNT film on a foil via CVD; separating the SWNT film from the foil; heating the SWNT film; treating the SWNT film with an acid solution; washing the SWNT fi
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Fibers, Tubes and Porous Structures of Metal and Metal Oxide

Nanoscale materials comprised of metal or metal oxide which are in the form of fibers or tubes or which have a porous structure can be prepared using composite fibers containing admixtures of polymers and metal precursors and/or metal oxide precursors.
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Emulsification of Concentrated Dispersions of Colloidal and Nanoparticles

A process to coat a shear thickening fluid onto a material which comprises emulsifying dispersions of a shear thickening fluid (STF) dissolved in a miscible carrier fluid or a partially miscible carrier fluid to form an emulsion and applying said emulsion to the material. The invention also relates to a suspoemulsion containing a shear thickening fluid which has been emulsified in a volatile solvent. The invention further relates to a method coating a material. The invention further relates to a
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Biosynthesis of Metalloid Containing Nanoparticles By Aerobic Microbes

Isolated tellurite-resistant or selenite-resistant marine organisms capable of precipitating tellurium or selenium when grown aerobically are described. A method for using these isolated organisms to produce an aqueous suspension of purified nanoparticles comprising tellurium or selenium and the nanoparticles comprising tellurium or selenium produced by this method are also described. The nanoparticles may further comprise cadmium or zinc. A method of remediation utilizing the described organism
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Branched Multifunctional Nanoparticle Conjugates and their Use

Disclosed herein are compounds and compositions including a polyglycerol nanocarrier, a therapeutic agent or imaging agent, and optionally a targeting agent. In certain aspects the disclosed compounds include biocompatible hyperbranched polymer nanocarriers. Such compounds and compositions are useful for the targeted delivery of antitumor agents and imaging agents to tumors in vivo. Methods are also disclosed for detecting and treating such tumors.
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Nanocarrier Therapy for Treating Invasive Tumors

Liposomes of a size of less than 200 nanometers target tumors and preferentially deliver imipramine blue to tumors, including brain tumors such as gliomas. The imipramine blue decreases the invasiveness of the tumors, and inhibits tumor metastasis. The liposomes include cholesterol and chemically pure phospholipids that are essentially neutral and contain saturated fatty acids of between 16 and 18 carbon atoms, such as distearoylphosphatidyl choline, and can also include one or more pegylated ph
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Elemental Iron Nanoparticles

Synthesis of iron nanoparticles with a substantially unoxidized iron core and a biocompatible coating is described. The nanoparticles are formed by reacting an iron salt solution with a reducing agent in a substantially oxygen-free environment and exposing the formed iron particles to a biocompatible coating agent in a substantially oxygen-free environment to form coated iron particles. An average diameter of the coated iron particles is between 5 nm and 25 nm. The biocompatible coating can func
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Use of multimodality nanostructures to detect target substances

Briefly described, embodiments of this disclosure include multimodality nanostructures, methods of forming the multimodality nanostructures, and methods of using the multimodality nanostructures.
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Nanopore and Carbon Nanotube Based DNA Sequencer

The present invention provides a device for analyzing the composition of a heteropolymer comprising a carbon nanotube through which the heteropolymer is driven by electrophoresis. The carbon nanotube also serves as one electrode in a reading circuit. One end of the carbon nanotube is held in close proximity to a second electrode, and each end of the carbon nanotube is functionalized with flexibly-tethered chemical-recognition moieties, such that one will bind one site on the emerging polymer, an
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Novel DNA Nanostructures That Promote Cell-Cell Interaction and Use Thereof

The present invention provides a ligand-nucleic acid nanostructure that promotes cell-cell interaction. Specially, the invention provides a ligand-nucleic acid nanostructure for treating tumor in a mammal. The methods of using and making the composition comprising a ligand-nucleic acid nanostructure are also provided.
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Fiber Reinforced Composites with ZnO Nanowire Interphase

Fiber reinforced composites fabricated using a low-temperature, solution-based growth of nanowires such as ZnO nanowires on the surface of the reinforcing fibers such as carbon fibers and functionalized aramid fibers. The composites with nanowire interphase may have an enhanced fiber/matrix interface strength and a comparable in-plane strength, as compared to similar composites without such nanowire interphase.
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InGaN Columnar Nano-Heterostructures for Solar Cells

Methods, devices, and compositions of matter related to high efficiency InGaN-based photovoltaic devices. The disclosed synthesis of semiconductor heterostructures may be exploited to produce higher efficiency, longer lasting, photovoltaic cells.
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Methods for Wafer Bonding, and for Nucleating Bonding Nanophases

Substrates may be bonded according to a method comprising contacting a first bonding surface of a first substrate with a second bonding surface of a second substrate to form an assembly; and compressing the assembly in the presence of an oxidizing atmosphere under suitable conditions to form a bonding layer between the first and second surfaces, wherein the first bonding surface comprises a polarized surface layer; the second bonding surface comprises a hydrophilic surface layer; the first and s
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Nanopore and Carbon Nanotube Based DNA Sequencer and a Serial Recognition Sequencer

The present invention is directed to systems, devices and methods for identifying biopolymers, such as strands of DNA, as they pass through a constriction such as a carbon nanotube nanopore. More particularly, the invention is directed to such systems, devices and methods in which a newly translocated portion of the biopolymer forms a temporary electrical circuit between the nanotube nanopore and a second electrode, which may also be a nanotube. Further, the invention is directed to such systems
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Bent Carbon Nanotubes and Methods of Production

A method of producing carbon nanotubes includes directing a flow of a gas over a substrate to provide growth of at least one carbon nanotube in a carbon-nanotube-growth region of the substrate; applying an electric field to the carbon-nanotube-growth region of the substrate after the at least one carbon nanotube has begun to grow in the carbon-nanotube-growth region, the electric field being substantially in a first direction in the carbon-nanotube-growth region; and changing the electric field
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Methods for Producing Nanoparticles Using Palladium Salt and Uses Thereof

The disclosed subject matter is directed to a method for producing nanoparticles, as well as the nanoparticles produced by this method. In one embodiment, the nanoparticles produced by the disclosed method have a high defect density.
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Luminescent Multimodal Nanoparticle Probe System and Method of Manufacture Thereof

A method of manufacture of a luminescent nanoparticle probe system includes forming a bismuth sulfide core; and coating the bismuth sulfide core with a shell.
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A Device for Transfecting Cells Using Shock Waves Generated By the Ignition of Nanoenergetic Materials

A miniature device for generating shock waves using the energy of combustion of a nanoenergetic material and directing the shock waves into biological tissues is described.
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Stabilized Gold Nanoparticle and Contrast Agent

A kit for providing a contrast enhancer in a mammal for contrasting during imaging of the mammal comprises functionalized gold nanoparticles configured to be directed to one or more of a target organ, tissue and lesion of the mammal.
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Soy or lentil stabilized gold nanoparticles and method for making same

The invention provides stabilized, biocompatible gold nanoparticles that are stabilized with material from soy or lentil plant material or a reactive extract thereof of the plant material. The gold nanoparticles of the invention can be fabricated with an environmentally friendly method for making biocompatible stabilized gold nanoparticles. In methods of the invention, an aqueous solution containing gold salts is mixed with soy or lentil plant material or a reactive extract thereof. In preferred
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Agarose Nano-platinum Composite

The invention relates to compositions and methods of using electrophoresis separation matrices. The invention provides nano-particle comprising separation matrices having increased conductivity at low voltage.
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Ultra-low Refractive Index High Surface Area Nanoparticulate Films and Nanoparticles

Nanoparticles having a mean particle size of less than about 25 nanometers and a mean pore size of less than 10 nanometers, and a mean surface area of at least 500 m2/g; nanoporous films of such nanoparticles; and composites and devices containing such nanoparticles and nanoporous films.
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Sensor Electrode and Method for the Electrochemical Detection of Nucleotides

A sensor electrode for the detection of nucleotides in a biological sample is described. The sensitivity of the electrode is enhanced by the nanostructured sensor architecture that increases the available surface area of the electrode. The electrode detects nucleotides using standard electrochemical methods.
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Nanocomposite Dielectric Coatings

The present invention describes processes for coating substrates with a nanocomposite SiCON material. In addition, the present invention describes the dielectric nanocomposite coatings.
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High-performance Gate Oxides Such As for Graphene Field-effect Transistors Or Carbon Nanotubes

An apparatus or method can include forming a graphene layer including a working surface, forming a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) layer upon the working surface of the graphene layer, and forming a dielectric layer upon the PVA layer. In an example, the PVA layer can be activated and the dielectric layer can be deposited on an activated portion of the PVA layer. In an example, an electronic device can include such apparatus, such as included as a portion of graphene field-effect transistor (GFET), or o
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Hierarchical Assembly of Nanostructured Organic Heterojunctions for Photovoltaic Devices

Systems and methods for hierarchical assembly of nanostructured organic heterojunctions for photovoltaic devices are described. Particularly, an apparatus for converting light energy to electrical energy is provided. An apparatus includes one or more organic photovoltaic devices. Photovoltaic devices include a cathode in electrical contact with the apparatus and an anode in electrical contact with the apparatus. Photovoltaic devices further include an acceptor layer having molecules forming a su
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Methods for fabricating nanoscale electrodes and uses thereof

The present invention relates to methods for fabricating nanoscale electrodes separated by a nanogap, wherein the gap size may be controlled with high precision using a self-aligning aluminum oxide mask, such that the gap width depends upon the thickness of the aluminum oxide mask. The invention also provides methods for using the nanoscale electrodes.
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Method for Producing Nanostructures on a Surface of a Medical Implant

A method for treating a surface of a medical implant to create nanostructures on the surface that results in increased in-vivo chondrocyte adhesion to the surface. Further, disclosed is a method to fabricate a drug delivery system. The drug delivery system includes a medical implant that has undergone a surface treatment process that results in the modification of the surface configuration and topography. The modified surface acts as a depot or reservoir for loaded biological material, biologic
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Fe3o4-m(au-like)-nanoparticles for Antibody-conserving Target-specific Platin Delivery

An antibody-conserving method for linking a therapeutic platinum compound to nanoparticles comprising Au Iike-Fe3O4, which is used for both drug delivery and tumor diagnosis.
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Nanostructured Sorbent Materials for Capturing Environmental Mercury Vapor

The present invention is a method and material for using a sorbent material to capture and stabilize mercury. The method for using sorbent material to capture and stabilize mercury contains the following steps. First, the sorbent material is provided. The sorbent material, in one embodiment, is nano-particles. In a preferred embodiment, the nano-particles are unstabilized nano-Se. Next, the sorbent material is exposed to mercury in an environment. As a result, the sorbent material captures and s
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Magic Size Nanoclusters and Methods of Preparing Same

Disclosed herein are magic size nanoclusters comprising lead and one or more chalcogens. The disclosed magic size nanoclusters have both spectrally narrow fluorescence and ultra-high quantum efficiencies. Further disclosed herein is a method for preparing PbS, PbSe, and PbTe magic size nanoclusters. The yield of magic size nanoclusters can be increased by using anion sources enriched for secondary phosphines. The use of enriched secondary phosphine anion sources also increases the yield of quant
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Dna Microarray Having Hairpin Probes Tethered to Nanostructured Metal Surface

A sensor chip and detection device are disclosed. The sensor chip includes a substrate, at least a portion of which is covered by a metal nanoparticle film; a first nucleic acid molecule that is characterized by being able to (i) self-anneal into a hairpin conformation and (ii) hybridize specifically to a target nucleic acid molecule, the first nucleic acid molecule having first and second ends, which first end is tethered to the metal nanoparticle film; and a first fluorophore bound to the seco
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Self-assembly of Lithographically Patterned Polyhedral Nanostructures and Formation of Curving Nanostructures

The self-assembly of polyhedral nanostructures having at least one dimension of about 100 nm to about 900 nm with electron-beam lithographically patterned surfaces is provided. The presently disclosed three-dimensional nanostructures spontaneous assemble from two-dimensional, tethered panels during plasma or wet chemical etching of the underlying silicon substrate. Any desired surface pattern with a width as small as fifteen nanometers can be precisely defined in all three dimensions. The format
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Method of Forming Gated, Self-aligned Micro-structures and Nano-structures

Methods of forming a gated, self-aligned nano-structures for electron extraction are disclosed. One method of forming the nano-structure comprises irradiating a first surface of a thermally conductive laminate to melt an area across the first surface of the laminate. The laminate comprises a thermally conductive film and a patterned layer disposed on the first surface of the film. The patterned layer has a pattern formed therethrough, defining the area for melting. The film is insulated at a sec
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Nanoparticles for Imaging and Treating Chlamydial Infection

Compositions of nanoparticles and targeting moieties for imaging and treating Chlamydial infection are provided, including nanoparticles conjugated to folic acid and comprising at least one antibiotic effective against Chlamydia.
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Dendrimer Based Nanodevices for Therapeutic and Imaging Purposes

A nanodevice composition including N-acetyl cysteine linked to a dendrimer, such as a PAMAM dendrimer, is provided. Also provided is a nanodevice for targeted delivery of a compound to a location in need of treatment. The nanodevice includes a PAMAM dendrimer linked to the compound via a disulfide bond. There is provided a nanodevice composition for localizing and delivering therapeutically active agents, the nanodevice includes a PAM AM dendrimer and at least one therapeutically active agent at
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Particle-rod Nanostructures

A particle-rod nanostructure is disclosed. The nanostructure comprises an inorganic nanoparticle coated with a capping agent and an organic crystalline rod nucleated on the capped inorganic nanoparticle in a one-dimensional growth pattern.
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Method of delaminating aggregated particles with a coating agent in a substantially supercritical fluid

The present invention involves a method of delaminating aggregated particles of natural silicate, nanoplatelet, nanofiber, or nanotube structures. The method comprises diffusing a coating agent in a substantially supercritical fluid between the aggregated particles and catastrophically depressurizing the substantially supercritical fluid to form delaminated particles.
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Nanostructure-beta-blocker Conjugates

Nanostructure-beta-blocker conjugates are provided. Additionally, methods of synthesizing nanostructure beta-blocker conjugates and their use in the treatment and prevention of bone disease, such as osteoporosis, are also provided.
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Conformal Coating on Nanostructured Electrode Materials for Three-dimensional Applications

A fabrication process for conformal coating of a thin polymer electrolyte layer on nanostructured electrode materials for three-dimensional micro/nanobattery applications, compositions thereof, and devices incorporating such compositions. In embodiments, conformal coatings (such as uniform thickness of around 20-30 nanometer) of polymer Polymethylmethacralate (PMMA) electrolyte layers around individual Ni-Sn nanowires were used as anodes for Li ion battery. This configuration showed high dischar
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Therapeutic Compositions and Methods for Delivery of Active Agents Cleavably Linked to Nanoparticles

Various embodiments of the present invention pertain to therapeutic compositions that comprise: (1) an active agent (e.g., paclitaxel); and (2) a nanoparticle (e.g., gold nanoparticle). In such embodiments, the active agent is covalently linked to the nanoparticle through a cleavable linker (e.g., a linker containing a hyadrazone species). Other embodiments of the present invention pertain to methods of treating a condition in a subject by administering the above-described therapeutic compositio
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Carbon Nanotube Compositions and Methods for Production Thereof

Compositions comprising at least one type of carbon nanotube, at least one surfactant, and at least one polymer are disclosed. The compositions provide stable fluorescence over a wide range of pH in various embodiments. In some embodiments, the compositions are biocompatible. Methods for preparing the compositions from at least one pre-formed polymer are disclosed. Methods for preparing the compositions from at least one monomer are disclosed. Heating methods utilizing the compositions are discl
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Methods for Solubilizing and Separating Large Fullerenes

We have discovered that size dependent solubility of large fullerenes in strong acids is dependent on acid strength. This provides a scalable method for separating large fullerenes by size. According to some embodiments, a method for processing a fullerene starting material comprises large fullerenes comprises mixing the starting material with a first concentrated sulfuric acid solution so as to obtain a first dispersion comprising a first portion of the large fullerenes solubilized in the first
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Method for Nanoencapsulation

Methods of nanoencapsulation are described herein. Embodiments of the method utilize the coacervation of a cationic polyelectrolyte with an anionic polyelectrolyte to form a novel capsular matrix. In particular, the novel methods may be used to encapsulate a suspension of a hydrophobic material such as a carotenoid. The disclosed methods do not require lengthy pH adjustments nor do they require the use of any toxic crosslinking agents. In one embodiment, a method of encapsulation comprises dispe
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Water-soluble Carbon Nanotube Compositions for Drug Delivery and Medicinal Applications

Compositions comprising a plurality of functionalized carbon nanotubes and at least one type of payload molecule are provided herein. The compositions are soluble in water and PBS in some embodiments. In certain embodiments, the payload molecules are insoluble in water. Methods are described for making the compositions and administering the compositions. An extended release formulation for paclitaxel utilizing functionalized carbon nanotubes is also described.
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Water-soluble Carbon Nanotube Compositions for Drug Delivery and Medical Applications

Compositions comprising a plurality of functionalized carbon nanotubes and at least one type of payload molecule are provided herein. The compositions are soluble in water and PBS in some embodiments. In certain embodiments, the payload molecules are insoluble in water. Methods are described for making the compositions and administering the compositions. An extended release formulation for paclitaxel utilizing functionalized carbon nanotubes is also described.
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Neat Carbon Nanotube Articles Processed from Super Acid Solutions and Methods for Production Thereof

Articles comprising neat, aligned carbon nanotubes and methods for production thereof are disclosed. The articles and methods comprise extrusion of a super acid solution of carbon nanotubes followed by removal of the super acid solvent. The articles may be processed by wet- jet wet spinning, dry-jet wet spinning, and coagulant co-flow extrusion techniques.
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Carbon Nanotubes Grown on Nanostructured Flake Substrates and Methods for Production Thereof

Carbon nanotubes grown on nanostructured flake substrates are disclosed. The nanostructured flake substrates include a catalyst support layer and at least one catalyst layer. Carbon nanotubes grown on the nanostructured flake substrates can have very high aspect ratios. Further, the carbon nanotubes can be aligned on the nanostructured flake substrates. Through routine optimization, the nanostructured flake substrates may be used to produce single-wall, double-wall, or multi-wall carbon nanotube
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Condensation Polymers Having Covalently Bound Carbon Nanotubes

The present disclosure describes carbon nanotube materials and condensation polymers having at least one bridge between carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotube materials comprise a plurality of functionalized single-wall carbon nanotubes linked to at least one other single-wall carbon nanotube by at least one bridge. The at least one bridge comprises at least one amine functionality bonded to the functionalized single-wall carbon nanotubes. The amine functionality may be alkyl or aryl. Carbon nanotube
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Polyol Functionalized Water Solible Carbon Nanostructures

A method of making a water soluble carbon nanostructure includes treating a fluorinated carbon nanostructure material with a polyol in the presence of a base. A water soluble carbon nanostructure comprises a fluorinated carbon nanostructure covalently bound to a polyol. Exemplary uses of water soluble carbon nanostructures include use in polymer composites, biosensors and drug delivery vehicles.
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Polyamide Composites Having Flexible Spacers

Provided are polyamide nanocomposites incorporating carbon nanotubes and other filler species. Also provided are related methods.
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Functionalized Carbon Nanotube-polymer Composites and Interactions with Radiation

The present invention involves the interaction of radiation with functionalized carbon nanotubes that have been incorporated into various host materials, particularly polymeric ones. The present invention is directed to chemistries, methods, and apparatuses which exploit this type of radiation interaction, and to the materials which result from such interactions. The present invention is also directed toward the time dependent behavior of functionalized carbon nanotubes in such composite systems
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Semiconducting Nanocrystals Comprising a Metal Sulfide Shell and Methods for their Preparation

Methods for synthesizing a semiconductor nanocrystal are provided comprising providing a semiconductive core; providing a metal precursor solution comprising a metal acetate, a non-polar solvent, trioctylphosphine, and trioctylphosphine oxide; providing a sulfur precursor solution; admixing the semiconductive core, the metal precursor solution, and the sulfur precursor solution to form a reaction dispersion; and heating the reaction dispersion to a temperature sufficient to induce formation of a
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Dissolution of Graphite, Graphite Oxide and Graphene Nanoribbons in Superacid Solutions and Manipulation Thereof

Methods for dissolving carbon materials such as, for example, graphite, graphite oxide, oxidized graphene nanoribbons and reduced graphene nanoribbons in a solvent containing at least one superacid are described herein. Both isotropic and liquid crystalline solutions can be produced, depending on the concentration of the carbon material The superacid solutions can be formed into articles such as, for example, fibers and films, mixed with other materials such as, for example, polymers, or used fo
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Fabrication of light emitting film coated fullerenes and their application for in-vivo emission

A nanoparticle coated with a semiconducting material and a method for making the same. In one embodiment, the method comprises making a semiconductor coated nanoparticle comprising a layer of at least one semiconducting material covering at least a portion of at least one surface of a nanoparticle, comprising: (A) dispersing the nanoparticle under suitable conditions to provide a dispersed nanoparticle; and (B) depositing at least one semiconducting material under suitable conditions onto at lea
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Strongly Bound Carbon Nanotube Arrays Directly Grown on Substrates and Methods for Production Thereof

The present disclosure describes carbon nanotube arrays having carbon nanotubes grown directly on a substrate and methods for making such carbon nanotube arrays. In various embodiments, the carbon nanotubes may be covalently bonded to the substrate by nanotube carbon-substrate covalent bonds. The present carbon nanotube arrays may be grown on substrates that are not typically conducive to carbon nanotube growth by conventional carbon nanotube growth methods. For example, the carbon nanotube arra
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Micromechanical Devices for Materials Characterization

The present disclosure describes micromechanical devices and methods for using such devices for characterizing a material's strength. The micromechanical devices include an anchor pad, a top shuttle platform, a nanoindenter in movable contact with the top shuttle platform and at least two sample stage shuttles. The nanoindenter applies a compression force to the top shuttle platform, and the at least two sample stage shuttles move apart in response to the compression force. Each of the at least
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Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticle-embedded Composites

Metal/metal oxide nanoparticle-embedded polymer films were synthesized in situ wherein the polymerizing agent was utilized for both reduction and polymerization (such as curing). This in situ method avoids the use of any external reducing agent/stabilizing agent and leads to a uniform distribution of nanoparticles in the polymer matrix. In some embodiments, additional heating can be utilized to form the nanoparticles embedded in the polymer film.
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Methods for Preparing Carbon Nanotube/polymer Composites Using Free Radical Precursors

In some embodiments, the present invention is directed to methods of fully integrating CNTs and the surrounding polymer matrix in CNT/polymer composites. In some such embodiments, such integration comprises interfacial covalent bonding between the CNTs and the polymer matrix. In some such embodiments, such interfacial covalent bonding is provided by a free radical reaction initiated during processing. In some such embodiments, such free radical initiation can be provided by benzoyl peroxide. In
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Methods for Selective Functionalization and Separation of Carbon Nanotubes

The present invention is directed toward methods of selectively functionalizing carbon nanotubes of a specific type or range of types, based on their electronic properties, using diazonium chemistry. The present invention is also directed toward methods of separating carbon nanotubes into populations of specific types or range(s) of types via selective functionalization and electrophoresis, and also to the novel compositions generated by such separations.
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Magnetic Purification of a Sample

Methods for separating magnetic nanoparticles are provided. In certain embodiments, a method is provided for separating magnetic nanoparticles comprising: providing a sample comprising a plurality of magnetic nanoparticles; passing the sample through a first magnetic field; at least partially isolating nanoparticles of the first nanoparticle size desired; altering the strength of the first magnetic field to produce a second magnetic field; and at least partially isolating nanoparticles of the se
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Graphene Compositions and Drilling Fluids Derived Therefrom

Drilling fluids comprising graphenes and nanoplatelet additives and methods for production thereof are disclosed. Graphene includes graphite oxide, graphene oxide, chemically-converted graphene, and functionalized chemically-converted graphene. Derivatized graphenes and methods for production thereof are disclosed. The derivatized graphenes are prepared from a chemically-converted graphene through derivatization with a plurality of functional groups. Derivatization can be accomplished, for examp
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Preparation of Graphene Nanoribbons from Carbon Nanotubes

Methods for producing macroscopic quantities of oxidized graphene nanoribbons are disclosed herein. The methods include providing a plurality of carbon nanotubes and reacting the plurality of carbon nanotubes with at least one oxidant to form oxidized graphene nanoribbons. The at least one oxidant is operable to longitudinally open the carbon nanotubes. In some embodiments, the reacting step takes place in the presence of at least one acid. In some embodiments, the reacting step takes place in t
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Carbon Nanotube Based Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents

A contrast agent composition comprising at least one carbon nanotube and a metal catalyst. A method for obtaining a magnetic resonance image, the method comprising: administering to a subject a contrast agent composition, wherein a contrast agent composition comprises at least one carbon nanotube and a metal catalyst; and obtaining a magnetic resonance image of at least a portion of the subject in which the contrast agent is disposed.
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Method for Forming Composites of Sub-arrays of Fullerene Nanotubes

The formation of arrays of fullerene nanotubes is described. A microscopic molecular array of fullerene nanotubes is formed by assembling subarrays of up to 106 fullerene nanotubes into a composite array.
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Fluorinated Nanodiamond As a Precursor for Solid Substrate Surface Coating Using Wet Chemistry

The present invention is directed to nanodiamond (ND) surface coatings and methods of making same. Such coatings are formed by a covalent linkage of ND crystals to a particular surface via linker species. The methods described herein overcome many of the limitations of the prior art in that they can be performed with standard wet chemistry (i.e., solution-based) methods, thereby permitting low temperature processing. Additionally, such coatings can potentially be applied on a large scale and for
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Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube/Bioactive Substance Complexes and Methods Related Thereto

The present invention includes single-walled carbon nanotube compositions for the delivery of siRNA and methods of making such single-walled carbon nanotube compositions. A single-walled carbon nanotube composition for delivery of siRNA includes a nonfunctionalized single-walled carbon nanotube; and siRNA noncovalently complexed with the nonfunctionalized single-walled carbon nanotube, wherein the siRNA solubilizes such nonfunctionalized single-walled carbon nanotube.
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System and Method to Measure Nano-scale Stress and Strain in Materials

A system for measuring stress and strain in a sample is provided. The system includes a sample holder operable to support the sample; a stress inducing assembly operable to apply force to a selected location on the sample to deform the sample by a selected distance in a range from about 0.1 angstrom to about a millimeter; and an interferometer operable to determine a surface topography of the deformed sample at a resolution in a range from about 0.1 angstrom to about a micron.
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Nanoparticle Compositions Comprising a Lipid Bilayer and Associated Methods

Bilayer-nanoparticle compositions comprising a nanoparticle core and a lipid bilayer disposed around the exterior surface of the nanoparticle core are provided. In some embodiments, these bilayer-nanoparticle compositions may be dispersed in an aqueous solution. Associated methods are also provided.
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Graphene Nanoribbons Prepared from Carbon Nanotubes Via Alkali Metal Exposure

In various embodiments, the present disclosure describes processes for preparing functionalized graphene nanoribbons from carbon nanotubes. In general, the processes include exposing a plurality of carbon nanotubes to an alkali metal source in the absence of a solvent and thereafter adding an electrophile to form functionalized graphene nanoribbons. Exposing the carbon nanotubes to an alkali metal source in the absence of a solvent, generally while being heated, results in opening of the carbon
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Method for functionalizing carbon nanotubes utilizing peroxides

A method for functionalizing the wall of single-wall or multi-wall carbon nanotubes involves the use of acyl peroxides to generate carbon-centered free radicals. The method allows for the chemical attachment of a variety of functional groups to the wall or end cap of carbon nanotubes through covalent carbon bonds without destroying the wall or endcap structure of the nanotube. Carbon-centered radicals generated from acyl peroxides can have terminal functional groups that provide sites for furthe
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Single-Crystalline Metal Nanorings and Methods for Synthesis Thereof

In various embodiments, methods for synthesizing single-crystalline zero-valent metal nanorings, such as single-crystalline copper nanorings, are described herein. The methods include providing a solution containing a metal cation, a complexing agent bound to the metal cation, thereby forming a metal complex that is at least partially soluble in the solution, and a reducing agent operable for reducing the metal complex to a zero-valent metal and then heating the solution for a sufficient time an
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Ultrahard Stishovite Nanoparticles and Methods of Manufacture

Compositions comprising nanoparticles (e.g., nanocrystals) of stishovite silica are described. Such nanoparticles may be made by (1) subjecting a mesoporous silica starting material (e.g., SBA-16 or KIT-6) to a pressure of less than about 20 GPa (e.g., about 12 GPa); (2) heating the mesoporous silica starting material while under pressure to an elevated temperature of less than about 1000 DEG C. (e.g., a temperature of between about 300 DEG C. and about 400 DEG C.); and thereafter isolating the
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Rapid Synthesis of Titanate Nanomaterials

Provided herein is a hydrothermal process for the rapid synthesis of inorganic nanomaterials (e.g., nanofibers) containing sodium, bismuth, titanium, and oxygen, as well as new compositions made thereby. The process involves heating an aqueous solution or suspension of suitable salts of aforementioned elements at elevated temperature and pressure under constant stirring in a hermetically sealed vessel for a predetermined amount of time (e.g., less than two hours). The powder thus obtained contai
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Staggered Composition Quantum Well Method and Device

A light emitting device comprising a staggered composition quantum well.
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Soy Proteins And/or Soy Derivatives with Zero-valent Iron Compositions and Use for Environmental Remediation

Preparation of dispersions of zero-valance nanoscale iron particles and one of soy protein, soy milk, or other soy derivative. The dispersions can be used to treat contaminated soil or water.
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Preparation and Use of Nano Size Peroxide Particles

Nano-size particles of calcium dioxide and magnesium dioxide for remediation of contaminated water or soil and processes for preparing and using nano-size particles of calcium dioxide and magnesium dioxide.
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Opto-fluidic Nanoparticle Detection Apparatus

Provided herein are new methods and apparatus for quantitative measurement and analysis of particles, including new apparatus systems to process and detect nanoparticles in suspension. By focusing a laser beam at the center of a reservoir, nanoparticles are concentrated by optical energy, and fluorescent intensity at the focal point of the laser is measured to quantify particle concentration in the reservoir. The techniques may be applied to the analysis of suspensions of nanoparticles, includin
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Tungstated Zirconia Nanocatalysts

A new type of solid acid catalyst, which promises better catalytic performance than conventionally prepared supported metal oxides due to its precisely synthesized nanostructure has been described. The catalyst is nanoparticulate in form and is comprised of monolayers of tungstated zirconia of the formula, WOxZryO4-2y made by impregnating a support with zirconium and tungsten. The support catalyst is further characterized in having a tugsten monolayer between greater than 0001 W/nm2 to about 30
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Targeted Nanoparticles for Intracellular Cancer Therapy

This invention provides constructs comprising a targeting member immobilized on a detectable particulate, in which binding of the targeting member to a target structure on a surface of a cancer cell triggers internalization of the construct. Such constructs can be used to identify or monitor cancer cells in cell cultures or in a tissue. Such construct can also be used to kill or prevent growth of cancer cells in vivo. Also included in the invention are methods for killing or preventing growth of
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Purification of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes By Dynamic Annealing

A method for removing impurities from carbon nanotubes is described. Impurities may be removed from the carbon nanotubes by exposing the carbon nanotubes to a temperature, and controlling the temperature such that the temperature is constantly increasing to remove at least a portion of the impurities from the carbon nanotubes.
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Synthesis of Bis-peptides Oligomers Comprising At Least One N-substituted Diketopiperazine As Structural Moiety

Functionalized bis-peptides as well as other amide-containing compounds are obtained by acylation of hindered amines. The functionalized bis-peptides are useful as shape-programmable nanostructures that are immune to denaturation and that contain arrays of functional groups having designed catalytic, protein-binding and/or sensor capabilities.
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Nanoscale Silicon-based Compositions and Methods of Preparation

The present invention is related to nano-particle compositions, methods of their preparation and applications thereof. The nano-particle compositions include silicon-containing nano-particles, a graphite matrix, carbon nanotubes and an amorphous carbon interface formed between the silicon-containing nano-particles and the graphite matrix.
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Ternary Metal Transition Metal Non-oxide Nano-particles, Methods and Applications Thereof

The present invention is related to ternary metal transition metal non-oxide nano-particle compositions, methods for preparing the nano-particles, and applications relating in particular to the use of said nano-particles in dispersions, electrodes and capacitors. The nano-particle compositions of the present invention can include a precursor which includes at least one material selected from the group consisting of alkoxides, carboxylates and halides of transition metals, the material including
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Polymer and method for using the polymer for solubilizing nanotubes

A new, non-wrapping approach to solubilize nanotubes, such as carbon nanotubes, in organic and inorganic solvents is provided. In accordance with certain embodiments, carbon nanotube surfaces are functionalized in a non-wrapping fashion by functional conjugated polymers that include functional groups for solubilizing such nanotubes. Various embodiments provide polymers that noncovalently bond with carbon nanotubes in a non-wrapping fashion. For example, various embodiments of polymers are provid
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Metal Or Metal Oxide Deposited Fibrous Materials

A method for electrospraying nanosized metal or metal oxide particles onto a substrate. A metal oxide deposited fibrous material comprising a substrate, fibers and metal oxide particles may be made using the method. The material may be a flexible and porous fibrous matrix on which metal oxide particles may be uniformly deposited on a surface thereof. In an exemplary embodiment, the invention is directed to an electrospun nanofibrous material on which electrosprayed photocatalytic metal oxide par
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Nano Discharges in Liquids

The present invention is direct to a nano-probe corona tool and uses thereof. A nano-probe corona tool is disclosed having a tip with a diameter in the nano-scale, typically around lOOnm. The nano-probe corona tool is constructed of electrically conductive material. On the other end of the tool, a pulsed voltage source outputs a pulsed voltage to generated a pulsed electrical potential at the tip. The pulsed electrical potential at the tip causes a plasma discharge corona to occur. Uses of the c
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Nanodiamond Compositions and Methods of Making and Using Thereof

Provided are functionalized nanodiamonds. Also provided are methods for fabricating such functionalized nanodiamonds. Also provided are composites including nanodiamonds and polymers. Also provided are methods for fabricating such composites including nanodiamonds and polymers. Also provided are electrospun fibers including nanodiamonds and polymers. Also provided are methods for fabricating such electrospun fibers including nanodiamonds and polymers.
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Fibrous Mats Containing Chitosan Nanofibers

The invention relate to fibrous mats comprising chitosan nanofibers and, optionally, at least one filler material, at least one additive, or both. The invention also relates to methods of making same, and devices that include a fibrous mat comprising chitosan nanofibers.
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Polyamide Nanofibers and Methods Thereof

Provided are methods for dissolving polyamides under ambient conditions and for forming polyamide nanofibers by electrospinning. Also provided are methods for incorporating nanoparticles, including nanotubes, into such nanofibers.
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Nanodiamond Manufacture and Process for Making Thereof

Disclosed are novel coatings and other components of articles of manufacture featuring the inclusion of nanodiamonds therein. Also disclosed are methods of achieving such inclusion and methods of utilizing the resultant, improved articles.
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Water Soluble Nanocrystalline Quantum Dots Capable of Near Infrared Emissions

A novel quantum dot capable of near infrared emissions at wavelengths of 750-1100 is made by forming solid solutions of metal sulfide, metal selenide or metal sulfide selenide by incorporating a suitable amount of an additional metallic element or elements to provide an emission wavelength in the range of 750 nm to 1100 nm. The quantum dots may be enabled for bioconjugation and may be used in a method for tissue imaging and analyte detection.
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Method for the Formation of Sers Substrates

A method for the formation of surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates. The method produces thin substrates that have a nanoparticle ink deposited thereon. The nanoparticle ink may be any suitable nanoparticle ink such as silver, gold or copper nanoparticle ink which includes stabilized nanoparticles. The substrates and nanoparticle ink undergo a first step of heating in order to remove liquid vehicle from the ink. The substrates and nanoparticles then undergo a second step of heating for an
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Method for Making Carbon Nanotubes with Embedded Nanoparticles

The invention concerns methods for producing carbon nanotubes with embedded nanoparticles comprising providing a template comprising an anodized aluminum oxide membrane with a pore diameter of 20-200 nm; contacting the template with a solution containing nanoparticles; exposing the template and solution containing nanoparticles to sonication; removing the template from the solution; forming a carbon structure via chemical deposition of carbon on said template; and removing the template by exposi
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Ferroelectric Nanoshell Devices

Disclosed herein are nanoscale devices comprising one or more ferroelectric nanoshells characterized as having an extreme curvature in at least one spatial dimension. Also disclosed are ferroelectric field effect transistors and metal ferroelectric metal capacitors comprising one or more ferroelectric nanoshells. Methods for controlling spontaneous ferroelectric polarization in nanoshell devices are also disclosed.
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Water Soluble Nanocrystalline Quantum Dots

An economic, direct synthetic method for producing water soluble QDs that are ready for bioconjugation is provided. The method can produce aqueous QDs with emission wavelengths varying from 400 nm to 700 nm. Highly luminescent metal sulfide (MS) QDs are produced via an aqueous synthesis route. MS QDs are capped with thiol-containing charged molecules in a single step. The resultant MS QDs exhibit the distinctive excitonic photoluminescence desired of QDs and can be fabricated to avoid undesirabl
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Devices for Intracellular Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

Provided are surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) devices suitable for intra-subject (e.g., intracellular) observation, which devices may be of nanoscale size. Also provided are related SERS analysis methods.
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Functionalized Nanodiamond Reinforced Biopolymers

The present invention includes a composition for implantation in a patient, comprising surface-functionalized nanodiamonds and at least one biodegradable biocompatible polymer. The present invention also includes a surgical fixation device for use in a patient.
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Nanostructure production method in substrate used in microelectromechanical system (MEMS) or microchips, involves making drops of solution for nanostructure formation float on substrate, and heating s

The method involves adding drops of solution for nanostructure formation in water at a temperature above a predetermined temperature, in which the drops of solution floats to a substrate on a steam pad. The steam pad heats the substrate to evaporate the added drops, leaving and forming nanostructures on the substrate. The temperature of the substrate is set above 200 degrees Celsius, and is tilted before or immediately after dropping the solution. The substrate is heated in several minutes or fe
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Method for the Production of a Nanostructure By Means of Spinodal Decrosslinking

Disclosed is a method for producing regularly arranged nanowires from a nanowire-forming material on a substrate. Said method is characterized by the following steps: a) the material is introduced into a carrier liquid at a load remaining at least three orders of magnitude below the loading capacity of the carrier liquid; b) a guiding member is placed on the substrate; c) the substrate is heated to a temperature at which a thin film of the carrier liquid undergoes spinodal decrosslinking on the
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Electrode for Lithium-ion Accumulators

The invention relates to electrodes for lithium-ion accumulators comprising a metal film that is inert in relation to lithium ions and a plurality of silicon nanowires projecting from the film at least on a flat side of the film. Parts of the nanowires are surrounded by the metal film.
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Nanocarrier Compositions and Methods

This invention provides multimeric nanocarrier for in vivo delivery of a bioactive agent, comprising at least two peptide monomers reversibly or irreversibly linked with one or more of said bioactive agents, wherein said two or more of said peptide monomers are covalently linked by a biodegradable difunctional moiety, as well as methods of using this nanocarrier.
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Method for Preparing Gallium Nitride Nanoparticles

A method for preparing gallium nitride nanoparticles includes providing a pair of electrodes; the pair of electrodes being opposedly disposed to one another. One electrode of the pair of electrodes is filled with gallium nitride powder. The pair of electrodes is dipped in a liquid. An arc discharge is produced between the pair of electrodes. The arc discharge produces a plasma between the pair of electrodes.
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Nanocarrier and Nanogel Compositions

Novel classes of multi-arm polyalkylene oxide-based materials including PEG nanocarriers, nanogel particles, and aggregated nanogel particles are disclosed. These classes of compositions may be associated with therapeutic agents and targeting moieties, or visibility enhancing agents, and may have a modified surface structure. In some embodiments the PEG-based materials can be made to provide relatively high drug loads with improved solubility and targeted delivery.
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Modular Monolayer Coatings for Selective Attachment of Nanoparticles to Biomolecules

Nanoparticles are functionalized for use as bio-imaging probes using a novel, modular approach. Particle surface modification is based on a phosphonate monolayer platform on which was built a multi-segmented, multi-functional film: the first segment provided hydrolytic stability, the second aqueous suspendability, and the third, selectivity for cell attachment. In vitro imaging experiments visualized nanoparticle - cell surface binding. Peptide-derivatized nano-particles were not displaced from
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Nanoparticles for Photodynamic Therapy

Embodiments of the invention include nanoparticulate products of a flash nanoprecipitation process, the products comprising, in combination, pre-formed nanoparticles having properties of an upconversion phosphor and a hydrophobic organic compound having the properties of a photosensitizer, and a method of photodynamic therapy comprising the use of the nanoparticulate products is described.
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Nano-particle Surface Modification

Oxide, oxysulfide, halide or phosphate host particles with a self-assembled organo- phosphonate monolayer covalently bonded thereto. Methods for coating the host particles and use of rare earth ion-doped particles in imaging methods and photodynamic therapy methods are also disclosed.
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Nanochannel arrays and their preparation and use for high throughput macromolecular analysis

Nanochannel arrays that enable high-throughput macromolecular analysis are disclosed. Also disclosed are methods of preparing nanochannel arrays and nanofluidic chips. Methods of analyzing macromolecules, such as entire strands of genomic DNA, are also disclosed, as well as systems for carrying out these methods.
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Synthesis of Bio-functionalized Rare Earth Doped Upconverting Nanophosphors

Methods for preparing rare earth doped monodisperse, hexagonal phase upconverting nanophosphors, the steps of which include: dissolving one or more rare earth precursor compounds and one or more host metal fluoride compounds in a solvent containing a tri-substituted phosphine or a tri-substituted phosphine oxide to form a solution; heating the solution to a temperature above about 250 DEG C. at which the phosphine or phosphine oxide remains liquid and does not decompose; and precipitating and is
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Efficient Solar Cells Using All-organic Nanocrystalline Networks

An optoelectronic device and a method of fabricating a photosensitive optoelectronic device includes depositing a first organic semiconductor material on a first electrode to form a continuous first layer; depositing a layer of a second organic semiconductor material on the first layer to form a discontinuous second layer, portions of the first layer remaining exposed; and depositing the first organic semiconductor material on the second layer to form a discontinuous third layer, portions of at
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Nanocomposite of Graphene and Metal Oxide Materials

Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The nanocomposite materials exhibit a specific capacity of at least twice that of the metal oxide material without the graphene at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10C.
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Mesoporous Metal Oxide Graphene Nanocomposite Materials

A nanocomposite material formed of graphene and a mesoporous metal oxide having a demonstrated specific capacity of more than 200 F/g with particular utility when employed in supercapacitor applications. A method for making these nanocomposite materials by first forming a mixture of graphene, a surfactant, and a metal oxide precursor, precipitating the metal oxide precursor with the surfactant from the mixture to form a mesoporous metal oxide. The mesoporous metal oxide is then deposited onto a
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Organic Photosensitive Cells Grown on Rough Electrode with Nano-scale Morphology Control

An optoelectronic device and a method for fabricating the optoelectronic device includes a first electrode disposed on a substrate, an exposed surface of the first electrode having a root mean square roughness of at least 30 nm and a height variation of at least 200 nm, the first electrode being transparent. A conformal layer of a first organic semiconductor material is deposited onto the first electrode by organic vapor phase deposition, the first organic semiconductor material being a small mo
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Low-aspect Ratio Nanostructures

Low-aspect ratio nanostructures, such as nanocups, nanorings, and arrays of nanocups and nanorings, methods of fabrication of nanostructures, and methods of using nanostructures are disclosed.
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Cobalt Carbide-based Nanoparticle Permanent Magnet Materials

A composition of a crystalline ferromagnetic material based upon nanoscale cobalt carbide particles and to a method of manufacturing the ferromagnetic material of the invention via a polyol reaction are disclosed. The crystalline ferromagnetic cobalt carbide nanoparticles of the invention are useful for high performance permanent magnet applications. The processes according to the invention are extendable to other carbide phases, for example to Fe-, FeCo-carbides. Fe- and FeCo-carbides are reali
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Bistable Nanoswitch

A non-volatile bistable nano-electromechanical switch is provided for use in memory devices and microprocessors. The switch employs carbon nanotubes as the actuation element. A method has been developed for fabricating nanoswitches having one single-walled carbon nanotube as the actuator. The actuation of two different states can be achieved using the same low voltage for each state.
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Large Scale Nanoelement Assembly Method for Making Nanoscale Circuit Interconnects and Diodes

Nanoelements such as single walled carbon nanotubes are assembled in three dimensions into a nanoscale template on a substrate by means of electrophoresis and dielectrophoresis at ambient temperature. The current-voltage relation indicates that strong substrate-nanotube interconnects carrying mA currents are established inside the template pores. The method is suitable for large-scale, rapid, three-dimensional assembly of 1,000,000 nanotubes per square centimeter area using mild conditions. Circ
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Patterned Nanosubstrates Made By Directed Self Assembly of Amphiphilic Molecules

Nanoscale patterns prepared by lithography are used to direct the self-assembly of amphiphilic molecules to form patterned nanosubstrates having a desired distribution of chemical functional moieties. These patterns can be fabricated over a large area and require no special limitations on the chemistry the assembled amphiphiles. Hydrophilic/hydrophobic patterns can be created and used to direct the deposition of a single functional component to specific regions of the surface or to selectively a
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Microparticle Organization

Methods and compositions are described for organizing nanoparticles or microparticles into nanostructures or microstructures using collagen as a template.
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Carbon Nanostructures from Pyrolysis of Organic Materials

Methods and apparatus to generate carbon nanostructures from organic materials are described. Certain embodiments provide solid waste materials into a furnace, that pyrolyzes the solid waste materials into gaseous decomposition products, which are then converted to carbon nanostructures. Methods and apparatuses described herein provide numerous advantages over conventional methods, such as cost savings, reduction of handling risks, optimization of process conditions, and the like.
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Ascorbate-linked Nanosystems for Brain Delivery

Ascorbate-conjugated liposomes and micelles, methods of making such liposomes and micelles, and methods of using such liposomes and micelles, such as for delivery of therapeutic and detection agents to the brain, are described.
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Stable Polyelectrolyte Coated Nanoparticles

Stable nanoparticles comprising poorly soluble drugs are disclosed, as well as methods of making and methods of using such nanoparticles, e.g., as therapeutics and diagnostics.
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Self-assembling Micelle-like Nanoparticles for Systemic Gene Delivery.

Nanoparticles containing nucleic acid and suitable for use as in vivo delivery agents for nucleic acids are provided. The nanoparticles use a covalent conjugate of a polycation such as polyethylenimine and phospholipids. The final DNA- containing nanoparticle has a vesicular structure with a polyplex core surrounded by a mixed lipid/PEG- lipid monolayer envelope and offers simple preparation, high loading capacity, and in vivo stability. The nanoparticles have good in vivo stability and a prolon
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Conjugated Nanodelivery Vehicles

Anti-angiogenesis agent-linked liposomes and micelles, methods of making such liposomes and micelles, and methods of using such liposomes and micelles, such as for delivery of therapeutic and detection agents to tumor cells, are described.
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Multi-biomarker Biosensor

Nanosubstrates as biosensors, methods of making such nanosubstrates, and methods of using such nanosubstrates to detect biomarkers are described.
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Multifunctional Self-assembling Polymeric Nanosystems

Libraries of nanoparticles comprising therapeutic agents and/or imaging agents are disclosed, as well as methods of making, customizing, and using such libraries of nanoparticles.
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Therapeutic Stable Nanoparticles

Stable colloid nanoparticles comprising poorly soluble drugs are disclosed, as well as methods of making and methods of using such nanoparticles, e.g., as therapeutics and diagnostics.
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Nanoscale Interconnects Fabricated By Electrical Field Directed Assembly of Nanoelements

The invention provides a fast, scalable, room temperature process for fabricating metallic nanorods from nanoparticles or fabricating metallic or semiconducting nanorods from carbon nanotubes suspended in an aqueous solution. The assembled nanorods are suitable for use as nanoscale interconnects in CMOS-based devices and sensors. Metallic nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes are assembled into lithographically patterned vias by applying an external electric field. Since the dimensions of nanorods a
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Peptides and Nanoparticles for Therapeutic and Diagnostic Applications

Provided herein are peptides and nanoparticles conjugates thereof useful for the treatment of diseases and disorders mediated by GIPC/synectin, such as cancer.
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Compositions and Methods for Treating Cancer with Dacarbazine Nanoemulsions

A uniform microfluidized nanoemulsion is disclosed containing an anti-cancer agent, such as dacarbazine. The microfluidized nanoemulsion improves the combination's cell membrane permeability by at least four-fold over conventional nanoemulsion compositions, which significantly increases the intracellular concentration of anti-cancer agents. As a nanoemulsion, dacarbazine has a greater anti-cancer efficacy than when applied as a free solution.
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Hetero-nanostructure Materials for Use in Energy-storage Devices and Methods of Fabricating Same

The embodiments disclosed herein relate to hetero-nanostructure materials for use in energy-storage devices, and more particularly to the fabrication of hetero-nanostructure materials and the use of the hetero-nanostructure materials as battery electrodes. In an embodiment, a Si/TiSi2 electrode 1000 of the present disclosure includes a plurality of Si/TiSi2 nanonets 1001 formed on a surface of a supporting substrate 1100, wherein each of the Si/TiSi2 nanonets 1001 includes a plurality of connect
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Molecular Imprinted Nanosensors

An apparatus for detecting the presence of a target molecule is disclosed which includes a conductive nanostructure, a non-conductive polymer coating on at least a portion of the nanostructure, and a cavity formed in the polymer coating having a shape corresponding to the shape of the target molecule. A property of the nanostructure depends on the presence of the target molecule at the cavity.
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Nanostructures and Methods for Chemically Synthesizing Nanostructures

The present invention generally relates to nanostructure compositions, as well as methods for the controlled synthesis of nanostructures, such as carbon nanotubes. In some embodiments, methods involving iterative growth of a nanostructure template to homogeneously produce nanostructure compositions are provided. The compositions may include nanostructures having a specific length, width, diameter, ring orientation, and/or other characteristics. Using methods described herein, nanostructures (e.g
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Nanoscopically Thin Photovoltaic Junction Solar Cells

Nanoscopically thin photovoltaic junction solar cells are disclosed herein. In an embodiment, there is provided a photovoltaic film 100 that includes a p-doped region 102, an n-doped region 106, and an intrinsic region 104 positioned between the p-doped region 102 and the n-doped region 106, wherein an overall thickness of the photovoltaic film is between about 15 nm to about 30 nm so as to extract hot carriers excited across a band gap, wherein the extracted hot carriers are capable of resultin
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Apparatus and Methods for Visual Perception Using an Array of Nanoscale Waveguides

Nanoscale photovoltaic devices fabricated from nanoscale waveguides that receive, propagate, and convert incident light into electrical neural signals, and methods of using these photovoltaic devices for visual perception are disclosed herein. A visual neuroprosthetic device includes an array of nanoscale waveguides (170), each nanoscale waveguide (370) in the array (170) having a photovoltaic material (320) located between an internal conductor and an external conductor, wherein each nanoscale
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Methods of Fabricating Complex Two-dimensional Conductive Silicides

The embodiments disclosed herein relate to the fabrication of complex two-dimensional conductive silicide nanostructures, and methods of fabricating the nanostructures. In an embodiment, a conductive silicide includes a plurality of connected and spaced-apart nanobeams linked together at an about 90-degree angle, the plurality of nanobeams forming a two-dimensional nanostructure having a mesh-like appearance. In an embodiment, a method of fabricating a two-dimensional conductive silicide include
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Device and method for achieving enhanced field emission utilizing nanostructures grown on a conductive substrate

A device and method is presented for achieving a high field emission from the application of a low electric field. More specifically, the device includes a substrate wherein a plurality of nanostructures are grown on the substrate. The relationship of the nanostructures and the substrate (the relationship includes the number of nanostructures on the substrate, the orientation of the nanostructures in relationship to each other and in relationship to the substrate, the geometry of the substrate,
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Apparatus and methods for optical switching using nanoscale optics

An apparatus and methods for optical switching using nanoscale optics are disclosed herein. A nano-optics apparatus for use as an optical switch includes a metallic film having a top surface, a bottom surface and a plurality of cylindrical channels containing a dielectric material, the metallic film acting as an outer electrode; and an array of non-linear optical components penetrating the metallic film through the plurality of cylindrical channels, the array acting as an array of inner electrod
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Apparatus and methods for nanolithography using nanoscale optics

An apparatus and methods for nanolithography using nanoscale optics are disclosed herein. Submicron-scale structures may be obtained using standard photolithography systems with a de-magnifying lens. A de-magnifying lens for use in a standard photolithography system includes a film having a top surface, a bottom surface and a plurality of cylindrical channels containing a dielectric material; and an array of carbon nanotubes penetrating the film through the plurality of cylindrical channels, whe
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Nanoscale optical microscope

Nanoscale optical probes for use with nanoscale optical microscopy are disclosed herein. A nanoscale optical probe for use with a near-field scanning optical microscope includes an inner conductor having a top end, a bottom end, and a body; a dielectric material engaging the inner conductor; and an outer conductor engaging the dielectric material, wherein the inner conductor is longer at a tip surface of the probe than the dielectric material and the outer conductor.
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Apparatus and methods for manipulating light using nanoscale cometal structures

An apparatus and methods for manipulating light using nanoscale cometal structures are disclosed. A nanoscale optics apparatus for manipulating light includes a plurality of nanoscale cometal structures each comprising a dielectric material located between a first electrical conductor and a second electrical conductor. A method of fabricating a nanoscale optics apparatus for manipulating light includes preparing a plurality of nanoscale planar structures; coating a plurality of planar surfaces o
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Apparatus and methods for solar energy conversion using nanoscale cometal structures

An apparatus and methods for solar conversion using nanoscale cometal structures are disclosed herein. The cometal structures may be coaxial and coplanar. A nanoscale optics apparatus (100) for use as a solar cell comprises a plurality of nanoscale cometal structures each including a photovoltaic material (180) located between a first electrical conductor (120) and a second electrical conductor (160). A method of fabricating solar cells comprises preparing a plurality of nanoscale planar structu
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Apparatus and methods for solar energy conversion using nanocoax structures

An apparatus and method for solar conversion using nanocoax structures are disclosed herein. A nano-optics apparatus for use as a solar cell comprising a plurality of nano-coaxial structures comprising an internal conductor surrounded by a semiconducting material coated with an outer conductor; a film having the plurality of nano-coaxial structures; and a protruding portion of the an internal conductor extending beyond a surface of the film. A method of fabricating a solar cell comprising: coati
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Methods for Separating Carbon Nanotubes

Disclosed herein too is a method that includes dispersing nanotubes in media that comprises flavin moieties substituted with solubilizing side chains, and/or non-flavin containing molecular species; self-assembling the flavin moieties and other non-flavin containing molecular species in a pattern that is orderly wrapped around the nanotubes to form a composite; introducing desired amounts of an optional reagent that competes with self-assembly in order to disturb the wrapping around nanotubes wi
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Manganese Oxide Nanowires, Films, and Membranes and Methods of Making

Nanowires, films, and membranes comprising ordered porous manganese oxide-based octahedral molecular sieves and methods of making the same are disclosed. A method for forming nanowires includes hydrothermally treating a chemical precursor composition in a hydrothermal treating solvent to form the nanowires, wherein the chemical precursor composition comprises a source of manganese cations and a source of counter cations, and wherein the nanowires comprise ordered porous manganese oxide-based oct
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Carbon nanotube composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

The present invention provides biocompatible composite materials that can be fabricated into a scaffold having properties suitable for bone repair and regeneration. These scaffolds have sufficient mechanical strength to be useful for the repair and regeneration of cortical bone.
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Low-temperature Surface Doping/alloying/coating of Large Scale Semiconductor Nanowire Arrays

A method and corresponding system for providing a uniform nanowire array including uniform nanowires composed of at least three elements is presented. An embodiment of the method includes growing an array of two-element nanowires, and thereafter uniformly doping or alloying each two-element nanowire, with respect to each other two-element nanowire, with at least one doping or alloying element through a wet chemical synthesis with a precursor solution, to produce the uniform array of nanowires co
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Fabrication of Silk Fibroin Photonic Structures By Nanocontact Imprinting

A method of manufacturing a nanopatterned biophotonic structure includes forming a customized nanopattern mask on a substrate using E-beam lithography, providing a biopolymer matrix solution, depositing the biopolymer matrix solution on the substrate, and drying the biopolymer matrix solution to form a solidified biopolymer film. A surface of the film is formed with the nanopattern mask, or a nanopattern is machined directly on a surface of the film using E-beam lithograpy such that the biopolym
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Nanochannel-based Sensor System for Use in Detecting Chemical Or Biological Species

A sensor system for detecting a chemical or biological species includes a sensing element and a bias and measurement circuit. The sensing element includes nanochannels, each having an outer surface functionalized to chemically interact with the species to create a corresponding surface potential, and each having a sufficiently small cross section to exhibit a shift of a differential conductance characteristic into a negative bias operating region by a shift amount dependent on the surface potent
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High Definition Scintillation Detector for Medicine, Homeland Security, and Non-destructive Evaluation

A bundle of drawn fibers that have X-ray scintillating unagglommerated nanocrystallite particles in plastic or glass cores of down to 0.1 micron spacing and claddings of X-ray absorbing compounds in the cladding composition. Optional is a cover to the bundle that blocks light from leaving the bundle at the X-ray side while allowing X-rays to pass into the cores. To image the light exiting the fiber bundle at the sub-micron level, light expansion is preferable using either a lens system or a fibe
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Manufacture of Nanoparticles Using Nanopores and Voltage-driven Electrolyte Flow

Disclosed are methods of manufacturing nanoparticles such as quantum dots at desired nanopore locations in a membrane. The methods disclosed use voltage-driven electrolyte flow to drive the nanoparticle formation.
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Engineered Sers Substrates Employing Nanoparticle Cluster Arrays with Multiscale Signal Enhancement

Defined nanoparticle cluster arrays (NCAs) with total lateral dimensions of up to 25.4 [mu]m by 25.4 [mu]m have been fabricated on top of a 10 nm thin gold film using template guided self-assembly. This approach provides precise control of the structural parameters in the arrays allowing a systematic variation of the average number of nanoparticles in the clusters (n) and the edge to edge separation (?) between 1 < n < 20 and 50 nm =?=1000 nm, respectively. Investigations of the Rayleigh scatter
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Glucose Sensor Employing Semiconductor Nanoelectronic Device

A glucose sensor employs a programmable glucose sensor array of a relatively large number of nanoelectronic devices (e.g. semiconductor field-effect devices) having control surfaces functionalized with a glucose-reactive substance and generating sensing signals indicative of sensed glucose level of a bodily fluid. The devices are divided into sub-sets sequentially enabled over successive intervals to achieve overall sensor lifetime many times longer than the lifetime of any single device in oper
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Nanoantenna Arrays for Nanospectroscopy, Methods of Use and Methods of High-throughput Nanofabrication

The present invention generally relates to nanoantenna arrays and methods of their fabrication. In particular, one aspect relates to nanoantenna arrays comprising nanostructures of predefined shapes in predefined patterns, which results in collective excitement of surface plasmons. In some embodiments the nanoantenna arrays can be used for spectroscopy and nanospectroscopy. Another aspects of the present invention relate to a method of high-throughput fabrication of nanoantenna arrays includes f
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Label-free Sensing of Pna-dna Complexes Using Nanopores

Embodiments disclosed herein relate to a method of detecting specific DNA sequences and the application of this method in the detection of pathogens, viruses, drug-resistant pathogens, genomic variations associated with disease/disorder susceptibility etc. based on specific signature sequences unique to the pathogens, viruses, drug-resistant pathogens or genomic variations. The method can also be used to distinguish a pool of same-sized dsDNA on the basis of sequence differences. The method uses
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Chemical Functionalization of Solid-state Nanopores and Nanopore Arrays and Applications Thereof

Chemical functionalization of solid-state nanopores and nanopore arrays and applications thereof. Nanopores are extremely sensitive single-molecule sensors. Recently, electron beams have been used to fabricate synthetic nanopores in thin solid-state membranes with sub-nanometer resolution. A new class of chemically modified nanopore sensors are provided with two approaches for monolayer coating of nanopores by: (1) self-assembly from solution, in which nanopores -10 nm diameter can be reproducib
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Nanochannel-based Sensor System with Controlled Sensitivity

Disclosed are sensors, devices, systems, arrays of sensors and methods, including a sensing device that includes a sensor including one or more nanochannels constructed from semiconductor material and connected at their opposite ends to electrodes, the one or more nanochannels having at least one electrical property that varies based, at least in part, on an interaction with at least one analyte contained in a sample introduced to the sensor. The device also includes a controller to control sens
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Heirarchial Polymer-based Nanocomposites for Emi Shielding

Polymer-based nanocomposites and a method for forming polymer-based nanocomposites for EMI shielding includes three nanofillers used in a formation of a hierarchy in structure, length, size, and dimension. The nanofillers formulation comprises 18 wt % of nickel-coated carbon fibers (NCCB), 7 wt % of carbon nanofibers, and 2 wt % of multi-walled carbon nanotubes mixed within an ABS copolymer matrix of 72 wt % for effective EMI shielding.
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Compositions and Methods for the Preparation of Nanoemulsions

The disclosure relates to compositions and methods of forming nanoemulsions, e.g., containing an active component, in combination with lipophilic components such as oils, hydrophilic components such as water, and one or more surfactants capable of causing a temperature-dependent phase inversion, such as a nonionic polyethoxylated surfactant. Nanoemulsions containing the active component can be produced having average oil droplet sizes of less than 100 nm, 50 nm, or 25 nm without the need for hig
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Methods for the Fabrication of Nanostructure Heating Elements

The present invention relates to methods of fabricating nanostructures using a replacement reaction. In a preferred embodiment, metal particles in an inert atmosphere undergo a replacement reaction to form a layer on the metal particle which is removed to form a high surface area nanostructure. A preferred embodiment includes the fabrication of heater elements, powders and heater assemblies using the nanostructures.
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Metal and Metal Oxide Structures and Preparation Thereof

Methods of the invention allow rapid production of high-porous, large-surface-area nanostruetured metal and/or metal oxide at attractive low cost applicable to a wide variety of commercial applications such as sensors, catalysts and photovoltaics.
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Antineoplastic Hydrogels, and Enzyme-instructed Preparations Thereof

Disclosed is a general methodology to create nano fibers of therapeutic molecules that have a dual role, as both the delivery vehicle and the drug itself. It is shown that with proper molecular design, the integration of enzymatic reaction and self-assembly provides a powerful method to create molecular hydrogels of clinically-used therapeutics without compromising their bioactivities. In addition, the results disclosed herein demonstrate enzyme-instructed self-assembly as a facile strategy for
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Nanoparticles for Use As Synthetic Platelets and Therapeutic Agent Delivery Vehicles

The invention relates to synthetic platelet compositions and methods useful in diminishing bleeding and blood loss. The synthetic platelets of the invention can comprise a biocompatible, biodegradable polymer, including, for example, a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-poly-L-lysine (PLGA-PLL) block copolymer, having conjugated PEG arms terminating with RGD motif containing peptides. The invention further comprises compositions and methods useful in the delivery of therapeutic agents.
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Nanomechanical Photonic Devices

The present invention relates to devices which operate on gradient optical forces, in particular, nanoscale mechanical devices which are actuable by gradient optical forces. Such a device comprises a waveguide and a dielectric body, with at least a portion of the waveguide separated from the dielectric body at a distance which permits evanescent coupling of an optical mode within the waveguide to the dielectric body. This results in an optical force which acts on the waveguide and which can be e
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Carbon Nanotube Compositions and Methods of Use Thereof

Carbon nanotube (CNT)-based compositions for activating cellular immune responses are provided. The CNTs function as high surface area scaffolds for the attachment of T cell ligands and/or antigens. The CNT compositions function as artificial antigen-presenting cells (aAPCs) or as modular vaccines. The disclosed CNT aAPCs are efficient at activating T cells and may be used to activate T cells ex vivo or in vivo for adoptive or active immunotherapy.
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Nanoelectronic-enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay System and Method

The present invention relates to a device and method for determining the presence of a specific compound in solution. The device includes a nanosensor having an electrically conducting pathway between at least a first and second contact. The device also includes a first receptor, suitable for binding a specific compound in the solution, attached to the nanosensor, and a second receptor also suitable for binding the specific compound while the specific compound is bound to the first receptor. The
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Growth of Boron Nanostructures with Controlled Diameter

A process for growth of boron-based nanostructures, such as nanotubes and nanowires, with a controlled diameter and with controlled chemical (such as composition, doping) as well as physical (such as electrical and superconducting) properties is described. The boron nanostructures are grown on a metal-substituted MCM-41 template with pores having a uniform pore diameter of less than approximately 4 nm, and can be doped with a Group Ia or Group IIa electron donor element during or after growth of
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Physiologic Sample Preparation for Nanosensors

The present invention provides a microfluidic purification chip for capturing a biomarker from a physiological solution. The present invention also provides a method of capturing and releasing a biomarker, wherein the biomarker is originally in a physiological solution. The present invention further provides a method of pre-purifying and measuring the concentration of a biomarker in a physiological solution.
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Carbon Nanotube Filters

Filters comprising a layer of multiwall carbon nanotubes dispersed on a porous substrate, with or without a layer of single wall carbon nanotubes dispersed on top of the layer of multiwall carbon nanotubes, have been fabricated and shown to be useful for removing constituents from fluids.
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Method for Cell Identification and Quantification with Gold Nanoparticles Through Hydrogen Ion Reduction

The method for cell identification and quantification comprises bonding specific surface proteins of cells immobilised on the surface of the electrochemical transducer with specific antibodies conjugated with gold nanoparticles, and subsequent nanoparticle detection and quantification through hydrogen generation catalysed by said nanoparticles at an appropriate potential. It furthermore comprises the application thereof in a method of diagnosis and/or prognosis of a disease involving the express
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Object Authentication System and Method

The invention relates to an identification and verification system and to an associated method for the identification and verification of documents, based on the use of nanoparticles embedded or absorbed in the medium forming the document, whereby the different optical reflectance characteristics of the nanoparticles are used to provide highly effective forgery identification, by combining different nanoparticles each having unique properties.
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Multifunctional Nanostructures As Spect/mri Bimodal Diagnosis Agents

The invention relates to multifunctional nanostructures consisting of superparamagnetic magnetoferritin which can also comprise chains of a biocompatible polymer covalently bound to the surface thereof. The invention also relates to a method for obtaining said nanostructures, as well as to the use thereof as a drug, preferably for the diagnosis of cancer or as a contrast agent.
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Method for Obtaining Metallic Nanoparticles

The present invention relates to a method for obtaining nanoparticles of a metal selected from the group consisting of Ag, Pt, Pd and Au, which comprises the steps of: a) preparing an aqueous solution of a metallic salt and an aqueous citrate-salt mother solution, respectively; b) preparing an aqueous solution of dithionite salt, taking, as solvent, a portion of the aqueous citrate-salt mother solution obtained in step a); c) heating a portion of the aqueous citrate-salt mother solution to a tem
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Procedure for Manufacturing Nanochannels

It comprises the following steps: (i) Depositing on glass a nickel electrode layer; (ii) depositing a layer of photosensitive material (photoresist) on the electrode layer; (iii) conferring a pattern on the photoresist having photolithographic form, covering it with a pattern mask and exposing it to light; (iv) lifting off the exposed portion of the nickel layer, forming in this manner a pattern of grooves; (v) filling such grooves with palladium by electrodeposition; (vi) removing the residual
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Substrate Having a Layer of Gold (iii) and Procedure for Preparation Thereof

Substrate the melting point whereof is between 1300 DEG C and 1600 DEG C having a layer of micromonocrystals of gold (III), said micromonocrystals having terraces of an area between 1.5 and 10.0 [mu]m2 and a roughness of less than 1 AA. This substrate is manufactured by a preparation procedure comprising stages of deposition of a sputtered gold layer and thermal treatment of the gold deposited. The substrates are useful as supports for microscopy, as biosensors and as electrodes.
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Light-emitting Device Based on Nanocrystals with Integrated High-speed Modulation

The invention relates to a method and a device which can be used to modulate an electrically excited light source according to an electric signal and which can be used for silicon photonics. The device includes a field-effect transistor having a dielectric gate means with embedded dopants and nanocrystals. The device is provided with first means for injecting charges and exciting the nanocrystals producing excitons and second means for injecting charges into the dielectric responding to a second
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A Nano-scale Manipulator

A nano-scale manipulator (10) comprises a mounting deck (11) and a frame (12), the deck (11) being moveably secured to the frame (12) by two flexural joints permitting movement of the deck relative to the frame in first and second respective, mutually orthogonal directions of movement. Manipulator (10) also includes at least one respective, elongate piezoelectric actuator (21, 22) for each of the flexural joints, each respective piezoelectric actuator (21, 22) being secured so as to interconnect
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Enhancing Catalytic Activity of Nanoporous Materials

The present invention relates to the use of atomic layer deposition (ALD) techniques to enhance the acid catalytic activity of nanoporous materials.
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A Method for Forming a Nanostructure Penetrating a Layer

The device comprises a substrate, a layer present thereon and a nanostructure penetrating said layer, which nanostructure defines a nanoscale passageway through which a molecule to be analyzed can pass through the passageway, wherein the nanostructure has, in cross-sectional view, a substantially triangular shape. This shape is particularly achieved by growth of an epitaxial layer having crystal facets defining tilted sidewalls of the nanostructure. It is highly suitably for use for optical char
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Fabrication of Conducting Open Nanoshells

A method involving ion milling is demonstrated to fabricate open-nanoshellsuspensions and open-nanoshell monolayer structures. Ion milling technology allows theopen-nanoshell geometry and upward orientation on substrates to be controlled.Substrates can be fabricated covered with stable and dense open-nanoshell monolayer structures structures, showing nanoaperture and nanotip geometry with upwardorientation, that can be used as substrates for SERS-based biomolecule detection
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Method for the Preparation of a Reinforced Thermoset Polymer Composite

The present invention refers to a method for the preparation of a reinforced thermoset polymer composite, said thermoset polymer composite comprising coated fibres, the coating being used as a vehicle for the introduction of carbon nanotubes into the thermoset polymer, the preparation of said reinforced thermoset polymer composite comprising the following steps: - providing fibres; - preparing a coating comprising carbon nanotubes and a polymeric binder; - applying said coating to said fibres to
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Multifunctional Stealth Nanoparticles for Biomedical Use

The present invention relates to the field of drug delivery nanosystems. More precisely, the present invention concerns a copolymer with advantageous properties for the outer coating of various nanoparticles. Said copolymer comprises at least three types of monomers with stealthy, coupling and therapeutic properties respectively, as well as an optional fourth type of monomers with targeting properties. The present invention also relates to core-shell or hollow shell nanoparticles coated by an ex
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Chemical Reactor with Nanometric Superstructure

The invention relates to a chemical reactor having a nanometric structure and including at least one member in which is formed at least one reaction chamber, said chamber being at least partially filled with a high specific-surface material having a specific surface higher than 5 m2/g, characterised in that said high specific-surface material is selected from nanotubes or nanofibres. The nanotubes or nanofibres are preferably selected in the group comprising carbon nanotubes or nanofibres, ss-Si
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Labelled Silica-based Nanomaterial with Enhanced Properties and Uses Thereof

The present invention relates to labelled silica-based nanoparticles with enhanced properties, to process for preparing them and to uses thereof.
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Nanometric Emitter/receiver Guides

The invention relates to a nanoprobe comprising a silica fiber (2) with an end opening having a diameter of less than 100 nm, and a metallic sheath (11). The total diameter of the silica part and the metallic sheath (11) is less than 300 nm. The invention also relates to a method for producing one such nanoprobe.
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Nanoscale Cubic Boron Nitride

The invention relates to a method of manufacturing nanoscale cubic boron nitride and to the nanoscale cubic boron nitride thus obtained. The method according to the invention of manufacturing nanoscale boron nitride of cubic structure is characterized in that it comprises the following steps: a) compression of a pyrolytic boron nitride powder having a structure of the monomodal turbostratic graphite type at a pressure of between 19 and 21 GPa and at room temperature; and b) heating of the powder
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Tunnel Nanowire Transistor

The invention provides a new type of transistor comprising a nanowire structure adapted to provide a tunnel barrier such that an applied gate voltage causes a current to oscillate, as the gate voltage is increased, to provide a region of negative transconductance. The device presents oscillations of current as the gate voltage is increased, typically when the cross section of the wire is smaller than I0nm. The sub-threshold slope of the current is larger than 60 mV/decade but can locally reach v
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A Process for Preparing Nanoparticles

A process for producing nanoparticles comprises the steps of preparing silver seeds in the presence of a water soluble polyanionic polymer and growing the silver seeds to form nanoparticles. The polyanionic polymer may be poly (sodium styrenesulphonate).
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Silver Nanoplates

A sensor for detecting of an analyte in a solution phase comprises a plurality of functionalised silver nanoplates wherein a functionalising agent is directly bonded to the surfaces of the nanoplates. The nanoplates provide a detectable wavelength shift change in their local surface plasmon resonance spectrum in response to the binding of an analyte. Two or more of the nanoplates may be electromagnetically coupled.
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Carbon-carbon Composites

The invention provides a method of making a nano-carbon structure comprising providing a first layer of nano-carbon particles; depositing a second layer of resin on said layer of nano-carbon particles; and annealing said first and second layers to provide a carbon composite nanostructure. The nano-carbon composites obtained according to the invention make excellent (transparent) electrical contact to Carbon Nanotubes resulting in high temperature, stable, chemical.inert, flexible and bio-compati
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Process and System for Fabrication of Patterns on a Surface

The invention provides a system and process of patterning structures on a carbon based surface comprising exposing part of the surface to an ion flux, such that material properties of the exposed surface are modified to provide a hard mask effect on the surface. A further step of etching unexposed parts of the surface forms the structures on the surface. The inventors have discovered that by controlling the ion exposure, alteration of the surface structure at the top surface provides a mask patt
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A membrane and use thereof

The invention provides the use of a membrane comprising a support layer and an electrically conductive porous nanotube layer for generating power from water by pressure retarded osmosis. The electrically conductive nanotubes may be arranged in a mat, alternatively the electrically conductive nanotubes may be orientated with respect to the support layer. The electrically conductive nanotubes may be carbon nanotubes. The electrically conductive nanotubes may be single walled nanotubes and/or doubl
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A Method for the Selective Concentration of a Specific Low Abundance Biomolecule

Provided herein is a method for the isolation or removal of a cellular component from a cell that comprises the steps of applying a pulse of nanoparticles to the cell, allowing the nanoparticles to traffic through the cell for a period of time sufficient to allow the nanoparticles locate to and interact with the cellular component to be isolated, and separation of the nanoparticles and isolated cellular component from the cell.
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Wide Band-gap Nanostructures

A light emitting or detecting device (41) with a substrate (44) with a surface, an array of elongate nanostructures (42) having a first end supported by the substrate (44), and a second free end projecting away from the surface; a thin insulating layer (45) formed on the surface and about the nanostructures, the insulating layer being arranged so that a substantial portion (47) of the nanostructures (42) extend through the insulating layer (45). The device allows for greater contact between the
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Dendrimer functionalised nanoparticle label

A label is disclosed comprising a nanoparticle wherein the nanoparticle surface is functionalised to comprise at least one dendrimer having at least one activatable functional group for conjugating a target analyte to the functionalised nanoparticle, wherein the dendrimer has a stabilising effect on the zeta potential at the nanoparticle surface. The dendrimer may be a PAMAM or Newkome dendrimer, and the nanoparticle may be a silica or metal oxide nanoparticle. Nanoparticle labels are also discl
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Nanoparticle-mediated Treatment for Inflammatory Diseases

The present invention provides nanoparticles for treatment of inflammatory diseases. The nanoparticles preferably comprise chitosan and a siRNA targeting a mRNA encoding a pro-inflammatory cytokine, such as e.g. tnf-alfa. A preferred route of administration of the nanoparticles is by injection intraperitoneally.
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Osteopontin Nanoparticles System for Drug Delivery

The present invention relates to nanoparticles comprising osteopontin and a polymer carrier, preferably a cationic carrier. Preferably, the cationic carrier is chitosan. Osteopontin and/or the cationic carrier may have bioactivity and/or the nanopar-ticle may comprise an additional component with bioactivity. Such additional bioactive component may e.g. be a siRNA. The nanoparticles of the invention may be used for treatment of bone diseases or inflammatory diseases.
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Dehydrated Chitosan Nanoparticles

The present invention relates to dehydrated nanoparticles comprising chitosan and a nucleic acid. Preferably, the nucleic acid is a siRNA. Dehydrated nanoparticles of the invention have improved storage characteristics. The particles may be used in screening methods, e.g. where they have been dried onto a solid support, such as the surface of a culture well. The nanoparticles may also be dried onto implants for tissue engineering scaffolds, where they enable transfection of cells growing on the
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Nanotube and carbon layer nanostructured composites

The present invention relates to nanostructured composites comprising a nanotube network which is at least partially embedded within a carbon layer. The present invention particularly relates to conducting nanostructured composites for use in the fields of energy conversion, energy storage and also the biomedical field. The present invention also relates to a process via CVD of carbon onto a catalyst layer on a substrate.
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Process for the Preparation of Graphene

The present invention relates to a process for the preparation of graphene which can be used in the development of graphene paper or films, graphene-based composites and articles for nanoelectronics, nanocomposites, batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage and bioapplications. This process comprises reducing purified exfoliated graphite oxide in the presence of a base.
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Electrochemical Nanocomposite Biosensor System

The present invention relates to an electrode useful in electrochemical nanobiosensors for determining the presence or concentration of analytes in aqueous samples. In particular, the electrode comprises a biocatalyst or other bioreceptor entrapped in a conducting polymeric film deposited on a conducting material and a non-conducting or conducting coating. In particular embodiments, the conducting polymeric layer also comprises metallic nanoparticles. Electrochemical nanobiosensors containing th
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Method for Coating Nanoparticles

A method of coating nanoparticles comprising subjecting nanoparticles, a coating precursor and one or more reagents to shear, wherein the coating precursor and the one or more reagents react to provide a coating on the nanoparticles.
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Processes for the Preparation of Calixarene Derivatives

The present invention relates to a process for the preparation of calix[n]arene derivatives, in particular phosphonated calix[n]arenes. The present invention also relates to nano-structures of phosphonated calix[n]arenes.
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Methods for Selectively Separating Carbon Nanotubes

A method of separating at least one carbon nanotube having a desired diameter and/or chirality from a mixture of carbon nanotubes having different diameters and/or chiralities is provided. A calixarene of formula (I): wherein n>=4; X is PO3H2, Ra-PO3H, SO3H, or Ra-SO3H; Y is Rb, OH, or ORb; and Ra and Rb are independently selected from the group consisting of optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted arylene alkyl and optionally substituted alkylene aryl i
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A Device and Methods of Fabrication and Use of Said Device

The present invention provides a method of fabricating a device for detecting an analyte, the method comprising depositing a solution or suspension of two or more components of a material responsive to an analyte on a response platform to form said material on the response platform, wherein said material comprises a self-assembled network of mono-dispersed naked nanoparticles, and an arrangement of said material and the response platform being such that a response of said material to the analyte
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Polymer Microgel Beads

The present invention relates to polymer microgel beads having a polymeric matrix with nanomagnetic particles dispersed substantially uniformly therethrough, wherein a steric stabiliser is associated with the particles, the steric stabiliser being a polymeric material that (i) does not form part of the polymeric matrix of the beads, and (ii) comprises a steric stabilising polymeric segment and an anchoring polymeric segment, wherein the steric stabilising polymeric segment is different from the
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Polymer Microgel Beads and Preparative Method Thereof

The present invention relates to polymer microgel beads having a polymeric matrix with nanomagnetic particles dispersed substantially uniformly therethrough, wherein a steric stabiliser is associated with the particles, the steric stabiliser being a polymeric material that (i) forms at least part of the polymeric matrix of the beads, and (ii) comprises a steric stabilising polymeric segment and an anchoring polymeric segment, wherein the steric stabilising polymeric segment is different from the
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Nanoscale Embossing of Hetero-junction Devices

A method of manufacturing a bulk heterojunction device having a first charge transport material (250) and a second charge transport material (252). The method includes the step of forming a nanoscale relief structure (256) in the device by an embossing process. At least one of the charge transport materials (250, 252) includes an organic charge transport material. The device may be formed into an organic photo-voltaic cell.
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Methods for Radiolabelling Macromolecules

The present invention relates to a method for preparing a radiolabeled macromolecule, the method comprising contacting a macromolecule with a carbon encapsulated nanoparticle composite having a radioactive particulate core in an aqueous medium comprising a pH selected to promote short-range attractive forces between the nanoparticles and the macromolecule by attenuating repulsive electrostatic forces.
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Methods for Radiolabelling Synthetic Polymers

The present invention relates to a method for preparing a radiolabeled synthetic polymer, the method comprising contacting a synthetic polymer with a carbon encapsulated nanoparticle composite having a radioactive particulate core in an aqueous medium comprising an electrolyte concentration or pH selected to promote short-range attractive forces between the nanoparticles and the synthetic polymer by attenuating long- range electrostatic repulsive forces.
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Method and Device for Nanoimprint Lithography

The invention relates to an imprinting device for imprinting nano/micro structures. The imprinting device comprises a second expandable cavity constituted in part by a membrane of the stamp. The membrane is flexible and formed in such a way so that when fluid is pumped into the expandable cavity then the membrane expands towards the imprintable substrate and imprints the substrate. The imprinting device is further provided with a force provider, alternatively a first expandable cavity, for forci
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High Throughput Carbon Nanotube Growth System, and Carbon Nanotubes and Carbon Nanofibers Formed Thereby

A system is provided for forming carbon nanotubes comprising growing carbon nanotubes using a hot filament CVD system.
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Nanodipole Photovoltaic Devices, Methods of Making and Methods of Use Thereof

A photovoltaic device includes a built-in electric field generated by electric dipoles of nanoparticles embedded in a photoconducting host.
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Anti-biofouling Materials and Methods of Making the Same

Anti-biofouling nanocomposite material at least partially loaded with copper or silver ions and methods for making same are disclosed. Metal affinity ligands are covalently bound to the polymers that are charged with the metal ions to allow for slow release of metals. The present invention relates to the field of membrane filtration, and more specifically to anti-biofouling nanocomposite materials.
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Method and Apparatus for Producing Three Dimensional Nano and Micro Scale Structures

A three-dimensional milling method and apparatus is disclosed for milling micrometre and a nanometre scale three-dimensional structures. The apparatus includes an ion column (12) operable to generate a milling beam onto a substrate (20) held on an instrument stage (18). A patterning computer (22) is operable to control the ion column (12) to generate varying ion beam and/or dwell times or to produce a plurality of milling passes, in which subsequent passes overlap previous passes at least partia
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Continuous Process for Microspheres Production By Using Expanded Fluids

The invention concerns a process for the continuous treatment of an emulsion and/or a micro-emulsion assisted by an "expanded liquid' for the production of micro- and/or nano-particles or micro- and/or nano- spheres containing one or more active ingredients. In particular, a liquid solvent expanded by compressed or supercritical CO2 is contacted with an O/W emulsion, or alternatively a W/O emulsion or multiple emulsions, formed by an external phase that is itself a liquid expanded by compressed
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New Nanoporous Crystalline Form of Syndiotactic Polystyrene, Processes for Its Preparation and Related Molecular-complex Crystalline Forms

The present invention relates to a process for preparing a new nanoporous crystalline form of syndiotactic polystyrene, to the thus obtained crystalline form, to molecular-complex crystalline phases obtained by exposition of such crystalline form to low- molecular-mass molecules, and to the related processes for their preparation.
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Polymer and Carbon Nanotubes Composite Materials As Low-cost Temperature Sensors

The invention concerns a system based on polymeric composites with carbon nanotubes to obtain low-cost and high accuracy temperature sensors. The composite material is obtained by homogeneously dispersing a suitable amount of carbon nanotubes having conductive characteristics within a polymer matrix. The sensing device is obtained by connecting at least two electrodes to the polymer-carbon nanotubes composite and measuring the electrical resistance of the system obtained. The composite material
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Freestanding Carbon Nanotube Networks Based Temperature Sensor

The present invention introduces a small-size temperature sensor, which exploits a random or oriented network of un-functionalized, single or multi-walled, carbon nanotubes to monitor a wide range of temperatures. Such network is manufactured in the form of freestanding thin film with an electric conductance proven to be a monotonic function of the temperature, above 4.2 K. Said carbon nanotube film is wire-connected to a high precision source-measurement unit, which measures its electric conduc
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Nanoparticles

The invention relates to a system for delivering biologically active molecules to the cytosol of cells. In particular, the invention relates to substantially spherical nanoparticles comprising two polyvalent components of opposite charge.
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Method and Apparatus for Nanoparticle Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence Amplification

Methods, compositions and kits for analyzing a chemical analyte using an electrochemical cell connected to a measuring apparatus are provided. The electrochemical cell contains a solution having one or more conductive or redox active NPs (nanoparticles), one or more chemical analytes, and an indicator. In addition, the electrochemical cell contains one or more electrodes in communication with the solution. One or more catalytic ECL properties are generated by the interaction of the one or more c
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Nanochanneled Device and Related Methods

A nanochannel delivery device and method of manufacturing and use. The nanochannel delivery device comprises an inlet, an outlet, and a nanochannel. The nanochannel may be oriented parallel to the primary plane of the nanochannel delivery device. The inlet and outlet may be in direct fluid communication with the nanochannel.
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Nanostructured Organic Solar Cells

Solar cells having at least one N-type material layer and at least one P-type material layer forming a patterned p-n junction are described. A conducting layer may provide electrical communication between the p-n junction and an electrode layer.
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Formation of Nanostructured Particles of Poorly Water Soluble Drugs and Recovery By Mechanical Techniques

The present invention provides a composition and method of forming an amorphous drug-loaded particle by forming one or more amorphous drug-loaded nanoparticles comprising one or more active agents stabilized by one or more polymers, desolvating the one or more amorphous drug-loaded nanoparticles to form one or more flocculated amorphous drug-loaded nanoparticles, filtering the one or more flocculated amorphous drug-loaded nanoparticles and drying the one or more flocculated amorphous drug-loaded
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Preparation and Methodology of Silk Fibroin Nanoparticles

Disclosed are nanoparticles for delivery of drugs and/or nutraceuticals that include a fibroin polypeptide and a drug or nutraceutical, wherein the nanoparticle has a diameter of about 1 nm to about 500 nm, and compositions of the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles may further include a chitosan, or a proteoglycan such as decorin. Also disclosed are methods of delivering a drug and/or nutraceutical to a subject that involve administering to the subject nanoparticles of the present invention. Also
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Hollow Gold Nanospheres (Haunss) and Haunss-loaded Microspheres Useful in Drug Delivery

A near-infrared mediated drug delivery system comprising a plurality of microspheres made of polymeric material, each sphere containing a plurality of hollow gold nanospheres together with drug product, wherein upon NIR irradiation, the drug product is released from the microsphere.
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Preparation of Nanostructured Microporous Composite Foams

A method of producing a monolithic metal or metal composite having a hierarchic pore structure, the method comprising the steps of: selecting a template material, said template material having a porous structure; contacting the template material with a solution of the or each metal to be structuralised; depositing the or each metal onto the template; washing the metal coated template before deposition of further metal; isolating the metal coated template material; removing, thermally, at least a
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Nanodispersion and Method of Formation Thereof

A method of forming a stable nanodispersion comprising the steps of: (a) providing a host fluid, a particle fluid to be dispersed in the host fluid and a stabiliser; and (b) subjecting the host fluid, the particle fluid and the stabiliser to a high shear comminution process whereby a dispersion of particles of the particle fluid in the host fluid is formed, the particles of the particle fluid having a Sauter mean diameter of substantially 100nm or less, wherein an amount of stabiliser comprised
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Deformable Granule Production

A method of forming granules, the method comprising forming a suspension of a nanopowder such as a nano zirconia powder containing yttria. The powder is formed from a suspension, and freon is added directly to the suspension as an additive. The suspension is then granulated by spray freeze drying, and the freon subsequently removed by heat treatment. The voids left by the vacated freon provide meso, micro and macro flaws or structural defects in the granules.
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Terahertz Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs)

Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs), and methods of manufacture of QCLs, comprising an active portion. In some embodiments, the active portion can comprise: a plurality of tensiley strained quantum barrier layers, each comprising Ga y In1- y As; and a plurality of compressively strained quantum well layers, each comprising Ga x In1- x As. In some embodiments, the active portion can comprise: a plurality of compressively strained quantum barrier layers, each comprising Al y In1- y As; and a plurality o
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Materials Based on Filamentous Peptide - Or Protein-based Structures

A material comprising elongate filamentous peptide- or protein-based nanostructures. The nanostructures are assembled to be connected together and aligned substantially parallel with respect to each other. The alignment of the nanostructures (at least within one domain) is nematic alignment. The individual nanostructures are formed by self- assembly. After formation of the nanostructures, the nanostructures are self-assembled to form the material. The material therefore has a first scale of orde
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Semiconductor Material

A semiconductor device which comprises a channel layer formed from a semiconductor channel component material in the form of crystalline micro particles, micro rods, crystalline nano particles, or nano rods, and doped with a semiconductor dopant.
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Method for Forming an Electronic Device in Multi-layer Structure

A method for forming an organic or partly organic switching device, comprising: depositing layers of conducting, semiconducting and/or insulating layers by solution processing and direct printing; defining microgrooves in the multilayer structure by solid state embossing; and forming a switching device inside the microgroove.
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Quantum cascade laser structure

An inventive quantum cascade laser structure comprises a number cascades (100), each comprising a number of alternately arranged quantum well layers (110a-110j) and barrier layers (105-105J). Both the material at least one quantum well layer (110a-110j) and the material at least one barrier layer (105-105J) is under mechanical stress, which may be the appropriate voltage, a train or compressive stress. The quantum well layers (110a-110j) and barrier layers (105-105J) are in the novel quantum cas
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Quantum well structure

A quantum well structure according to the invention includes a quantum well layer ( 107 ) arranged between two barrier layers ( 109, 112 ). It is distinguished in that at least one of the barrier layers ( 109 ) includes nanostructures ( 110 ) which compensate or modulate a lateral homogeneity of the barrier layer ( 109 ), that exists without the nanostructures ( 110 ), that is to say a homogeneity in the directions extending perpendicularly to the stacking direction of the layers in the quantum
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Organic-inorganic Hybrid Nano Particle Composed of Nucleic Acid Conjugate Having Polyethylene Glycol Bound Thereto and Calcium Phosphate

Disclosed is an organic-inorganic hybrid nano particle comprising a conjugate of a nucleic acid and a polyethylene glycol chain bound covalently to the nucleic acid and a calcium ion (Ca2+) and a phosphate ion (PO4 3-). The particle can be used as an effective delivery system for delivering a nucleic acid into a cell.
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Laplace Pressure Trop for Microfluidic Droplet Formation from Asynchronous Sources and Different Inlets

Tech ID: 21232 Brief Description Researchers have developed a Laplace pressure trap that can fuse droplets from different inlets and fuse droplets generated at different frequencies. The device traps and fuses droplets passively by balancing the driving hydrostatic pressure with increasing Laplace pressure imposed by the device’s design geometry. Video frames showing the Laplace pressure trap and of a single droplet fusion event at the Laplace trap. * Frame A - Reference droplet can
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Bioresponsive Nanoparticle Aggregates

Background Bioresponsive materials offer a promising commercial opportunity and demonstrate great potential in the medical diagnostics and drug delivery sector. Compared with conventional chemistry, they are more sensitive, simple to use and more compatible with biological samples. Enzymes in patient samples such as blood and urine can be diagnostic of a number of disease conditions including HIV, Hepatitis C, various cancers, as well as Candida and MRSA infections. Hence bioresponsive materia
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indian patent published " NANOGENESEQ CHIP DESIGN''

NANOGENESEQ has designed an innovative sequencing system design consisting of two key components: a) The Hardware component b) The Software component The hardware component of NANOGENESEQ sequencing system is the most critical component since it speeds of the process of DNA sequencing altogether. It has been designed as a silicon chip in which DNA segment separation and detection is much more efficient than currently-used electrophoretic methods. Separating DNA fragments by length is the
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One-Step Manufacture of Nanowire Biosensors

Electrochemical biosensors based on nanotubes or nanowires could be widely used in diagnostic, research, and security applications. However, the problems associated with functionalizing and placing these nano-elements on a device have prevented the practical application of this technology. University of California scientists have developed a simple one-step methodology for the synthesis of functionalized nanowires that act as biosensors. Nanowires of 100 to 200 nm have been tested that can ac
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Tunable, Full-Color Electroluminescent Array

BACKGROUND: A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor device that emits visible light when an electric current passes through it. Traditionally, LEDs were made with inorganic materials. However, inorganic semiconductor LEDs lack ease of processibility on large and flexible substrates. In the last decade, Organic LEDs (OLEDs) have become very popular with their diversity, easy processibility and possibility of fabrication on flexible and large area displays. But organic LEDs suffer from fu
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Oxide-Supported Metal Nanoparticle Catalyst

BACKGROUND: Gold nanoparticles, particularly with dimensions less than 10 nm, exhibit unexpectedly high catalytic activities toward different types of reactions, a property not revealed in bulk gold. In order to obtain high catalytic activity, gold nanoparticles are generally dispersed on support materials such as oxides. The overall performance of a supported gold nanoparticle catalyst greatly depends on the size and shape of the gold nanoparticles, the structure and properties of oxide suppor
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Colloid and Interface Science

Objective/function The laboratory is active in the field of investigation of colloidal systems and applications of new colloids, with a focus on formation and characterization of dispersed systems, ranging in size from nanoparticles and nanocapsules through microparticles and microcapsules, up to large beads and powders. In addition, the research group deals with formulation chemistry in collaboration with industry to develop stable multicomponent, dispersed systems such as cosmetic emulsions
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Process for Producing Organic Ultra Thin Films

Highlights This unique film process is a breakthrough technology, enabling organic layers of molecular thickness to be laid directly on a silicon die without loss of performance and with stable electronic properties for the mass production of inexpensive, advanced semiconductors Provides a solution for the problems of power consumption, heat generation, and microstructures’ switch leakage in smaller and higher-quality transistor structures for faster, more sensitive and more efficient micro
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Electrodeposition of Sol-gel Films

ighlight Electroplating method for preparing sol-gel thin films Allows coating of complex shaped objects Successfully demonstrated ability to include metals and nano-particles in sol-gel Platform technology for thin film deposition Our Innovation An improved method for forming sol-gel films by electroplating. Enables combinations of sol-gel with metals and other particles for wide variety of applications. Key Features Coatings can be tailored for various applications such as anti-cor
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Nir Light Emitting Diodes and Photodetectors

Highlights Optical fibers that carry information for telecommunications and military applications are most transparent in near infra red wavelengths Polymer-based electronic components that emit visible light are lower cost and provide greater adaptability, but until now their development has been restricted to devices active in the visible range as plastics could not emit efficiently in the near-infrared band The proven advantages of using organic light-emitting molecules and polymers for t
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Nanoparticle Probes for High Resolution Imaging

Highlights Semiconductor nanocrystals replace conventional dye molecules as FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) donors for enhanced optical resolution in near field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) Applications in high resolution microscopy for biology and materials science FRET is widely used in fluorescence microscopy, fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy, and molecular biology, for measuring distances on a molecular scale In vivo and in vitro applications as a contr
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Nano Gold Electrical Connections

Highlights Gold-tipped nanocrystals – nanodumbells – for nano sized transistors Building blocks for miniature computers, nanosensors for chemical and biological molecules, and for biomedical applications Prototypes of gold-tipped rods and tetrapods demonstrated in the lab. Our Innovation A simple solution, phase reaction for controlled selective growth of gold and other metal tips onto semiconductor rods and tetrapods (structures with four arms or legs). Key Features Gold tips prov
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Nano@micro Particles

Highlights Nanoparticles of metals, semiconductor material, magnetic materials such as Fe2O3, Co, Mn, biological materials, etc. trapped in sol-gel derived glass or ceramic composite microparticles Size, composition and shape-dependant properties of the nanoparticles are preserved For such applications as fluorescent tagging, light emitting diodes, lasers, chemicals and catalysts Our Innovation Wide variety of nanocrystals, including semiconductors of various spectral bands and shapes, suc
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Novel Patterning for Metallic Thin Films

Highlights Ultra clean, fast and environmentally friendly process for patterning metallic thin films For producing conducting wires for micro- / nano-electronics and bio-sensing applications Simulation demonstrated production of conducting wires at widths of less than 50 nm can be obtained over areas the size of a laser spot, i.e. up to several millimeters in diameter Our Innovation A simple all-in-vacuum technique to produce patterns (potentially less than 50 nm wide) in thin films of met
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DNA Nanoelectronics

A homogeneous population of fully double stranded nucleic acid molecules having blunt ends, each of the molecules being at least 100 base pairs long, and having the same repetitive core sequence selected from the group consisting of mono, di-, or tri-nucleotide, with the proviso that the repetitive core sequence is not A mononucleotide is disclosed. Methods of synthesis and uses thereof are also disclosed.
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Electronic Device for Communication with Living Cells (Golden Brain)

Highlights Electrical and chemical communication (functional linking) between cells such as neurons and the surfaces of substrates that are part of electronic devices Generic technology can serve as the basis for the construction of biomedical devices that can, for example, be used to link nerves to a robotic prosthesis, allowing prosthesis to be controlled by the brain Our Innovation Tight physical linkages are formed between cells and surface substrates by taking advantage of the cell’
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Biological Application of Size Dependant Emission of Semiconductor Nanocrystals

Highlights Provides methods for the manufacture and use of core-heteroshell nanocrystals Covers the visible to near-infrared (NIR) ranges Leverages the layer-by-layer in-solution growth techniques Environmentally benign character makes them ideal for large-scale implementation and biological and medical use without toxicity problems Our Innovation A semiconductor nanocrystal with a core and multiple shells Type I band offset with increased photoluminescence quantum yield and stability that
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A Method for the Preparation of Organic Nanoparticles, from Nanoemulsions

Highlights Provides a simple method of producing nanoparticles from nanoemulsions Improves on earlier methods dependent on expensive high-shear homogenizers Enhances the production rate of nanoparticles Can be used with heat-sensitive materials such as drugs, agrochemicals and cosmetically active materials. Our Innovation Produces nanoparticles of active agents from nanoemulsions, preferably water insoluble organic active ingredients, Uses phase inversion techniques of emulsions, thus prod
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Semiconductor Quantum Rod Lasers in a Cylindrical Microcavity

Highlights Development of nanocrystals on a variety of surfaces such as the inner surface of a cylindrical microcavity, a planar surface, a waveguide, or optical cavity structure on a chip Lower threshold for lasing than spherical dots Leverages quantum confinement effect for development of broad spectral coverage for luminescence and optical gain Our Innovation Provides a method of producing a nanocrystals film for use in a solid-state, nanocrystal-based optical device Processes nanocryst
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The Unit for Nanoscopic Characterization

Objective Develop and operate user-oriented analytical facilities Aid researchers from the University and external customers in performing a variety of characterization measurements Support multidisciplinary research and "hands-on" technological education at The Hebrew University Services provided The unit provides advanced equipment for: Electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopy, X-ray characterization, and advanced surface-chemical analysis of materials. The UNC also provides equip
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Semiconductor-metal Hybrid Nanoparticles As Photocatalysts

Highlights Hybrid nanoparticles consisting of metal and semiconductor material produce efficient photocatalysts for chemical reactions, splitting water, decontamination and other applications Can be used to harness solar energy and generate hydrogen from splitting water or produce electrical energy in a photovoltaic cell Improved light harnessing efficiency, better tuned to the solar spectrum, over previous photocatalysts which were limited to UV light (that is 5% of the solar spectrum) Our
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Coating Conducting Surfaces with Carrier Nanoparticles

Highlights Method for coating conducting surfaces with nanoparticles bearing functional materials May be used for coating medical implants, stents, and other medical devices The nanoparticles may be carriers for drugs, antibacterials, anti-corrosives and more New technology for preparing drug-eluting stents Our Innovation Electrochemical coating of conducting surfaces with nanoparticles that are either composed of active materials or preloaded with active materials, e.g., drugs. Key Fea
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Copper Nanoparticles for Ink-jet Printing

Highlights Copper nanoparticles for ink-jet inks New, much lower cost than conventional silver-based inks Nanoparticle inks lower the costs of printed electronics by reducing the need for high-temperature processing and enabling less material to be used. Because lower temperatures are needed to cure nanoinks they are also more suitable for use on flexible substrates that typically use thermally sensitive plastics. Our Innovation Method for producing conductive inks for ink-jet printers usi
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Controlled Fabrication of Copolymer Coated DNA Nanowires

Highlights Novel method for producing polymer-coated DNA Precise control and flexibility of method enables fabrication of products for a wide variety of applications DNA biosensor developed with enhanced sensitivity Ongoing work to develop chemical sensors for specific compounds Our Innovation Programmed assembly of polymer-coated DNA. Key Features Attachment of non-biological polymer nano-particles to DNA strands to produce polymer coated nano-wires Full control over fabrication me
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Atomistic Model for Particle Inception (AMPI)

This technology is simulation software that predicts the formation of carbon nanoparticles during combustion process, in a chemically specific way. The code is a combination of methodologies that describe the soot formation process by accurately modeling the reactions taking place at different timescales. Particle morphology and concentration of free radicals in the soot precursors can be computed using this technology. <i>Benefits</i> Carbon nanoparticles, produced in the combustion proce
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Single Disk Viscous Micropumps for Use in Microfluidic Devices

The area of microfluidics is developing with many new sensors, separation devices, drug delivery systems, and other small-scale and micro-scale fluidic devices. For many of these devices, there is a need to circulated or move fluid through macroscale and microscale channels. At very small scales, viscous forces are significant, which results in large pressure drops over small distances. This technology employs these large viscous forces to produce a pumping action and produce well controlled,
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Nanometer Particles Fabrication

This invention involves the fabrication of sub micrometer to nanometer scale particles in large quantities. It makes use of the nucleation of solute molecules or atoms in a homogeneous solution. By controlling the nucleation at below critical size for growth, and subsequently brining the solution system up to the supercritical point of the solvent, the particle suspension in the liquid phase can be instantaneously converted to that in a gas phase slow releasing of the solvent vapor will allow fo
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High Throughput Microfluidic Reactors for Polymer Particle Synthesis

Background Microfluidics is behind the processing and manipulation of small (10-9 to 10-18 L) amounts of fluids, in channels with dimensions of tens to hundreds of microns. Microfluidic emulsification, for example, allows for the generation of droplets with precisely controlled composition, morphology and volume. Synthesis of these droplets has attracted great interest in materials and polymer science and has proved useful in pharmaceutical, food, nutrition and cosmetic markets. Microfluidic
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Nanocapsules and Ordered Nanocomposite Materials

Technology This platform technology is based on new materials composed of core-shell spherical particles which can be organized in 3-D arrays, melting the shells and leaving the spherical cores suspended in a perfect lattice within a solid or porous matrix. A wide variety of different core/shell ratios can be employed, the materials are inexpensive, and the cores and matrix can be doped with a wide variety of other species. The particles are of colloidal dimensions and can therefore be us
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MEMS-based Nanomanipulators/ Nanopositioners

Background Researchers in nanotechnology require manipulators with a nanometer positioning resolution, micrometer motion range, high repeatability, and large force output (i.e. payload driving capability). Current manipulators are often too large for applications inside SEM (scanning electron microscope) or TEM (transmission electron microscope). They also have inherent hysteresis and creep resulting in significant open-loop positioning errors requiring sophisticated compensation control algo
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Electrothermally Driven MEMS Microrippers with Integrated Dual-A

Background Intelligent manipulation (e.g., grasping/gripping) of micro- and nanometer-sized objects requires the use of miniaturized micro grippers with integrated force sensors. Currently, mirco- and nano manipulation relies purely on visual feedback either from an optical microscope or an electron microscope. The lack of force feedback at the microNewton and nanoNewton level severely limits intelligent micro- and nano manipulation. Technology Our MEMS (microelectromechanical system
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Automated Fluorometric Bioaerosol Concentration and Detection System

In the field of bioaerosol detection, there is a distinct need for an inexpensive, low power, robust trigger used to alert inhabitants of an increase in aerosol activity, thereby allowing the triggering of more sophisticated systems to determine the source. The JHU/APL concept, similar to the ringing of a doorbell, could be used to initiate operational countermeasures in both the battlefield and building protection applications. The JHU/APL technology is an approach, which is significantly ch
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Nano-Encapsulated Aerogels (MSC-23563)

Abstract: Aerogel is the lightest and lowest-density solid known to exist, composed of up to 99.8 percent air. However, it can hold 500 to 4,000 times its weight in applied force. Aerogel is 39 percent more insulating than the best fiberglass insulation, but without proper care it can break or crumble if handled roughly. Coating the aerogel would protect it from disintegrating as well as shield it from the hazards of humidity or other gases, which can bind to the substance and change its proper
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Templated Growth of Carbon Nanotubes (LAR-16437)

Abstract: NASA Langley Research Center is actively seeking partnerships and collaborations to commercialize its Templated Growth of Carbon Nanotubes technologies
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Controlled Deposition and Alignment of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes (LAR-16499)

Abstract: NASA Langley Research Center is actively seeking partnerships to commercialize its Controlled Deposition and Alignment of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes technology.
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Controlled Deposition and Alignment of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes (LAR-16499)

Abstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) offer great potential for advanced sensing devices due to their unique electronic transport properties. However, a significant obstacle to the realization of practical CNT devices is the formation of controlled, reliable and reproducible CNT to metallic contacts. In this work, a procedure for the reliable and reproducible deposition and alignment of CNTs onto metallic electrodes is reported. This method uses photo and electron beam lithography to pattern simple
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Templated Growth of Carbon Nanotubes (LAR-16437)

Abstract: This invention synthesizes carbon nanotube/silica nanocomposites via a templating method to control carbon nanotube diameter. The carbon nanotubes are isolated by removing the silica framework. This invention could lead to a low-cost method for growing aligned carbon nanotubes with controlled diameters.
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Hydrogen Permeable Protective Coating for a Catalytic Surface

U.S. Patent 7,233,034 Technology Description Nanostructures and methods for production thereof by phase separation during metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE). An embodiment of one of the methods may comprise providing a growth surface in a reaction chamber and introducing a first mixture of precursor materials into the reaction chamber to form a buffer layer thereon. A second mixture of precursor materials may be provided into the reaction chamber to form an active region (14) on the
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Hydrogen Permeable Protective Coating for a Catalytic Surface

U.S. Patent 7,233,034 Technology Description Nanostructures and methods for production thereof by phase separation during metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE). An embodiment of one of the methods may comprise providing a growth surface in a reaction chamber and introducing a first mixture of precursor materials into the reaction chamber to form a buffer layer thereon. A second mixture of precursor materials may be provided into the reaction chamber to form an active region (14) on the
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Electrochromic Material Based on a Conducting Ladder Polymer

Background Electrochromism is the phenomenon displayed when some type of matter reversibly changes color when a burst of charge is applied. Recent applications of electrochromic materials include electrochromic windows which darken when voltage is added and are transparent when voltage is taken away. Like suspended particle devices, electrochromic windows can be adjusted to allow varying levels of visibility. Electrochromism has also been applied to mirrors that respond to various lighting condi
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Methods to Fabricate Densified Carbon Nanotube Thin Films and Structures

Background Individual carbon nanotubes have already exhibited excellent properties such as high electrical conductivity, high Young's modulus and a high thermal conductivity. However, for practical applications, dense bundles of carbon nanotubes must be used. Vertically aligned dense carbon nanotube films by CVD have already been demonstrated and can provide a good template. However, due to their low film density, strength, and electrical conductivity, vertically aligned dense carbon nanotube fi
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Method and Apparatus to Measure Path Slack Using On-Chip Programmable Capture Signal Generation

Background While timing-related failures are becoming increasingly common in nanometer technologies, and the importance of delay testing is becoming apparent, performing at-speed delay tests is still a challenge due to the limitations on the clock frequencies that can be provided by external test equipment. This drives the need to develop innovative test solutions that reduce dependence on expensive high-speed test equipment. Invention Description The present invention removes the dependence
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Fabrication of Oriented Silicon Nano-Structures by e-Beam Lithography and Anisotropic Wet Etching

Background Based on prior work for development of angstrom-scale measurement standards for the semiconductor industry, this innovation has made significant advancements in the alignment and control for etching lines/channels in silicon and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) structures. Prior alignment and etching methods were not precise enough to provide the necessary control. The resulting advancement allows production of nano-scale channels of very high quality, for example mechanical integrity, surf
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Nanoscale Self-Assembled Organic Dielectrics for Ultra-Low Voltage High-Speed Electronic Devices (24062)

Self-assembling siloxane fabrication of extremely thin nanostructurally ordered, pinhole-free, ultra-high-capacitance/low leakage organic dielectrics has been achieved by Northwestern University scientists. These organic nanoinsulators can be efficiently integrated into large thin film transistor (TFT) structures using a variety of substrates. ADVANTAGE: The organic nanoinsulators overcome the dielectric limitations of conventional "high k" dielectric materials and in turn enable the construc
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High Performance Self-Assembled Electro-optic Materials and Modulating Devices (20042)

Electric field poled polymers are currently used to fabricate organic based modulators. The present invention provides a chemical process, employing self-assembly molecules to create the electro active layer in organic based modulators,without electric field poled polymers. This affords greater device stability atpotentially reduced fabrication cost. ADVANTAGES: Robust,adherent, intrinsically acentric microstructures are produced without electric field poling. The self-assembly process is
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Refractive Index Tuning of Siloxane-Based Electro-Optic Self-Assembled Superlattices (21001)

A “wet-chemical” process affording molecule-based electro-optic (EO) material refractive index tuning in self-assembled superlattice (SAS) organic structures. The process retains essential microstructural acentricity, without electric field poling. Application potential exists in a wide range of EO devices including modulators, waveguides, switches, emitters and detectors. ADVANTAGES: Robust, adherent, intrinsically acentric microstructures are produced without electric field poling. The
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Vapor Deposited Electro-Optic Films Self-Assembled Through Hydrogen Bonding (22107/22065)

Northwestern researchers created a new family of designed molecular chromophores that afford acentric films essential to non-linear electro-optic applications. These novel materials exhibit excellent physical and non-linear optical properties for waveguiding modulator applications. Intermolecular hydrogen bonding is utilized to produce stable non-centrosymmetric films with unique orientation normal to the substrate plane. Vapor film deposition supports scalable device manufacture. ADVANTAG
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Prestin, the Motor Protein of Cochlear Outer Hair Cells, and its Gene, Pres ( 99077b)

Researchers at Northwestern University have isolated a novel molecular motor molecule, Prestin, from outer hair cells (OHCs) of the mammalian cochlea. This unique biological motor is capable of direct, rapid, electro-mechanical conversion without dependence on ATP. The ability of this molecular motor to act as a transducer of electrical energy into mechanical activity at microsecond rates, suggests that this may be an ideal motor as part of nanomolecular assemblies or MEMS. Furthermore, prestin
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Algorithm Upgrade for Nano-Indentation Software -- a Way to Characterize Thin-Coated Materials (23044)

The invention is a set of methods that a supplier of nano-indentation systems can incorporate into its proprietary software. A new version of software could then provide existing and prospective customers with the unique capability to report elastic modulus and Poisson’s ratio for coatings and their substrates. Current nano-indentation methods can report “reduced” elastic moduli, but only for uncoated materials or for coated materials where indentation depth is much less than coating t
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Biochip Detection System (23072)

The “BioChip” invention electronically detects biomolecules and toxic agents. When a target species chemically binds to the surface of a tiny cantilever probe, the probe deflects and the BioChip electronically measures and reports that deflection. The BioChip presents the following advantages over current detection methods: · It can continuously monitor bio-affinity interactions. It is label free. · It is highly sensitive – able to detect 5 nm of cantilever deflection. · It can b
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Surface Enhanced Raman Nanobiosensor (25108)

INVENTION: Scientists at Northwestern have created surface-enhanced Raman biosensors for detection of in vivo and ex vivo analytes. In particular, the present invention provides a technology for the in vivo detection of blood glucose.>/p> ADVANTAGES: A potentially faster, easier, and less painful method for frequently measuring blood glucose levels of individuals is provided. Continuous monitoring of blood glucose would facilitate feedback control of implanted insulin pumps and related dev
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Nanotube Deposition Technology (22035)

Northwestern University has developed a unique & advantageous way to fabricate an array of carbon nanotubes. The Northwestern invention can deposit a single carbon nanotube and obtain a highly oriented and particle-free carbon nanotube deposition. The invention is feasible for mass production. This invention describes a method of assembling carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on micro/nano systems. This method can enable repeatable production of an automatically assembled array of CNTs without using an
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High-Speed Nano Fountain Pen (23014)

The high-speed nano fountain pen continuously feeds ink to an array of tips that deposit ink on a surface. The high-speed nano fountain pen incorporates special dispensing nanotips with micro-channels to transport fluid from reservoirs to nanotips. Improvements over existing technology include: Continuous feeding of ink with increased speed as the result. Ability to fabricate in arrays, with increased speed and mass production capability as the results The high-speed nano fountain pen
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Nanoscale Self-Assembled Organic Dielectrics for Ultra-Low Voltage High-Speed Electronic Devices (24062)

Self-assembling siloxane fabrication of extremely thin nanostructurally ordered, pinhole-free, ultra-high-capacitance/low leakage organic dielectrics has been achieved by Northwestern University scientists. These organic nanoinsulators can be efficiently integrated into large thin film transistor (TFT) structures using a variety of substrates. ADVANTAGE: The organic nanoinsulators overcome the dielectric limitations of conventional "high k" dielectric materials and in turn enable the construc
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Doping of Ultralow Friction Coatings for Reduced Sensitivity of Friction to Humidity and Improved Interfacial Adhesion (24080)

Northwestern researchers have created new wear-protective ultralow friction coating compositions, with reduced affinity for water adsorption, affording decreased surface friction in humid environments. The amorphous films are generated by conventional sputtering techniques on a variety of material surfaces. The coatings show great promise where low friction in humid environments, close proximity contact forces and humidity sensitivity are critical to performance, such as hard disk systems, MEMS/
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Diamond Probes and Method of Making (24098)

The invention is an ultra-hard, ultra-sharp diamond probe and tip for applications such as AFM and Nano-Lithography. A single stage fabrication process integrates tip and probe chip body as a single contiguous piece of diamond. The invention’s advantages over currently available methods include: Durable, Wear-Resistant Low Cost Scalable to Arrays Uses both conductive and non-conductive diamond Operates in both fluid or gas Currently available methods entail manually gluing tip to probe
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Mesoscale Metallic Pyramids with Nanoscale Tips (25026)

A facile top-down process for fabricating anisotropic mesoscale (100-300 nm) metallic pyramids, with nanoscale tips (radii of curvature < 2 nm), has been devised by Northwestern researchers. Mesoscale holes in a chromium film are used as an etch mask to fabricate pyramidal pits in a silicon substrate and then as a deposition mask to form the metallic pyramids. Two- and three-layered pyramids of different metals and chemical functionality can be created. The orientation-dependent plasmon resonanc
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Large-Area Subwavelength Hole Arrays (25039)

A novel high throughput method for fabricating free-standing hole array films with precise dimensions and spacing has been developed by Northwestern researchers. Enhanced transmission and standing wave patterns are generated by coupling light to the subwavelength hole arrays using surface plasmon resonances. The tailorable combination of hole materials, shapes and polarized radiation afford a wide range of spectroscopic outputs with potential nanophotonic and sensing applications. ADVANTAGES:
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Stable Dispersions of Graphitic Nanoplatelets via Reduction (25052)

Northwestern researchers have developed processes to produce stable dispersions of graphite nanoplatelets in aqueous or organic media. The treated nanoplatelets can be distributed in various matrices affording unique composite materials with useful mechanical, electrical and chemical properties. ADVANTAGES: Processes that readily exfoliate graphtic material into aqueous or organic nanoplatelet dispersions and enable utilization of carbon in a wide range of potential mechanical, electrical, c
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High Performance GaAs MISFETs with Self-Assembled Nanodielectrics (26042)

Novel SAND organic dielectrics suitable for high-performance III-V semiconductor devices such as metal-insulator-semiconductor field effect transistors (MISFETs). ADVANTAGE: New process for manipulating the complex GaAs surface chemistry and thin film organic dielectrics for III-V semiconductor devices. The SAND process is flexible, low-cost, and simpler to implement than previously reported dielectric deposition processes. SUMMARY: Using III-V compound semiconductors as conduction channe
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Surface-Independent, Surface-Modifying, Multifunctional Coatings and Applications Thereof (26145)

Northwestern researchers have developed a substrate independent multifunctional surface modification affording adherent nanofilms on all natural and synthetic surfaces tested, including metals, oxides, semiconductors, polymers and ceramics. The nanofilm chemically combines with a wide range of organic and inorganic species producing a variety of functional coatings and metallized surfaces with broad commercial utility. SUMMARY: Generally molecules for surface modification are bifunctional en
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Ceramic Composite Design to Increase Toughness (26164)

The invention is a ceramic composite design that mimics features of Mother of Pearl (“Nacre”) in order to increase ceramic toughness. Ceramic materials have many attractive engineering qualities such as stiffness, hardness, wear resistance, and resistance to high temperatures. The primary obstacle to a wider use of ceramics in engineering applications is their brittleness. The invention consists of 95% or more of ceramic material, yet is capable of deformation strains in excess of 10%. Also,
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Self-Lubricating Coatings (26167)

Multilayer tool coatings that generate, at elevated service temperatures, an oxidized lubricous material that reduces surface friction and the need for additional lubricant or cooling. ADVANTAGES: Stable machine tool coatings suitable for high temperature operation with reduced or no lubricant. SUMMARY: Hard coatings for cutting tools have been in use for thirty years and evolved from simple nitride and oxide coatings (TiN and Al2O3) to more complex, high-performance alloy nitrides such a
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Graphene Oxide Paper (27056)

Novel graphene oxide paper material possessing unique structure with excellent mechanical properties and chemical tunability. ADVANTAGE: Inexpensive paper-like material with superior physical properties compared to similar vermiculite, graphite foil and carbon nanotube materials. SUMMARY: Inorganic “paper-like” materials based on exfoliated vermiculite or mica are employed as protective coatings, binders, dielectric barriers and gas-impermeable membranes. Graphite foils, composed of st
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Conducting and Transparent Graphene-Containing Thin Silica Films (27057)

Transparent, conductive composite silica thin films produced by a sol gel process incorporating exfoliated graphene. ADVANTAGE: Simple process to create conductive, highly transparent, robust thin films on variety of substrates versus current complex deposition techniques. SUMMARY: Electrically conductive glass is used in a range of applications including solar reflecting glass, self-cleaning windows, electrostatic charge-dissipating coatings, solar cells and sensor devices. Conductive gla
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Laser Assisted Field Induced Oxide Nanopatterning (27096)

A system to effect field induced oxidation (FIO) nanopatterning of hydrogen passivated silicon surfaces with an atomic force microscope (AFM) controlled by laser irradiation. ADVANTAGES: Local oxidation on H:Si(111) surfaces can be fully suppressed or activated by toggling a laser luminating a lightly doped silicon AFM cantilever. Laser assisted FIO provides an alternative and flexible means for controlling oxide nanopatterning. SUMMARY: Since the initial report of field induced oxidatio
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Highly-Dispersed Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Cement-Based Materials (27146

Cement compositions and processing to enhance mechanical strength and minimize nanoscale crack formation. ADVANTAGE: Simple process suitable to existing cement fabrication with potential for significant property improvement. SUMMARY: Most construction cements today are hydraulic, and generally based on Portland cement, composed primarily of limestone, certain clay minerals and gypsum. Effort to mitigate structural failures in cement is a constant endeavor that has employed a range of mater
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Solution-Processed High Mobility Inorganic Thin-Film Transistors with a Self-Assembled Nanoscopic Gate Dielectric (27152)

The simple semiconductor and dielectric film fabrication afford TFTs with properties suitable for a variety of higher performance applications SUMMARY: Fabrication of high performance thin-film transistors (TFTs) by solution phase processes promise commercially viable, low-cost, large-area electronics. However, efforts to develop solution-processed organic semiconducting films, for organic TFTs (OTFTs) to date afford field-effect mobilities lower than those of optimized OTFTs fabricated wit
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Substrate-Independent Layer-by-Layer Assembly Using Mussel Adhesive-Inspired Polymers (27158)

Substrate independent multifunctional coatings adherent to a wide range of natural and synthetic materials including polymers, metals and oxides, providing adhesive properties without surface pretreatment. The coatings employ a simple layer by layer process for the surface attachment of organic and inorganic materials. ADVANTAGES: A simple coating process that affords adhesive binding to most any substrate surface. The coatings developed afford effective coverage and can be utilized as a base
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Polymer-Graphite Nanocomposites by Solid State Shear Pulverization (28023)

Well dispersed graphite-polymer nanocomposites with enhanced physical properties are readily produced with the continuous solid state shear pulverization (S3P) process. ADVANTAGES: Graphite-polymer nanocomposites with superior properties versus identical melt extruded compositions are manufactured with the S3P process. A significantly higher degree of filler dispersion is created than previously reported for these systems. SUMMARY: Polymer nanocomposites are of scientific and commercial i
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Well-Dispersed Polymer/Carbon Nanotube Nacomposites with Major Property Improvements: Fabrication by Two-Step Solid-State Shear Pulverization and Melt Processing (28065)

A continuous, solventless, scalable process (S3P) in concert with melt mixing producing well-dispersed polymer/multiwall CNT nanocomposites. ADVANTAGES: A scalable process to produce well dispersed polymer / carbon nanotube nanocomposites with enhanced thermal and mechanical properties SUMMARY: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been widely examined as nanofillers in materials due their excellent mechanical, electrical and thermal properties. However, a major challenge for their use in polymer
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Nano-patterning with Nanospheres (28079)

The invention is a low-cost, "maskless" photolithography method to produce highly uniform arrays of nanopillars and nanoholes over a large area. The invention has the following advantages over existing methods by which to form nanoholes and nanopillars: Single Stage: The process is maskless High throughput: Very large area (square meters, in principle) of nano-holes in a single shot Highly Uniform: Hole size is highly uniform Very Small: Hole diameter is much smaller than the wavelength o
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Controlled Nanoscale Doping of Transparent Conducting Oxides by Focused Ion Beam Implantation (28091)

An effective method for the spatially-controlled writing of embedded, optically transparent, electrically conducting oxide nanowires and other patterns via focused ion beam implantation into highly resistive transparent metal oxide thin films. ADVANTAGES: Nanoscale, spatially-controlled doping of highly resistive indium oxide films enables the fabrication of embedded, optically transparent, electrically conducting wires. The dimensions achieved combined with the electrical properties of the
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Organic Light-Emitting Diodes and Methods for Assembly and Enhanced Charge Injection (22012)

The integrity of electrode/organic interfacial contact is crucial to the performance and stability of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). This invention addresses the problem by employing a well defined self-assembly strategy that improves the ITO anode / hole transport layer (HTL) interface morphology and integrity, hence device performance and thermal robustness. These self-assembling interlayer materials may be readily applied to enhanced performance and stability in OLEDs, organic FETs, a
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Enhanced Performance of Blue Light Emitting Polymer Diodes via Anode Modification (22103)

Researchers at Northwestern University invented a process that significantly improves Blue polymer light emitting diode (PLED) performance, efficiency, and stability. Blue PLED devices generally require anode coating with a conductive polymer hole transport layer (HTL), which can adversely impact device fabrication, useful spectral range, performance and stability. This invention replaces the conductive polymer with an ultra-thin siloxane-derivative that enhances the ITO anode / HTL interface, t
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New Hole Transport Layer Materials for Polymer Light Emitting Diodes (23071)

Northwestern University researchers invented a new hole transport system for polymer light emitting diodes (PLEDs) with negligible visible light absorption, stability to ITO, solvent resistance and tunable electronic properties. ADVANTAGE: Superior PLED performance and efficiency is observed versus conventional PEDOT-PSS based hole transport layer (HTL) devices. ITO interface stability promises enhanced device life and solvent resistance accommodates emissive layer (EML) coating. SUMMAR
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Nano-Switch Memory Element (24054)

The invention is a switchable nano-electromechanical system (NEMS) for memory applications. Whereas current nano-switches of this type can “stick” irreversibly in the lower (closed position), the invention is stable in both switch positions – top and bottom. For this invention, a carbon nanotube (CNT) cantilever deflects under an applied voltage. When the CNT tip is very close to the base electrode, substantial tunneling current results. Due to the feedback resistor shown in the below figu
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Cryogenic Variable Temperature Scanning Tunneling Microscope (24108)

An advanced cryogenic variable temperature ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) scanning tunneling microscope (STM) has been developed at Northwestern University. Incorporation of a new design and materials provides a robust instrument capable of high atomic resolution at 8.2 to 300 K, critical for single molecule surface studies. ADVANTAGES The cryogenic UHV STM provides excellent thermal and vibrationally stable operation at 8.2 to 300 K. Unit design accommodates direct optical access to the tip-sample i
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Bridge Enhanced Nanoscale Impedance Microscopy (25060)

A conductive atomic force microscopy (cAFM) adjunct has been developed by Northwestern scientists that is capable of quantitatively measuring the magnitude and phase of alternating current flow through the tip/sample junction with a five order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity. Significant improvement in sensitivity and spatial resolution will enable the study of electronic behavior in nanomaterials and biological samples. ADVANTAGES: The device provides spatially resolved quantitative
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Atomic Force Photovoltaic Microscopy (27148)

An atomic force photovoltaic microscope (AFPM) has been developed to characterize spatially localized inhomogeneities in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. A biased conductive atomic force microscopy (cAFM) probe is raster-scanned over an array of illuminated solar cells enabling the determination of short-circuit current Isc, open-circuit voltage Voc, fill factor and power conversion efficiency ηp of functioning photovoltaic devices. ADVANTAGES: Unlike techniques that characterize only pho
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Solution-Processed High Mobility Inorganic Thin-Film Transistors with a Self-Assembled Nanoscopic Gate Dielectric (27152)

The simple semiconductor and dielectric film fabrication afford TFTs with properties suitable for a variety of higher performance applications SUMMARY: Fabrication of high performance thin-film transistors (TFTs) by solution phase processes promise commercially viable, low-cost, large-area electronics. However, efforts to develop solution-processed organic semiconducting films, for organic TFTs (OTFTs) to date afford field-effect mobilities lower than those of optimized OTFTs fabricated wit
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Organic Light-Emitting Diodes and Methods for Assembly and Emission Control (99027)

This invention presents a new route to the fabrication of multilayer heterojunction devices useful for large and small, multicolored display applications by means of molecular self-assembly techniques. The technology addresses major coating issues in organic light-emitting diode (OLED) construction, and promises improved device performance and stability. The invention ADVANTAGE: Devices with uniform conformal layers, high light generation efficiency, emission wavelength control, and enhanced
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Mutual Inductance Force Sensor – “MIFS” (20084)

Consumers operate numerous devices and machines to assist in daily activities. This requires some form of contact with an interface sensor as to translate the human intent into an electronic response. Typical interface or input sensors range from simple push buttons to highly sensitive strain gauge type controls. The invention NU 20084, "MIFS", offers a new design in input sensor technology. This novel and robust, multi axis, force input sensor is based on the principal of mutual inductance.
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Thin Membrane Transducer (22102/23074)

Northwestern´’´s Thin Membrane Transducer (TMT) invention is an ultra sensitive biosensor. The TMT has significant advantages over the cantilevered biosensor – another approach that has been previously implemented: Highly Sensitive: The TMT detection sensitivity is on the order of a picomolar (10-12 molar) with capability in the sub-picomolar range. Low-Cost and Compact: The TMT does not require optical detection. The more sensitive cantilevered biosensors do require optical detection
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Biochip Detection System (23072)

The “BioChip” invention electronically detects biomolecules and toxic agents. When a target species chemically binds to the surface of a tiny cantilever probe, the probe deflects and the BioChip electronically measures and reports that deflection. The BioChip presents the following advantages over current detection methods: · It can continuously monitor bio-affinity interactions. It is label free. · It is highly sensitive – able to detect 5 nm of cantilever deflection. · It can b
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VOC Sensor (26062)

The invention is a low power light assisted sensor to detect Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC’s). BACKGROUND: Metal oxide gas sensors must normally operate at high temperatures. This is undesirable in applications where safety and power consumption are primary concerns. Moreover, sensors operating at high temperatures require periodic calibration to compensate for changes in microstructure properties over time. By illuminating metal oxide surfaces with light, Northwestern has successfu
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NanoNose™ Software Tool (26146)

NanoNose™ is a software tool developed in LabView to enable rapid prototyping, test and evaluation of high-density sensor arrays. NanoNose™ characterizes sensors by exercising them through varied ambient conditions, concentration levels and flow rates. NanoNose™ is currently used for gases and gas mixtures, but can be expanded to include liquids and airborne substances. Some salient features of NanoNose™ are: Simultaneous characterization of multiple sensors Real-time control and mo
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Scanning Near-Field Ultrasound Holography (SNFUH) (23061)

The invention is a revolutionary approach which provides non-invasive nanoscale imaging capabilities for deeply buried and embedded structures in physical sciences, engineering systems as well as biological structures under physiologically viable conditions. The invention has operated in near-contact mode, which has enabled it to image biological structures. The technique, termed: Scanning near field Ultrasound holography (SNFUH) synergistically integrates three disparate approaches: a uniqu
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A Novel Method for Fabricating Ultrahigh Density MRAM

The Johns Hopkins University seeks a partner to commercialize a new technique for fabricating Magnetoresistive Random Access Memory (MRAM). The fabrication method creates asymmetric ferromagnetic nanorings, a novel nanotechnology with unique properties. The nanorings form the basis for MRAM chips thousands of times more powerful than any other MRAM technology commercially available. Description (Set) • Each nanoring is highly stable, with a definite spin controlled by the direction of the
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Arrays of Semimetallic Bismuth Nanowires and Fabrication Techniques Therefor

In the present invention, nanowires are fabricated by electrodeposition using semi-metallic bismuth. In this novel form of nanowire, positive magnetoresistance (MR) as high as 300% at low temperatures and 70% at room temperature, with a quasi-linear field dependence has been achieved. The MR effect in these semi-metallic nanostructures not only has much larger magnitude than, but also is characteristically different from, the negative GMR previously obtained in metallic nanostructures. Descrip
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A method for growing high aspect ratio filaments comprising ultra-long vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays

Advantages Robust method for producing SWNT arrays with high aspect ratios High Yields Filament length and diameter can be controlled by changes in growth conditions Aligned SWNT arrays impart improved properties to composite materials Minimum post-growth processing required The Technology Ultra-long aligned carbon nanotube arrays with aspect ratios >100 are produced via a hot filament chemical vapor deposition technique on nano-structured alumina substrates. Typical yields of > 400% S
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Novel Micromechanical Devices for in situ Characterizations of One Dimensional Nanomaterials

The invention is a micro-machined device that can be used, in conjunction with a quantitative nanoindenter, to perform ex situ or in situ nano-mechanical testing experiments within an SEM or TEM chamber. The device, and the technique in general, can perform nano-mechanical characterization of 1-dimensional and 2-dimensional nanomaterials Advantages Most current techniques in nanomaterial mechanical characterization are unable to simultaneously image a specimen and independently measure load
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Metal Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles (MCMNP) and their application to chemical/biochemical detection

This technology is a new synthetic method for manufacturing MCMNP. MNMNP are an enabling component of optical spectroscopic techniques, which are currently limited because of their relative susceptibility to spectral interference from chemicals present in the sample matrix and/or from low detection sensitivity. Thus, costly and lengthy sample purification and concentration/magnification is a common requisite to optical detections. Advantages High detection sensitivity: Three factors work co
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Abstract Fluorescent Security Tag Using Carbon Nanotubes Technology ID

As a result of advanced printing ink technology, invisible inks have found a new venue in business and commerce as a means of protection against fraud, counterfeiting, and theft. The most useful inks are those that are invisible after printing, but which can be made visible through various means to prove the authenticity of a particular document. These products are being used to authenticate a broad range of valuable commercial documents, such as stock certificates, bearer bonds, checks, lottery
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Fullerenes for the Treatment of Osteoporosis

In the treatment of osteoporosis and other bone disorders, it is desirable to deliver therapeutic compounds to the bone. However, it is known that certain substances, although therapeutic, are too toxic to be transported in the human body in free form. For example, fluoride anion (F–) is known to be an active therapeutic agent for osteoporosis, and the only known agent that can generate new bone matrix and new mineral from previously inactive areas. It both improves bone strength and helps pre
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Method for Producing Tetrapodal Nanoparticles with High Selectivity

Large-scale production of tetrapodal CdSe nanoparticles Advantages . Method produces tetrapodal CdSe nanoparticles of uniform size with high selectivity . Production costs (relative to existing methods) reduced approximately 200-fold . Method does not require use of highly toxic alkyl phosphonates The Technology The process of this invention allows for the production of CdSe tetrapods with 90% shape-selectivity using either a hot injection technique or a one-pot slow decomposition approach
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Controlled synthesis of Polymorphic nanostructures (nanodots, nanorods, nanowires, nanotubes, nanolaminates, hollow nanospheres) using templates formed by Amphiphilic Block Copolymer stabilized "water

This technology describes novel, comprehensive techniques for efficient synthesis of monodisperse, consistently-shaped and uniform-sized II-VI Compound Semiconductor (CS) nanoparticles like ZnSe & CdSe. Different shaped nanocrystals constitute an im portant research tool in several emerging areas in Opto-electronics, Medical Devices and Diagnostics, Bioinformatics, Research in Biomolecular Interactions, Sensors and Detectors, National Security, Energy and Environment, Materials and Manufacturing
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Controlled Synthesis of Nanocrystals and Nanoparticles by a Gas-Emulsion Process

The invention describes a novel generic process to synthesize II-VI (ZnSe, CdSe, etc.) semiconductor nanocrystals of uniform size by bubbling a gas through a preprepared colloidal suspension. The several bubbles formed are of uniform size and functio n as nanoreactor receptacles in which the nanocrystals are formed. This guarantees near absolute uniformity in the sizes of the nanocrystals. The value propositions are: a)Control over nanoscale dimensions of the crystals. b)Synthesis at room te
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Silica nanoparticles as a platform for 19F based MR spectroscopy, imaging and other biomedical applications

This technology describes the synthesis of 19F containing silica nanoparticles for 19F-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Imaging applications, an area marked by requirement and paucity of non-toxic fluorine-containing compounds that can administere d in sufficiently high quantities. The synthesis uses a fluorine-containing precursor called 3,3,3-trifluoropropyl-trimethoxylane (TFPTMS) in an emulsion-based process comprising of mixing, magnetic stirring, centrifugation and washing at room tempe
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Integrated Microreactor/Nanoelectrospray Emitter

Proteins broken-up into peptide components (using proteolytic enzymes) are injected into mass spectrometers for analysis using Nano-Electrospray Ionization (Nano-ESI) techniques. During capillary electrophoresis, one of the most favored techniques in the ionization-spray phase, some portions of peptides adsorb (stick) to the inner walls of the capillaries. This results in loss of expensive sample as well as in analytical inaccuracies. This technology describes a technique to immobilize the prote
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Amino Functionalized ORMOSIL Nanoparticles As a Non-Viral Vector for Gene Delivery

The delivery of genetic material into living biological cells is currently done through several viral and non-viral techniques with their own unique sets of values and challenges. This invention describes a process to create surface amino-functionali zed ORMOSIL (organically modified silicate) nanoparticles for use as gene and DNA carriers to target cell sites. The unique values are: a)ORMOSIL is a highly preferred choice for bio-matter delivery b)The process is simple, and reasonable on time
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Pentacene Derivatives as Organic Semiconductors for Electronic Applications

Organic semiconductors are increasingly replacing silicon-based materials in many nanoimprinted integrated electronic and photonic devices such as flat-panel and flexible displays, solar cells, microsensors for medical devices, and the like. New deve lopments in these fields require substances that are much more flexible, robust, easy to manufacture, and less costly than traditional silicon. Pentacene is the most frequently used organic semiconductor based on these attributes, but it suffers fro
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Controlled synthesis of nanowires, nanotubes and nanostructured materials using liquid crystalline and microemulsion templates

This technology describes novel, comprehensive techniques for efficient synthesis of monodisperse, consistently-shaped and uniform-sized II-VI Compound Semiconductor (CS) nanoparticles like ZnSe & CdSe. Different shaped nanocrystals constitute an im portant research tool in several emerging areas in Opto-electronics, Medical Devices and Diagnostics, Bioinformatics, Research in Biomolecular Interactions, Sensors and Detectors, National Security, Energy and Environment, Materials and Manufacturing
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Synthesis and Stabilization of Metal Nanoparticles

Most state-of-the-art solution based techniques to synthesize uniformly sized and distributed nanoparticles use reduction reactions of metal ions consisting of multiple complex steps that use organic solvents, produce undesirable by-products and requ ire additives to protect and stabilize the colloid. The few existing single step processes require exotic polymers, high temperatures and a protective agent. This technology describes a simple, single step process using Hydrogen TetraChloroAurate (I
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Method for the Preparation of Semiconductor Nanocrystal Cores, Core-Shell, Core-Buffer-Shell and Multiple Layer Systems in a Noncoordinating Solvent Utilizing in-situ Surfactant Generation

An earlier disclosure (technology no. 5824) revealed an in situ surfactant generation method to synthesize core semiconductor III – V nanocrystals (Indium Phosphide, Gallium Phosphide and Indium Arsenide). Those nanocrystals exhibited excellent surfa ce characterization and used a non-coordinating solvent (Benzene, Toluene). This invention adds layers atop the nanocrystal core, to aid in creating compounds with improved optical properties as well as in forming protective shells around useful-y
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Method for the Preparation of Semiconductor Nanocrystal Cores, Core-Shell, Core-Buffer-Shell and Multiple Layer Systems in a Noncoordinating Solvent Utilizing in-situ Surfactant Generation

An earlier disclosure (technology no. 5824) revealed an in situ surfactant generation method to synthesize core semiconductor III – V nanocrystals (Indium Phosphide, Gallium Phosphide and Indium Arsenide). Those nanocrystals exhibited excellent surfa ce characterization and used a non-coordinating solvent (Benzene, Toluene). This invention adds layers atop the nanocrystal core, to aid in creating compounds with improved optical properties as well as in forming protective shells around useful-y
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Controlled Synthesis of Nanocrystals and Nanoparticles by a Gas-Emulsion Process

The invention describes a novel generic process to synthesize II-VI (ZnSe, CdSe, etc.) semiconductor nanocrystals of uniform size by bubbling a gas through a preprepared colloidal suspension. The several bubbles formed are of uniform size and functio n as nanoreactor receptacles in which the nanocrystals are formed. This guarantees near absolute uniformity in the sizes of the nanocrystals. The value propositions are: a)Control over nanoscale dimensions of the crystals. b)Synthesis at room te
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Process for Producing Luminescent Silicon Nanoparticles

The invention is a method of creating luminescent silicon nano particles. Particles as small as 3nm have been successfully prepared. These particles can be produced rapidly and economically. Moreover the process is very easy and highly efficient. The process is actually a two phase process wherein the particles are first produced in a laser chamber and then etched in an acidic solution to make then smaller and luminescent. Categories: Nanotechnology Patents Issues: 7,371,666
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Growth of a Single Free-Standing Multiwall Carbon Nanotube on Each Nano-Nickel Dot

This invention describes the process to achieve a patterned growth of freestanding carbon nanotube(s) on submicron dot(s) on silicon by plasma enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition (PE-HF-CVD). Using this method, devices requiring freestan ding vertical carbon nanotube(s) such as scanning probe microscopy, field emission flat panel displays, etc. can be fabricated without difficulty. A thin film nickel grid has been fabricated on a silicon wafer by standard microlithographic techniq
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Synthesis of High Density Uniform Well-Aligned Carbon Nanotubes

This invention describes a novel way to make well-aligned carbon nanotubes on a variety of substrates such as Ni,Fe,Co, etc. - coated Si or glass at temperatures below 666 degrees C. Good alignment is very important not only for fundamental rese arch but also for applications such as flat panel displays. Well-aligned carbon nanotubes are accomplished by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE-CVD) in a glass mixture of acetylene and ammonia. Acetylene provides the carbon for nanotube s
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A Method to Produce Water Dispersible Highly Luminescence CdSe/CdS/ZnS Quantum Dots for Biomedical Imaging

It’s a “Novel” method aimed to- a) Produce highly luminescent CdSe/CdS/ZnS Quantum Dots. b) Enable transfer of these Quantum Dots from Organic to Aqueous (Essential requirement for Bio Imaging, biosensors and other optoelectronic applications ) Phase with Colloidal and Optical stability intact Categories: Optics, Nanotechnology
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Solution-processed pentacene quantum-dot polymeric hybrid nanocomposite photodetector

The present disclosure combines broad spectral access enabled by semiconductor nanocrystallites (different compositions and sizes having different band gaps) with enhanced carrier transport via high-mobility organic semiconductors, in a polymeric mat rix, to realize hybrid nanocomposite photodetectors. Using the prototypical species of PbSe QDs, and pentacene in a PVK matrix highly efficient IR photodetection and photoconductivity is achieved. Efficient harvesting of IR photo-generated carriers
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Efficient surface functionalization of luminescent silicon quantum dots by photoinitiated hydrosilylation

This technology describes a 3-phased process to synthesize luminescent silicon nanoparticles in different colors. 3nm to 15nm diameter nanoparticles are synthesized at a high-rate by laser decomposition of silane. Wet chemical etching is done using a combination of acids (HF and HNO3) resulting in reduction in size and photoluminescence. In the second phase, the acid-combination proportions are optimized to produce high density of hydrogen and low density of oxygen on the nanoparticle surfaces.
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Preparation of stable blue-emitting silicon nanoparticles

This technology describes two methods to synthesize blue luminescent silicon nanoparticles. The first is a 3-phase process. In the first phase, laser decomposition of silane and wet chemical etching using a combination of acids (HF and HNO3) yields photoluminescent nanoparticles of diameter 10-15 nm. The second phase involves optimization of acid-combination proportions to produce high density of hydrogen and low density of oxygen on the nanoparticle surfaces. In the final phase, secondary atta
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Method for Delivering Hydrophobic Drugs Via Nanocrystal Formulations

This technology explains the formulation of a nanosized drug delivery carrier and the method of delivering photodynamic drugs, which are free from the external agents. From the results obtained for significant photosensitizing efficacy in vitro and in vivo conditions, it is believed that upon administration for photodynamic therapy use in humans, the drug will interact with human serum albumin or other intracellular molecules for allowing the recovery of fluorescence Categories: Nanotechnol
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Organically Modified Silica Nanoparticles Coencapsulating Photosensitizing Drug and Two-Photon Absorber for Two-photon Activated Photodynamic Therapy

Photodynamic therapy (PDT), following health agency approvals throughout the world for various cancers and other diseases, is slowly being accepted as a standard treatment for the treatment of obstructive esophageal and lung cancers as well as e arly stage lung cancer, and actinic keratoses. However, the hydrophobic nature of most photosensitizing drugs makes the preparation of pharmaceutical formulations for parenteral administration very difficult. This technology explains the for mulation
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Composition and method of preparation of lipid nano particulates containing antigens as cancer vaccine

Using a rational design strategy, compositions (LINAP) have been developed for the targeted delivery of cancer vaccine antigens. Designed to target Dendritic cells (DC), LINAP is able to facilitate more potent T-cell immune responses than immunizing with antigens alone. In addition, LINAP confers stability to otherwise unstable vaccine antigens, thereby allowing for a completely in vivo vaccination protocol. As a result, LINAP is significantly less complex than existing DC-based vaccine stra teg
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Evanescent Wave Coupling Sensor for Shear/Pressure Measurement

Introduction Lower limb complications associated with diabetes include the development of plantar ulcers that can lead to infection and subsequent amputation. Several authors have postulated that shear stress is an important component of ulcer development. While it is known from force plate analyses that there are medial/lateral and anterior /posterior shear components of the ground reaction force, there is little known about the actual distribution of this force during daily activities, nor abo
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Method for the Preparation of SiC Nanorods

Summary A process has been developed to produce SiC nanorods in high yield with diameters <100 nm (typical diameters of 2-40 nanometers) and aspect ratios of 10-1000 nm. This method can be used to produce SiC nanorods in single run, batch, and continuous reactors under relatively mild conditions. Applications This method represents a low-cost approach for producing SiC nanorods on an industrial scale. Thus, it represents a significant improvement over current methods requiring preformed carbo
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Surface-Bound Double-Stranded DNA Protein Arrays

Summary Developed at Harvard Medical School, this invention provides nucleic acid arrays specifically designed for the assay of DNA-dependent protein:protein binding and/or physical interactions between proteins and nucleic acid molecules. Intermolecular analyses enabled by this technology are advantageously performed in massively-parallel fashion under uniform reaction conditions. This technology enables researchers to: - Screen for polypeptides that bind nucleic acid sequences of interest.
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Electric Microcontact Printing

Summary This invention has utility in data storage and in preparing surfaces to receive other materials in specific predetermined patterns, such as in nanoxerography. A variant of a microcontact-printing stamp lays down a pattern of charges on an electret substrate. The technique can cover a substrate with an area of one square centimeter with multiple charges from 110 nm - 100 micrometers in size in less than 20 seconds, providing an area density of up to 7 Gbits/sq. cm., 140 times larger than
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Vapor Deposition of Silica Nanolaminates

Summary This invention concerns a very efficient atomic layer deposition (ALD) method to make extremely smooth and highly conformal silica thin films with excellent step coverage. As microelectronic circuits become more and more dense, with decreasing distances between active elements and interconnects, better methods of laying down dielectrics as insulation are required to retain performance. This invention is such a better method. Prior art ALD methods, while known to produce highly conformal
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Method of Creating Self-Assembled, Selectively-Permeable Colloidosome Structures

Summary Colloidosomes are spherical shells of micron-sized particles made by the simple technique of self-assembly onto emulsion droplets. These hollow, elastic capsules are ideal for efficiently encapsulating active agents for selective and timed release because they are highly controllable in strength, permeability and elasticity. Colloidosomes are an enabling technology with a variety of applications from functional foods to drug delivery to biotech and metallurgy. Capsules are composed o
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Microlens for Projection Lithography and Method of Preparation Thereof

Summary This invention claims a lithographic technique that can inexpensively produce simple, repetitive micropatterns over large areas of at least several square centimeters. It uses an illuminated array of micrometer-scale lenses to generate an array of optical patterns in an image plane located within micrometer distances from the lens array. A layer of photoresist, placed in the image plane, records the patterns. Microleneses with different sizes, profiles, compositions and indices of refrac
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Selective Deposition of Cells in Microwells

Summary This invention is a method of selectively functionalizing indentations (such as wells or channels in microfluidic systems) or protrusions on a substrate such that, for example, cells selectively bind to the indentations or the protrusions. The ability to control the placement of cells on a surface is useful in making arrays of cells, which in turn make possible analytical systems for the detection of toxic substances, systems for high throughput screening for drug discovery and new metho
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Microscale Electromagnetic Device

Summary This invention concerns devices and methodology to control the positioning and movement of magnetic and non-magnetic nanoparticles in a fluid with nanometer precision. The devices allow for the independent and simultaneous control of many particles. The devices utilize a grid of current carrying wires or an array of charged posts to create isolated and continuously moveable magnetic field maxima or electic field maxima, respectively, which trap and hold the particles. The devices have ma
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Microfluidic Arrays for Multiplex Detection of Analyts

Summary This invention is a microfluidic array apparatus and a method of performing multiple analyses on multiple samples simultaneously, utilizing nanoliter volumes of reagents. It has two embodiments, the first consists of N microfluidic channels, perhaps in a parallel array, in fluidic contact with N' microfluidic channels, perhaps parallel and orthogonal to the N channels, making NxN' contact points where analyses can occur. Contact is controlled by use of membranes, or other dividers, at th
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MicroArray Spot LINEar Regression (MASLINER) software

Summary Signal intensities between samples on a microarrary typically vary by as much as three to four orders of magnitude, frustrating efforts at comparative analysis of samples assayed in parallel. At any given laser power or photomultiplier tube gain (PMTG), some signals will be below detection threshold, while others will have saturated the signal-collection capacity of the scanning device. MicroArray Spot LINEar Regression ("MASLINER") is a software tool that addresses this critical deficie
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Highly Conformal Tungsten Nitride Thin Films

Summary The invention describes a method of producing a uniform, smooth and conformal coating of tungsten nitride, synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The silver-colored coating (or film) is metallic and a good electrical conductor. Suitable applications in microelectronics include barriers to the diffusion of copper and electrodes for thin film capacitors and field-effect transistors (FETs). Similar processes deposit molybdenum nitride, which is suitable for layers alternating with si
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Nanoscale Electrically Driven Lasers

Summary This invention is the first demonstration of an electrically driven nanoscale laser. A CdS nanowire, comprising a Fabry-Perot cavity, in contact with an electrode distributed along its length or crossing a Si nanowire, lases above a threshold current. Changing the material the nanowire is composed of can change the wavelength. This invention opens up new realms of applications in nanoscale electrical systems - including anywhere LEDs and lasers are used now and many new applications such
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Alteration of Surface Affinities

Summary This invention claims a method for using a pulse of current in an electrochemical microdevice to change a surface from one that resists the adsorption of proteins and cells to one that promotes that adsorption. This invention allows the preparation of surfaces that adsorb eucaryotic cells and presents them in patterns, and then the controlled release of these cells from those patterns. The movement of the cells across the surface following the current pulse provides the basis for bioche
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Atomic Layer Deposition Using Metal Amidinates

Summary This invention relates to materials and processes for d eposition of conformal films containing metals on solid substrates. Examples include copper, cobalt and iron metals or their oxides or nitrides. Suitable applications include electrical interconnects in microelectronic and magnetoresistant layers in magnetic information storage devices. Applications Atomic Layer Deposition, semiconductors For Further Information Please Contact the Director of Business Development Bob Benson Emai
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Electric Field Mediated Emulsification in a Flow Focusing Microfluidic Device

Summary This invention describes a microfluidic electro-flow focusing device. The essence of the device is the application of an electric field at a flow focusing junction between two immiscible fluids. The electric field creates charged drops and large forces necessary for emulsification, while the flow-focusing stabilizes the droplet production even at high fields where a Taylor cone is present. One application of this technology is the generation of charged droplets with a narrow distribution
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Method and Apparatus for Fluid Dispersion

Summary The invention is a microfluidic device for focusing and/or breaking fluid sections and drops. The subject fluid flows in the device's central channel as the dispersing fluid flows in the two outer channels. The outer fluid exerts pressure and viscous stresses that focus the inner fluid into a narrow thread that then breaks at, or just after, the orifice via capillary instability. The invention also covers "passive breakup" and "flow focusing" techniques to control the size and size di
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Electrostatic Steering of Charged Droplets in Microfluidic Devices

Summary The invention consists of means of charging droplets and then using that charge to choose which channel a droplet will enter at a bifurcation. There is a need to have fast, accurate means of precisely sorting and directing materials in an automated way on a microfluidic device. Examples of materials that one would want to sort are mixtures of living and dead cells, or male and female embryos. Other situations where there is a need to steer droplets are for combinatorial chemistry mixi
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Method and Apparatus for Forming Multiple Emulsions

Summary Everyday emulsions have drops of one liquid dispersed in an immiscible continuous liquid. A multiple emulsion has immiscible droplets dispersed in drops dispersed in an immiscible continuous liquid (double emulsion). The IP describes a simple apparatus that can make multiple emulsions with a high degree of control - such as the ability to make emulsions of one droplet in one drop and to control the relative sizes of each. The IP claims a platform for making double emulsions, which have m
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Multiplexing long DNA syntheses

Summary The invention enables multiplex gene synthesis in a single reaction, using very low concentrations of oligonucleotides. The method, which employs a unique temporary tagging strategy, offers significant advantages in terms of speed and economy over existing methods for building genes, and even genomes, particularly when coupled with high-throughput, high-density (e.g., array-based) oligonucleotide synthesis. The method also is useful for rapid generation of libraries of variant sequences
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Bead-based polymerase colony microarrays and nucleic acid sequencing ("Polony-FISSEQ Beads")

Summary Foundational work of Dr. George Church has enabled the production and use of replicable arrays of polymerase-amplified nucleic acid colonies (so-called "polonies") on semisolid support matrices (see Harvard Case No. 1438). The present invention extends the polony technology to provided miniaturized, high-density, bead-based nucleic acid arrays and improved methods for array-based sequencing of nucleic acids. High feature resolution enables identification and isolation of clonal sequences
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Nanometer patterning with Ice

Summary Harvard Cases 2331 and 2440 These inventions involve the use of gases directly solidified onto cryogenically cooled substrates to form conformal thin films as resists for lithographically patterning the substrates. Examples of such gases are water vapor and rare gases such as argon. Water as a resist is placed on the substrate directly from the gas phase, patterned with an energetic beam (electron, ion or light), and then the rest is removed by sublimation. This has numerous advantage
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Label-free Detection of Small Molecule-Protein Interactions using Nanowire Nanosensors

Summary This invention describes a method of detecting and quantifying competitive inhibition of a co-factor or substrate binding to an enzyme (or other biological binding partner) utilizing very small amounts of the enzyme and with no labeling of the enzyme or its binding partners. The method can be used to discover new competitive binders (drugs) and measure their binding constants to the enzyme. The inventors have shown that by binding an enzyme to a semiconductor nanowire one can easily dete
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Microfluidic liquid-core, liquid-cladding optical waveguides

Summary Background: Optical detection and spectroscopic analysis are important in a wide variety of systems. Typical methods used for delivery of electromagnetic radiation to the microchannels of microfluidic systems, such as lab-on-a-chip systems, rely on the coupling of external sources of light to microfluidic devices that typically consist of optical fibers made by a glass core and a glass cladding. The use of optical fiber causes limitations on possible designs as it requires multiple so
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Next Generation Pulmonary Malarial Vaccine

Summary Scientists encounter difficult obstacles in attempting to develop vaccines against malaria. For example, malaria parasites of the same species but isolated from different geographic locations may be genetically and immunologically distinct, so vaccines that protect against one geographic isolate may not protect against another. Additionally, malaria parasites have complex life cycles with multiple distinct developmental stages creating potentially thousand of different antigens that coul
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Patterning Multiple Aligned Self-Assembled Monolayers Using Light

Summary A method for patterning different types of surface chemistry is described. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on noble metal substrates are converted photochemically into a mixed SAM that contains the original SAM and two distinct types of SAMs. The multiple SAMs are patterned on the substrate when light is passed through a photomask that acts as an area-selective filter for multiple wavelengths of light. The ability to pattern surfaces using molecules is important for developing arrays of
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Generation of Monodisperse Particles using Microfluidics: Control over Size, Shape and Composition

Summary The invention constitutes microfluidic methods of forming particles that are substantially monodisperse. The technology builds on the technology disclosed in Harvard Case: 2215 – "Method and Apparatus for Fluid Dispersion", which creates monodisperse fluid droplets in a microfluidic flow focusing device. The present invention expands that invention by: a) showing that monodisperse solid particles can be made from liquid droplets of material above its melting point by lowing the te
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"'Armored"' Bubbles and Droplets

Summary Background: Colloidal particles absorbed on liquid interfaces have long been reported to stabilize emulsions and foams. Recently, individual droplets densely covered with small particles have been proposed as a possible means of obtaining a variety of composite particles and hollow locked shells. Such interfacially structured and protected materials offer new opportunities in many fields as diverse as optics, encapsulation, biomedicine, non-wetting droplets, stabilizing gas bubbles, m
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Bubble Micromixer for Microfluidic Systems

Summary Background: One of the hardest problems to solve in microfluidic systems has been related to the mixing of fluids in a simple manner. The flow in microfluidic systems is generally laminar, restricting mixing to diffusion which is typically too slow when one wants two adjacent streams to mix to homogeneity quickly. The technologies that have been developed to solve this problem to date have a number of disadvantages. More precisely the techniques used to fabricate those mixers can be c
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Torque-Actuated Valves for Microfluidics

Summary Background: A number of active and passive valves for microfludic systems, based on bubbles, pneumatics, electrokinetic, and other mechanical solutions, have been developed. So far these solutions have not been adequate enough and the lack of inexpensive and efficient valves has been one of the main reasons why microfluidic devices have not yet realized its full commercial potential. The most commonly used valves have a number of disadvantages: 1) they require constant pressure and th
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Water-Soluble Sacrificial Layers for Surface Micromachining

Summary Sacrificial layers are temporary structures used as substrates on which other permanent structures are formed and then the layer is etched away freeing the permanent structure. They are ubiquitous in surface micromachining and the microfabrication of MEMS. Sacrificial layers currently in use are almost exclusively inorganic materials such as silica which are etched with corrosive substances such as hydrofluoric acid. Such etchants severely limit the types of substrates and materials one
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Lift-off Patterning Processes Using Solid-Condensed-Gas Layers As Resists

Summary Harvard Cases 2310 and 2440 These inventions involve the use of gases directly solidified onto cryogenically cooled substrates to form conformal thin films as resists for lithographically patterning the substrates. Examples of such gases are water vapor and rare gases such as argon. Water as a resist is placed on the substrate directly from the gas phase, patterned with an energetic beam (electron, ion or light), and then the rest is removed by sublimation. This has numerous advantage
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A Low-threshold, High-efficiency Microfluidic Waveguide Laser

Summary Background: A common type of optical waveguides has been optical fibers which have been used to guide electromagnetic waves in the optical spectrum. They are mainly used as components in integrated optical circuits or as a transport medium in distant communication systems. A typical optical fiber consists of an inner solid glass core and an outer cladding with a refractive index lower than the core causing light to propagate throughout the fiber. Variations of the waveguide have em
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Frictionless Nano-bearing

Summary Micro- and nanofabricated rotation and translation devices usually rely on the possibility to support the moving part on small dimples in order to reduce the contact area with the substrate. Nonetheless, large forces must be applied to overcome the residual friction. Furthermore, results largely vary from sample to sample, because friction strongly depends on the chemical and physical properties of the surfaces (notably, surface roughness and water contamination). The invention relies on
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Devices and Methods for Improving the Injection of Liquid Samples in Microfluidic Systems

Summary Principal Investigator: Max Narovlyansky, Graduate student, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University Background: Separation and detection of substance in fluids require injection of a plug of sample fluid into a separation column. Chip-based injections of samples for chemical and biological analysis have traditionally relied on open channel geometries like double-T and double-L methods to define the injection zone or upon isoelectric focusing (IEF), also calle
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Multiplexed, Elecatrical Detection of Cancer Markers Using Nanowire Sensor Arrays

Summary Semiconductor nanowire field effect transistors were modified using surface chemistry to create real-time, multiplexed and label-free sensor arrays for detecting a variety of biological species. In one platform application, the sensor was applied to cancer diagnosis by multiplexing monoclonal antibodies (PSA, PSA-ACT, CEA, mucin-1) on a nanowire sensor array. Upon exposure to undiluted serum samples, the cancer markers were detected with femtomolar sensitivity and excellent selectivity,
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A microfluidic differential manometer for cellular-scale hydrodynamics

Background: The development and application of microfluidic systems have increased dramatically in recent years. The systems that typically involve controlled fluid flow through a number of microfluidic channels can provide unique platforms useful in both research and production. Flow through a microchannel is the result of competition between pressure driving the flow and viscous stresses that resist the motion. Soft objects in a microchannels (cells etc.) can modify the resistance significa
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Active Optical Antennas

Summary Background Optical antennas are single or coupled metallic nanoparticles in which optical excitation of surface plasmons can produce very high intensities in the optical near field. The field enhancement relative to the incident field is maximum when the wavelength is suitably matched to the size of the resonant nanoparticle. Of particular interest are resonant optical antennas comprised of a pair of strongly coupled metallic nanorods. This design leads to a large intensity enhancement l
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Nanobioelectronics: Building functional hybrid nanoelectronic/cell circuit elements

Summary Background: The determination of electrophysiological properties is important for understanding signal propagation through individual neurons and neuronal networks as well as muscle tissue. However, previously existing technologies are relatively crude: micropipette electrodes poked into cells are invasive and harmful, and microfabricated electrode arrays are too bulky to detect activity at the level of individual cells or in the case of neurons, discrete axons and dendrites. Novel T
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Array of Micro Differential Scanning Calorimeters for Combinatorial Studies

Summary Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a primary technique for measuring the thermal properties of materials. A typical DSC system requires relatively large amounts of test material, making thermal measurements on nano-scale samples difficult if not impossible. Thus, while traditional DSC has proved a very useful technique, its application in nanotechnology is rather limited. Since the properties of materials on the nano-scale may differ significantly from their bulk counterparts, a
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Novel Surfactants for Stabilizing Emulsions of Water or Hydrocarbon Oil-Based Droplets in a Fluorocarbon Oil Continuous Phase

Summary Emulsions—dispersions of two immiscible fluids—have many applications in industry and everyday life. These range from paints, to crop protection, chemical synthesis, and production of latices. They are also increasingly attractive for analytical applications. Traditional emulsions consist of water and hydrocarbon oil. However, this combination does not allow for a wide variety of applications. It is therefore of advantage to replace one of these liquids with a third class o
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Creating Nano-Wrinkles of Virtually any Design on the Surface of Polymers

Summary Creating Nano-Wrinkles of Virtually any Design on the Surface of Polymers Elevator pitch: A new method has been developed at Harvard to design and create virtually any type of nano-wrinkle patterns on the surfaces of polymers. Anticipated applications for these hard-skin nano-wrinkled surfaces include tissue engineering, where the wrinkles can create custom-designed scaffolds for optimizing cell growth, and microfluidics, where customized wrinkle patterns can enable complex fluidic
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General Approach to Large Area, Controlled Density, Aligned Films of Nanowires and Carbon Nanotubes via Bubble Expansion

Summary Background Central to many proposed electronic device-based applications of nanowires and carbon nanotubes is the development of methods that enable organization over large areas with controlled orientation and density. While progress has been made in studies of individual or small numbers of nanowire and nanotube devices prepared by directed assembly and centimetre scale assembly of nanowire field effect transistor arrays by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique, it is unclear if these can be
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STORM - Fluorescence Optical Microscopy with 20 nm Resolution

Summary Elevator pitch: For cell biologists who need to image spatial distributions of proteins, protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions, and structural features of subcellular organelles, STORM is a high-resolution optical fluorescent microscopy method developed at Harvard that delivers imaging resolution of 20nm which is more than 10x better than conventional fluorescence microscopy. Unlike other high-resolution approaches, STORM is relatively low in complexity, simple to operate
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Uniform Non-Spherical Colloidal Particles with Tunable Shapes

Summary Background: Non-spherical colloidal particles are useful in advanced applications beyond those that regular spherical colloidal particles exhibit. For example they are useful for modifying optical properties, controlling suspension rheology, and engineering colloidal composites. However current methods of making uniform sized particles with a controllable non-spherical shape are generally not scaleable to commercial quantities, which limits their practical application. The current inv
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Patterning of metals and metal compounds using ionotropic polymers

Summary Background: Patterning surfaces to create some function is a core technology propelling our technical society. The most important such technology, photolithography, is used to create IC chips with nanoscale features. It is also the most expensive with fab capital costs greater than several billion dollars. Not all surface patterning needs require nanoscale resolution. Soft lithography, pioneered by George Whitesides, can create patterns on a surface in the microscale using a suite of
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General Synthesis and Properties of Hetero-Branched Nanostructures

Summary The bottom-up assembly of nanostructures from individual building blocks offers distinct advantages over traditional top-down fabrication techniques including greatly simplified and cost-effective fabrication and the enablement of unique properties only available at the nanoscale. There is a need for the development of nanostructures of increased compositional complexity to serve as building blocks for more advanced nanostructures and nanodevices. For the first time branched nanowire str
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Native Anti-corrosion Coatings for Metals

Summary The need: Corrosion of metals hamper the performance and safety of products ranging from medical implants to large-scale naval vessels, aircraft, bridges, and oil pipeline structures. A 2002 study of the US Federal Highway Administration estimated the cost of corrosion of metallic materials to be $276 billion, approximately 3.1% of national Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Developing novel approaches to mitigate corrosion is of great scientific and technological importance. Applications
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Systems and Methods for Assembly via Contact Electrification

Summary Taking advantage of a newly discovered mechanism for contact electrification of insulators the inventors have invented a new method of patterning insulator surfaces with particles. By assembling a surface with patterned areas composed of materials having different zeta-potentials one can, by contact electrification, make the different materials take on different surface charges. Then bringing charged particles to the surface will result in the particles preferentially sticking to one of
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Microfabricated, Chip-Based, Low-Power Optical Tweezers

Summary Since they were first demonstrated over twenty years ago, optical tweezers have been widely used for the manipulation and measurement of many microscale particles, particularly in the biological sciences. However, many of these systems require large, high-powered laser systems along with bulky and expensive optical objectives. With growing interest in microfluidics and other chip-based systems for high-throughput biological studies, a compact and integrated optical tweezer would be highl
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Deposition of nanoscale materials using structured surfaces

Summary The ability to precisely localize and control deposition of materials at the nanoscale is extremely important for a wide variety of emerging technologies. Many unique physical properties emerge only at the nanoscale and it is very useful to be able to control the formation of these materials. Control over the nucleation, growth, and assembly of nanomaterials is critical to advanced applications and complex device structures. While it is difficult to manipulate materials at such small siz
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Improved Metal Complex Chemical Precursors for Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) and Chemical Vapor Depostion (CVD) using Bicyclic Guanidines

Summary Continued improvements in semiconductor technologies rely heavily on advanced material compositions such as high-k dielectrics, low-k dielectrics, and electrically conductive metal nitrides. These materials enable the continued progression of Moore’s Law, allowing ever-smaller components to be integrated onto a microelectronic chip. In current device fabrication facilities, vapor deposition is a preferred method for making these materials, allowing precise control over material un
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Electric Microcontact Printing

Summary This invention has utility in data storage and in preparing surfaces to receive other materials in specific predetermined patterns, such as in nanoxerography. A variant of a microcontact-printing stamp lays down a pattern of charges on an electret substrate. The technique can cover a substrate with an area of one square centimeter with multiple charges from 110 nm - 100 micrometers in size in less than 20 seconds, providing an area density of up to 7 Gbits/sq. cm., 140 times larger than
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A method for Fabricating Optical waveguides and other Optical Devices in Three D

Summary This invention describes a method to directly write optical elements in three dimensions inside a transparent material using an unamplified femtosecond laser. Ultrashort pulses from a laser oscillator are tightly focused into the material, causing localized heating and subsequently producing refractive index changes in the bulk of the material. Applications The present invention uses an unamplified femtosecond laser oscillator to write waveguides or other optical devices by creation o
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Method of Creating Self-Assembled, Selectively-Permeable Colloidosome Structures

Summary Colloidosomes are spherical shells of micron-sized particles made by the simple technique of self-assembly onto emulsion droplets. These hollow, elastic capsules are ideal for efficiently encapsulating active agents for selective and timed release because they are highly controllable in strength, permeability and elasticity. Colloidosomes are an enabling technology with a variety of applications from functional foods to drug delivery to biotech and metallurgy. Capsules are composed o
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Microlens for Projection Lithography and Method of Preparation Thereof

Summary This invention claims a lithographic technique that can inexpensively produce simple, repetitive micropatterns over large areas of at least several square centimeters. It uses an illuminated array of micrometer-scale lenses to generate an array of optical patterns in an image plane located within micrometer distances from the lens array. A layer of photoresist, placed in the image plane, records the patterns. Microleneses with different sizes, profiles, compositions and indices of refrac
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Microscale Electromagnetic Device

Summary This invention concerns devices and methodology to control the positioning and movement of magnetic and non-magnetic nanoparticles in a fluid with nanometer precision. The devices allow for the independent and simultaneous control of many particles. The devices utilize a grid of current carrying wires or an array of charged posts to create isolated and continuously moveable magnetic field maxima or electic field maxima, respectively, which trap and hold the particles. The devices have ma
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Nanoscale Electrically Driven Lasers

Summary This invention is the first demonstration of an electrically driven nanoscale laser. A CdS nanowire, comprising a Fabry-Perot cavity, in contact with an electrode distributed along its length or crossing a Si nanowire, lases above a threshold current. Changing the material the nanowire is composed of can change the wavelength. This invention opens up new realms of applications in nanoscale electrical systems - including anywhere LEDs and lasers are used now and many new applications such
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Magneto-Luminescent Transducer

Summary This invention provides a one step process for reading magnetic data and converting the magnetic digital signal directly into an optical signal. This invention enables an electronic system, which includes a three terminal device having a light emitting portion and a magnetically sensitive portion. The magnetically sensitive portion is for modulating light emission from the light-emitting portion. The device is a spin valve transistor having a light-emitting quantum well in its collector.
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Electric Field Mediated Emulsification in a Flow Focusing Microfluidic Device

Summary This invention describes a microfluidic electro-flow focusing device. The essence of the device is the application of an electric field at a flow focusing junction between two immiscible fluids. The electric field creates charged drops and large forces necessary for emulsification, while the flow-focusing stabilizes the droplet production even at high fields where a Taylor cone is present. One application of this technology is the generation of charged droplets with a narrow distribution
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Nanometer patterning with Ice

Summary Harvard Cases 2331 and 2440 These inventions involve the use of gases directly solidified onto cryogenically cooled substrates to form conformal thin films as resists for lithographically patterning the substrates. Examples of such gases are water vapor and rare gases such as argon. Water as a resist is placed on the substrate directly from the gas phase, patterned with an energetic beam (electron, ion or light), and then the rest is removed by sublimation. This has numerous advantage
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Production and uses of polymerase colony ("polony") arrays

Summary The invention provides methods for rapid fabrication and use of replicable, high-density nucleic acid arrays. Array features are produced through amplification on a support matrix of nucleic acid templates of interest. A significant advance over conventional DNA array technologies, the so-called polymerase colony ("polony") technology requires no prior characterization or isolation of sequences to be placed on an array, and so is ideally suited to the analysis of unfractionated nucleic a
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Surface-Bound Double-Stranded DNA Protein Arrays

Summary Developed at Harvard Medical School, this invention provides nucleic acid arrays specifically designed for the assay of DNA-dependent protein:protein binding and/or physical interactions between proteins and nucleic acid molecules. Intermolecular analyses enabled by this technology are advantageously performed in massively-parallel fashion under uniform reaction conditions. This technology enables researchers to: - Screen for polypeptides that bind nucleic acid sequences of interest.
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Microfluidic Arrays for Multiplex Detection of Analyts

Summary This invention is a microfluidic array apparatus and a method of performing multiple analyses on multiple samples simultaneously, utilizing nanoliter volumes of reagents. It has two embodiments, the first consists of N microfluidic channels, perhaps in a parallel array, in fluidic contact with N' microfluidic channels, perhaps parallel and orthogonal to the N channels, making NxN' contact points where analyses can occur. Contact is controlled by use of membranes, or other dividers, at th
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MicroArray Spot LINEar Regression (MASLINER) software

Summary Signal intensities between samples on a microarrary typically vary by as much as three to four orders of magnitude, frustrating efforts at comparative analysis of samples assayed in parallel. At any given laser power or photomultiplier tube gain (PMTG), some signals will be below detection threshold, while others will have saturated the signal-collection capacity of the scanning device. MicroArray Spot LINEar Regression ("MASLINER") is a software tool that addresses this critical deficie
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Bead-based polymerase colony microarrays and nucleic acid sequencing ("Polony-FISSEQ Beads")

Summary Foundational work of Dr. George Church has enabled the production and use of replicable arrays of polymerase-amplified nucleic acid colonies (so-called "polonies") on semisolid support matrices (see Harvard Case No. 1438). The present invention extends the polony technology to provided miniaturized, high-density, bead-based nucleic acid arrays and improved methods for array-based sequencing of nucleic acids. High feature resolution enables identification and isolation of clonal sequences
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Label-free Detection of Small Molecule-Protein Interactions using Nanowire Nanosensors

Summary This invention describes a method of detecting and quantifying competitive inhibition of a co-factor or substrate binding to an enzyme (or other biological binding partner) utilizing very small amounts of the enzyme and with no labeling of the enzyme or its binding partners. The method can be used to discover new competitive binders (drugs) and measure their binding constants to the enzyme. The inventors have shown that by binding an enzyme to a semiconductor nanowire one can easily dete
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Fully-integrated 2D microelectromagnet coil arrays in silicon for magnetic manipulation and RF imaging of cells and magnetic particles

Summary The invention comprises a novel method and an apparatus to manipulate, segregate, detect and analyze biological samples on a microfluidic CMOS chip. This technique offers sub-micrometer precision and fast processing speeds for a cheap, easily accessible lab-on-a-chip system. The technology is based on a microcoil array, built into the front end of the CMOS chip, which creates varying electric and/or magnetic fields that can be used to manipulate the system. A microfluidic chamber is phot
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A microfluidic differential manometer for cellular-scale hydrodynamics

Summary Background: The development and application of microfluidic systems have increased dramatically in recent years. The systems that typically involve controlled fluid flow through a number of microfluidic channels can provide unique platforms useful in both research and production. Flow through a microchannel is the result of competition between pressure driving the flow and viscous stresses that resist the motion. Soft objects in a microchannels (cells etc.) can modify the resistance s
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Controlled Synthesis of Millimeter-Long Silicon Nanowires with Uniform Electronic Properties

Summary Background Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and semiconducting nanowires (NWs) are attractive building blocks for fabricating numerous functional nanodevices such as FETs, light emitting diodes, laser diodes, and biological sensors. Even though very long SWCNTs have been achieved, dramatic change in electrical properties accompanying the change of chirality and diameter impedes control over their electrical properties along the tubes. Millimeter-long SiNWs and oxide NWs have al
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STORM - Fluorescence Optical Microscopy with 20 nm Resolution

Summary Elevator pitch: For cell biologists who need to image spatial distributions of proteins, protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions, and structural features of subcellular organelles, STORM is a high-resolution optical fluorescent microscopy method developed at Harvard that delivers imaging resolution of 20nm which is more than 10x better than conventional fluorescence microscopy. Unlike other high-resolution approaches, STORM is relatively low in complexity, simple to operate
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STORM - Fluorescence Optical Microscopy with 20 nm Resolution

Summary Elevator pitch: For cell biologists who need to image spatial distributions of proteins, protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions, and structural features of subcellular organelles, STORM is a high-resolution optical fluorescent microscopy method developed at Harvard that delivers imaging resolution of 20nm which is more than 10x better than conventional fluorescence microscopy. Unlike other high-resolution approaches, STORM is relatively low in complexity, simple to operate
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Spatial Light Modulator

Summary This is a fluidic all-optical switch that alters the path of a light beam by controlling the geometry of a reflective surface that is defined by the interface between two fluids. The device has also been described as a "deformable mirror," since it employs conducting polymers and fluids. The key to the device's operation is the interface between the first fluid and the second fluid, which defines a "tunable" reflective surface. By applying an electrical field across the second fluid,
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Electric Microcontact Printing

Summary This invention has utility in data storage and in preparing surfaces to receive other materials in specific predetermined patterns, such as in nanoxerography. A variant of a microcontact-printing stamp lays down a pattern of charges on an electret substrate. The technique can cover a substrate with an area of one square centimeter with multiple charges from 110 nm - 100 micrometers in size in less than 20 seconds, providing an area density of up to 7 Gbits/sq. cm., 140 times larger than
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Vapor Deposition of Silica Nanolaminates

Summary This invention concerns a very efficient atomic layer deposition (ALD) method to make extremely smooth and highly conformal silica thin films with excellent step coverage. As microelectronic circuits become more and more dense, with decreasing distances between active elements and interconnects, better methods of laying down dielectrics as insulation are required to retain performance. This invention is such a better method. Prior art ALD methods, while known to produce highly conformal
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Microlens for Projection Lithography and Method of Preparation Thereof

Summary This invention claims a lithographic technique that can inexpensively produce simple, repetitive micropatterns over large areas of at least several square centimeters. It uses an illuminated array of micrometer-scale lenses to generate an array of optical patterns in an image plane located within micrometer distances from the lens array. A layer of photoresist, placed in the image plane, records the patterns. Microleneses with different sizes, profiles, compositions and indices of refrac
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Microscale Electromagnetic Device

Summary This invention concerns devices and methodology to control the positioning and movement of magnetic and non-magnetic nanoparticles in a fluid with nanometer precision. The devices allow for the independent and simultaneous control of many particles. The devices utilize a grid of current carrying wires or an array of charged posts to create isolated and continuously moveable magnetic field maxima or electic field maxima, respectively, which trap and hold the particles. The devices have ma
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Highly Conformal Tungsten Nitride Thin Films

Summary The invention describes a method of producing a uniform, smooth and conformal coating of tungsten nitride, synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The silver-colored coating (or film) is metallic and a good electrical conductor. Suitable applications in microelectronics include barriers to the diffusion of copper and electrodes for thin film capacitors and field-effect transistors (FETs). Similar processes deposit molybdenum nitride, which is suitable for layers alternating with si
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Nanoscale Electrically Driven Lasers

Summary This invention is the first demonstration of an electrically driven nanoscale laser. A CdS nanowire, comprising a Fabry-Perot cavity, in contact with an electrode distributed along its length or crossing a Si nanowire, lases above a threshold current. Changing the material the nanowire is composed of can change the wavelength. This invention opens up new realms of applications in nanoscale electrical systems - including anywhere LEDs and lasers are used now and many new applications such
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Atomic Layer Deposition Using Metal Amidinates

Summary This invention relates to materials and processes for d eposition of conformal films containing metals on solid substrates. Examples include copper, cobalt and iron metals or their oxides or nitrides. Suitable applications include electrical interconnects in microelectronic and magnetoresistant layers in magnetic information storage devices. Applications Atomic Layer Deposition, semiconductors For Further Information Please Contact the Director of Business Development Bob Benson Emai
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Nanowire-Based Nonvolatile Memory

Summary This invention concerns a novel non-volatile super dense computer memory. The memory is based on ferrooxide material coated inorganic semiconductor nanowires, such as barium titanate coated silicon. The nanowire is used to make a FET composed of the nanowire core in ohmic contact with the source and drain electrodes and a gate in contact with the ferrooxide coating similar to an industry standard MRIS planar FET. A great advantage of the nanowire-based FET of the invention over the prior
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Frictionless Nano-bearing

Summary Micro- and nanofabricated rotation and translation devices usually rely on the possibility to support the moving part on small dimples in order to reduce the contact area with the substrate. Nonetheless, large forces must be applied to overcome the residual friction. Furthermore, results largely vary from sample to sample, because friction strongly depends on the chemical and physical properties of the surfaces (notably, surface roughness and water contamination). The invention relies on
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Carbide Nanomaterials

Summary This invention provides an alternative approach to the synthesis of nanoscale structures based on nanotubes - specifically, tubes that are converted to carbide rods by reaction with volatile oxide and/or halide species. Solid carbide nanorods of TiC, NbC, Fe3C, SiC and BCx have been prepared in high yields with typical diameters ranging between 2 and 30 nm and lengths of up to 20 mm. Studies show that these rods share the properties of their macroscopic counterparts (i.e., magnetism and
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Doped Nanocapsules for Spectrally Selective Uncaging

Introduction Caged compounds are biologically active molecules rendered inactive by a link to a chemical group (the "cage") through a photolabile bond. They are useful in the study of the spatiotemporal dynamics of cellular systems. Currently used caged molecules can only be photoactivated in the UV region. This fact places severe constraints on their application to cellular system, because UV light is potentially damaging to cells and has low penetration depth through tissues. Technology descri
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Nanoimprint Lithography of Organic Functional Materials

Introduction Organic functional materials offer advantages relative to their inorganic analogs including mechanical flexibility and inexpensive fabrication. Similarly, nanoimprint lithography (NIL) has made much progress as an alternative to conventional photolithography that can provide the same parallel processing capabilities without the use of photoresists and the solvents associated with their processing. The basic NIL experiment involves a patterned “stamp” being pressed into a heate
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Weaver for Hybrid Nanomaterials

Introduction Nanomaterials possess unique qualities (e.g. strength, lightweight) that make them desirable for numerous applications. Hybrid structures combine two or more materials to give the final structure qualities of both component materials. By using an electric field in conjunction with capillary action, one can develop nanostructured hybrid materials. Technology description Researchers at the University of Washington have developed a processing technology for nanostructured hybrid materi
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The coanda gripper

Automatic handling of porous and soft materials The Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) is actively seeking companies to license an exciting novel gripping technology for robotic applications. The Coanda gripper opens new opportunities and enables increased quality and cost reduction by realising the possibilities for automatic handling of soft and porous materials such as leather and textiles without damage. APPLICATIONS The coanda gripper is ideal for automatic handling of
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Carbon Membrane

Research into CO2 technology is receiving increased attention due to the rapid increase in concentration the last 100 years, and the problems that it may cause for our environment. This technology is developed to clean biogas to reach fuel quality, but can be used for virtually any CO2 separation process. The membrane is able to regenerate, i.e. burn off contamination. DESCRIPTION NTNU researchers have investigated carbon membranes for use in biogas applications. This membrane is composed of
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Sorption material using Li/Na Zr

Production of hydrogen from natural gas sources (methane) is energy consuming and this technology enables the manufacturing of a sorbent material that has the potential to reduce this energy cost by 10 – 30% depending on process (PSA, SESMR). The material has applications for other areas as long as the CO2 concentration pressure and temperature in the system is in the working range. DESCRIPTION NTNU researchers have investigated various material systems that could improve the SESMR proc
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Fixed Site Carrier Polymer Membrane for high pressures

Research into CO2 technology is receiving increased attention due to the rapid increase in concentration the last 100 years, and the problems that it may cause for our environment. This technology is developed to clean combustion gases of CO2 so that it can be stored or used for enhanced oil recovery and then stored. DESCRIPTION NTNU researchers have investigated polymer membranes and found a material and preparation route that gives a membrane with a power of separation 30 times higher than
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Cold Extrusion of Aluminium

Recycling of aluminium is highly energy efficient compared to making virgin metal, but still the recycling process can be improved upon. By avoiding the problems related to melting of scrap aluminium, even more energy can be saved and more material can be recycled (less loss to oxidation). DESCRIPTION NTNU researchers have investigated cold welding for a number of years, and technology developed for this has spun off a method that is believed to be reliable for transforming aluminium scrap in
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Membrane for the separation of CO2 in medical systems

In the field of medical systems, removing CO2 contributes to a more effective recycling of anaesthesia gas, thereby reducing costs and improving the working environment in the operating room. Gas separation membranes offer a more cost-efficient and less complex alternative to traditional gas separation technologies – largely lime soda filters – used in medical anaesthesia systems. The ideal membrane exhibits high selectivity and high permeability. NTNU researchers have identified and deve
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Rapid synthesis of small silver nanocubes by mediating polyol reduction with a trace amount of sodium sulfide or sodium hydrosulfide

Introduction The impact of metal nanostructures is continually increasing as we become more capable of producing them with well-controlled sizes and shapes for fine-tuning their properties and further development of emerging applications. Silver has been one of the most studied materials for nanostructures because of its superior performance in applications such as plasmonics and surfaceenhanced Raman scattering. Single-crystal nanocubes are an exciting and useful structure particularly for the
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Concentration and Selectivity of Nucleic Acids using a Nano needle

Introduction There is a need in the medical industry for cost-effective, non-invasive methods of sampling biological fluids that often contain bio-markers such as nucleic acids, which can be indicative of disease states; thus, sensitive and specific diagnostic tests to locate bio-markers are needed. Technology description Researchers at the University of Washington have developed highly sensitive and specific method of sampling nucleic acids in peripheral blood using a high aspect ratio nano-nee
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Novel Optical Micro-manipulator and Micro-rotator

Introduction Non-invasive manipulation of micro- and nano-scale objects with rotational capability is attractive for various biomedical applications such as constructing biofims, human tissue engineering, and in vitro fertilization. The technology is also uselful for nano-fabrication such as aligning nanotubes and other nanoscale objects. This is currently done using dielectrophoresis, but this method is limited to coarse orientation control, and fixed electrodes limit the area of bio-constructi
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Shadow Edge Lithography for Fabrication of Nanoscale Structures

Introduction Fabrication of structures at dimensions below 45 nanometers (nm) is a challenge facing commercial semiconductor and emerging nanofluidic devices. The ability to create nanochannels, nanowires, nanodots, and nanogaps will open up a new generation of components for electronic and biotechnology applications. Technology description By combining conventional photolithography with established shadow lithography, researchers at the University of Washington have developed a technique to cre
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Nanomachining of High Aspect Ratio Structures

PPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Micromachining of sensors, detectors and actuators Quantum devices Heat sinks High aspect ratio lithography Medically implanted and surgical devices and sensors Non-destructive microcircuit inspection Packaging and integration of miniaturized components ADVANTAGES: Uses wide range of materials not used in conventional processes Feature sizes as small as 20 nm Aspect ratios potentially as high as several thousand ABSTRACT: Wenbing Yun and colleagues have
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Non-contact Nanoscale Imaging of Liquids and Weakly Bound Material

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Detection of contamination in semiconductor processing Detection of liquid films affecting wetting and adhesion on surfaces Imaging of liquids interacting with organic material in biological systems Characterization of biomaterials: o Hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions o Areas of different ionic concentration ADVANTAGES: First microscope to enable nanoscale imaging of very weakly bound materials on solid or liquid surfaces Minimizes interaction between
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Predictive Methodology and Tools for Nanotoxicology

APPLICATIONS: High throughput and high content nanotoxicity screening Discovering new nanotoxicology profiles and new targets for nanotherapy Nanomaterial toxigenomics and high content imaging analysis ADVANTAGES : Minimizes the need for expensive and controversial animal studies Enables rapid screening and classification of nanomaterials Provides a comprehensive in vitro screening platform for nanomaterials with high sensitivity and high biological resolution Provides a set of comprehe
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Protease-based Cancer Screening

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Early stage screening of cancers via detection of proteases and proteolytic activity in fluid or biopsy samples Prostate cancer detection, and possibly the detection of other protease-related cancers such as breast, colon, kidney, skin, stomach, ovary, and lung cancer ADVANTAGES: Nanoliter sample volumes Reduces false positives for prostate cancer screening Nanomolar sensitivity Fast detection and real-time reaction monitoring Easy to integrate into microfluidic
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Fabrication of Uniform and Spatially Controlled Nanostructures on Substrates

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Ultra-sensitive biological and chemical sensing Microchips Catalysis Nanocomputing and nanoelectronics ADVANTAGES: Uses standard semiconductor fabrication equipment and techniques to produce nanosize semiconductors on a wafer scale Produces smaller feature sizes and is much less time consuming than scanning probe lithography-based techniques, e.g. electron beam lithography Unlike chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods to grow nanostructures, this proce
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Nanoknife: the Precision Cutting of Molecular-scale Materials

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Precise cutting and tailoring of small scale structures and devices Tailoring nanostructures/nanomaterials to create field emitters, quantum dots, nanoscale resonators, electrical interconnects and circuitry, linear and rotational bearings, NEM/MEMS components, scanning probe microscopy tips, and to control nanotube strength or conductivity Removing excess nanomaterial when a single electrical or mechanical contact is desired ADVANTAGES: Uses less expensi
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Defect Elimination in Nanoscale Materials

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Generating defect-free nanotubes or nanowires with superior mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties for devices such as MEMS/NEMS, ICs, and resistors, as well as for ultimate-strength materials Creating sophisticated heterojunctions in a MWNT by refining specific sections and not others ADVANTAGES: Allows control of nanotube diameter, length, defect concentration, and thermal and electrical conductivity Improves the quality of MWNTs and nanowires Easil
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Large Scale Controlled Placement of Nanoparticles and Nanostructure

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Manufacturing MEMS and NEMS devices, e.g. arrays, solar collectors, nanoscale memory and optical switching devices, field emitters, chemical or mass sensors, LEDs, flexible interconnects, mechanical filters, microfluidic pumps and gates ADVANTAGES: Allows precision placement of high quality, preprocessed, or functionalized nanoparticles or nanostructures Simple chemistry integrates into standard silicon and large scale multilayer processes Can be used with a
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Large Scale Controlled Placement of Nanoparticles and Nanostructure

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Manufacturing MEMS and NEMS devices, e.g. arrays, solar collectors, nanoscale memory and optical switching devices, field emitters, chemical or mass sensors, LEDs, flexible interconnects, mechanical filters, microfluidic pumps and gates ADVANTAGES: Allows precision placement of high quality, preprocessed, or functionalized nanoparticles or nanostructures Simple chemistry integrates into standard silicon and large scale multilayer processes Can be used with a
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Synthetic Nano-Low Density Lipoprotein As a Targeted Drug Delivery Vehicle

Drug delivery to tumors with increased LDL-cholesterol requirements and LDL receptor activity, including: brain, colon, prostrate, liver, lung, adrenal, hormone unresponsive breast, leukemia ADVANTAGES: Targets the LDL receptor for selective drug delivery and entry into the lysosome Contains multiple copies of the peptide with the LDL receptor binding domain Easier to work with than native LDL Uses a bifunctional peptide that replaces apoB100, which is difficult to isolate ABSTRACT:
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Transmission Electron Microscope Phase-contrast Enhancement

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: High-contrast electron microscopy, especially for radiation-sensitive materials and weak phase objects like: whole-mount subcellular organelles and thin areas of whole cells isolated biological macromolecules thin crystals thin sections of cells and tissues Single-particle averaging for low molecular weight macromolecules Tomographic imaging of 1.5 – 2 nm features ADVANTAGES: Obtains high contrast images of weak phase objects Provides uniform contrast for
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Thermal Profiling of Nanoscale Circuitry

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Thermal management of small devices and systems, whether semiconductor electronics, nanofluidics, or photovoltaics Design, prototyping and characterization of new circuit models High-resolution measurement at extreme temperatures ADVANTAGES: Does not interfere with device operation Can be used either on individual devices or on batches of devices Can be tailored to applicable temperature range Imaging can be performed by scanning probe, electron, atomic force
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Nanoporous Metal-Inorganic Materials for Storage and Capture of Hydrogen, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Other Gases

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Solid-based storage and capture of hydrogen, carbon dioxide or other gases ADVANTAGES: Promises higher storage capacity than carbon materials, better environmental stability than metal-organic, and faster kinetics than direct use of metal hydrides Demonstrated fabrication of discs 20 inches in diameter ABSTRACT: Arlon Hunt and Samuel Mao and colleagues at Berkeley Lab have developed a new class of hydrogen and carbon dioxide (CO2) storage materials with favor
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Controlling the Structure of Organic/Nanomaterial Solar Cells

APPLICATION OF TECHNOLOGY: Organic/nanomaterial hybrid solar cells ADVANTAGES: Introduces a new parameter for controlling solar cell morphology Improves conversion efficiency by increasing mobility and photon absorption and reducing electron/hole recombination DESCRIPTION: In order to attain an improved blend solar cell design, Berkeley Lab researchers have invented an elegant technique for controlling and tuning morphology beyond the current methods of “shaking and baking.” Using t
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Branched 3-D Inorganic Nanocrystals for Biological Imaging and Electronics Applications

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Biological imaging Electronics production Catalyst production Photovoltaics LCDs Photonic band gap materials Mechanical structural support in polymer films High-surface-area catalysts ADVANTAGES: Can synthesize whole branched inorganic nanocrystals with well-defined connectivities in three dimensions ABSTRACT: Researchers in Paul Alivisatos’s lab at Berkeley Lab have developed a way to create branched inorganic nanocrystals, including tetrapods (with
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Air-stable Nanomaterials for Efficient OLEDs and Solar Cells

Berkeley Lab researchers have developed two approaches for increasing the charge efficiencies of electrodes used to produce flexible organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and solar cells. Both approaches will reduce manufacturing and packaging costs. These technologies have patents pending and are available for licensing or collaborative research. Solvent Processed Nanotube Composites APPLICATIONS : Composites for transparent electrodes and/or light emitting layers used in OLED displays fo
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Thermal Profiling of Nanoscale Circuitry

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: - Thermal management of small devices and systems, whether semiconductor electronics, nanofluidics, or photovoltaics - Design, prototyping and characterization of new circuit models - High-resolution measurement at extreme temperatures ADVANTAGES: - Does not interfere with device operation - Can be used either on individual devices or on batches of devices - Can be tailored to applicable temperature range - Imaging can be performed by scanning probe, electron, at
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High Frequency Abacus Nanotube Resonator

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Filter or amplifier for microwave frequency and RF electronics, e.g. cell phones, personal music devices Mass sensor ADVANTAGES: - Frequencies over 4 GHz - Operates at ambient temperatures and pressures without significant loss of resonance quality - Individually tunable, post-production - Capable of mass detection with molecular resolution (10-18g) ABSTRACT: Various bottom-up and top-down fabrication processes have been used to create resonating NEMS devices
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Nanotube Radio for Communications and Medical Applications

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: - All-in-one radio receiver for cell phones/wireless networks/GPS and other electronic devices - Radio controlled devices that can exist inside the body, e.g. used as drug release triggers, diagnostic instrumentation, interfacing with muscle or brain function - Ultra small hearing aid - RF antenna, tunable pass filter, amplifier, or demodulator ADVANTAGES: - Orders of magnitude smaller than previous radios – can fit inside a living cell - Eliminates wiring/ther
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Boron Nitride Nanotubes with Modified Surfaces

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: - Mechanical reinforcements and composites, e.g. cell phone cases, structural elements of aircraft - Batteries, supercapacitors - Fuel cell components - Transistors, biosensors - Field emission sources - Electronic circuits - Scaffolds for novel chemistries - Deep ultraviolet light emitters ADVANTAGES: - Excellent mechanical and thermal properties - Unusually efficient electrical insulators - Structurally stable and inert to most chemicals - Uniform band gap (5
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Tunable Thermal Link

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: - Electronic and thermal circuit design and operation - Solar energy collection - Heat pumps and internal combustion engines - Hybrid biological/inorganic systems - Phononic information processing - Energy-efficient buildings and appliances, such as refrigerators ADVANTAGES: - Provides adjustable thermal conduction, a thermal analog to rheostats - Can control heat flow in nanoscale or microscale devices and thermal logic devices - Thermal conductance can be cyc
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Method and Apparatus for Adjustably Inducing Biaxial Strain

IB-1910 APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: • Understanding the dynamic changes in the microstructure of thin films as a function of biaxial strain • Inducing biaxial strain in thin films for failure analysis • Improving the reliability and performance of devices such as microactuators, biological microsensors, passivation layers, micro-electronics, data storage, and other film-based devices ADVANTAGES: • Enables uniform radial or biaxial stretching of a thin film by greater than 2%,
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Graphene Membranes for Nanometer-scale Lithography and Single Atom Resolution TEM Imaging

IB-2501, 2502 APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: • Using electron-beam induced deposition (EBID) on graphene membranes to create nano-scale doping patterns for electronic circuits lithography etch masks diffraction gratings (for monochromators, spectrometers, wavelength division multiplexing devices, optical pulse compressing devices and other optical devices) • Investigating the properties of graphene and the dynamics or structure of adsorbed molecules • Support structures for TEM imaging
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Cost-Effective, Laser-Assisted in Situ Nanostructure Fabrication and Processing

JIB-2121 APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Nanoscale fabrication and manufacturing of: • Medical micro- and nano-devices including components for implants • Materials and structures for microelectronics and optoelectronics • Contacts, circuit lines, interconnects, and integrated circuits for semiconductors • Repairing lithographic photomasks, integrated circuits, and other nanoscale components ADVANTAGES: • Highly localized deposition and modification allow: • Direct (in situ
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Bioremediation System for Separating Nanoparticle Waste

IB-2374 APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: • Removes soluble nanoparticles from water by aggregation and precipitation in solution • Can be used to clean up metal, metal oxide, and semiconductor nanoparticles • Inhibits growth of organisms in wastewater • Provides a means for assessing the toxicity of carbon-based nanomaterials ADVANTAGES: • Cost-effective cleanup process for fullerene manufacturers • Can help decontaminate wastewater • Can reduce or prevent biofouling in a
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Au-NP: High-Resolution Biomarkers as Indicators of Nanotoxicity

IB-2419 APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: • Determining the toxicity and biological effects of nanoparticles • Assessing health, occupational, and environmental risks of nanomaterials • Establishing safety standards for the use of nanomaterials in biomedical and clinical applications • Fine-tuning the size of nanomaterials for clinical use ADVANTAGES: • Provides a measurement reference for size-dependent effects of nanoparticles on molecular response and signaling events •
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A Cell Injection System Using Carbon Nanotubes

IB-2323, IB-2333 APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Transfection of foreign molecular-scale cargoes into cells (e.g. DNA, RNA, polymers, dendrimers, nanoparticles, etc.) Insertion of probes into cells to observe physical and biochemical interactions. (e.g. quantum dots-probes) ADVANTAGES: Unlike microinjection, nanoneedle injection does not damage the cell membrane Overcomes other limitations associated with microinjection: Eliminates need for a carrier solvent Not limited to larger
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Molecular Fan

Abstract This invention provides a heat dissipation structure for use in optoelectronic devices. More specifically, this technology is an innovative heat dissipation thick/thin organic-inorganic coating containing active molecularly functionalized vibrational lattice modes designed to act as a molecular cooling fan. The molecular fan is powered directly from the heat generated by the device it is cooling, so it is a powerless heat sink with a spaceless nanoassembly. The "molecular fan" is used
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Enhanced Palladium (Pd) catalyst for hydrogenation and oxidation reactions

Palladium nanoparticle and polymer matrix catalyst that exhibits high substrate conversion and stability TECH FIELD(S) Palladium metal catalyst invention FEATURES Pd catalysts are used in the hydrogenation and oxidation of many industrial products. For example, Linalool (LN), a fragrance and intermediate in the syntheses of Vitamins A, E and K, and D-Glucose, a food additive, are synthesized using a Pd catalyst. Pd nanoparticles are created showing different morphology, particle size,
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Novel High Volume Process for the Production of Silver Nanoparticles with Controlled Shape and Dimension (SilverFluidicsTM)

New Market Opportunity: Silver nanoparticles have applications in a wide number of fields across the electronics, physics, chemistry and biomedical fields. The optical absorption and fluorescence characteristics of the silver nanoparticles are critical to their functionality in all applications. The control of the shape and dimension of the silver nanoparticles, within a tight range, and the ability to programmably change the target size and shape of the silver nanoparticles, within a chemical
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