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Differential Fiber Optical Sensor with Interference Energy Analyzer

A fiber optic sensor, which includes an interference energy analyzer, is used to measure strain and temperature distribution along a test fiber. The sensor includes the following: a plurality of double-Bragg grating elements positioned along a test fiber, a broadband light source which produces a broadband spectral profile that propagates along the test fiber, an optical filter that is able to change the parameters of the broadband spectral profile, an optical reflection detector, a fiber optic
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Fiber Optic Sensor with Transmission/Reflection Analyzer

Fiber optic sensor with transmission/reflection analyzer for detection and localization of a perturbation that generates additional losses in the test fiber. The sensor includes a test fiber having a first port and a second port; a light source for producing a beam of light propagating along the test fiber; a fiber optic beamsplitter having a first port connected to the light source, a second port connected to the first port of the test fiber, and a third and a fourth port; a plurality of reflec
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Fiber-optic Sensing System for Distributed Detection and Localization of Alarm Conditions

An optical fiber sensor system comprising of an optical fiber including plurality of sensitive elements, each sensitive element has characteristic spectral band which in normal undisturbed condition lies in a first wavelength range and, under an influence of some specified condition to be detected, shifts to a second wavelength range; first and second wavelength ranges do not overlap. Means for probing an optical transmission or reflection of the fiber operate within second wavelength range to m
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DETECTION OF POLYMERIC ANALYTES

The present invention relates to methods for detecting polymeric analytes, especially biopolymers, and sensors for detecting the polymeric analytes. The present invention uses magnetic beads in a rotating magnetic field to provide a visual detection of the presence of a polymeric analyte, such as nucleic acids, lipids, polysaccharides, proteins, etc. When a polymeric analyte binds to the magnetic beads, application of a rotating magnetic field to the beads results in unique pinwheel formations.
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APPARATUSES AND METHODS FOR MANIPULATING DROPLETS

Apparatuses and methods for manipulating droplets are disclosed. In one embodiment, an apparatus for manipulating droplets is provided, the apparatus including a substrate, multiple arrays of electrodes disposed on the substrate, wherein corresponding electrodes in each array are connected to a common electrical signal, and a dielectric layer disposed on the substrate first side surface and patterned to cover the electrodes.
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METHOD FOR DETERMINING CENTERS OF MASS FOR LARGE STRUCTURES

The invention relates to a method and a hoisting device for determining centers of mass and mass for large structures. According to the method, a hoisting device is used which has at least two different suspension devices, wherein the suspension devices each comprise a cable element and a suspension point for connection to the object to be measured. The method comprises the following steps: a) suspension of the object (2) by at least two different object points which are connected to at least tw
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METHOD AND DEVICE FOR MEASURING THE CONCENTRATION OF SUBSTANCES IN GASEOUS OR FLUID MEDIA THROUGH OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY USING BROADBAND LIGHT SOURCES

The invention relates to a method and to a device for using partially non-stabilized broadband light sources to accurately measure partially broadband-absorbing substances using referencing measuring cells. In order to create a low-cost, high-resolution, and at the same time fast spectrographic device for measuring concentrations of substances in fluid or gaseous media that is also suitable for harsh environments, the light radiated by the broadband light sources (1) through light guiding optica
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RADIAL PLAIN BEARING WITH OPTIONAL HYDROSTATIC AND/OR HYDRODYNAMIC FUNCTION

The invention relates to a radial plain bearing that comprises a shaft (1), a bearing shell (2) having a cylindrical sliding surface (15) in each case, several lubrication pockets (3) distributed over the circumference, to a device for hydrostatically supplying lubricant, and to a device for hydrodynamically supplying lubricant. The device for hydrostatically supplying lubricant is connected to each lubrication pocket (3). The device for hydrodynamically supplying lubricant is connected to at le
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SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR ENDOSCOPIC ANGLE-RESOLVED LOW COHERENCE INTERFEROMETRY

Fourier domain a/LCI (faLCI) system and method which enables in vivo data acquisition at rapid rates using a single scan. Angle-resolved and depth-resolved spectra information is obtained with one scan. The reference arm can remain fixed with respect to the sample due to only one scan required. A reference signal and a reflected sample signal are cross-correlated and dispersed at a multitude of reflected angles off of the sample, thereby representing reflections from a multitude of points on the
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SELF-PROPELLED SENSOR APPARATUS FOR IN SITU ANALYSIS OF ENVIROMENTAL PARAMETERS

A submersible, self-propelled apparatus for analyzing a component contained in a liquid medium. The submersible, self-propelled apparatus uses kinetic energy of the apparatus to drive a liquid under analysis through the apparatus. This is accomplished by use of a conveyance system that is attached to the analytical system of the apparatus. A sensor system is used to analyze the component collected within the confines of an analysis chamber, a part of the analysis system. The invention also inclu
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Method of performing in situ calibrated potentiometric pH measurements

A device for the precise and accurate potentiometric pH measurements in situ. Embodiments of a potentiometric device according to the invention consist of one or more glass pH-sensitive electrodes connected to a potentiometer. A key feature of the device is that, rather than being calibrated conventionally with buffers, it can be calibrated with an in situ device that measures pH spectrophotometrically. Spectrophotometric pH measurements obtained via sulfonephthalein absorbance measurements are
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COMPRESSIVE SENSING SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR BEARING ESTIMATION OF SPARSE SOURCES IN THE ANGLE DOMAIN

Compressive Sensing (CS) is an emerging area which uses a relatively small number of non-traditional samples in the form of randomized projections to reconstruct sparse or com not pressible signals. Direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation is performed with an array of sensors using CS. Using random projections of the sensor data, along with a full waveform recording on one reference sensor, a sparse angle space scenario can be reconstructed, giving the number of sources and their DOA's. Signal pro
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METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR DETERMINING RELATIVE DISPLACEMENT AND HEADING FOR NAVIGATION

A system and method for determining a location of a mobile object is provided. The system determines the location of the mobile object by determining distances between a plurality of sensors provided on a first and second movable parts of the mobile object. A stride length, heading, and separation distance between the first and second movable parts are computed based on the determined distances and the location of the mobile object is determined based on the computed stride length, heading, and
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INDEPENDENTLY-ADDRESSABLE, SELF-CORRECTING INKING FOR CANTILEVER ARRAYS

An improved method of loading tips and other surfaces with patterning compositions or inks for use in deposition. A method of patterning is described, the method comprising: (i) providing at least one array of tips; (ii) providing a plurality of patterning compositions; (iii) ink jet printing at least some of the patterning compositions onto some of the tips; and (iv) depositing at least some of the patterning compositions onto a substrate surface; wherein the ink jet printing is adapted to prev
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POLYMER PEN LITHOGRAPHY

The disclosure relates to methods of printing indicia on a substrate using a tip array comprised of elastomeric, compressible polymers. The tip array can be prepared using conventional photolithographic methods and can be tailored to have any desired number and/or arrangement of tips. Numerous copies (e.g., greater than 15,000, or greater than 11 million) of a pattern can be made in a parallel fashion in as little as 40 minutes.
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Method of using group III-V ferromagnetic/non-magnetic semiconductor heterojunctions and magnetodiodes

Methods of use of ferromagnetic Group III-V semiconductor/non-magnetic Group III-V semiconductor heterojunctions, with a magnetodiode device, to detect heterojunction magnetoresistance responsive to an applied magnetic field.
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SOLID STATE DEVICE

A system that incorporates teachings of the present disclosure may include, for example, a solid-state selector having a vessel for carrying a liquid medium with one or more molecules surrounded by ions, a solid state conductive structure doped with impurities having one or more through-holes extending between two surfaces of the solid state conductive structure positioned within the liquid medium of the vessel, a voltage source coupled to the solid state conductive structure to selectively stim
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Matched Pulse Stimulated Raman Scattering

Methods and apparatus for selectively driving the vibrations of normal modes of a target molecule into coherence using stimulated Raman scattering. In concert, many vibrations produce a larger anti-Stokes signal than a single vibration. The same illumination does not drive other molecules to have coherent vibrations, so these molecules produce a weaker signal. Target and confounder molecules can be distinguished by pulses that drive many vibrations coherently, with applications in coherent Raman
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DEVICE FOR CALORIMETRIC MEASUREMENT

In one aspect, provided herein is a single crystal silicon microcalorimeter, for example useful for high temperature operation and long-term stability of calorimetric measurements. Microcalorimeters described herein include microcalorimeter embodiments having a suspended structure and comprising single crystal silicon. Also provided herein are methods for making calorimetric measurements, for example, on small quantities of materials or for determining the energy content of combustible material
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Metallic Layer-by-Layer Photonic Crystals for Linearly-Polarized Thermal Emission and Thermophotovoltaic Device Including Same

Metallic thermal emitters consisting of two layers of differently structured nickel gratings on a homogeneous nickel layer are fabricated by soft lithography and studied for polarized thermal radiation. A thermal emitter in combination with a sub-wavelength grating shows a high extinction ratio, with a maximum value close to 5, in a wide mid-infrared range from 3.2 to 7.8 [mu]m, as well as high emissivity up to 0.65 at a wavelength of 3.7 [mu]m. All measurements show good agreement with theoreti
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ADAPTIVE MIRROR AND METHOD FOR THE PRODUCTION THEREOF

The invention relates to an adaptive mirror based on a ceramic substrate comprising a corresponding reflector and piezoelectric actuators, a cooling device being built into the substrate. The invention also relates a method for producing such a mirror. Said mirror can be used for the modulatation or deformation of a high-power laser wave front.
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Vision-aided inertial navigation

This document discloses, among other things, a system and method for implementing an algorithm to determine pose, velocity, acceleration or other navigation information using feature tracking data. The algorithm has computational complexity that is linear with the number of features tracked.
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MP-SWIFT WITH ADIABATIC INVERSION PREPARATION

A magnetic resonance image is produced by means of the SWIFT technique with magnetization preparation using one or two adiabatic inversion pulses.
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PULSE GAP CYCLING FOR IMPROVED SWIFT

A magnetic resonance image is produced by shifting a gap during acquisition of spin data for a specimen. The spin data is generated by a gapped excitation sequence.
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FLEXIBLE SENSORS AND RELATED SYSTEMS FOR DETERMINING FORCES APPLIED TO AN OBJECT, SUCH AS A SURGICAL INSTRUMENT

Methods of manufacturing a flexible force sensor include forming a first sensor part providing a plurality of spaced first electrode plates (80) in an electrically non-conductive material. A second sensor part is also formed and includes a plurality of second electrode plates (82) in an electrically non-conductive material. The second electrode plates (82) are identical to the first electrode plates (80) at least in terms of spacing. The first part is assembled to the second part such that each
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MEASUREMENT SYSTEM FOR THE MULTIDIMENSIONAL AEROSOL CHARACTERIZATION

A method is proposed for characterizing a totality of particles (318). The method can be used in particular for charactering microparticular or nanoparticular aerosols. The method comprises the following steps: a) in a classification step, a class of the totality is selected, wherein the particles (318) of the selected class have a prespecified mobility dm; b) in a counting step, a number N of the particles (318) of the selected class is determined; c) in a charge determination step, a charge Q
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ADAPTIVE MIRROR AND METHOD FOR THE PRODUCTION THEREOF

The invention relates to an adaptive mirror based on a ceramic substrate comprising a corresponding reflector and piezoelectric actuators, a cooling device being built into the substrate. The invention also relates a method for producing such a mirror. Said mirror can be used for the modulatation or deformation of a high-power laser wave front.
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APPARATUS FOR PARTICLE SORTING BY FLUIDIC VECTORING

Disclosed are embodiments of apparatus for sorting particles in a fluid stream by size. In one embodiment of an apparatus for sorting such particles, a housing is provided, which defines a channel for a fluid stream containing particles. A suction channel is also provided, which terminates at a suction port. The suction port is positioned adjacent to the fluid stream. The suction channel may be configured to create a low pressure region and thereby redirect particles in the first fluid stream su
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METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MEASURING MICRORELIEF OF AN OBJECT

An apparatus for determining microrelief of an object periphery, comprising a ring for attachment to the object, a carriage adapted to traverse the ring; a non-contact measurement system mounted on the carriage; an advancement mechanism for incrementally advancing the carriage to a plurality of locations along the path; and a processor configured to receive and process an output of the measurement system. The processor determines a distance from the object periphery to the detector at each of th
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ELECTROMAGNETIC DETECTION APPARATUS AND METHODS

Systems and methods for detecting electromagnetic waves are disclosed. A system for detecting such waves includes a device having a first magnetic layer having a fixed magnetization direction, a second magnetic layer having an unfixed magnetization direction responsive to the electromagnetic wave, and a barrier layer positioned between the first and second magnetic layers. The device may have an impedance dependent on a relative angle between the fixed magnetization direction and the unfixed mag
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ANALYSIS

A method of verifying the performance of a size standard, formed of a plurality of size standard elements, used in a nucleic acid analysis method is provided. The verification is achieved by introducing the size standard to an analysis stage and performing a size based separation on the size standard. The size based separation defines an experimental position for each size standard element. A comparison is made as to whether or not the experimental position for the size standard element correspo
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EMBEDDED MEMS SENSORS AND RELATED METHODS

Embodiments of embedded MEMS sensors and related methods are described herein. Other embodiments and related methods are also disclosed herein.
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Surface Impedance Imaging Methods and Apparatuses

Methods and apparatuses for imaging surface impedance.
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SENSOR DEVICES AND RELATED METHODS

Embodiments of sensor systems and related methods of operating and manufacturing the same are described herein. The sensor systems can be used to detect atomic or subatomic particles or radiation. Other embodiments and related methods are also disclosed herein.
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Apparatuses, Systems, and Methods for Apparatus Operation and Remote Sensing

A method and system for controlling an apparatus including receiving data indicative of an actual state of the apparatus, defining a first viewpoint relative to at least one of the environment and the apparatus, determining a first predicted state of the apparatus at time T, determining a first predicted state of the environment at time T, producing a first virtualized view from the first viewpoint, sending a first control signal to the apparatus after producing the first virtualized view, defin
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Light Scattering Detector

The invention concerns high sensitivity light scattering detection and its application to evaporative light scattering detection in liquid chromatography. The exemplary embodiment includes a detection cell to accept particles suspended in a gas stream and permit a polarized light beam to pass through a trajectory of the particles and gas stream. A sample light detector is disposed to detect light scattered in the detection cell. A light trap accepts the polarized beam after it passes through the
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MASS SENSING DEVICE FOR LIQUID ENVIRONMENT

A device for sensing a mass in a liquid environment including a resonator comprising a piezo layer having a top electrode and a bottom electrode, a sensing surface located adjacent and opposite the top electrode, the resonator and the sensing surface defining a gap therebetween, and a post attached to the sensing surface and the resonator.
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MICROWAVE AND MILLIMETER WAVE IMAGING

A sensor array having a plurality of modulated slots for microwave and/or millimeter wave imaging. The locations of the slots in the array define a spatial domain away from an object for detecting an electric field from the object. Each of the slots outputs a signal representative of the measured field and the location of the slot. A processor decodes the signals and generates an image of the object.
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SUPPORTED MOLECULAR BIOFLUID VISCOSITY SENSORS FOR IN VITRO AND IN VIVO USE

A device and a method for measuring viscosity that includes attaching molecular rotors to a solid surface, exposing the solid surface to a fluid having a viscosity to be measured, and taking optical measurements to determine viscosity. The solid surface is preferably quartz, polystyrene or silicate glass, such as a fiber optic probe or a glass cuvette. The molecular rotors are of the type that includes an electron-donor group and electron-acceptor group that are linked by a single bond so that t
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Liquid Chromatography Detector and Flow Controller Therefor

A flow controller for use with a liquid chromatography detector. The flow controller includes a flow channel comprising an inlet portion, a control channel portion in communication with the inlet portion, and an outlet portion in communication with said control channel portion. The control channel portion has a cross-sectional area smaller than a cross-sectional area of a drift tube of the liquid chromatography detector for channeling the flow of droplets through the smaller cross-sectional area
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DYNAMIC CONTINGENCY AVOIDANCE AND MITIGATION SYSTEM

Systems and methods for allocating resources within an infrastructure, such as an electrical grid, in response to changes to inputs and output demands on the infrastructure, such as energy sources and sinks. A disclosed system includes one or more processors, each having respective communication interfaces to receive data from the infrastructure, the data comprising infrastructure network data, one or more software applications, operatively coupled to and at least partially controlling the one o
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X-RAY CHARACTERIZATION OF SOLID SMALL MOLECULE ORGANIC MATERIALS

The present invention provides, inter alia, methods of characterizing a small molecule organic material, e.g., a drug or a drug product. This method includes subjecting the solid small molecule organic material to x-ray total scattering analysis at a short wavelength, collecting data generated thereby, and mathematically transforming the data to provide a refined set of data.
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METHODS AND SYSTEMS FOR CODED ROLLING SHUTTER

Methods and systems for coded rolling shutter are provided. In accordance with some embodiments, methods and system are provided that control the readout timing and exposure length for each row of a pixel array in an image sensor, thereby flexibly sampling the three-dimensional space-time value of a scene and capturing sub-images that effectively encode motion and dynamic range information within a single captured image.
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SPECTRAL AND TEMPORAL LASER FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS SUCH AS FOR NATURAL AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS

An Advanced Laser Fluorometer (ALF) can combine spectrally and temporally resolved measurements of laser-stimulated emission (LSE) for characterization of dissolved and particulate matter, including fluorescence constituents, in liquids. Spectral deconvolution (SDC) analysis of LSE spectral measurements can accurately retrieve information about individual fluorescent bands, such as can be attributed to chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), phycobiliprotein (PBP) pigments, or chromophoric dissolved organic matt
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METHODS AND PRODUCTS FOR DIAGNOSING CANCER

The present invention relates to methods and kits for the detection and diagnosis of cancer or precancerous conditions. Methylation of specific genes has been identified as indicative of cancer and methods of the invention, in part, relate to the detection of methylation levels in cells as a determination of cancer or a precancerous condition in the cell.
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COMMON-PATH INTERFEROMETER RENDERING AMPLITUDE AND PHASE OF SCATTERED LIGHT

A beam of coherent laser light with linear polarization oriented at 45 degrees to vertical is expanded, and passes through a quarter-wave plate with the fast axis oriented vertically, creating circularly polarized light. The light then passes through a non-polarizing 50/50 beamsplitter. A partial reflector then colHnearly reflects a portion of the beam, which is used as the reference beam. The transmitted light passes through a linear polarizer oriented at 45 degrees to vertical, and is focused
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DEVICE AND METHOD OF SEPARATING AND CONCENTRATING MICROFLUIDIC PARTICLES

A flow unit for microfluidic particles separation and concentration is disclosed. The unit comprises a nozzle segment, a turn segment, and a diffuser segment. The nozzle segment is defined by a first member and a second member, and has an opening through which fluid and microfluidic particles enter. The nozzle segment has a narrowing portion at which the first and second members narrow from the opening to increase momentum of the fluid therethrough. The turn segment is defined by the first membe
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MASS SPECTROMETRY USING LASERSPRAY IONIZATION

Disclosed herein are systems and methods for mass spectrometry using laserspray ionization (LSI). LSI can create multiply-charged ions at atmospheric pressure for analysis and allows for analysis of high molecular weight molecules including molecules over 4000 Daltons. The analysis can be solvent-based or solvent- free. Solvent-free analysis following LSI allows for improved spatial resolution beneficial in surface and/or tissue imaging.
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METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR COMPRESSIVE DOMAIN FILTERING AND INTERFERENCE CANCELATION

A method for compressive domain filtering and interference cancelation processes compressive measurements to eliminate or attenuate interference while preserving the information or geometry of the set of possible signals of interest. A signal processing apparatus assumes that the interfering signal lives in or near a known subspace that is partially or substantially orthogonal to the signal of interest, and then projects the compressive measurements into an orthogonal subspace and thus eliminate
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IMAGE MAPPING SPECTROMETERS

Devices and methods for hyperspectral and multispectral imaging are discussed. In particular, Image Mapping Spectrometer systems, methods of use, and methods of manufacture are presented. Generally, an image mapping spectrometer comprises an image mapping field unit, a spectral separation unit, and a selective imager. Image mapping spectrometers may be used in spectral imaging of optical samples. In some embodiments, the image mapping field unit of an image mapping spectrometer may be manufactur
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ITERATIVE MATRIX PROCESSOR BASED IMPLEMENTATION OF REAL-TIME MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL

A system for embedding real-time Model Predictive Control (MPC) in a System-on-a-Chip (SoC) devices is provided. In the system, a microprocessor is connected to an auxiliary unit or application-specific matrix coprocessor. The microprocessor can control the operation of the MPC algorithm, i.e., carry out the tasks of input/output for the MPC algorithm, initialize and send the appropriate commands to auxiliary unit and receive back the optimal control moves or instructions from auxiliary unit. Th
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NOVEL METHOD FOR ZERO POINT DETECTION

The present invention relates to a method for the simple, objective and accurate determination the zero point or effective zero point of a material, the point of first contact between an indenter tip and the surface of a material. The zero point is determined by using a sensor having a tip and capable of continuous stiffness measurement. By applying a data shift, which insures that the stiffness versus contact parameter curve is linear and goes through the origin of the graph, it is possible to
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Detecting And Measuring Live Pathogens Utilizing A Mass Detection Device

Extremely minute amounts of live pathogens are rapidly detected using a piezoelectric cantilever sensor. A single pathogen is detectable in about 30 minutes. Pathogen-specific antibodies are immobilized on the sensor surface. The sensor is exposed to a medium that potentially contains the target pathogen. When target pathogens are contained in the medium, both dead and live pathogen cells bind to the immobilized antibody on the sensor surface. The attached target pathogen cells are exposed to a
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DETECTION AND MEASUREMENT OF MASS CHANGE USING AN ELECTROMECHANICAL RESONATOR

A change in impedance of a electromechanical resonating sensor is utilized to detect and/or measure a change in mass accumulated on the sensor. The impedance is monitored at a fixed frequency. The fixed frequency may be at or near the resonance frequency of the sensor. In various configurations, the sensor comprises a quartz crystal microbalance sensor or a piezoelectric cantilever sensor.
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HIGH-SPEED AND LARGE-SCALE MICROSCOPE IMAGING

An imaging system generates an image of a specimen by acquiring images of individual portions of the specimen and combining the images to form a composite image. The system moves the specimen to a set of predetermined locations such that all portions of the specimen are captured into images. At each location, images are heuristically acquired at a different distance from an acquisition lens, and the image with the sharpest focus is selected. The selected images are combined to form a composite i
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DETERMINATION OF DISSOCIATION CONSTANTS USING PIEZOELECTRIC MICROCANTILEVERS

A method for determining the dissociation constant (Kd) by plotting resonance frequency shift as a function of time for various target analyte concentrations. From this graph, the fraction of saturation, i.e. equilibrium fraction of bound binding sites out of all available binding sites on the sensor surface may be estimated by taking the ratio of the equilibrium resonance frequency shift at a selected concentration to the equilibrium frequency shift of the sensor. The dissociation constant is t
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PROTEIN MICROARRAYS FOR MASS SPECTROMETRY AND METHODS OF USE THEREFOR

The present invention relates to the use of mass spectrometry to analyze arrays. The present invention provides methods for characterizing solutions comprising one or more proteins using arrays and mass spectrometry. The arrays of the present invention are coated with porous gold and utilize hydrophobic and hydrophilic self-assembled monolayers.
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METHODS AND RELATED DEVICES FOR CONTINUOUS SENSING UTILIZING MAGNETIC BEADS

A fluidic device including a main channel, wherein a first inlet fluidly connects to an upstream end of the main channel and introduces magnetic beads into a first side of the main channel A second inlet is fluidly connected to the upstream end of the main channel and introduces a sample stream into a second side of the main channel A first magnet disposed adjacent to the second side of the main channel pulls the magnetic beads towards a sidewall of the second side, and thus into the sample stre
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DETECTING SPECIES IN A DILUTE MEDIUM

Method and apparatus (10) for detecting a species in a dilute medium, the species having a spectral feature, the apparatus comprising: a beam source (20) arranged to generate a first laser beam and a second laser beam coherent with each other, and having a matching chirp pattern. Beam guide arranged to pass at least the first laser beam through the dilute medium; a beam mixer arranged to mix the first and the second laser beams to form a mixed beam. Detector (80) arranged to detect, during the c
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BUMP ARRAY DEVICE HAVING ASYMMETRIC GAPS FOR SEGREGATION OF PARTICLES

The disclosure relates to obstacle array devices (also known as bump array devices) for separating populations of particles by size. Improvements over previous obstacle array devices are realized by causing the fluid velocity profile across gaps between obstacles to be asymmetrical with respect to the plane that bisects the gap and is parallel to the direction of bulk fluid flow. Such asymmetry can be achieved by selecting the shape(s) of the obstacles bounding the gap such that the portions of
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AFFINITY CONTROL OF TAGGING NOISE

Analytical methodology is disclosed in which a trace analyte in a sample is tagged to increase its signal strength for measurement, and an affinity substance is used at least after the tagging step (late in the method) to separate the tagged analyte from tagging noise, wherein the affinity substance is directed at the reactive part of the tag, at the reagent-reacted part of the tag, or at a nonreactive part of the analyte. This method includes the case where exposure of the sample to the affinit
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INTENSIFIED NEUTRAL LOSS TAGS AND USE THEREOF IN MASS SPECTROMETRY

Ultrasensitive detection of a chemical substance (analyte) by mass spectrometry is achieved by employing a molecular tag that yields an intense parent ion and then an intense daughter ion in a multi-stage mass spectrometer.
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RAPID GAS-PHASE ISOTOPIC LABELING FOR ENHANCED DETECTION OF PROTEIN CONFORMATIONS

A mass spectrometer (MS) that is adapted to allow rapid gas- phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) labeling of ions in one or more traveling wave ion guides (TWIGs) with or without ion mobility separation. The addition of isotopic labeling by gas- phase HDX offers a sensitive alternative dimension for conformational detection, which enables high resolution detection of gaseous conformations based on shape and surface reactivity. Gas-phase, isotopic HDX labeling, or "curtain" labeling, can be p
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ROTARY FROG SYSTEMS AND METHODS

Systems and methods determining amplitude and phase versus frequency of an incoming beam of pulsed laser light. An apparatus is set to an initial configuration to split the incoming beam into two beams of substantially equal intensity, delay one of the two split beams for a delay period t and recombine the two split beams to form a recombined beam. The recombined beam shines onto a thick SHG crystal at rotation angle ? and light emitted from the thick SHG crystal is detected as data and stored w
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DEPTH AND LATERAL SIZE CONTROL OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL IMAGES IN PROJECTION INTEGRAL IMAGING

A method disclosed herein relates to displaying three-dimensional images. The method comprising, projecting integral images to a display device, and displaying three-dimensional images with the display device. Further disclosed herein is an apparatus for displaying orthoscopic 3-D images. The apparatus comprising, a projector for projecting integral images, and a micro-convex-mirror array for displaying the projected images.
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METHOD AND SYSTEM OF ARRAY IMAGING

The present invention relates to a method and system of array imaging that extends or maximizes the longevity of the sensor array by minimizing the effects of photobleaching. The imaging system has a light source, a variable exposure aperture, and a variable filter system. The system extends the longevity of sensors by (1) using the variable exposure aperture to selectively expose sections of the sensor array containing representative numbers of each type of sensor, and/or (2) using the variable
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Method for improving positioning accuracy of table, involves guiding-away gas from direct surrounding of gas bearing elements over selective influence of flow conditions in area surrounding sliding su

The method involves generating bearing force of gas bearing elements (1) through supplying of compressed gas for formation of a pressurized cushion between a sliding surface (4) and a counter surface (7). The gas is guided-away from the direct surrounding of the bearing elements over selective influence of flow conditions in an area surrounding the sliding surface. A sealing system comprising a channel (9) and a sealing surface (10) is arranged around the sliding surface, where the sealing surfa
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HIGH THROUGHPUT MULTICHANNEL READER AND USES THEREOF

The present invention relates generally to the field of high content screening of particles, e.g., cells in a flow cytometric system. In particular, the present invention relates to devices, methods and systems to obtain line-scan images of particles, e.g., cells, of a plurality of different samples simultaneously, where the line-scan images can be used to identify cells based on at least one of a variety of phenotypic characteristics such as shape, asymmetry, and intracellular information for c
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SPECT CAMERA

Systems and methods for providing improved detectors for use in SPECT cameras. The improved detectors use pinhole apertures and surfaces calculated to provide improved sensitivity and resolution. In some embodiments, the detectors have non-planar surfaces. In some embodiments, the surfaces are spherical, conical, parabolic, or other non-planar forms.
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METHOD AND CAMERA FOR THE REAL-TIME ACQUISITION OF VISUAL INFORMATION FROM THREE-DIMENSIONAL SCENES

The invention relates to a method for calculating the focal stack associated with an object space from the plenoptic function thereof, using a sum transform along the length of constrained planes in discrete hypercubes, enabling the calculation time to be considerably reduced. The invention also relates to a method for increasing the resolution of the focal stack obtained. In addition, the invention relates to two methods for the real-time recovery of the depths and moduli and phases of the comp
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METHOD FOR SEPARATING AND CLASSIFYING PARTICLES SUSPENDED IN A FLUID

The invention relates to a method for separating and classifying particles suspended in a fluid, by applying a periodic vorticity field. According to said method, the particles are separated and, depending on the specific conditions of application of the vorticity field, the particles are classified according to their inertia.
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METHOD OF DETECTION

A method of detection of an analyte in which (i) a protein comprising a moiety capable of binding the analyte and a fluorescent label is contacted with a medium suspected of containing the analyte; (ii) the analyte, if present, binds to the moiety; (iii) the protein is subjected to incident radiation to excite the protein and induce intrinsic emission therefrom; whereby the intrinsic emission from the protein is converted through Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) into emission from t
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THIN-FILM RADIATION DETECTOR

A method of operating a thin-film radiation detector such as a superconducting single photon detector comprising the steps of selecting a first polarization state of an incident beam of radiation; and directing the resulting first polarized beam of radiation at the thin- film detector surface such that the beam axis is oblique to the plane of the detector surface and the first polarized beam has an s-polarization state relative to the absorption surface of the detector. A thin-film radiation det
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MICROFLUIDIC CHIP DESIGN COMPRISING CAPILLARIES

The invention provides a microfluidic device wherein capillaries are connected to the microfluidic device by a deformable penetrable substance.
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Method and Device for Measuring Magnetic Fields

The invention relates to a method which makes use of the Zeeman effect for measuring magnetic fields, by way of dark resonances. According to said method, a measuring cell (14) is exposed to the magnetic field (B) to be measured and contains the atoms of a measuring medium in a buffer gas, a radiation source (11) being provided for exciting the atoms by radiation and being connected to the modulation frequency generator and emitting electromagnetic radiation with different frequencies. A frequen
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SENSOR FOR MEASURING OF BASIC GASES

A sensor (100) for quantifiable measurement of basic gases features a substrate (110), electric contacts (120) and also either one sensor layer which consists of a mixture of at least two sensor materials, or at least two sensor layers which each consist of one sensor material. The sensor materials of the sensor layer(s) (130, 131) consist of polymers whose particular electrical resistance change differently when they are exposed to a change in concentration of a basis gas and/or of relative hum
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OPTICAL ARRANGEMENT FOR ELLIPSOMETRY

In an optical arrangement (1) for measuring spectroscopic properties of a sample located at a sample position (2), a light bundle is directed at the sample position at an adjustable angle of incidence (f) by means of a first rotating mirror (7) and a first arc-shaped main mirror (8), and the light reflected from the sample position is fed to a measurement by means of a second arc-shaped main mirror (18) and a second rotating mirror (17). The first and second main mirrors (8, 18) have a mirror su
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ANALYSING SPECTRAL DATA FOR THE SELECTION OF A CALIBRATION MODEL

The invention relates to a method of analyzing spectral data for the selection of a calibration model, relating spectra of a substance to a physical or chemical parameter of the substance, over a predetermined range of the physical or chemical parameter, comprising the steps: a) capturing spectral data of the substance with respective values of the physical or chemical parameter over the predetermined range, b) creating a plurality of calibration models using the captured spectral data in depend
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PHOTOSPECTROMETER

Impinging electromagnetic radiation generates pairs of majority and minority carriers in a substrate. A spectrometer device for detection of electromagnetic radiation impinging on a substrate comprises means for generating, in the substrate, a majority carrier current; at least one detection region for collecting generated minority carriers, the minority carriers being directed under influence of the majority carrier current; and means for determining spectral information based on minority carri
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METHOD FOR IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF HIGH-PRESSURE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

The present invention relates to a method for improving the efficiency of high-pressure liquid chromatography columns in HPLC. More specifically, the method of the present invention provides a high-pressure liquid chromatography column being divided into a multitude of shorter separation segments, the shorter separation segments being serially connected with cooling segments. By applying an active controlled cooling action on the fluid flow passing through the cooling segments the separation eff
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A CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION DEVICE WITH VARIABLE LENGTH AND A METHOD FOR ITS USE

The present invention enables the automatic change of the number of segments involved in a coupled chromatographic column system, without the need to physically detach and attach the individual segments. The present invention further relates to a method for performing method development in chromatography and for selecting the optimal separation conditions to perform a chromatographic separation using the system of the present invention.
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METHOD FOR OPERATING A MICROMIRROR DEVICE WITH ELECTROMECHANICAL PULSE WIDTH MODULATION

The present invention is related to a method for operating by pulse width modulation a micromirror device (50) comprising the steps of: - providing a micromirror device comprising at least one micromirror element (10) being electrostatically deflectable around a rotation axis (30) between at least two positions being a first position and a second position, by applying voltage signals to at least four electrodes (21, 22, 23, 24) controlling said micromirror element, the first and second electrode
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ULTRASENSITIVE MAGNETIC SENSOR BASED ON GIANT FARADAY ROTATION

A high-resolution sensor of magnetic field sensor system and materials for use in such a system are described. The sensor systems measure a magnetic field using inorganic and/or organic magneto-optically active materials, e. g. polymer material and have an interferometer based on Faraday rotation. The polymer material is preferably in the form of a film. The polymer material has an optical property that is sensitive to the magnetic field, e g the Faraday rotation effect. The present invention al
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QUANTIFICATION OF HYDROPHOBIC AND HYDROPHILIC PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS

A non-destructive and simple analytical method is provided which allows in situ monitoring of plasma damage during the plasma processing such as resist stripping. If a low-k film is damaged during plasma processing, one of the reaction products is water, which is remained adsorbed onto the low-k film (into pores), if the temperature is lower than 100-150 C. A plasma (e.g. He) that emits high energy EUV photons (E>20 eV) which is able to destruct water molecules forming electronically excited oxy
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THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF THIN FILMS

A test structure is presented to measure thermal conductivity of thin film materials based on the Seebeck effect. Furthermore, a method for the fabrication of the test structure and a method for measuring the thermal conductivity with the test structure is presented. The test structure is fabricated by surface micromachining technology having the advantage that it can be easily monolithically integrated together with VLSI circuits and MEMS devices.
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DEVICE FOR MODIFYING AND/OR CONTROLLING THE STATE OF POLARISATION OF LIGHT

The present invention concerns a device for modifying and/or controlling the state of polarisation of light, said device comprising a light impervious surface structure provided with at least one through hole or aperture and with a surface topography comprising one or several surface features which are arranged periodically or quasi-periodically around said hole or aperture or around each of said holes or apertures and designed to interact in a resonant manner with the transmitted light. Device
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Method of generating digital test objects

The method involves defining a three dimensional scene in a continuous three dimensional space. The three dimensional scene is discretized by volume elements i.e. voxel, using a balancing mechanism i.e. binary mechanism. The discretized three dimensional scene is segmented by creating two dimensional cuts of the three dimensional scene. Information describing the two dimensional cuts, obtained in a format i.e. digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) format, read by a medical imagi
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METHOD FOR CHANGING THE DIRECTION OF MAGNETIZATION IN FERROMAGNETIC LAYER

The invention relates to a method for changing the direction of magnetization in a top layer (2) including a ferromagnetic material, characterized in that: a) the top layer (2) is placed over a bottom layer (3) that is not magnetically coupled to the top layer (2), the bottom layer (3) including a material capable of producing or not producing, according to whether the temperature of said material is greater than or equal to a threshold value, a radiated magnetic field capable of changing the di
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SPECTROGRAPH WITH AN ELLIPTICAL MIRROR

The invention relates to a spectrograph comprising a means (3) for focussing radiation emitted by a sample illuminated by a source of radiation, and a means (4) for diffracting the focussed radiation, in which, according to the invention, the diffraction means includes a flat diffraction network with a variable pitch, and the focussing means includes an elliptical mirror, the sample being placed in one of the focal points (F1) of an ellipsoid surface defining the elliptical mirror.
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METHOD FOR LONGITUDINALLY STABILIZING AN OPTICAL CAVITY

The invention relates to a method for stabilizing, along the distance (L) between two mirrors (3, 4), an optical cavity (2), wherein said method comprises the steps of: injecting, into the cavity, an incident light beam in the form of a frequency comb; observing the spectrum of the light transmitted or reflected by the cavity using a photodiode (9) having at least two sensitive areas and arranged relative to the transmitted or reflected light such that, when the spectrum is centered, the two sen
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MAGNETIC RESONANCE METHOD USING A PHASE-MODULATED PULSE TRAIN WITH A CONSTANT SMALL FLIP ANGLE

The method for performing magnetic resonance measurements on a sample according to the present invention, in which a first predetermined number of pulse trains each comprising a second predetermined number of pulses spaced by a predetermined time interval (?t) are applied for excitation each having a constant amplitude, is characterized in that the pulse trains are modulated by a bent function, wherein after each pulse data is sampled. Preferably a square number m 2 of pulses is generated being
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ULTRA-COMPACT APERTURE CONTROLLED DEPTH FROM DEFOCUS RANGE SENSOR

The present application teaches an implementation of an ultra-compact range sensor based on aperture varying passive depth from defocus (DFD). An embodiment of the present application teaches a range sensor, which is a fast LCD matrix that allows the acquisition of a plurality of images with variable focal levels by changing the size of the aperture of a typical lens. The range sensor of the present application may be implemented in mobile devices or used in the construction of medical endoscope
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ELECTROCHEMICAL FLOW CELL DETECTOR

Electrochemical Flow Cell Detector comprising a chamber (1 ) configured to receive a first electrolyte solution; a membrane (2) comprising a second electrolyte in contact with the chamber, and in contact with the first electrolyte solution when present in the chamber; a first electrode (3) in fluid contact with the second electrolyte solution through a third electrolyte solution (4); a second electrode (5) in contact with the chamber; wherein the second electrode (5) forms part of the chamber wa
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ANALYSIS SYSTEM AND METHOD

An analysis system has a sample region (1), a source of excitation radiation (3), and a wavelength-inspecific beam splitter (13) to deliver some of the excitation radiation to a sample. A dispersion element (2023) disperses returned radiation from the sample to be analysed that has been transmitted by the beam splitter. A selectively switchable micromirror device (2035) receives returned radiation that has been dispersed by the dispersion element. A detector (2043) detects radiation that is rece
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Novel Assay

The invention relates to a translational recoding reporter construct comprising: a first fluorescent protein coding sequence; a second fluorescent protein coding sequence encoding a fluorescent protein different from the first fluorescent protein; and a linker sequence interposed between the first and second fluorescent protein coding sequence; wherein the a first fluorescent protein coding sequence and the second fluorescent protein coding sequence are out-of-frame with respect to each other bu
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AUTO-SYNCHRONOUS FLUORESCENCE DETECTION METHOD AND APPARATUS

An apparatus for time-gated fluorescence or luminescence detection includes gating means (206) arranged to alternately permit light from an excitation source (242) to be directed to a sample (235) along a first communication path (231, 232), and then permit light emitted from the sample to be directed to a detector (246) along a second communication path (237, 238) while blocking the first communication path (231, 232): The gating means (206) may comprise a single chopper wheel or apertured disc
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Detection and Quantification of Polypeptides Using Mass Spectrometry

The invention relates to the detection and quantification of polypeptides using mass spectrometry. Specifically, the invention provides a method for testing whether a target polypeptide is present in a sample of a set of polypeptides, a method for deriving a value for distinguishing polypeptides of a set of polypeptides from each other, a database containing values for distinguishing each polypeptide of a set of polypeptides from each other, and an apparatus for configuring a mass scan of a mass
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TIME GATED FLUORESCENT FLOW CYTOMETER

An apparatus (10) for detecting a particle (12) labelled with a fluorescent marker is disclosed. The apparatus (10) has a flow cell (16) being adapted to contain a fluid (14) in which the particle (12) is suspended. A light source (28) is operatively coupled to the flow cell (16) and arranged for emitting a stimulating light (28) which is effective in optically exciting the fluorescent marker (12) for emitting a fluorescent light (30). The apparatus (10) also includes a spatial filter (50) acros
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QUANTITATIVE AND SELF-CALIBRATING CHEMICAL ANALYSIS USING PAPER-BASED MICROFLUIDIC SYSTEMS

A method of determining the concentration of a test fluid sample using a paper-based microfluidic system having a plurality of hydrophilic testing zones, including: a) depositing said test fluid sample on at least one said testing zone; b) depositing a plurality of standard fluid samples or reactives of differing known concentrations on other said testing zones; c) introducing an indicator solution to each said test zone to thereby react with the deposited fluid sample and result in a colour int
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THREE-DIMENSIONAL MICROFLUIDIC SYSTEMS

A three-dimensional microfluidic system including: at least one hydrophilic thread along which fluid can be transported through capillary wicking; and at least one hydrophobic substrate for supporting the hydrophilic thread. A method of transporting and mixing a plurality of fluids within a microfluidic system including at least two hydrophilic threads and a hydrophobic substrate having at least two zones, each of the hydrophilic threads supported on a different hydrophobic substrate zone, inclu
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SHUTTTER AND METHOD OF USE

A shutter for a beam of electromagnetic radiation, such as that provided by a synchrotron, said shutter comprising at least one voice coil having a radiation attenuating head, wherein actuation of the voice coil moves the head on a linear trajectory between a first position wherein the beam of electromagnetic radiation is unattenuated and a second position wherein the beam of electromagnetic radiation is attenuated.
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MONITORING SAMPLE VIA QUANTUM DECOHERENCE RATE OF PROBE

A property of a sample is monitored by providing a quantum probe having a quantum state in proximity to the sample, and detecting the quantum decoherence rate of the quantum probe, where said quantum decoherence rate is influenced by the property of the sample. The quantum probe may comprise one or more nitrogen vacancy centres in a diamond material, mounted on a scanning tip, with the decoherence rate detected via emitted fluorescence photons. The decoherence rate may be imaged simultaneously w
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SPECTROSCOPIC DETECTION SYSTEM AND METHOD

A system and method for spectroscopic detection of a loss in a resonator cavity. The system comprises: a tunable laser source for generating a laser beam; a frequency locking system for either locking the frequency of the laser beam to a resonance of the resonator cavity or locking the length of the cavity to the frequency of the laser beam; a first modulation element for modulating the laser beam at a first modulation frequency to generate a modulated laser beam; an input coupler adapted for di
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METHOD OF OPTIMISING THE SENSITIVITY OF A SURFACE PLASMON ELLIPSOMETRY APPARATUS

A method of optimising the sensitivity of surface plasmon ellipsometry(SPE) apparatus used to analyse a surface comprising a conducting film, the method comprising calculating a sensitivity map of SPE for the film, the sensitivity map comprising data defining variations in sensitivity of said SPE apparatus with angle of incidence and polarisation angle of polarised light incident on said film for analysis by said SPE apparatus, and using said sensitivity map to configure said SPE apparatus with
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SENSOR ELEMENT

A sensor element comprises first and second channel devices and at least one reflector. Each of the first and second channel devices is directed towards the reflector(s) and is able to transmit radiation along its length towards the reflector, and to transmit reflected radiation away from the reflector. At least one of the channel devices is separated from the reflector. The first and second channel devices are arranged so that radiation may not be transmitted between the channel devices without
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MULTIPLEXED ANALYTE CONCENTRATION MEASUREMENT

Disclosed is a method of multiplexed concentration measurement of one or more analytes in a sample by means of electrical impedance measurements, the method comprises the steps of : providing the sample; providing a plurality of subsets of particles with capture molecules specific for at least one of the analytes, where the particles in each subset are distinguishable from the particles in the other subsets; mixing the sample with the subsets of particles, wherein the method further comprises th
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OPTICAL DISPLACEMENT SENSOR

The present invention relates to a compact and inexpensive optical displacement sensor that does not require accurate control of the distance to the object. A repetitive optical structure is utilized for formation of a repetitive optical signal emitted by an illuminated moving object. The repetitive optical structure is illuminated by the light source for formation of a fringe pattern similar to Laser Doppler Anemometry, and/or, an object is illuminated by the light source and the repetitive opt
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NON-INVASIVE POLARIMETRIC APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR ANALYTE SENSING IN BIREFRINGENT MEDIA

A noninvasive polarimetric apparatus used to measure levels of a substance in a sample in the presence of dynamically changing sample birefringence is provided. A polarization system generates multiple states of polarized light which interact with the sample. An analyzer system receives a signal from the sample and generates a secondary signal. This signal is detected and then processed to measure levels of a substance in a sample that may be have time varying birefringent components.
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IMPROVING THE PHOTOSTABILITY AND/OR CONTROL OF THE FLUORESCENCE INTENSITY OF FLUORESCENT DYES

The present invention relates to a process for improving the photostability and/or control of the fluorescence intensity of a fluorescent dye wherein a fluorescent dye is admixed with a redox buffer comprising at least one reducing agent and/or at least one oxidizing agent and/or at least one reducing-oxidizing agent, and also to a fluorescent dye composition comprising a fluorescent dye and a redox buffer comprising at least one reducing agent and at least one oxidizing agent or at least one re
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Gyroscopic controllable moment generator adapted for use onboard a marine vessel

A gyrostabiliser system is provided comprising: at least two flywheels 14,14', each having a respective spin axis; a first drive system 18,18', adapted to rotate the at least two flywheels 14,14', about their respective spin axes; at least two gimbal supports 10,10' each being arranged, in use, to mount a respective flywheel 14,14', to a fixed base 4, each flywheel 14,14' being rotatably mounted in a respective gimbal support 10,10', each gimbal support 10,10', being rotatably mountable to the f
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RADIATION DETECTOR

An apparatus for determining a direction to a source of radiation, e.g. a gamma-ray or neutron source at a range of 100 m or more, is described. The apparatus is rotatable, e.g. about a vertical axis, and comprises a plurality of radiation shields and radiation detectors. The radiation shields are separated from one another by gaps to form an alternating series of radiation shields and gaps around a closed path within the plane of rotation for the apparatus. The radiation detectors are arranged
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AN APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR LASER IRRADIATION

An apparatus for laser irradiation comprising: a housing wherein the housing defines at least a portion of a test volume; a first conduit configured to provide a first flow of gas into the test volume; a second conduit configured to remove the first flow of gas from the test volume; a third conduit configured to provide a second flow of gas; and a flow controller configured to provide a region of increased flow impedance between the first conduit and the third conduit so that the first flow of g
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ANALYTE DETECTION SYSTEM

There is disclosed an analyte detection system comprising: and analyte analysis stage through which a condensed phase containing the analyte flows; nebuliser means into which the output of the analyte analysis stage is introduced, the nebuliser means producing an analyte containing aerosol; a flame based analyte detector; and means for introducing the analyte containing aerosol into said flame based anylte detector; in which the condensed phase produces no or negligible response from flame based
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MEASUREMENT OF MASS FLOW

A system and method for measuring mass flow of a non-gaseous phase (4) of material such as a solid particulate are described. The material flows through a conduit of which a section (14) is heated or cooled. One temperature sensor (6) is provided upstream of this section and at least another temperature sensor (7, 8) is provided downstream of it. These temperature sensors are adapted to measure the temperature of material in the non-gaseous phase directly. The section is heated or cooled for a f
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Strain Image Display Systems

A method of displaying strain image data for an imaged object, the method comprising: capturing strain image data defining deformation of said object over an imaged region of said object; processing said strain image data to determine local image quality data, said local image quality data comprising a measure of the quality of said strain image data varying over said imaged region; and displaying a representation of said strain image data for said imaged region of said object, using said local
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PHASE RETRIEVAL AND PHASE HOLOGRAM SYNTHESIS

A method of retrieving phase information (309) from input intensity information (362), representative of a target image, in which a Fourier transform (350) is performed on data (301, 303), and the result (305) used in forming a phase estimate (309), the phase estimate being inverse Fourier transformed (356), thereby producing magnitude (311) and phase (313) replay, and wherein not only is the phase reply component (313) but also data derived from the magnitude replay component (311), iteratively
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COMPUTATIONAL METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PREDICTING POLYPEPTIDE AGGREGATION OR SOLUBILITY

A prediction method for predicting the effect of an amino acid modification on the rate of aggregation (solubility) of a reference polypeptide comprising: calculating the difference in hydrophobicity ([Delta]Hydr) between the reference polypeptide and a modified polypeptide, calculating the difference in [beta]-sheet propensity ([Delta][Delta]Gcoil-[alpha]+[Delta][Delta]G[beta]-coil) between the reference polypeptide and modified polypeptide, calculating the difference in charge ([Delta] Charge)
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Method for extending the life of chemical sensors

The method is described for extending the life of chemical sensors for determining individual components in the gas phase, the contact between fluoride-ion conductor and metal electrode being heated once or repeatedly under the conditions of the gas to be measured briefly to temperatures between 300 and 600 DEG C. Heating may be carried out by electrical resistance heating, the metal electrode being itself used as the heating resistor. With the method according to the invention, simple activatio
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Non-Intrusive Pressure/Multipurpose Sensor and Method (MSC-22738)

Abstract: This technology is a device for non-intrusively measuring the properties of a flowing fluid. The device measures pressure, mass flow rate, density, and other variables. The device does not penetrate the vessel wall of the fluid being measured and, as a result, does not affect the fluid’s flow dynamics or react chemically with the fluid. This technology could be used in a variety of fluid measurement applications. Compared to existing pressure-measuring devices, which are mainly intr
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CCD System Technology for Extremely Low Background Observations (GSC-13906)

Abstract: The charge-coupled device (CCD) detector provides improved performance for lowbackground observations.
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Capacitance Probe for Fluid Flow and Volume Measurements (MSC-22544)

This technology replaces mechanical fluid flowmeters with an electronic probe that is small and portable. The probe’s main use is to measure the volumetric rate of flow of a liquid. The probe feeds data directly to a portable computer or workstation, so analog measurements are immediately converted to digital records. Under appropriate conditions, this probe can also identify liquids.
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Web Growth of Silicon Carbide Surfaces (TOP3-00152)

Abstract: This Technology Opportunity sheet describes processes to control the location of, or eliminate dislocation defects (including micropipes) in silicon carbide (SiC) single-crystal semiconductor materials. These technologies expand the capabilities of the technology described in TOP3–00149.
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Electroplating of Hard Glassy Metals (MFS-31377)

Abstract: Developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), this technology is a novel method for electroplating ultra-high-strength glassy metals—nickel-phosphorous and nickelcobalt- phosphorous—in a variety of alloys with different properties. Traditionally, these metals are deposited onto substrates via electroless deposition. NASA Marshall’s technology combines the material properties associated with electroless deposition with the many process advantages afforded by electroplati
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New PMR Polyimide End Caps to Improve High-Temperature Oxidation Resistance (TOP3-153)

Abstract: This patented technology utilizes modified nadic end caps to improve the high-temperature oxidation resistance of PMR (polymerization of monomeric reactants) polyimides, without adversely affecting the processibility of PMR polyimide components or their high-temperature strength.
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Compact, Stiff, Remotely-Activated Quick Release Clamp (MSC-22722)

Abstract: This invention is a high-strength, lightweight mechanical clamp that allows for rapid and remote release. This compact clamp provides a high holding force, yet requires only a minimal force for release.
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Precision Imaging System Grids (MFS-31546)

Abstract: NASA’s high-precision, low-cost imaging system grid fabrication process allows manufacturers to reduce costs while achieving the superior imaging system accuracy and performance needed in most applications. These grids are being used by NASA in Fourier imaging systems to image X-rays, gamma rays, and neutrons.
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Polymer Membranes for High-Temperature PEM Fuel Cells and Solid Polymer Batteries (TOP3-178)

Abstract: These materials form dimensionally, mechanically, and thermally stable films with good ion conduction over a wide range of temperatures. NASA Glenn's ORMOSILs are made from relatively low cost materials resulting in an overall cost reduction of 10 to 20 times that of the current state-of-the art fuel cell membrane. The synthesis is versatile, making these materials customizable to your application.
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Laser Diode Based Spectrometer Using Fiber Gratings (GSC-13915)

Abstract: In spectroscopic applications, the light source wavelength, tuning range, and spectral quality are important. High performance systems that use tunable dye or Ti: sapphire lasers are bulky, inefficient, and expensive. Commercial laser diode systems are available, but they are still reasonably expensive (over $5,000) and too large for many applications. Compact laser diode spectrometers using Distributed Bragg Reflectors (DBR) and Distributed Feedback (DFB) gratings are also available,
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Skin-Modified Aerogel Monoliths (TOP3-177)

Abstract: The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) seeks to transfer technology for the development and production of skin modified aerogel monoliths. These aerogel monoliths are mechanically robust with no alteration of their bulk chemical composition and properties, which include low density, high porosity, high surface area, low dielectric constant, and low thermal conductivity.
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Low-Cost, Long-Lasting Liquid Coating (KSC-12049)

Abstract: Developed at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida, to protect embedded steel surfaces from corrosion, this material is made of inexpensive, commercially available ingredients and is easily applied to the outer surface of reinforced concrete by brush or spray.
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A Metric for Visual Quality of Digital Video (ARC-14236)

Abstract: DVQ (which stands for "digital video quality") is a metric for evaluating the visual quality of digitized video images. Other video-quality metrics have been proposed, but it appears that each of them (1) may be based on mathematical models that are not related closely enough to the characteristics of human perception, in which case it may not measure visual quality accurately
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Piezoelectric and Pyroelectric Polymeric Materials ()

Abstract: Thermally stable piezoelectric and pyroelectric polymeric substrates retain their orientation, piezoelectric, and pyroelectric properties at temperatures above 100oC up to the softening temperature of the polymer. These substrates have an advantage over piezoelectric inorganic materials because they are easily processable and conformable to a variety of shapes.
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Passive Venting for Alleviating Helicopter Tail-Boom Loads (DRC98-96)

Abstract: The tail boom of a single-rotor helicopter is subjected to a complex flow field that includes the wakes of the main and tail rotors, the freestream, and the wake from the forward fuselage.
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Capillary Pumped Loop Body Warmer (GSC-13329)

Abstract: The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) seeks a qualified user and/or manufacturer to pursue the further development and commercialization of a Capillary Pumped Loop system for body warming/cooling.
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Skin Modified Aerogel Monoliths (TOP3-177)

Abstract: These aerogel monoliths are mechanically robust with no alteration of their bulk chemical composition and properties, which include low density, high porosity, high surface area, low dielectric constant, and low thermal conductivity.
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PMR--15 Layered Silicate Nanocomposites ()

Abstract: Layered silicates have quickly become recognized as a useful filler in polymer matrix composites. Their platelet morphology and high aspect ratio results in greatly improved thermal, mechanical and barrier properties.
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New PMR Polyimide End Caps to Improve High-Temperature Oxidation Resistance (TOP3-153)

Abstract: This patented NASA Glenn Research Center technology utilizes modified nadic end caps to improve the high-temperature oxidation resistance of PMR (polymerization of monomeric reactants) polyimides, without adversely affecting the processibility of PMR polyimide components or their high-temperature strength. This improved new approach seeks to formulate end caps that can lead to lower weight loss and ultimately less shrinkage and cracking in the thermally oxidized layer of the affected
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Flux-Focusing Eddy Current Sensor Family (TOP1469)

Abstract: NASA Langley Research Center is actively seeking partnerships and collaborations to commercialize its Flux-Focusing Eddy Current Sensor technologies.
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Film Processing Module (MFS-32008)

NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed a technology that combines a film/adhesive lay-down module and fiber placement technology to enable the processing of both a composite structure and a film or film adhesive on the same placement machine without having to interrupt either process.
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JPL Ohmic Contact Technology ()

Abstract: NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Flexible Carbon-based Ohmic Contacts for Organic Transistors provides one of a handful of enabling technologies in support of the development of organic electronic circuits and devices. Flexible electronics are an emerging technology area that enables a broad range of new products including foldable displays, digital paper and electronic textiles. This new NASA technology fills a significant gap in the field of organic transistors--the need for flexibl
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Wide Bandwidth Phase-Locked Loop Circuit (MSC-22875)

Abstract: This technology is an improved phase locked loop circuit. This system generates an output signal whose frequency is related to that of the input signal. In order to achieve a broad bandwidth, a range detection circuit is provided that is capable of closely monitoring the input signal.
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Selective Buried Etch Stop (SES) Silicon Device Fabrication Process ()

Abstract: A NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) development team has achieved breakthroughs in bulk silicon micromachining of microelectromechanical (MEMS)-based submillimeter and far infrared (IR) radiation detectors. The IR detectors are ultra-thin, three-dimensional (3D) structures made possible by the SES process and represent novel, high-performance, one-of-a-kind MEMS devices.
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Parallel Subconvolution Filtering Architectures (NPO-30142)

Abstract: Parallel implementations of large tap-length digital filters are complex digital designs and require large transistor count (real estate) to implement. The goal was to develop simple architectures to implement in parallel/vector processing form to reduce the processing rate required by the hardware and to be able to be extended to any length filter desired, with only linear increase in complexity. The improvement of these novel architectures is that they allow implementation of simple
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High-Rate Parallel Digital Receiver ()

The design approach for the high-rate digital demodulator consisted of algorithmic development, software simulations, development of a hardware prototype in reprogrammable hardware, and finally, development of a single 800k gate CMOS ASIC. Two identical ASICs will be required in the digital receiver, one to perform in-phase channel processing and one to perform quadrature channel processing. The input signals to the digital demodulator ASICs are 8 parallel, 8 bit A/D samples that are demuxed to
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High Rate Digital Demodulator (GSC-13963)

Abstract: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center’s high-rate digital receiver performs demodulation and bit synchronization for quadrature PSK (QPSK) and binary PSK (BPSK) modulated signals. The parallel architecture of the HRDR provides the required functions by using decimated samples of the input signal and combining multiple data streams to reconstruct the full output signal.
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Strong, Lightweight Composite Tanks and Pipes for Demanding Applications (TOP8-69)

Abstract: These technologies offer an attractive combination of improved technology at lower costs--they enable the production of strong, lightweight, adaptable, uniquely shaped, insulated, chemically resistant, cryogenic tanks, vessels, and pipes while reducing fabrication costs.
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Composite Roll Press and Processes (LAR-16299)

Abstract: The composite roll press is a machine through which composite laminates are processed. With the combination of standard composite laminate build up techniques and the use of unique processing methods, a very high quality part is obtained. The process allows for the use of dry fibers and room temperature cure matrices. The major attributes of the process are costs that are competitive with traditional processes and a part quality far superior to that of hand-processed materials and the
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High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced SiC/SiC Composite Systems (TOP3-00173)

Abstract: NASA Glenn Research Center researchers have developed two high-performance SiC/SiC composite systems with state-of-the-art thermostructural capability up to 1315 oC (2400 oF). These systems are based on advanced processes that significantly improve the performance of commercially available SiC fibers, boron nitride (BN) fiber coatings, and SiC matrices that are initially formed by conventional processes, such as chemical vapor deposition (CVI).
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Two-Dimensional Empirical Mode Decomposition and Hilbert Spectral Analysis for Image Processing (GSC-13909)

Abstract: Developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, the Hilbert-Huang transformation (HHT) technology allows users to conduct more precise analysis of signal data than can be obtained from conventional Fourier-based methods.
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Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron (EZVI) (KSC-12246)

Abstract: Developed at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), this process provides for the in situ treatment of dense nonaqueous phase liquids, or DNAPL’s. This technology is one of the few methods available that can treat the DNAPL source.
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Edge Detection in Noisy Environments (KSC-12278)

Abstract: NASA's Fuzzy Reasoning Edgde Detection (FRED) system uses heuristics that mimic the capability of humans to approximate solutions, making it ideal for detecting edges in noisy, cluttered environments and for detecting unfamiliar objects.
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Breakthrough in Combining/Dividing Radio Frequency/Microwave Power (MFS-31186)

Abstract: NASA scientists have discovered a method for combining or dividing harmonically rich waveforms while maintaining both the amplitude and phase of the original waveform.
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GMR Crack Detector (TOP1-464)

Abstract: The newly discovered giant magnetoresistive (GMR) technique to identify surface cracks is a nondestructive evaluation method to solve common industry crack-detection problems. Thick, multilayer metal structures, such as wing splices in heavy transport aircraft, present one of the most difficult problems in nondestructive inspection.
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3-D Roller Locking Sprags (GSC-13617)

Abstract: Originally developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, this technology provides a solution to torque-coupling locking brake and clutch applications that are too demanding for conventional sprag brakes/clutches.
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Strong Lightwight Composite Tanks and Pipes for Demanding Applications (TOP8-69)

Abstract: NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center is offering licensing and/or joint development opportunities for its newest composite layered tank, vessel, and pipe technologies. These technologies offer an attractive combination of improved technology at lower costs—they enable the production of strong, lightweight, adaptable, uniquely shaped, insulated, chemically resistant, cryogenic tanks, vessels, and pipes while reducing fabrication
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A Real-Time Optical Sensor System for Monitoring Parylene Thickness ()

Abstract: With the ever-increasing need for higher accuracy in process controls, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) new real-time sensor technology greatly improves accuracy in parylene and other polymer deposition systems. This technology also saves time and money through reduced error and material waste. The film thickness accuracy made possible with this sensor also lead GSFC to establish the use of thin film parylene-C as a sacrificial layer in MEMS fabrication. This new application
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Mass Measurement During Fluid Flow Using an Integrated Sonic/Microwave Detector (MSC-23311)

Abstract: This dual sonic sensor system for measuring densities and the simultaneous use of an integrated sonic/microwave system for height and volume measurements is extremely unique. In addition, the technology provides highly accurate density measurements, and fast, real-time monitoring of the fluid flow. Measurement of the entire flow is preferable to sampling only a portion of the real-time fluid flow, which might not accurately represent the total flow. The NASA system can accurately meas
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Electronic Thermometer Readings (SSC-00006)

Abstract: NASA Stennis¿ adaptive predictive algorithm for electronic thermometers uses sample readings during the initial rise in temperature and applies an algorithm that accurately and rapidly predicts the steady state temperature. The final steady state temperature of an object can be calculated based on the second-order logarithm of the temperature signals acquired by the sensor and predetermined variables from the sensor characteristics. These variables are calculated during tests of the
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Binarization of Noisy Images (KSC-12490)

Abstract: NASA's fuzzy reasoning adaptive thresholding (FRAT) system is ideal for binarizing noisy, cluttered or textured gray-scale images. Using a faster computational technique that improves on previous fuzzy entropy functions, FRAT is faster and more reliable than other current, highly reliable methods. FRAT defines an image as an array of fuzzy singletons corresponding to image pixels. With two classes, background and foreground, the membership function is built based on the average gray l
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JPL Ohmic Contact Technology ()

Abstract: NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Flexible Carbon-based Ohmic Contacts for Organic Transistors provides one of a handful of enabling technologies in support of the development of organic electronic circuits and devices. Flexible electronics are an emerging technology area that enables a broad range of new products including foldable displays, digital paper and electronic textiles. This new NASA technology fills a significant gap in the field of organic transistors--the need for flexibl
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Soft Side Air Displacement Volumometer (MSC-22653)

Abstract: The Soft Side Air Displacement Volumometer is a dev ice and a method to measure the volume of a person¿s body, limb, or other solid object. Using a soft-sided bag, air injector, pressure transducer, and recording device, a number of steps are completed to measure the pressure of the bag with and without the subject. The volume of the subject is then calculated using the pressure measurements. The volumometer may easily be used in hospitals, medical offices, health clubs, and space fl
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Integrated Sol-Gel Fiber-Optic Sensors (GSC-13913)

Abstract: Sol-gel has been used for many years in a wide variety of fiber optic applications. Existing systems coat optical fibers with sol-gel. One drawback of this method is that detection occurs outside the core of the fiber rather than inside it. Researchers at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center have developed a method to ensure that the sol-gel¿s emitted chemiluminescence or fluorescence is transmitted directly to the detector via a fusion-spliced communications fiber. With Goddard¿s d
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Method and Apparatus for Measuring Fluid Flow (MSC-22366)

Abstract: This invention can be used for multiple purposes and measures including: the measuring of flow-rates, turbulence and dispersion; fluid identification; and monitoring information on instantaneous changes in flow conditions, other time-varying characteristics of multiple fluids, or multiple states of a single fluid in a flowline, pipe, mixing/holding container, tank or other vessel. The device is capable of monitoring/detecting the purity of a fluid in a line or reservoir, the nature of
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Selective Buried Etch Stop (SES) Silicon Device Fabrication Process (GSC-13962)

A NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) development team has achieved breakthroughs in bulk silicon micromachining of microelectromechanical (MEMS)-based sub millimeter and far infrared (IR) radiation detectors. The IR detectors are ultra-thin, three-dimensional (3D) structures made possible by the SES process and represent novel, high-performance, one-of-a-kind MEMS devices. The SES process provides for selectively patterning chemical etch barriers deep within composite silicon-on-insulator (
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Misalignment Accommodating Connector Assembly ()

Abstract: The technology consists of a first connector subassembly with an extended arm (or tongue) that has a transversely insertable tubular member. The second connector assembly has a pair of spaced arm members (or yoke) that have a semi-cylindrical recess where the tubular member is inserted. Advantages of this technology are its relative ease to connect and disconnect, its ability to properly align itself upon connection and reconnection, and its relative simplicity to manufacture, use and
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Rotary Latch ()

Abstract: The design of the rotating inner receiver is a dependable method of capturing and retaining the latch pin. This dependability makes it ideal for remote or difficult to access locations. The design of the rotating latch prevents the premature release of the latch pin. This dependability in the restraint of the pin makes it ideal for situations involving safety concerns. The innermost rotor can be easily configured to either remote operations (with an electrically connected solenoid) or
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Method for Measuring Surface Shear Stress Magnitude and Direction Using Liquid Crystal Coatings (ARC-12052)

Abstract: In aerodynamics research, much valuable information can be gained from visualizing and measuring shear stress patterns on solid surfaces. Frictional forces generated by gases or liquids flowing over these surfaces can significantly influence the performance of aircraft, ships, or surface-transport vehicles. Internal frictional forces, such as those caused by air compression through a jet engine or blood flow through an artificial heart chamber, also affect aerodynamic or mechanical pe
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Collapsible, Light, Portable Human Hyperbaric Chamber/Airlock System (MSC-23076)

Abstract: Potential commercial uses include treatment facility for decompression sickness at remote locations and treatment facility for altitude sickness. A prototype exits for this technology opportunity, which is part of the NASA Technology Transfer Program, the goal of which is to stimulate development of commercial applications of NASA developed technology. NASA is seeking to license this technology to U.S. companies capable of developing commercial applications. The invention, "Po
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Retractable Visual Indicator Assembly (MSC-22525)

Abstract: The indicator assembly is attached to the top of the drum or vessel containing filter material. The assembly includes an elongated, outer housing (a tube), constructed at least partially of a transparent material, which provides a "window" for inspection. A wire-screen basket holds granules of indicator material, which are exposed to the filter in a container. During normal operations the basket remains lowered, exposed in the drum containing filter material. For inspection, an operat
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Method for Determining Shear Direction Using Liquid Crystal Coatings (ARC-11995)

Abstract: The system is calibrated by locating a observer, e.g., a video and movie camera, such that a particular color band (preferably at or near the center of the reflected spectrum) is observed to thereby provide a reference color band. Because the application of shear causes either clockwise or counterclockwise rotation of the reflected spectrum dependent on the direction of the shear, a determination is then made of the reflected color band observed by the observer when the surface of the
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Endothelium Preserving Microwave Treatment for Atherosclerosis (MSC-22724)

Abstract: Most energy is deposited with in the atherosclerotic lesion and little energy will pass into and beyond the adventitia because of rapid decay of the electromagnetic wave. Thermal conduction also maintains an acceptable temperature in the surrounding cell layers. Preservation of the endothelial cell layer is crucially important for preventing thrombotic, inflammatory, and proliferative processes that underlie the major complication of angioplastic procedures¿restenosis. Major componen
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Neural Net Navigation Tool (MSC-22318)

Abstract: Unlike other mobile vehicle navigation systems, this invention utilizes neural network technology to determine the position and angular orientation of the vehicle. Neural networks are, generally, software implementations of high-speed parallel processing circuits modeled after the way in which neurons are connected in the human brain. These circuits give the navigation system the ability to "learn" its environment. The mobile vehicle is first placed in a localized area where it collec
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Energy Absorbing Protective Shroud Against High Speed Machinery (MSC-22823)

Abstract: The most promising area of potential commercial use of this technology is in the aviation/aerospace industry. The technology can be used to encapsulate any high-speed machinery that could pose a serious threat in cases of catastrophic failure. The technology could be adapted for use in any industrial setting where high-speed equipment failure poses a serious threat. A prototype has been developed and tested. The materials used for this technology are readily available off-the-shelf. T
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New Automated Expert System and Development Tool (GSC-13672)

Abstract: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's GenSAA software was originally developed for real-time operations in spacecraft control centers. During routine satellite-ground contacts, the flight operations team monitors the downloading of scientific data and/or the uploading of onboard stored commands. This process is simple and repetitive, which made it ideal for automation. NASA Goddard developed GenSAA to meet these needs. A GenSAA expert system can be programmed to constantly search for fau
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Scaling Device for Photographic Images (KSC-12201)

Abstract: When a photograph is taken, the image of this pattern appears along with the image of the object under investigation, allowing the viewer to quantify the size of the object. NASA's need for this development was inspired by hailstorm damage to the Space Shuttle's External Tank. Telephoto lenses are used to zoom in and see the damage clearly, yet the end viewer cannot determine the scale of the damage because there is no reference object in the image. In many photographic situations an
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Method & Means for Ultra-High Sensitive, Absolute, Linear & Rotary Encoding (GSC-13703)

Abstract: Optical encoders measure the linear or angular position of an object by optically detecting marks on a scale affixed to the object. Incremental encoders simply detect the relative motion of the object, not its absolute position. Although absolute linear optical encoders are available, they do not offer very high resolution (i.e., sensitivity). Furthermore, with conventional absolute linear encoders, the moving object is limited to 4 millimeters of travel at the highest practical resol
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Piozoelectric Ceramic Actuator Technologies ()

Abstract: The actuator design has several differences from conventional piezoelectric actuators. Because of its radial design, this actuator exhibits out of plane movement when electrically stimulated, and does not transmit any substantial mechanical strain beyond the boundary of the ceramic element. This behavior is distinct from all other "bender" type actuators. The actuators consist of a piezoelectric ceramic wafer encased in a polymer film onto which an electrode pattern has been etche
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Protective Laminate Space Suit Helmet and Extravehicular Visors (MSC-21503)

Abstract: The polycarbonate/polysulfone laminate combination provides superior chemical and propellant exposure protection. The chemical resistance of the laminate includes protection against chemicals, such as hydrazine (N2H4), nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4), and monomethylhydraxine (N2H3CH3). Variations in the laminate configuration can be made to accommodate unique protective design requirements, such as impact strength, meteoroid and debris protection, and enhancement for specific environmental
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Wide Bandwidth Phase-Locked Loop Circuit (MSC-22875)

Abstract: Potential commercial uses and benefits are: Radio Broadcasting This PLL could be used in a radio tuner to lock on a specific frequency, providing a cleaner signal. Telecommunications This technology is a key component of the telecommunication industry for encoding and decoding voice and data transmissions. Computer Architecture This technology can be used as part of the clock signal that coordinates all CPU activities. Digital Modulation and Demodulation Systems This PLL can be used i
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Piezoelectric and Pyroelectric Polymeric Materials ()

Abstract: Piezoelectric and Pyroelectric Polymeric Substrates have several potential commercial applications including: electromechanical and thermo mechanical transducers, acoustic, infrared, and temperature sensors, vibration, impact, and stress/strain sensors, micro-actuators and switches, ultrasonic devices, power generators, microphones and hydrophones. Piezoelectric and Pyroelectric Polymeric materials can improved piezoelectric properties, doubled thermal stability over state of the art,
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Reagentless Chemiluminescent Biosensors for Determination of Hydrogen Peroxide, Ethanol and D-Glucose (MSC-22605)

Abstract: Reagentless Chemiluminescent Biosensors for Determination of Hydrogen Peroxide, Ethanol and D-Glucose is a method of measuring low levels of select organic compounds (analytes) in water. The device uses chemiluminescence to quantify ethanol, glucose, oxygen, and hydrogen peroxide in a water sample. Unlike current techniques, the device is online and is adaptable to continuous biotechnology processes. The device does not require frequent calibration. Theoretically, the invention can be
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Low-Cost, Long-Lasting Liquid Coating (KSC-12049)

Abstract: NASA's highly reliable, low-cost liquid-applied coating offers companies the ability to conveniently protect embedded steel rebar surfaces from corrosion. The inorganic, galvanic coating contains one or more of the following metallic particles: magnesium, zinc, or indium. In addition, the coating may contain moisture-attracting compounds that facilitate the protection process. After the coating is applied to the outer surface of reinforced concrete, an electrical current is establishe
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Radiant Temperature Nulling Radiometer ()

Abstract: NASA Stennis Space Center has developed a low-power radiant temperature nulling radiometer with unique self-calibrating design features to improve the accuracy, resolution, and operation cost of standard infrared (IR) radiometers. Unlike current IR radiometers, this technology removes any drifts or offset gains that can affect the calibration of the instrument, using only one black body source for calibration. This feature helps to improve accuracy. NASA Stennis¿ advanced IR radiomet
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Ice Thickness Gauge (TOP1-451)

Abstract: Ice buildup on surfaces, buildings, roadways, and vehicles can impair performance, damage structures, and lead to human injury or death. The Ice Thickness Gauge warns of such accumulation by actively measuring ice depth. The gauge consists of a unique combination of a temperature-measurement sensor and two or more impedance-measuring sensors. Electronic circuits embedded within the Ice Thickness Gauge collect and combine information from these components to determine the presence and
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UV-Curable Polyimides (LEW-16616)

Abstract: Polyimides are often used for high-performance applications in the aerospace and electronics industries. Making these materials traditionally involved the condensation of a diamine with a dianhydride. Aromatic diamines are often toxic, mutagenic, or carcinogenic, resulting in health concerns and costly production control requirements. To over come these problems, other methods of polymerization using bismaleimides and bisdienes have been developed that require high reaction temperatur
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Lightweight Ceramic Insulation and Method (MSC-20782)

Abstract: This new technique offers improvements over conventional methods. By manipulating the water content of the salt solution before the freezing process, the ceramic's final density can be adjusted between 1% and 25% of its theoretical weight. In addition, the resulting ceramics offer greater strength characteristics compared with fibrous ceramics because of their uniformly fine microstructures. Potential commercial uses include ceramic or metallurgical industrial applications that requir
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Laser-Directed Ranging Systems for Telerobotics Applications (MSC-22431)

Abstract: NASA's latest work uses fiber Bragg gratings to fine tune laser diode wavelengths, and has proven very productive in reducing size and cost while boosting performance of prototype spectrometer systems. Many types of systems - commercial spectrometers, lidar, and non-invasive medical instruments - can also realize these benefits. The market for these systems is rapidly expanding, and this fine tuned laser diode technology will further that expansion. The latest systems developed an
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Personal Cabin Pressure Altitude Monitor and Warning System (KSC-12168)

Hypoxia results from unprotected exposure above certain altitudes. Defined as an insufficient supply of oxygen to the body's tissues, hypoxia insidiously affects the central nervous system and organs. The most dangerous aspect of hypoxia is that the victim may lose the ability for critical judgment before detecting any impairment. Hypoxia is particularly dangerous for an aircraft crew when there is a slow, progressive increase in cabin altitude or a sudden exposure to high cabin altitude. NASA K
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Self-Regulating Shock Absorber (MSC-22111)

Abstract: Also, unlike hydraulic shock absorbers, the damping force in this shock absorber does not vary appreciably with speed of stroking. This invention can be used in any application where there is a possibility for an overload to the design load or where stabilization is needed. A prototype of this technology was developed. The technology opportunity is part of the NASA Technology Transfer Program, the goal of which is to stimulate development of commercial applications of NASA develop
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High Quality Optically Polished Aluminum Mirror (GSC-14147)

Abstract: Researchers at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center have developed a revolutionary process for precision optical polishing of bare aluminum to an unprecedented smoothness. GSFC's process begins by using a single-point diamond turning machine. Grinding cannot be used on bare aluminum, it leaves behind particles that scratch the surface during polishing. Diamond turning alone, typically produces a 30- to 80-angstrom finish on standard aluminum materials. Therefore, additional polishing is r
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Two Dimensional Empirical Mode Decomposition and Hilbert Spectral Analysis for Image (GSC-13909)

Abstract: Traditional energy-frequency analyses are based on Fourier transformation. These methods produce consistently accurate results only for linear and stationary signals. However, few energy-frequency data sets are truly linear and stationary. Although fast Fourier transformation (FFT) is routinely used for these nonlinear, nonstationary signals, results are often inaccurate. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has developed a new tool specifically designed for analysis of nonlinear, nonstat
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Three-Dimensional Roller Element Bearing (GSC-13679)

Abstract: Developed by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), this bearing technology combines the benefits of single row bearings - lightweight, low parts count, small size, and high load carrying - with the ability of tandem or double-row bearings to carry any combination of radial and axial loads. The selection of conventional rolling element bearings is based on factors such as load, space, life, and cost. Bearings such as tapered roller and angular contact ball enable load carrying in one axi
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Parallel Integrated Frame Synchronizer (PIFs) Chip (GSC-13813-1) ()

Abstract: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has developed a high-speed parallel integrated frame synchronizer chip that can be used in ground station systems that receive and process data from airborne or in-space sources. This chip has a processing speed of 500 Mbps - five times faster than processing speeds offered by current chips. The PIFS chip receives incoming bit streams of telemetry or weather satellite data and assigns them to framed data structures. Requiring less than 5 watts of power
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Laser Diode Based Spectrometer Using Fiber Gratings (GSC-13915)

NASA's latest work uses fiber Bragg gratings to fine tune laser diode wavelengths, and has proven very productive in reducing size and cost while boosting performance of prototype spectrometer systems. Many types of systems - commercial spectrometers, lidar, and non-invasive medical instruments - can also realize these benefits. The market for these systems is rapidly expanding, and this fine tuned laser diode technology will further that expansion. The latest systems developed and tested at
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Three-Dimensional Position Determination Based on Earth's Geomagnetic Field (GSC-13880)

Abstract: Although GPS provides a free signal for very accurate position finding, space-qualified GPS equipment is expensive. Also, accuracy better than 50 km is not needed for many low Earth orbiting spacecraft, particularly solar and stellar observers. Even spacecraft using GPS could benefit from a real-time coarse position estimate to reduce their time toGSFC's deterministic position-finding technique reduces computation requirements, shortens the time needed for a first fix, and eliminates
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Optimized Image Compression (DCTune) (ARC-12015)

Abstract: The DCTune technology represents a fundamental improvement on existing optimization techniques known as Quantization. Quantization selectively increases or decreases the amount of information used to render a picture. The image compression uses a DCT and each DCT coefficient yielded by the transform is quantized by an entry in a quantization matrix which determines the perceived image quality and the bit rate of the image being compressed. The invention adapts or customizes the quanti
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Integrated GPS Antenna/Receiver for Attitude Determination (GSC-13907)

Abstract: The invention is a concept for improving on a state-of-the-art satellite navigation system. Currently, spacecraft control systems rely on a system of sensors to determine position, velocity, and attitude. Sensors such as star trackers, magnetometers, infrared Earth sensors, and gyroscopes provide the data from which the position and attitude information may be determined by onboard computers. Time data is provided by superaccurate atomic clocks. These systems are complex, expensive, a
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Industrial, Medical and Art Restoration Applications of Surface Texturing (TOP3-71)

Abstract: Surface texturing can improve orthopaedic implants and increase cellular attachment, make transmitted light more diffuse, reduce surface glare, change friction and wetability of a surface, improve heat transfer, and produce many other beneficial effects. Some of the same technology can be used to remove thin organic coatings, such as adhesives, varnish, and soot, from surfaces. The process involves no physical contact with the surface, which makes it attractive for cleaning delicate a
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Spray-On Circuits (MFS-31549)

Abstract: Researchers at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center developed a new thin-film deposition process that creates a permanent bond between the film and substrate. This patented process, known as vacuum arc vapor deposition (VAVD), can be performed using a traditional vacuum chamber or a hand-held vacuum device. The aerospace industry has been seeking new marking methods that are safe and can withstand harsh environments. To address this need, NASA developed the VAVD process, which uses a vac
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Space Station Paraffin-Actuated Remote Connector (MSC-21998)

Abstract: The Space Station Paraffin-Actuated Remote Connector (SSPARC) is a device for joining two structural members, either electrically (using remote controls) or manually. The releasable coupling device is composed of a collet fastener, which has retractable latching fingers mounted on one of the structural members to be joined, and a receptacle mounted on the other structural member. Because the propulsion of the collet mechanism is paraffin-driven, this mechanism (connector) weighs less
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Ammonia Monitor Including Solid Phase pH Conditioning and a Liquid-Liquid Exchange Module (MSC-22270)

Abstract: The device is computer controlled, reagentless, and requires no preparation of the sample. Operation requires no reagents because pH is controlled by an in-line solid-phase base (SPB). The ammonia monitor exhibits predictable response characteristics over a wide dynamic range of concentrations from less than 10 micrograms/liter to 20 milligrams/liter with a response time of eight minutes or less. With some adaptation the analyzer can measure substances such as urea and nitrates.
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Aerodynamic Design using Neural Networks ()

Abstract: Some desirable characteristics of the new design optimization procedure include the ability to handle a variety of design objectives, easily impose constraints, and incorporate design guidelines and rules of thumb. It provides an infrastructure for variable fidelity analysis since it has the flexibility to include additional data as they become available. The initial or starting design can be far from optimal. The procedure is easy and economical to use in large-dimensional design spa
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Body Fluids Monitor (MSC-22491)

The body fluids monitor uses bioelectrical responses to determine amounts of body fluids. By employing a sequence of measurements and processing steps, the device can calculate the total volume of body water, the volume of extra-cellular water, the total blood volume,and the total plasma volume in a subject. The accuracy of this method is greater than with that of previous methods. Potential products include tools to measure body mass and fat (e.g., for use in medical clinics and exercise clubs)
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Compact, Stiff, Remotely activated Quick Release Clamp (MSC-22722)

Abstract: Clamps available on the market do not have their own remote releases, which must be customized and added separately. NASA's concept is a compact, stiff, remotely-activated quick release clamp that could weigh as little as 10 pounds, yet hold a load up to 10,000 pounds. Even at that load, the operator need only supply an opening force of about 25 pounds to an over center lock/release mechanism. The clamp jaws would then open widely to at least 90°. The clamp might also be used in robo
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Compact, Stiff, Remotely activated Quick Release Clamp (MSC-22722)

Abstract: Clamps available on the market do not have their own remote releases, which must be customized and added separately. NASA's concept is a compact, stiff, remotely-activated quick release clamp that could weigh as little as 10 pounds, yet hold a load up to 10,000 pounds. Even at that load, the operator need only supply an opening force of about 25 pounds to an over center lock/release mechanism. The clamp jaws would then open widely to at least 90°. The clamp might also be used in robo
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Virtual Glovebox (VGX): Advanced Astronaut Training and Simulation System for Life Science Experiments Aboard The International Space Station (ARC-14756)

Abstract: This "Virtual Glovebox"(VGX) is designed to integrate ultra-high resolution imaging technology and force-feedback devices with high-fidelity graphics and real-time computer simulation engines to provide a realistic immersive environment. In the future, this system may be used on Earth by astronauts to conduct experiments in a simulated real-time microgravity environment. In addition, the VGX software and simulation environment may be taken aboard the Space Station allowing astronauts
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A Successful Wire Bonding Technique for CZT Strip Detectors and Detector Arrays TOP ()

Abstract: Using this technique, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center has developed a 60 cm2 CZT strip detector with 580,000 pixels for high-resolution gamma-ray astronomy in the 10,150 keV energy range with less than 100 µm spatial resolution. Further imaging tests at low energy levels have demonstrated 30 µm spatial resolution. Goddard Space Flight Center has made advances allowing the use of semiconductor fabrication techniques to manufacture a 60 cm2 CZT strip detector with 580,000 pixels fo
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A Metric for Visual Quality of Digital Video (ARC-14236)

Abstract: The emerging infrastructure for digital video lacks a critical component: a reliable means for automatically measuring visual quality. Such a means is essential for evaluation of codecs, for monitoring broadcast transmissions and for ensuring the most efficient compression of sources and utilization of communication bandwidths. Possible disadvantages of these metrics are that they may either not be based closely enough upon human perception, in which case they may not accurately measu
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Perilog Contextual Search and Retrieval Software Tools (ARC-14512)

Abstract: Perilog unearths data that is contextually relevant to the subject being investigated. The software measures the degree of contextual association for large numbers of term pairs in text (or any other sequence) to produce models that capture the structure of text. It statistically compares these models to measure their degree of similarity to a query model, develops a ranking and presents the search result to the user. Furthermore, the user has access to powerful query tools that, for
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Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron (EZVI) (KSC-12246)

Abstract: Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron is a versatile technology that can be used at many of these locations. Applicable sites may include: dye and paint manufacturers;dry cleaners; chemical manufacturers; metal cleaning and degreasing facilities; leather-tanning facilities; pharmaceutical manufacturers; adhesive and aerosol manufacturers; and government facilities. Thousands of DNAPL-contaminated sites have been identified across the United States; however, few technologies exist that can treat
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3-D Roller Locking Sprags (GSC-13617)

Abstract: Many machines with rotating parts use brakes and clutches to stop or control the degree and direction of motion of the driven parts. Brakes and clutches often are incorporated between concentric races (i.e., rotating shafts). One class of locking brake/clutch uses spherical balls or cylindrical rollers located between an inner and outer race. At least one of the races contains cam surfaces against which the balls or rollers wedge and lock to produce instantaneous torque coupling. A va
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Electroplating of Hard Glassy Metals (MFS-31377)

Abstract: Although it yields a high quality coating, electroless deposition does not allow for much process control, requires high processing temperatures, and has a slower deposition rate than with electroplating. Better process control is available through electroplating, which involves placing a voltage across a nickel electrode (i.e., anode) and the part in a solution (i.e., cathode) and thus driving the nickel to coat the part via electrolytic processes. NASA Marshall¿s technology enables
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Discrete Event Simulation Tool for Analysis of Qualitative Models of Continuous Processing Systems (CONFIG) (MSC-21465)

Abstract: CONFIG is a general-purpose simulation tool that can support simulations in several domains, including process-oriented industries (chemicals, foods, pharmaceuticals), water and waste processing, manufacturing, power systems, and computer/telecommunication networks. CONFIG is an enhancement of discrete event simulation to handle hybrid systems that include fluids. Discrete event simulation is dynamic simulation, modeling the time-based behavior of systems, where the intervals between
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Parallel Subconvolution Filter Architectures (NPO-30142)

Abstract: The goal was to develop simple architectures to implement in parallel/vector processing form to reduce the processing rate required by the hardware and able to be extended to any length filter desired, with only linear increase in complexity. The improvement of these novel architectures is that they allow implementation of simple, very large scale integration with parallel processing for high-order filtering/correlation so that very high rate systems can be processed with lower rate h
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Proton-Transfer-Reaction/Ion-Mobility-Spectrometer (PTR-IMS) (NPO-21187)

Abstract: A small, portable detector with high sensitivity suitable for detection of trace amounts of organic compounds, PTR-IMS does not suffer from problems associated with commonly used gas chromatography/mass spectrometry-based instruments (GC/MS) such as limited sensitivity, fragmentation of large organic species and high vacuum requirements. This instrument, which is lightweight and consumes low power, would be an important part of future in-situ investigations on planetary bodies. Use as
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High Rate Parallel Digital Receiver (NPO-21230)

Abstract: The data rates for NASA missions are increasing very rapidly. In order to process these high data rates, high-processing hardware is required. For baseband data processing, there exist inexpensive PCI-based solutions; But for RF processing, the current solutions are based on either all analog or mixed technology with flexibility offered only at great cost and size. For an all-digital solution, the sampling rate of passband data is at least four times the data rate. That is, a minimum
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CCD System Technology for Extremely Low Background Observations (GSC-13906)

Abstract: Charge-coupled devices have proven to be exceptionally versatile and effective detectors for imaging wavelengths between the near-ultraviolet and the near-infrared portions of the spectrum. Although detector format/size and sensitivity have increased to meet demand, these larger detectors have technical limitations that impede high sensitivity, low-background observations. For example, cooling the detector to reduce dark current from the bulk silicon is difficult with large formats (e
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CCD System Technology for Extremely Low Background Observations (GSC-13906)

Abstract: Charge-coupled devices have proven to be exceptionally versatile and effective detectors for imaging wavelengths between the near-ultraviolet and the near-infrared portions of the spectrum. Although detector format/size and sensitivity have increased to meet demand, these larger detectors have technical limitations that impede high sensitivity, low-background observations. For example, cooling the detector to reduce dark current from the bulk silicon is difficult with large formats (e
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Capillary Pumped Loop Body Warmer (GSC-13329)

Abstract: Capillary Pumped Loops (CPL) are a space-age technology for thermal control. GSFC uses CPLs for spacecraft thermal control and recently developed a concept for application of CPLs to human body thermal regulation. The key advantage is that CPLs can operate without an external mechanical pump to redistribute heat; thus, no external power source is required. GSFC has initiated a proof-of-concept demonstration of CPLs for glove heating. Companies with product development interests in the
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Capacitance Probe for Fluid Flow and Volume Measurements (MSC-22544)

Abstract: The technology replaces mechanical flowmeters used currently with a simple, dependable electronic device with no moving parts. It is more accurate and not as invasive. Its readings are instantly converted from analog signals to digital records. These records could be broadcast on any bandwidth needed from remote locations to a central computer. This brings information technology into fluid flow measurement, allowing computers to set parameters, adjust rates of flow, and keep readings
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Capaciflector-Based Technology (GSC-13614)

Abstract: The Capaciflector is a capacitive sensing element backed by an active reflector element that acts as a shield to reflect field lines. The capacitive coupling between the senor and the object is used to control an oscillator. As an object moves closer, the capacitance increases and the oscillator frequency decreases, which allows varying detection ranges for objects. The active shield reflector is electrically isolated from the sensor and follows the oscillator, keeping it in phase wit
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Gear Bearings (GSC-14207)

Abstract: Goddard's technologies are based on two innovative designs: the roller gear bearing and the phased-shifted gear bearing. The roller gear bearing has crowned roller ends with the roller radius equaling the gear pitch radius. The gear can mesh with another roller gear, with the crowned ends contacting each other in rolling contact. The phase-shifted gear bearing has teeth rotated with respect to each other such that the top land of one side intersects with the bottom land of the other s
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Autonomous Micro-Pulse Lidar System (GSC-13493)

Abstract: The MPL system uses an optical telescope to transmit and expand solid-state laser pulses, allowing it to produce a high level of sensitivity and reliability using eye-safe pulse energy levels. MPL has several advantages over similar systems including: aerosol detection and better sensitivity at higher altitudes; ability to detect cirrus clouds; and efficient operation in day and night time conditions.
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System for Rapid Biohydrogen Phenotypic Screening of Microorganisms Using a Chemochromic Sensor

U.S. Patent 6,448,068 Technology Description Provided is a system for identifying a hydrogen gas producing organism. The system includes a sensor film having a first layer comprising a transition metal oxide or oxysalt and a second layer comprising a hydrogen-dissociative catalyst metal, the first and second layers having an inner and an outer surface wherein the inner surface of the second layer is deposited on the outer surface of the first layer, and a substrate adjacent to the outer sur
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Method and apparatus for determining diffusible hydrogen concentrations

U.S. Patent 7,306,951 Technology Description A measuring apparatus and method for use in measuring diffusible hydrogen concentrations in materials, structures, and other objects. In an embodiment of the invention for use in welding applications, the measuring apparatus (10) includes a sensor assembly (20) that, with an included sealing member (40), defines a sample area (17) on a weld bead (16) from which hydrogen evolves into a sample volume (18) defined by the sealing member (40), a senso
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Welding/Sealing Glass Enclosed Space in a Vacuum

U.S. Patent 5,489,321 Technology Description A method of welding and sealing the edges of two juxtaposed glass sheets together to seal a vacuum space between the sheets comprises the steps of positioning a radiation absorbant material, such as FeO, VO.sub.2, or NiO, between the radiation transmissive glass sheets adjacent the edges and then irradiating the absorbant material, preferably with a laser beam, through at least one of the glass sheets. Heat produced by the absorbed radiation in t
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Thin Film Method of Conductin Lithium-Ions

Technology Description The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.
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System for Rapid Biohydrogen Phenotypic Screening of Microorganisms Using a Chemochromic Sensor

U.S. Patent 6,448,068 Technology Description Provided is a system for identifying a hydrogen gas producing organism. The system includes a sensor film having a first layer comprising a transition metal oxide or oxysalt and a second layer comprising a hydrogen-dissociative catalyst metal, the first and second layers having an inner and an outer surface wherein the inner surface of the second layer is deposited on the outer surface of the first layer, and a substrate adjacent to the outer sur
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Stand-Alone Photovoltaic (PV) Powered Electrochromic Window

U.S. Patent 5,384,653 Technology Description A variable transmittance double pane window includes an electrochromic material that has been deposited on one pane of the window in conjunction with an array of photovoltaic cells deposited along an edge of the pane to produce the required electric power necessary to vary the effective transmittance of the window. A battery is placed in a parallel fashion to the array of photovoltaic cells to allow the user the ability to manually override the s
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Solid Lithium-Ion Electrolyte

U.S. Patent 5,716,736 Technology Description The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. Interested in this Technology? Browse related Patents, Trademarks and Copyrights U.S. Patent 5,377,037 - Electrochromic-Photovoltaic Fil
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Self Bleaching Photoelectrochemical-Electrochromic Device

U.S. Patent 6,369,934 Technology Description A photoelectrochemical-electrochromic device comprising a first transparent electrode and a second transparent electrode in parallel, spaced relation to each other. The first transparent electrode is electrically connected to the second transparent electrode. An electrochromic material is applied to the first transparent electrode and a nanoporous semiconductor film having a dye adsorbed therein is applied to the second transparent electrode. An
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Redox Polymer Electrodes for Advanced Batteries

U.S. Patent 5,840,443 Technology Description Advanced batteries having a long cycle lifetime are provided. More specifically, the present invention relates to electrodes made from redox polymer films and batteries in which either the positive electrode, the negative electrode, or both, comprise redox polymers. Suitable redox polymers for this purpose include pyridyl or polypyridyl complexes of transition metals like iron, ruthenium, osmium, chromium, tungsten and nickel; porphyrins (either
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Preparation of Superconductor Precursor Powders

U.S. Patent 5,789,348 Technology Description A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment.
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Photoconversion of Gasified Organic Materials Into Biologically Degradable Plastics

U.S. Patent 5,250,427 Technology Description A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into a bioplastic suitable for use as a biodegradable plastic. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide and hydrogen, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for production of useful biodegradab
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PD/NI-WO3 Anodic Double Layer Gasochromic Device

U.S. Patent 6,723,566 Technology Description An anodic double layer gasochromic sensor structure for optical detection of hydrogen in improved response time and with improved optical absorption real time constants, comprising: a glass substrate; a tungsten-doped nickel oxide layer coated on the glass substrate; and a palladium layer coated on the tungsten-doped nickel oxide layer.
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Molecular Water-Oxidation Catalyst

U.S. Patent 5,223,634 Technology Description A dimeric composition of the formula: ##STR1## wherein L', L", L'", and L"" are each a bidentate ligand having at least one functional substituent, the ligand selected from bipyridine, phenanthroline, 2-phenylpyridine, bipyrimidine, and bipyrazyl and the functional substituent selected from carboxylic acid, ester, amide, halogenide, anhydride, acyl ketone, alkyl ketone, acid chloride, sulfonic acid, phosphonic acid, and nitro and nitroso groups.
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Microwave Impregnation of Porous Materials with Thermal Energy Storage Materials

U.S. Patent 5,202,150 Technology Description A method for impregnating a porous, non-metallic construction material with a solid phase-change material is described. The phase-change material in finely divided form is spread onto the surface of the porous material, after which the porous material is exposed to microwave energy for a time sufficient to melt the phase-change material. The melted material is spontaneously absorbed into the pores of the porous material. A sealing chemical may al
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Method of High-Purity Silane Preparation

Technology Description A process for the preparation of high purity silane, suitable for forming thin layer silicon structures in various semiconductor devices and high purity poly- and single crystal silicon for a variety of applications, is provided. Synthesis of high-purity silane starts with a temperature assisted reaction of metallurgical silicon with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. Alcoxysilanes formed in the silicon-alcohol reaction are separated from other products and purified. S
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Method for Improving the Durability of Ion Insertion Materials

U.S. Patent 6,420,071 Technology Description The invention provides a method of protecting an ion insertion material from the degradative effects of a liquid or gel-type electrolyte material by disposing a protective, solid ion conducting, electrically insulating, layer between the ion insertion layer and the liquid or gel-type electrolyte material. The invention further provides liquid or gel-type electrochemical cells having improved durability having a pair of electrodes, a pair of ion i
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Method for Charging a Hydrogen Getter

U.S. Patent 5,807,533 Technology Description A method for charging a sample of either a permanent or reversible getter material with a high concentration of hydrogen while maintaining a base pressure below 10.sup.-4 torr at room temperature involves placing the sample of hydrogen getter material in a chamber, activating the sample of hydrogen getter material, overcharging the sample of getter material through conventional charging techniques to a high concentration of hydrogen, and then sub
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Method and Apparatus for Rapid Biohydrogen Phenotypic Screening of Microorganisms Using a Chemochromic Sensor

U.S. Patent 6,277,589 Technology Description The invention provides an assay system for identifying a hydrogen-gas-producing organism, including a sensor film having a first layer comprising a transition metal oxide or oxysalt and a second layer comprising hydrogen-dissociative catalyst metal, the first and second layers having an inner and an outer surface wherein the inner surface of the second layer is deposited on the outer surface of the first layer, and a substrate disposed proximally
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High Rate Chemical Vapor Deposition of Carbon Films Using Fluorinated Gases

Technology Description A high rate, low-temperature deposition of amorphous carbon films is produced by PE-CVD in the presence of a fluorinated or other halide gas. The deposition can be performed at less than 100.degree. C., including ambient room temperature, with a radio frequency plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition process. With less than 6.5 atomic percent fluorine incorporated into the amorphous carbon film, the characteristics of the carbon film, including index of refraction, m
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Electrochromic-Photovoltaic Film for Light-Sensitive Control of Optical Transmittance

Technology Description A variable transmittance optical component includes an electrochromic material and a photovoltaic device-type thin film solar cell deposited in a tandem type, monolithic single coating over the component. A bleed resistor of a predetermined value is connected in series across the electrochromic material and photovoltaic device controlling the activation and deactivation of the electrochromic material. The electrical conductivity between the electrochromic material and the
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Electrochromic Projection and Writing Device

Technology Description A display and projection apparatus includes an electrochromic material and a photoconductive material deposited in tandem used in conjunction with a light filtering means for filtering light transmitted through the electrochromic material. When an electric field is applied across the electrochromic material and the photoconductive material, light that is incident onto the photoconductive material through the surface of the projection apparatus causes the photoconductive ma
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Buried anode lithium thin film battery and process.

Technology Description A reverse configuration, lithium thin film battery (300) having a buried lithium anode layer (305) and process for making the same. The present invention is formed from a precursor composite structure (200) made by depositing electrolyte layer (204) onto substrate (201), followed by sequential depositions of cathode layer (203) and current collector (202) on the electrolyte layer. The precursor is subjected to an activation step, wherein a buried lithium anode layer (305)
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Photovoltaic Devices Comprising Zinc Stannate Buffer Layer and Method for Making

Technology Description A photovoltaic device has a buffer layer zinc stannate Zn.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 disposed between the semiconductor junction structure and the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layer to prevent formation of localized junctions with the TCO through a thin window semiconductor layer, to prevent shunting through etched grain boundaries of semiconductors, and to relieve stresses and improve adhesion between these layers.
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Method and Apparatus for Analyzing the Chemical Composition of Liquid Effluent from a Direct Contact Condenser

Technology Description A computational modeling method for predicting the chemical, physical, and thermodynamic performance of a condenser using calculations based on equations of physics for heat, momentum and mass transfer and equations of equilibrium thermodynamics to determine steady state profiles of parameters throughout the condenser. The method includes providing a set of input values relating to a condenser including liquid loading, vapor loading, and geometric characteristics of the co
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Heat Exchanger with Transpired, Highly Porous Fins

Technology Description The heat exchanger includes a fin and tube assembly with increased heat transfer surface area positioned within a hollow chamber of a housing to provide effective heat transfer between a gas flowing within the hollow chamber and a fluid flowing in the fin and tube assembly. A fan is included to force a gas, such as air, to flow through the hollow chamber and through the fin and tube assembly. The fin and tube assembly comprises fluid conduits to direct the fluid through th
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Enhancement of Wall Jet Transport Properties

Technology Description By enhancing the natural instabilities in the boundary layer and in the free shear layer of a wall jet, the boundary is minimized thereby increasing the transport of heat and mass. Enhancing the natural instabilities is accomplished by pulsing the flow of air that creates the wall jet. Such pulsing of the flow of air can be accomplished by sequentially occluding and opening a duct that confines and directs the flow of air, such as by rotating a disk on an axis transverse t
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n-Type Thiophene Semiconductor Devices (20024)

This invention demonstrates the use of n-type thiophene semiconducting films in the construction and operation of organic light-emitting diodes (OLED), thin film transistors (TFT), field effect transistors (FET) and related devices. Thiophene oligomers (nTs) and polymers (PTs) are known that operate as p-type semiconductors. However comparable electron transporting (n-type) organic materials are relatively rare as are stable n-type thiophene semiconductors. The invention of n-type thiophene cond
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Commercial-Scale Synthesis of p-type Transparent Conductors (21006)

A new process affording a single step route to polycrystalline samples of any delafossite-like (ABO2) material with phase purity has been developed. These materials exhibit luminescence, catalysis, and p-type conducting properties. These materials can be employed as sputtering targets in thin film fabrication, p-type transparent conducting oxides (TCOs), and in opto-electronic and photo-voltaic applications. ADVANTAGES: The synthesis of solid solutions, previously unattainable via other synth
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Superconducting Mg-MgB2 and Related Metal Composites and Methods of Preparation (21029)

This invention provides superconducting magnesium diboride (MgB2) materials and methods for their production that overcome present day synthesis limitations. Magnesium diboride has recently been found to be superconducting at the critical temperature Tc of 39°K, much higher than the best low-temperature intermetallic superconductors. However, widespread use of MgB2 as an economical superconducting material has been limited because it is a brittle ceramic and difficult to use in bulk form as a s
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Group III-V Diluted Magnetic Semiconductor Materials and Related Methods of Formation (22025)

The present invention provides a growth technique to achieve epitaxial, single-phase films of III-V diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs) with large Mn concentrations that exhibit ferromagnetic order at room temperature. The III-V DMS compositions and/or methods of this invention are suitable for device applications and utility in the fabrication of non-volatile magnetic random access memories (MRAM) integrated with semiconductor circuitry; spin-polarized transport devices such as read heads in
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III-V Ferromagnetic/Nonmagnetic Semiconductor Magnetodiodes For Use In Magnetic Field Sensors, Gaussmeters, and Other Magnetoresistive Devices (25014)

A novel "spintronic" magnetodiode based on a III-V ferromagnetic semiconductor and a III-V nonmagnetic semiconductor heterojunction has been created by Northwestern researchers. The diodes exhibit a large junction magnetoresistance that is linearly dependent on the applied magnetic field at room temperature, offering potential for new magnetic field sensor, gaussmeter, or other magnetoresistive devices. ADVANTAGES: A new magnetodiode that can be integrated into present day semiconductor struc
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Method of Making Silver Vanadium Oxide Material Useful as a Battery Cathode (27115/27058)

Ag2V4O11 (SVO) and Ag4V2O6F2, (SVOF) are important cathode materials for medical battery applications such as defibrillators. A one-step process has been developed affording crystalline SVO and SVOF by reaction under ambient conditions, eliminating the need for superambient pressure and temperatures. ADVANTAGES: Superior performing medical battery cathode materials can be produced with significant cost and environmental advantages. SUMMARY: The current standard cathode material in medica
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SMOFC Battery Cathode (27151/27059)

A novel battery cathode composition having a higher discharge capacity available from silver reduction at a potential above 3V compared to that of the current standard medical battery cathode SVO material. ADVANTAGES: Batteries incorporating the new cathode exhibit a potential above 3 V for extended periods of time, critical to medical devices such as defibrillators. The cathode is devoid of vanadium, provides chemical stability and electrochemical performance. SUMMARY: The medical batte
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Controlled Nanoscale Doping of Transparent Conducting Oxides by Focused Ion Beam Implantation (28091)

An effective method for the spatially-controlled writing of embedded, optically transparent, electrically conducting oxide nanowires and other patterns via focused ion beam implantation into highly resistive transparent metal oxide thin films. ADVANTAGES: Nanoscale, spatially-controlled doping of highly resistive indium oxide films enables the fabrication of embedded, optically transparent, electrically conducting wires. The dimensions achieved combined with the electrical properties of the
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Magnetic Electroporation

Background Electroporation is a process by which a biological cell is exposed to a high-voltage electric potential to generate transitory pores in the cell membrane. The pores allow large molecules, such as nucleic acids and proteins, to enter the cell from a medium in which the cell is stored. As a means of infusing biological cells with various types of molecules, electroporation is particularly useful in placing foreign DNA inside living cells; electroporation has also been used extensively i
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Fiber Image Analysis System

Background The quality of any product can be limited or enhanced by the quality of the source material from which it is made, and in the textile industry, this source material is the fiber from which cloth is made. Fiber analysis is currently used in the textile industry to measure fiber attributes that affect the quality of finished materials, such as fiber diameter distribution, fiber blend ratio and other geometric features. Fiber analysis requires the cutting of fiber material into small sni
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An Auto-Calibrated Refractometer for Single-Shot Measurement of Ultra-Fast Phenomena

Background Materials index of refraction (IOR) is a sensitive measure to variations of density, charge-state, conductivity, temperature, chemical composition, and microscopic structure. IOR measurements are common in a wide range of industrial and research applications, including materials processing, biological membrane development, pollution detection, semiconductor manufacturing, glucose monitoring, and nanofabrication. Invention Description This invention is offers an ultra-fast (femtose
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A Manual Scan Imaging Sonar

Background Sonar systems of similar application as this invention fall into three categories: single-beam mechanical scan, single-beam hand-held, and multiple-beam hand-held. Existing mechanically scanned single-beam sonars require a stable platform and stepper motor controls, which prevents their use by a diver. Hand-held single-beam sonars provide range-only information to the diver, who is then required to remember where targets are located. Existing multiple-beam sonars continuously display
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Surface Active Lactams

Background N-lower alkyl pyrrolidones have found wide commercial acceptance as non-toxic, aprotic chemical solvents. However, absence of hydrophobic-lipophobic balance in these molecules prevents micellular formation. Consequently, these molecules possess no significant aqueous surfactant properties. Linear amine oxides are known to possess high surfactant activity; however, these compounds are not stable at high temperatures and cannot be employed in metalworking or high-temperature fiber proce
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Lower Cost Fuel Cells

Background The advantages of fuel cell use are compelling. Fuel cells are cleaner and safer for the environment, and they offer an alternative to petroleum-burning internal combustion engines. The U.S. EPA states that accelerating the development of fuel cells and hydrogen is one of the most effective strategies government can pursue for cutting air emissions, responding to climate change, reducing dependence on Mideast oil, and making the U.S. energy system less vulnerable to terrorism. It i
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High-Performance Fuel Cell Membrane Materials

Background State-of-the-art fuel cell membranes have many shortcomings. Nafion, one of the most widely available membranes, cannot operate in temperatures in excess of 100 degrees Celsius, and because it must be wet to allow proton conduction, the fuel cell requires a complex external humidification system. Further, when used in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), these membranes exhibit high methanol crossover, reducing the efficiency and hindering performance. Because of this, the fuel cell mu
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Fabrication of Bioelectronic Material

Background Current fabrication methods of electronic or electroactive materials are inherently 2-D and involve expensive lithographic masks, complicated stamping, etc. Furthermore, current strategies have not proven useful for creating complex 3-D assemblies. Invention Description The use of direct-write lithography technique offers exceptional promise as a more direct assembly protocol for fabrication of functional bioelectronic elements. Soluble proteins are photo-crosslinked using multi-p
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Empowering Ultracapacitors with Chemically Modified Graphene Materials

Background There are two types of electrical energy storage devices: chemical energy storage (batteries) and electrochemical dual-layer capacitors (ultracapacitors). Ultracapacitors are widely used for energy recapture, energy storage, backup power supplies, and power conditioning applications. They are known for their excellent cycle lifetimes, high power densities, high efficiencies, tolerance to deep discharge and overcharging, broad temperature tolerance, and low energy densities Ultracap
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Chlorine-Resistant Reverse-Osmosis Membrane

Background Current state-of-the-art technology for reverse osmosis filtration of water has one major flaw: the addition of chlorine can cause the membrane to degrade. However, when treating saltwater or brackish water, it is necessary to introduce chlorine for sanitation and disinfection purposes. Unfortunately, commercially available membranes encounter significant problems when chlorine is introduced: namely, the degradation of the membrane, followed by the severe reduction of the permeability
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Advanced Polymer Membranes for the Purification of Hydrogen and Other Gases

Background Current methods for carbon dioxide removal and hydrogen purification are not only very expensive but also cause large losses of gas and use toxic chemicals. The hydrogen required in the refining business is generated through costly, toxic, and inefficient systems like steam methane reforming and pressure swing adsorption. Furthermore, most polymer membranes used for membrane purification systems are more permeable to small molecules (e.g., hydrogen) than to larger molecules (e.g., car
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Additive technology to eliminate bio-fouling in membranes; e.g., desalinization

Background One of the major roadblocks to widespread use of membranes for water purification is membrane fouling. Fouling occurs when certain impurities in water are deposited on the surface of a membrane or in its internal pore structure. This deposition leads to a dramatic reduction in water flux, which increases the operating costs and decreases membrane lifetime. Therefore, new membrane materials are needed to help reduce foulant adhesion. Most studies have focused increasing membrane hydrop
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Individually Addressed Large Scale Patterning of Conducting Polymers by Localized Electric Fields (23097)

A new multiplexed and parallel polymer patterning process, with individual addressability, via electropolymerization within the gap of electrodes has been developed at Northwestern University. The technology permits the scaleable and controlled patterning of conducting polymer structures on the micro-nanometer scale, desirable for fabricating optical, electronic, opto-electronic and sensing devices, such as light emitting devices, polymer transistor junctions, chemical sensors, among many others
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CUS Focalized Carrier Augmented Sensor (25015)

The invention is a novel avalanche-free single photon detector in the short infrared range that is suitable for ultra-sensitive high-density infrared imaging arrays. The pixel element is low voltage and operates at near room temperatures, does not depend on a large power supply/source, and has near zero excess noise. The ability to perform fast imaging with star light sensitive infrared photon counting arrays (PCAR) promotes a decisive advantage in many infrared imaging applications. This techno
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Surface-Immobilized Antimicrobial Peptoids (28138)

Northwestern researchers have developed peptoid mimics of antimicrobial peptides that can be immobilized onto surfaces, rendering these surfaces capable of compromising the membranes of attached bacteria. ADVANTAGES: Peptoids afford promising alternatives to conventional antimicrobials because of their stability, ease of synthesis and low cytotoxicity. These agents present solutions to infections associated with implantable medical devices. SUMMARY: Surface-immobilized antimicrobial polym
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Constant Force Suspension

There are several drawbacks to a traditional, passive suspension system. First, the system cannot eliminate the transmission of ground irregularities to the passenger. Second, ground disturbances are magnified by the suspension system, resulting in large disturbances to the passenger. Further, choosing spring and damper constants for optimum low-frequency ride quality results in poorer high-frequency ride quality. Additionally, choosing the best compromise set of constants for vehicle ride quali
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Analog-to-Digital Conversion Methods and Apparatus Enabled by Active and/or Passive Variable Delay Transmission Lines

Background Technology scaling adversely affects most parameters relevant to analog design, and ADCs are no exception. To achieve a high linearity, high sampling speed, and high dynamic range with low supply voltages and low power dissipation in ultra-deep submicron silicon technology is a major challenge. Moreover, as scaling continues, the intrinsic gain keeps decreasing, indicating that the device performance for precision analog devices decreases with continued scaling. Also, the explosive gr
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A Manual Scan Imaging Sonar

Background Sonar systems of similar application as this invention fall into three categories: single-beam mechanical scan, single-beam hand-held, and multiple-beam hand-held. Existing mechanically scanned single-beam sonars require a stable platform and stepper motor controls, which prevents their use by a diver. Hand-held single-beam sonars provide range-only information to the diver, who is then required to remember where targets are located. Existing multiple-beam sonars continuously display
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Photonic Sensor Arrays Based on a Non-Electrical Light Source

Employing xerogel based microdot sensor arrays, wherein recognition chemicals (luminophores) are sequestered, to detect and quantify multiple analytes is described earlier in technology no. 5729. Current methods of detection (based on color-change) r equire an external excitation source to emit visible light (such as an LED atop which microdots are printed). These consume power, lack longevity, and also necessitate wired connections, adversely affecting performance. This invention addresses thes
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Sensor Elements for Aqueous Samples (SEAS

Chemical sensor arrays are low cost, compact, robust and versatile alternatives to large analytical tools and hence drive the need to rapidly fabricate reusable chemical sensor arrays for simultaneous multi-analyte quantification. This invention includes the rapid fabrication of reusable chemical sensor arrays for simultaneous multi-analyte quantification by machining a novel array of minature spherical sensor dots atop an LED. The array can be specifically tailored for any known class of a
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Site Selectively Tagged and Templated Xerogels for Sensor Applications

Chemical sensor arrays are low cost, compact, robust and versatile alternatives to large analytical tools and hence drive the need to rapidly fabricate reusable chemical sensor arrays for simultaneous multi-analyte quantification. This invention includes the rapid fabrication of reusable chemical sensor arrays for simultaneous multi-analyte quantification by machining a novel array of minature spherical sensor dots atop an LED. The array can be specifically tailored for any known class of a
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CMOS Optical Detectors and Lock-In Amplifiers Used for Detection of Emission from Sensor Array Platforms

Chemical sensor arrays are low cost, compact, robust and versatile alternatives to large analytical tools and hence drive the need to rapidly fabricate reusable chemical sensor arrays for simultaneous multi-analyte quantification. This invention includes the rapid fabrication of reusable chemical sensor arrays for simultaneous multi-analyte quantification by machining a novel array of minature spherical sensor dots atop an LED. The array can be specifically tailored for any known class of a
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Pin Printed Chemical Sensor Array for Simultaneous Multi-Analyte Detection

Chemical sensor arrays are low cost, compact, robust and versatile alternatives to large analytical tools and hence drive the need to rapidly fabricate reusable chemical sensor arrays for simultaneous multi-analyte quantification. This invention includes the rapid fabrication of reusable chemical sensor arrays for simultaneous multi-analyte quantification by machining a novel array of minature spherical sensor sensor dots atop an LED. The array can be specifically tailored for any known cla
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Method and System for Controlled Dispersion Acoustic Impulse Signal Based Detection and Imaging of Buried Inclusions in Dry and Wet Granular Beds

invention relates to a method and a system for detecting and imaging the shape, location, and material identity of buried objects at any depth in granular beds. It employs controlled dispersion mechanical energy impulses generated over relative ly small areas of the surface of a granular bed. A computer will detect the results of the impacting impulses and will be used to create a visual image of the buried object and its location, as viewed from above. The material that the object is compos
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Micromachined Microsensor Arrays for Chemical Sensing Applications

Chemical sensor arrays are low cost, compact, robust and versatile alternatives to large analytical tools like optical spectrometers. This invention describes the rapid fabrication of reusable chemical sensor arrays for simultaneous multi-analyte qua ntification by machining a novel array on the face of an LED. The array can be specifically tailored for any known class of analytes. Other values are: 1) Low power consumption (LEDs run cheap on batteries); inexpensive sensor light source; autom
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Detection and identification of buried, non-metallic landmines via acoustic sensing

This invention describes a technology appropriate for detection of buried objects such as landmines, buried structures and artifacts in soil beds and inhomogeneities in mass distribution of powders. It is a method and a system for detecting and imaging the shape, location, and material identity of buried objects at any depth in granular beds. It employs controlled dispersion of mechanical energy impulses generated over relatively small areas of the surface of a granular bed. If there is a ny
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Low Power Solid-State Sensor Device

This invention describes the design of a novel sensor to quantify molecular Oxygen (O2) based entirely on solid-state electronics. A derivative compound of Ruthenium II has been found to exhibit luminescence of a very specific quality. Upon reacting with molecular O2, the characteristics of the luminescence are found to change (quenching). This technology detects the change and enables quantification of the amount of Oxygen present. The method involves: Immobilizing the ruthenium complex within
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Low Frequency Seismic Accelerometer

This invention describes a sensor for civil engineering applications in earthquake zones and for other applications where low frequency, large dynamic measurement range is required. Earlier technologies like high and "force-balance" acceleromet an deliver the frequency and dynamic range but are extremely expensive. Capacitor type, silicon type sensors have good frequency range but poor dynamic range. Piezoelectric type sensors have poor frequency range also narrow dynamic range. Piezo-re sistant
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In-Situ Stress-Strain Sensor

This invention describes a technology that provides a new class of strain/stress sensors. The sensors are short fiber composites. They provide a reversible electrical response to strain/stress application. The sensing material can function as the structure material at the same time, so no embedding or attaching of sensors to or on a structure is needed. The sensing material is low cost and durable. Categories: Sensors, Materials & Chemicals
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Frequency and phase measurements using the Morlet transform

Introduction Telecommunication systems designed for Bluetooth or other standards deal with transmitted and received signals in the radio frequency (RF) range. Modulation methods and frequency-hopping techniques are employed to optimize access for multiple users. These communication architectures create RF signals whose frequency contents vary significantly in a short time window and whose phase changes have a strong effect on the correct decoding of the received signals. While many test methods,
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Application of Grating Light Reflection Spectroscopy in Analytical Sensors

Introduction There are a number of methods for measuring bulk fluid compositions in statics and flow by visible light reflection characteristics from the optically inhomogeneous wall of a vessel. Surface Plasmon Spectroscopy (SPS) on gratings and randomly rough surfaces has proven to be especially sensitive to fluid composition near the wall. However, SPS techniques have inherent drawbacks when used as analytical sensing techniques. Grating Light Reflection Spectroscopy (GLRS) relies on an optic
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Design of Spring Actuators Based on Ferromagnetic Shape Memory

Introduction Shape memory alloys (SMA) and ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (FSMA) have shown tremendous promise for a wide variety of applications because of their ability to “remember” a previous state when either heat or a magnetic field is applied, respectively. This is especially important for novel actuators and sensors as a way to transduce either heat or a magnetic field directly into mechanical energy for work or signaling. Technology Description Professor Taya and others at the U
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Inductive Salinometer with Data Logging Capabilities and Toroidal Sensor

Introduction Salinity levels in seawater are not constant and can vary dramatically both temporally and spatially due to phenomena such as temperature, precipitation, deep-water upwelling, and tidal action. These variations are especially pronounced in coastal and estuarine waters where seawater interfaces with land and fresh water. While technologies do exist to measure salinity, they do not currently exist to monitor it over time and space while unattended. Technology Description Professor Bus
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Crosslinkable Hole Transporting Materials for Organic Lightemitting Diodes

Introduction High-performance organic or polymer light-emitting diodes comprise multilayer configurations having hole-transporting, emissive and electron-transporting layers to balance the injection and transport of both holes and electrons. In general, holetransporting material is the first applied layer onto the anode upon sequential layerby- layer fabrication of a device. This hole-transporting layer (HTL) plays a very important role in the efficiency of multilayer PLEDs. Technology descripti
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A Microfluidic Device and Methodology for Rapid, Quantitative Determination of Analyte Concentration in a Fluid Sample

Introduction Advances in microfluidic technology are constantly opening doors to new and exciting applications, especially for biosensors and environmental monitoring. One recent area of interest is point-of-care diagnostic devices. These devices provide fast, accurate, and inexpensive sample analysis. Recent advances have enabled a universal platform that is adaptable to a potentially limitless array of analytes and could lead to affordable health care devices, including for the developing worl
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Programmable Generation and Transport of Droplets on Microscale Surface Texture Ratchets

Introduction Advances in microfluidic technology are constantly opening doors to new and exciting applications. Currently, many laboratory processes can be combined on a single chip commonly only millimeters in size while manipulating liquid volumes of picoliter size or less. In order to effectively perform the many processes that may be required of a microfluidic system, various tools are required, such as pumps, valves, mixers, and ratchets. In particular, the development of ratchets and other
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Design of Spring Actuators Based on Ferromagnetic Shape Memory Alloys and Composites

Introduction Shape memory alloys (SMA) and ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (FSMA) have shown tremendous promise for a wide variety of applications because of their ability to “remember” a previous state when either heat or a magnetic field is applied, respectively. This is especially important for novel actuators and sensors as a way to transduce either heat or a magnetic field directly into mechanical energy for work or signaling. Technology Description Professor Taya and others at the U
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Inductive Salinometer with Data Logging Capabilities and Toroidal Sensor

Introduction Salinity levels in seawater are not constant and can vary dramatically both temporally and spatially due to phenomena such as temperature, precipitation, deep-water upwelling, and tidal action. These variations are especially pronounced in coastal and estuarine waters where seawater interfaces with land and fresh water. While technologies do exist to measure salinity, they do not currently exist to monitor it over time and space while unattended. Technology Description Professor Bus
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Method of Detecting, Characterizing, and Quantifying Bulk, Light-Element Materials Using High-Energy, Penetrating X-Rays

Introduction X-rays have long been used in the characterization of a wide variety of materials. However, conventional techniques for dealing with light-element (or low-Z) materials, such as those containing nitrogen and carbon, are too low in energy to penetrate significant distances into enclosing material or into the bulk of the material of interest. A higher energy technique is required to solve this problem. Technology Description Researcher Elam at the University of Washington has developed
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Respiratory Detection System (RDS)

Introduction Respiration rates are an important indicator of cellular and metabolic states in cells ranging from mammalian to bacterial, from individuals to large populations. Unfortunately, conventional techniques have significant drawbacks: for instance, electrochemical techniques have low sensitivity and consume oxygen and optical techniques are difficult to integrate. With more effective monitoring techniques, the detection of microorganisms, the characterization of disease states, and the c
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Production of Palladium Nanostructures with Shape Selection by Adding Bromide

Introduction Single-crystal, one-dimensional nanostructures of palladium are attractive as interconnects for fabricating nanoscale electronic devices. Polycrystalline, mesoscopic wires made of palladium have been utilized for resistance-based detection of hydrogen gas. However, polycrystalline wires containing gaps between adjacent grains often shrink after initial exposure to hydrogen and may cause random, irreversible changes to the resistance of a sensing device. It should be possible to over
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Evanescent Wave Coupling Sensor for Shear/Pressure Measurement

Introduction Lower limb complications associated with diabetes include the development of plantar ulcers that can lead to infection and subsequent amputation. Several authors have postulated that shear stress is an important component of ulcer development. While it is known from force plate analyses that there are medial/lateral and anterior /posterior shear components of the ground reaction force, there is little known about the actual distribution of this force during daily activities, nor abo
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Application of Grating Light Reflection Spectroscopy in Analytical Sensors

Introduction There are a number of methods for measuring bulk fluid compositions in statics and flow by visible light reflection characteristics from the optically inhomogeneous wall of a vessel. Surface Plasmon Spectroscopy (SPS) on gratings and randomly rough surfaces has proven to be especially sensitive to fluid composition near the wall. However, SPS techniques have inherent drawbacks when used as analytical sensing techniques. Grating Light Reflection Spectroscopy (GLRS) relies on an optic
...

Safe last step

Introduction A common cause of injury among orchard workers in Washington state occurs when the user dismounts the ladder. The user often cannot accurately gauge the last step of the ladder because the line of sight is obscured by the apple bag when descending the ladder, with their back facing the ladder. The user may inadvertently step off the ladder at an upper rung causing falls that can be dangerous, especially with loaded fruit bags. Technology description Researchers at the University of
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Smart Ladder

Introduction A leading cause of worker injury in the fruit tree industry involves orchard ladder stability and the level of awareness of the user when climbing and dismounting the ladder. Due to cultural and economic reasons, industry acceptance of all-new designs has been low. Rather than radically changing ladder design to address these issues, a better approach is to design safety features into currently-used ladders. Technology description Researchers at the University of Washington have dev
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Method of Creating Self-Assembled, Selectively-Permeable Colloidosome Structures

Summary Colloidosomes are spherical shells of micron-sized particles made by the simple technique of self-assembly onto emulsion droplets. These hollow, elastic capsules are ideal for efficiently encapsulating active agents for selective and timed release because they are highly controllable in strength, permeability and elasticity. Colloidosomes are an enabling technology with a variety of applications from functional foods to drug delivery to biotech and metallurgy. Capsules are composed o
...

Electric Field Mediated Emulsification in a Flow Focusing Microfluidic Device

Summary This invention describes a microfluidic electro-flow focusing device. The essence of the device is the application of an electric field at a flow focusing junction between two immiscible fluids. The electric field creates charged drops and large forces necessary for emulsification, while the flow-focusing stabilizes the droplet production even at high fields where a Taylor cone is present. One application of this technology is the generation of charged droplets with a narrow distribution
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Patterning of metals and metal compounds using ionotropic polymers

Summary Background: Patterning surfaces to create some function is a core technology propelling our technical society. The most important such technology, photolithography, is used to create IC chips with nanoscale features. It is also the most expensive with fab capital costs greater than several billion dollars. Not all surface patterning needs require nanoscale resolution. Soft lithography, pioneered by George Whitesides, can create patterns on a surface in the microscale using a suite of
...

Microfabricated, Chip-Based, Low-Power Optical Tweezers

Summary Since they were first demonstrated over twenty years ago, optical tweezers have been widely used for the manipulation and measurement of many microscale particles, particularly in the biological sciences. However, many of these systems require large, high-powered laser systems along with bulky and expensive optical objectives. With growing interest in microfluidics and other chip-based systems for high-throughput biological studies, a compact and integrated optical tweezer would be highl
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Optical Binding AMPERSAND Organizing

Summary Also known as "Optical Binding and Trapping System," this invention creates arrays of extended crystalline and non-crystalline structures using light beams coupled to microscopic polarizable matter. Applications Dielectric, semiconductor, metal, molecular, atomic and biological matter can be organized using light to fabricate numerous devices including mechanical and optical filters, templates for epitaxy, photonic semiconductors, optical components including holograms, diffractive op
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POVM Receiver for Quantum Cryptography

Summary Quantum cryptography relies on the impossibility of ascribing definite values to non-communicating variables in order to assure secrecy of communication. Theoretical and experimental efforts in this area have been concentrated mainly on one of the basic cryptographic techniques, namely key distribution. Conventional cryptography provides no tools to guarantee the security of the key distribution. Any encoding by means of classical objects is vulnerable to passive interception. Quantum
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Method and Apparatus for Altering the Velocity of Molecules

Summary The invention relates to a device that alters the translational velocity of gaseous molecules (or atoms) by use of a moving supersonic nozzle. In practice, a source of gas is placed in contact with a supersonic nozzle attached to an arm at a given distance from the axis of rotation. (The nozzle's exit is essentially perpendicular to the arm.) Nozzle movement can be either linear or repetitive, such as a pendulum. Whatever the movement, the nozzle needs to be oriented in a direction oppos
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Electric Microcontact Printing

Summary This invention has utility in data storage and in preparing surfaces to receive other materials in specific predetermined patterns, such as in nanoxerography. A variant of a microcontact-printing stamp lays down a pattern of charges on an electret substrate. The technique can cover a substrate with an area of one square centimeter with multiple charges from 110 nm - 100 micrometers in size in less than 20 seconds, providing an area density of up to 7 Gbits/sq. cm., 140 times larger than
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A method for Fabricating Optical waveguides and other Optical Devices in Three D

Summary This invention describes a method to directly write optical elements in three dimensions inside a transparent material using an unamplified femtosecond laser. Ultrashort pulses from a laser oscillator are tightly focused into the material, causing localized heating and subsequently producing refractive index changes in the bulk of the material. Applications The present invention uses an unamplified femtosecond laser oscillator to write waveguides or other optical devices by creation o
...

Method of Creating Self-Assembled, Selectively-Permeable Colloidosome Structures

Summary Colloidosomes are spherical shells of micron-sized particles made by the simple technique of self-assembly onto emulsion droplets. These hollow, elastic capsules are ideal for efficiently encapsulating active agents for selective and timed release because they are highly controllable in strength, permeability and elasticity. Colloidosomes are an enabling technology with a variety of applications from functional foods to drug delivery to biotech and metallurgy. Capsules are composed o
...

Microlens for Projection Lithography and Method of Preparation Thereof

Summary This invention claims a lithographic technique that can inexpensively produce simple, repetitive micropatterns over large areas of at least several square centimeters. It uses an illuminated array of micrometer-scale lenses to generate an array of optical patterns in an image plane located within micrometer distances from the lens array. A layer of photoresist, placed in the image plane, records the patterns. Microleneses with different sizes, profiles, compositions and indices of refrac
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Microscale Electromagnetic Device

Summary This invention concerns devices and methodology to control the positioning and movement of magnetic and non-magnetic nanoparticles in a fluid with nanometer precision. The devices allow for the independent and simultaneous control of many particles. The devices utilize a grid of current carrying wires or an array of charged posts to create isolated and continuously moveable magnetic field maxima or electic field maxima, respectively, which trap and hold the particles. The devices have ma
...

Nanoscale Electrically Driven Lasers

Summary This invention is the first demonstration of an electrically driven nanoscale laser. A CdS nanowire, comprising a Fabry-Perot cavity, in contact with an electrode distributed along its length or crossing a Si nanowire, lases above a threshold current. Changing the material the nanowire is composed of can change the wavelength. This invention opens up new realms of applications in nanoscale electrical systems - including anywhere LEDs and lasers are used now and many new applications such
...

Using Electro-magnetically Induced Transparency in Photonic Crystal Cavities to

Summary This invention describes a photonic crystal system which uses electro-magnetically induced transparency (EIT) as the non-linear medium in photonic crystal cavities to obtain devices of unprecedent non-linear sensitivity, with operating power requirements many orders of magnitude smaller than in most non-linear optics devices. Implementation is not limited to EIT and can use any kind of cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). This invention also describes a method of forming a microcavit
...

Keyboard Having Touch Sensor Keys for Conveying Information Electronically

Summary This invention uses an array of sensors, which enable a human to use his fingers or tongue to convey information electronically. The sensors are arranged to produce signal patterns by responding to the positioning of the finger or tongue within the action area, with finger or tongue pressures as small as zero. Each signal pattern produced by the sensors is translated to an information signal corresponding to an item of information to be conveyed. The circuitry includes a background noise
...

Magneto-Luminescent Transducer

Summary This invention provides a one step process for reading magnetic data and converting the magnetic digital signal directly into an optical signal. This invention enables an electronic system, which includes a three terminal device having a light emitting portion and a magnetically sensitive portion. The magnetically sensitive portion is for modulating light emission from the light-emitting portion. The device is a spin valve transistor having a light-emitting quantum well in its collector.
...

Electric Field Mediated Emulsification in a Flow Focusing Microfluidic Device

Summary This invention describes a microfluidic electro-flow focusing device. The essence of the device is the application of an electric field at a flow focusing junction between two immiscible fluids. The electric field creates charged drops and large forces necessary for emulsification, while the flow-focusing stabilizes the droplet production even at high fields where a Taylor cone is present. One application of this technology is the generation of charged droplets with a narrow distribution
...

Nanometer patterning with Ice

Summary Harvard Cases 2331 and 2440 These inventions involve the use of gases directly solidified onto cryogenically cooled substrates to form conformal thin films as resists for lithographically patterning the substrates. Examples of such gases are water vapor and rare gases such as argon. Water as a resist is placed on the substrate directly from the gas phase, patterned with an energetic beam (electron, ion or light), and then the rest is removed by sublimation. This has numerous advantage
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Coherent Control of Optical Information with Matter Wave Dynamics

Summary The invention is a technique for stopping light pulses, converting them to matter, and then transporting them to another location. A laser pulse is sent toward one Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) – a collection of atoms cooled to nearly absolute zero – where it is stopped and then stored. The light is converted to a traveling matter wave, sent some distance away to another BEC and the light pulse is revived at the second location. Effectively, the laser pulse is extinguished
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New Nitrate Measurement Method

Summary By employing novel filtration methods, this semi-continuous ambient particulate nitrate monitor measures the concentration of particulate ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) contained in PM2.5. The device consists mainly of an inlet, filter, heater and detector. In 10-minute cycles, nitrates are collected with a PTFE membrane filter, subsequently volatilized via thermal desorption in a two zone heater, and finally, measured using chemiluminescent detection. The Limit of Detection is better tha
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Coating Methods and Compositions for Production of Digitized Stereoscopic Polari

Summary The Technology The Stereo Imaging Research Group developed methods, materials and applications for stereoscopic hardcopy. The group's StereoJet process forms polarizing images by inkjet printing, using commercial desktop printers without modification. Key inventions include specialized substrates, inks and procedures. Each StereoJet print or transparency consists of a pair of superimposed, oppositely polarizing digital images, one representing the left-eye view and the other repre
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A Novel Color Filter Array Design

Summary Background In digital imaging applications, data are typically obtained via a spatial subsampling procedure implemented as a color filter array (CFA). CFA assigns a separate primary color to each pixel by placing a filter of that color over the pixel. The most well known CFA is the Bayer pattern which uses a checkerboard pattern with alternating rows of filters. The Bayer filter has twice as many green pixels as red or blue and takes advantage of the human eye’s tendency to see
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POVM Receiver for Quantum Cryptography

Summary Quantum cryptography relies on the impossibility of ascribing definite values to non-communicating variables in order to assure secrecy of communication. Theoretical and experimental efforts in this area have been concentrated mainly on one of the basic cryptographic techniques, namely key distribution. Conventional cryptography provides no tools to guarantee the security of the key distribution. Any encoding by means of classical objects is vulnerable to passive interception. Quantum
...

A method for Fabricating Optical waveguides and other Optical Devices in Three D

Summary This invention describes a method to directly write optical elements in three dimensions inside a transparent material using an unamplified femtosecond laser. Ultrashort pulses from a laser oscillator are tightly focused into the material, causing localized heating and subsequently producing refractive index changes in the bulk of the material. Applications The present invention uses an unamplified femtosecond laser oscillator to write waveguides or other optical devices by creation o
...

Microscale Electromagnetic Device

Summary This invention concerns devices and methodology to control the positioning and movement of magnetic and non-magnetic nanoparticles in a fluid with nanometer precision. The devices allow for the independent and simultaneous control of many particles. The devices utilize a grid of current carrying wires or an array of charged posts to create isolated and continuously moveable magnetic field maxima or electic field maxima, respectively, which trap and hold the particles. The devices have ma
...

Nanoscale Electrically Driven Lasers

Summary This invention is the first demonstration of an electrically driven nanoscale laser. A CdS nanowire, comprising a Fabry-Perot cavity, in contact with an electrode distributed along its length or crossing a Si nanowire, lases above a threshold current. Changing the material the nanowire is composed of can change the wavelength. This invention opens up new realms of applications in nanoscale electrical systems - including anywhere LEDs and lasers are used now and many new applications such
...

Using Electro-magnetically Induced Transparency in Photonic Crystal Cavities to

Summary This invention describes a photonic crystal system which uses electro-magnetically induced transparency (EIT) as the non-linear medium in photonic crystal cavities to obtain devices of unprecedent non-linear sensitivity, with operating power requirements many orders of magnitude smaller than in most non-linear optics devices. Implementation is not limited to EIT and can use any kind of cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). This invention also describes a method of forming a microcavit
...

Keyboard Having Touch Sensor Keys for Conveying Information Electronically

Summary This invention uses an array of sensors, which enable a human to use his fingers or tongue to convey information electronically. The sensors are arranged to produce signal patterns by responding to the positioning of the finger or tongue within the action area, with finger or tongue pressures as small as zero. Each signal pattern produced by the sensors is translated to an information signal corresponding to an item of information to be conveyed. The circuitry includes a background noise
...

Magneto-Luminescent Transducer

Summary This invention provides a one step process for reading magnetic data and converting the magnetic digital signal directly into an optical signal. This invention enables an electronic system, which includes a three terminal device having a light emitting portion and a magnetically sensitive portion. The magnetically sensitive portion is for modulating light emission from the light-emitting portion. The device is a spin valve transistor having a light-emitting quantum well in its collector.
...

Frictionless Nano-bearing

Summary Micro- and nanofabricated rotation and translation devices usually rely on the possibility to support the moving part on small dimples in order to reduce the contact area with the substrate. Nonetheless, large forces must be applied to overcome the residual friction. Furthermore, results largely vary from sample to sample, because friction strongly depends on the chemical and physical properties of the surfaces (notably, surface roughness and water contamination). The invention relies on
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Novel Surfactants for Stabilizing Emulsions of Water or Hydrocarbon Oil-Based Droplets in a Fluorocarbon Oil Continuous Phase

Summary Emulsions—dispersions of two immiscible fluids—have many applications in industry and everyday life. These range from paints, to crop protection, chemical synthesis, and production of latices. They are also increasingly attractive for analytical applications. Traditional emulsions consist of water and hydrocarbon oil. However, this combination does not allow for a wide variety of applications. It is therefore of advantage to replace one of these liquids with a third class o
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Creating Nano-Wrinkles of Virtually any Design on the Surface of Polymers

Summary Creating Nano-Wrinkles of Virtually any Design on the Surface of Polymers Elevator pitch: A new method has been developed at Harvard to design and create virtually any type of nano-wrinkle patterns on the surfaces of polymers. Anticipated applications for these hard-skin nano-wrinkled surfaces include tissue engineering, where the wrinkles can create custom-designed scaffolds for optimizing cell growth, and microfluidics, where customized wrinkle patterns can enable complex fluidic
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General Approach to Large Area, Controlled Density, Aligned Films of Nanowires and Carbon Nanotubes via Bubble Expansion

Summary Background Central to many proposed electronic device-based applications of nanowires and carbon nanotubes is the development of methods that enable organization over large areas with controlled orientation and density. While progress has been made in studies of individual or small numbers of nanowire and nanotube devices prepared by directed assembly and centimetre scale assembly of nanowire field effect transistor arrays by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique, it is unclear if these can be
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Uniform Non-Spherical Colloidal Particles with Tunable Shapes

Summary Background: Non-spherical colloidal particles are useful in advanced applications beyond those that regular spherical colloidal particles exhibit. For example they are useful for modifying optical properties, controlling suspension rheology, and engineering colloidal composites. However current methods of making uniform sized particles with a controllable non-spherical shape are generally not scaleable to commercial quantities, which limits their practical application. The current inv
...

Patterning of metals and metal compounds using ionotropic polymers

Summary Background: Patterning surfaces to create some function is a core technology propelling our technical society. The most important such technology, photolithography, is used to create IC chips with nanoscale features. It is also the most expensive with fab capital costs greater than several billion dollars. Not all surface patterning needs require nanoscale resolution. Soft lithography, pioneered by George Whitesides, can create patterns on a surface in the microscale using a suite of
...

Portable and Inexpensive Chemical and Biological Sensors

Summary The broadly tunable quantum cascade laser (QCL) described in this invention enables the production of a small, portable chemical and biological sensor that can detect a range of molecules within a single, compact device. Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs) are intraband semiconductor lasers that can emit within the mid-infrared and terahertz spectral regions, in particular, the molecular ‘fingerprint’ range where many molecules have tell-tale absorptions. The broadly tunable QCL u
...

Microfabricated, Chip-Based, Low-Power Optical Tweezers

Summary Since they were first demonstrated over twenty years ago, optical tweezers have been widely used for the manipulation and measurement of many microscale particles, particularly in the biological sciences. However, many of these systems require large, high-powered laser systems along with bulky and expensive optical objectives. With growing interest in microfluidics and other chip-based systems for high-throughput biological studies, a compact and integrated optical tweezer would be highl
...

Microfabricated, Chip-Based, Low-Power Optical Tweezers

Summary Since they were first demonstrated over twenty years ago, optical tweezers have been widely used for the manipulation and measurement of many microscale particles, particularly in the biological sciences. However, many of these systems require large, high-powered laser systems along with bulky and expensive optical objectives. With growing interest in microfluidics and other chip-based systems for high-throughput biological studies, a compact and integrated optical tweezer would be highl
...

Microfabricated, Chip-Based, Low-Power Optical Tweezers

Summary Since they were first demonstrated over twenty years ago, optical tweezers have been widely used for the manipulation and measurement of many microscale particles, particularly in the biological sciences. However, many of these systems require large, high-powered laser systems along with bulky and expensive optical objectives. With growing interest in microfluidics and other chip-based systems for high-throughput biological studies, a compact and integrated optical tweezer would be highl
...

Improved Metal Complex Chemical Precursors for Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) and Chemical Vapor Depostion (CVD) using Bicyclic Guanidines

Summary Continued improvements in semiconductor technologies rely heavily on advanced material compositions such as high-k dielectrics, low-k dielectrics, and electrically conductive metal nitrides. These materials enable the continued progression of Moore’s Law, allowing ever-smaller components to be integrated onto a microelectronic chip. In current device fabrication facilities, vapor deposition is a preferred method for making these materials, allowing precise control over material un
...

POVM Receiver for Quantum Cryptography

Summary Quantum cryptography relies on the impossibility of ascribing definite values to non-communicating variables in order to assure secrecy of communication. Theoretical and experimental efforts in this area have been concentrated mainly on one of the basic cryptographic techniques, namely key distribution. Conventional cryptography provides no tools to guarantee the security of the key distribution. Any encoding by means of classical objects is vulnerable to passive interception. Quantum
...

New Nitrate Measurement Method

Summary By employing novel filtration methods, this semi-continuous ambient particulate nitrate monitor measures the concentration of particulate ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) contained in PM2.5. The device consists mainly of an inlet, filter, heater and detector. In 10-minute cycles, nitrates are collected with a PTFE membrane filter, subsequently volatilized via thermal desorption in a two zone heater, and finally, measured using chemiluminescent detection. The Limit of Detection is better tha
...

Microlens for Projection Lithography and Method of Preparation Thereof

Summary This invention claims a lithographic technique that can inexpensively produce simple, repetitive micropatterns over large areas of at least several square centimeters. It uses an illuminated array of micrometer-scale lenses to generate an array of optical patterns in an image plane located within micrometer distances from the lens array. A layer of photoresist, placed in the image plane, records the patterns. Microleneses with different sizes, profiles, compositions and indices of refrac
...

Microscale Electromagnetic Device

Summary This invention concerns devices and methodology to control the positioning and movement of magnetic and non-magnetic nanoparticles in a fluid with nanometer precision. The devices allow for the independent and simultaneous control of many particles. The devices utilize a grid of current carrying wires or an array of charged posts to create isolated and continuously moveable magnetic field maxima or electic field maxima, respectively, which trap and hold the particles. The devices have ma
...

Nanoscale Electrically Driven Lasers

Summary This invention is the first demonstration of an electrically driven nanoscale laser. A CdS nanowire, comprising a Fabry-Perot cavity, in contact with an electrode distributed along its length or crossing a Si nanowire, lases above a threshold current. Changing the material the nanowire is composed of can change the wavelength. This invention opens up new realms of applications in nanoscale electrical systems - including anywhere LEDs and lasers are used now and many new applications such
...

Keyboard Having Touch Sensor Keys for Conveying Information Electronically

Summary This invention uses an array of sensors, which enable a human to use his fingers or tongue to convey information electronically. The sensors are arranged to produce signal patterns by responding to the positioning of the finger or tongue within the action area, with finger or tongue pressures as small as zero. Each signal pattern produced by the sensors is translated to an information signal corresponding to an item of information to be conveyed. The circuitry includes a background noise
...

Nanometer patterning with Ice

Summary Harvard Cases 2331 and 2440 These inventions involve the use of gases directly solidified onto cryogenically cooled substrates to form conformal thin films as resists for lithographically patterning the substrates. Examples of such gases are water vapor and rare gases such as argon. Water as a resist is placed on the substrate directly from the gas phase, patterned with an energetic beam (electron, ion or light), and then the rest is removed by sublimation. This has numerous advantage
...

Lift-off Patterning Processes Using Solid-Condensed-Gas Layers As Resists

Summary Harvard Cases 2310 and 2440 These inventions involve the use of gases directly solidified onto cryogenically cooled substrates to form conformal thin films as resists for lithographically patterning the substrates. Examples of such gases are water vapor and rare gases such as argon. Water as a resist is placed on the substrate directly from the gas phase, patterned with an energetic beam (electron, ion or light), and then the rest is removed by sublimation. This has numerous advantage
...

Using Electro-magnetically Induced Transparency in Photonic Crystal Cavities to

Summary This invention describes a photonic crystal system which uses electro-magnetically induced transparency (EIT) as the non-linear medium in photonic crystal cavities to obtain devices of unprecedent non-linear sensitivity, with operating power requirements many orders of magnitude smaller than in most non-linear optics devices. Implementation is not limited to EIT and can use any kind of cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). This invention also describes a method of forming a microcavit
...

High Yield Fabrication of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Probe Tips for Atomic Force Microscopy

Summary This invention concerns a novel method of making single-walled carbon nanotubes with small diameters (1 - 5 nm) and placing one on an atomic force microscope's (AFM) probe to make a super-sensitive probe for imaging atomic scale objects. The synthesis method entails the use of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using nanoparticles of metals, such as iron, to catalyze nanotube growth on the particles. The diameter of the nanoparticle determines the diameter of the nanotube. By utilizing a co
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Intensity Referenced Oxygen and Pressure Sensor

Introduction Oxygen and air pressure measurement are used in a number of analytical and monitoring applications. When a single oxygen or pressure sensor is used it is difficult to produce reproducible and quantifiable results due to temperature and concentration dependent measurement variations. An internally referenced sensor system can overcome these variations and produce consistent, comparable results. Technology description The inventors have developed a dual compound oxygen and pressure se
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Crosslinkable Hole Transporting Materials for Organic Light Crosslinkable Hole Transporting Materials for Organic Lightemitting

Introduction High-performance organic or polymer light-emitting diodes comprise multilayer configurations having hole-transporting, emissive and electron-transporting layers to balance the injection and transport of both holes and electrons. In general, holetransporting material is the first applied layer onto the anode upon sequential layerby- layer fabrication of a device. This hole-transporting layer (HTL) plays a very important role in the efficiency of multilayer PLEDs. Technology descripti
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Multilevel Modulation for Free Space Optical (FSO) Communications and Error Correction Methodology

Introduction Wireless optical links, or free space optics (FSO), enable point-to-point, high-speed communication with low installation costs and high levels of security, and they are especially useful in situations where fiberoptics are impractical. Unfortunately, this technique suffers from signal scattering and attenuation during certain weather conditions—such as rain, fog, or smog—that can deteriorate or even sever the connection. More universally robust methodologies would better positi
...

Scalable, Rapidly Tunable Wavelength Selective Ring Resonator

Introduction Wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) is a capacity increasing technology used in fiber-optic communications to carry different optical signals in a single optical fiber. Optical add-drop multiplexers are required at either end of a fiber for WDM. Current technologies switch too slowly, only switch over a limited wavelength range, are not compatible with silicon processing, do not scale well (both by number of fibers and wavelengths), and have other problems limiting their usefulne
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Continuous Production of Microcellular Fibers

Introduction In microcellular plastic foams, inert gas is dissolved in thermoplastic under high pressure. The forced evacuation of this gas during processing creates pores (or cells) within the final plastic. The pores are small enough that clarity of the plastic is unaffected, and because of the pores, much less starting material is required in microcellular plastics than in conventional plastics, greatly reducing weight and cost. As a wide range of pore densities is achievable, this technology
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Microcellular Foaming of Cyclic Olefin Copolymer (COC)

Introduction Cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) is a commercially available thermoplastic. It possesses exceptional clarity in its natural form, similar to that of glass, and it has high moisture resistance and low absorption rates. This thermoplastic’s many qualities make it an exceptional candidate for many applications, ranging from optics to packaging. The ability to create microcellular plastic foams using COC would further increase its range of applications with a significant reduction in mat
...

Application of Grating Light Reflection Spectroscopy in Analytical Sensors

Introduction There are a number of methods for measuring bulk fluid compositions in statics and flow by visible light reflection characteristics from the optically inhomogeneous wall of a vessel. Surface Plasmon Spectroscopy (SPS) on gratings and randomly rough surfaces has proven to be especially sensitive to fluid composition near the wall. However, SPS techniques have inherent drawbacks when used as analytical sensing techniques. Grating Light Reflection Spectroscopy (GLRS) relies on an optic
...

Scalable, Rapidly Tunable Wavelength Selective Ring Resonator

Introduction Wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) is a capacity increasing technology used in fiber-optic communications to carry different optical signals in a single optical fiber. Optical add-drop multiplexers are required at either end of a fiber for WDM. Current technologies switch too slowly, only switch over a limited wavelength range, are not compatible with silicon processing, do not scale well (both by number of fibers and wavelengths), and have other problems limiting their usefulne
...

Influencing the orientation of chromophores to increase the opticelectric effect

Introduction The electro-optic effect, important for optical communications and quantum optics, occurs in materials that alter their refractive index in the presence of an electrical field. One of the more important specific electro-optic effects is known as the Pockels effect. Materials exhibiting the Pockels effect show a change in the refractive index that is linearly proportional to the electric field. The alignment of dipolar chromophores enhances this effect. Traditional methods of perform
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Multilevel Modulation for Free Space Optical (FSO) Communications and Error Correction Methodology

Introduction Wireless optical links, or free space optics (FSO), enable point-to-point, high-speed communication with low installation costs and high levels of security, and they are especially useful in situations where fiberoptics are impractical. Unfortunately, this technique suffers from signal scattering and attenuation during certain weather conditions—such as rain, fog, or smog—that can deteriorate or even sever the connection. More universally robust methodologies would better positi
...

Nanocomposite Photovoltaic Cells

Introduction Photovoltaic cells based on polymer semiconductors are of great interest as a low cost approach to solar energy conversion into electricity. The most efficient polymer solar cells are based on binary blends, in which polymers function as electrondonors and fullerenes as electron-acceptors. Heating or annealing induces phase separation of the polymer/fullerene blends, resulting in a two-phase morphology, a process that is difficult to control. Technology description To circumvent the
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Programmable Generation and Transport of Droplets on Microscale Surface Texture Ratchets

Introduction Advances in microfluidic technology are constantly opening doors to new and exciting applications. Currently, many laboratory processes can be combined on a single chip commonly only millimeters in size while manipulating liquid volumes of picoliter size or less. In order to effectively perform the many processes that may be required of a microfluidic system, various tools are required, such as pumps, valves, mixers, and ratchets. In particular, the development of ratchets and other
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Fabrication of Gold Nanocages and Cubic Nanoframes for Biomedical Treatment through Etching Nanoboxes

Introduction Because of their small sizes and unique properties, nanomaterials are finding widespread use in studying complex biological systems. Gold nanostructures have been the subject of intensive research because of their unique and tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) properties. Because of their biocompatibility and easy surface modification (i.e., using the well-established Au-thiolate chemistry to attach antibodies, polymers or other ligands), Au nanostructures are also being conside
...

Production of Palladium Nanostructures with Shape Selection by Adding Bromide

Introduction Single-crystal, one-dimensional nanostructures of palladium are attractive as interconnects for fabricating nanoscale electronic devices. Polycrystalline, mesoscopic wires made of palladium have been utilized for resistance-based detection of hydrogen gas. However, polycrystalline wires containing gaps between adjacent grains often shrink after initial exposure to hydrogen and may cause random, irreversible changes to the resistance of a sensing device. It should be possible to over
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Cell and Microparticle Separator Employing Patterned Grooves

Introduction Microscale enrichment and separation are important for various research, biomedical, and industrial uses. Conventional means for these processes typically require specific labels— either inherent to the structure or appended to it. Unfortunately, not every important substrate has a convenient label of its own, such as stem cells, and it costs additional time and money to develop and append appropriate and effective labels, such as antibody tags and magnetic beads. Sometimes, all
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Copper Chloride-mediated Synthesis of Silver Nanowires

Introduction Owing to the high electrical and thermal conductivity of bulk silver, the synthesis of Ag nanowires has been and continues to be an area of active research. The properties and applications of the nanostructures are determined by the shape, size, structure, and composition of the nanostructures. The presence of various ions has been shown to influence the shape and size of metallic nanostructures produced via the polyol method. Technology description Younan Xia’s laboratory has inv
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Electrospray Evaporative Spray Cooling (EESC)

Introduction As electronic devices get increasingly more powerful and more compact, there are an increasing number of semiconductor components that emit an increasing amount of heat. In order to ensure that these devices remain long-lived and reliable, more efficient methods of dissipating heat buildup is essential. Conventional cooling techniques, such as heat sinks and convective airflow, are becoming less and less appropriate for the evolving electronics landscape. However, evaporative spray
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Carbon Nanotubes by Electrospinning with a Polyelectrolyte and Vapor Deposition Polymerization

Introduction Ever since the discovery of carbon nanotubes they attracted a great deal of attention due to the myriad of possible applications, such as in fuel cells, lithium-ion batteries, and supercapacitors. Nevertheless, the synthesis of well-defined carbon nanotubes of 50 to 100-nm diameter has been a long standing goal of material chemistry. Technology description To reach this goal, UW researchers have developed a method that allows fabrication of carbon nanotubes with well-controlled diam
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Doped Nanocapsules for Spectrally Selective Uncaging

Introduction Caged compounds are biologically active molecules rendered inactive by a link to a chemical group (the "cage") through a photolabile bond. They are useful in the study of the spatiotemporal dynamics of cellular systems. Currently used caged molecules can only be photoactivated in the UV region. This fact places severe constraints on their application to cellular system, because UV light is potentially damaging to cells and has low penetration depth through tissues. Technology descri
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A Polymer-Based Integrated Optical Image Acquisition and Display

Introduction Imaging devices are used in a variety of roles from medical imaging to barcode reading, and as these devices get smaller, their number of potential applications only increases. Endoscopes, for example, allow for real-time imaging inside the body; conventional versions, however, are limited in how small their diameter can get by the need for relatively large bundles of optic fiber or arrays of detectors. To further decrease the size of these devices, alternatives must be developed Te
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Novel Gadolinium nanoparticles for Magnetic Resonance Lymphatic Imaging

Introduction Gadolinium (Gd3+) is chelated with diethylenentriaminepentaacetyl (DTPA) to provide contrast in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to identify pathogenic tissues. Unfortunately, the Gd3+-DTPA complexes approved for clinical use are cleared within a few minutes and do not provide sufficient concentrations or time in lymphoid tissues. Many pathogenic conditions, including the spread of cancer, require high-resolution lymphoid tissue images. Technology description Rodney Ho’s laboratory
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Design of Thermal Interface Material Based on High Temperature Shape Memory Alloy for Connecting Two Thermoelectric Legs

Introduction Efficient heat management is crucial for electronics to optimize performance and to avoid premature component deterioration. An area of primary concern is at the interface of adjoining thermal components, such as with heatsink interfaces and with connections between thermoelectric legs. Problems arise due to the inability of the two surfaces, necessarily of differing metals, to fully connect because of imperfections. This issue is addressed by using thermal interface material (TIM)
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Surface Plasmon Resonance Chemical Electrode

Introduction Sensors based the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect sense the refractive index of a thin region adjacent to the sensing surface. If there are several different species present in solution at the surface of the sensor, the sensor will measure an effective index of refraction which is a function of all the species. In order to get around this lack of selectivity, functionalized surfaces of the SPR sensors have been used to selectively bind specific molecules. This typically invol
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Fabrication of Gold Nanocages and Cubic Nanoframes for Biomedical Treatment through Etching Nanoboxes

Introduction Because of their small sizes and unique properties, nanomaterials are finding widespread use in studying complex biological systems. Gold nanostructures have been the subject of intensive research because of their unique and tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) properties. Because of their biocompatibility and easy surface modification (i.e., using the well-established Au-thiolate chemistry to attach antibodies, polymers or other ligands), Au nanostructures are also being conside
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Shear Sensitive Paint for High-Resolution 2-Dimensional Shear Stress Measurements Over Dynamic Surfaces

Introduction The friction created by air or water moving across an aircraft, vehicle, or boat can have a large impact on efficiency and performance. Extensive design work in air or water tunnels is typically carried out to minimize these frictional losses. The ability to measure friction or shear forces across large, curved surfaces opens up new possibilities for the wind tunnel testing of aircraft components and vehicles and the water tunnel testing of new boat designs. Technology description T
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Microcellular Foaming of Cyclic Olefin Copolymer (COC)

Introduction Cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) is a commercially available thermoplastic. It possesses exceptional clarity in its natural form, similar to that of glass, and it has high moisture resistance and low absorption rates. This thermoplastic’s many qualities make it an exceptional candidate for many applications, ranging from optics to packaging. The ability to create microcellular plastic foams using COC would further increase its range of applications with a significant reduction in mat
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True Three-Dimensional (3-D) Display with Focus Cues

Introduction When viewing a real scene, not everything in the scene is in focus at any given time. Instead the individual viewing the scene accommodates (adjusts the focus of the eye) to bring objects at various distances into focus. Current stereographic displays tend to cause profound eye fatigue often accompanied by headache. The eye fatigue is likely in part due to the result of a mismatch between the depth information provided by accommodation and that provided by vergence (the extent to wh
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Wearable Low Vision Aids Using Retinal Light Scanning Technologies

Introduction Severe visual impairment (those persons classified as legally blind) affects over 1 million Americans currently. With the aging of the U.S. population, this visually impaired segment is expected to rise at 10 times the rate of general population growth. Technology description Researchers at the UW have developed a wearable low vision aid (WLVA). This new technology does not require bulky pixel arrays so there is high potential for miniaturization to a form factor compatible with the
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A New Protocol of Diels-Alder Lattice Hardening for Highly Efficient Electro-optic Materials Showing Outstanding Temporal Stability over 200 Degrees C

Introduction Organic electro-optic (EO) materials have attracted much interest in the past two decades because of their extensive potential applications in various fields, ranging from waveguides, switches, emitters, and detectors. Though EO materials have a huge potential in Photonics and Electronics devices, the fact that chromophores are not thermally robust enough to survive the device fabrication steps (short-term excursions to the order of 250oC) limits their application range. Technology
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Shockwave Reactor

Introduction Ethylene is a commercially important chemical with many applications, and it is especially important as a building block for other, more complex molecules. It is typically made by cracking various larger hydrocarbons using pyrolysis. The hydrocarbon feedstock for these reactions varies greatly due to the volatility in their market price, and those in the business of ethylene production must maintain plants that are flexible in the exact process they use for production in order to ac
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A flexible polymer based smart skin

Introduction For some applications, it is essential to obtain the real time 2-D profiling of certain physical parameters such as temperature, force, pressure, and shear stress on a 3-D object. If the surface of the object is flat, one can use a monolithic MEMS device with large amounts of sensors. However, difficulties are encountered if the surface area is non-planar. This problem has been approached by using a skin made of polyamide connecting arrays of silicon based MEMS devices. The major fa
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Tissue-Engineered Urinary Bladder Using Autologous Cells

Introduction There is a variety of reasons that a person’s bladder may fail or require removal, including bladder acontractility, cancer, and cystitis. Unfortunately, conventional artificial bladders tend to suffer from critical complications, such as inadequate performance, infection, and adverse host response. Ideally, a new bladder could simply be formed from the patient’s own cells. Technology Description Professor Ratner at the University of Washington has developed a technique to creat
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Novel Adsorbent Systems for Water Purification Using Metal Oxide Bound to Substrate and Heated Metal Oxide Particles

Introduction There is an ever increasing need for potable water. Improvements in conventional purification technologies allow for savings in both time and money and ensure that clean water is available in areas that need it. Technology Description Professor Benjamin at the University of Washington has developed a device and process for enhancing water decontamination whereby either standard membrane filtration or slow sand filtration is coupled to metal oxide particles, which adsorb many common
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Novel Adsorbent Systems for Water Purification Using Metal Oxide Bound to Substrate and Heated Metal Oxide Particles

Introduction There is an ever increasing need for potable water. Improvements in conventional purification technologies allow for savings in both time and money and ensure that clean water is available in areas that need it. Technology Description Professor Benjamin at the University of Washington has developed a device and process for enhancing water decontamination whereby either standard membrane filtration or slow sand filtration is coupled to metal oxide particles, which adsorb many common
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Method of Detecting, Characterizing, and Quantifying Bulk, Light-Element Materials Using High-Energy, Penetrating X-Rays

Introduction X-rays have long been used in the characterization of a wide variety of materials. However, conventional techniques for dealing with light-element (or low-Z) materials, such as those containing nitrogen and carbon, are too low in energy to penetrate significant distances into enclosing material or into the bulk of the material of interest. A higher energy technique is required to solve this problem. Technology Description Researcher Elam at the University of Washington has developed
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Nanocellular Foaming of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene using Ultrasound

Introduction Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a thermoplastic consisting of molecules of incredibly long chains with molecular weights of several million. It has the highest impact strength of any thermoplastic, has a high resistance to corrosion, moisture, and abrasion, and has a friction coefficient similar to that of Teflon. The ability to create nano-structured UHMWPE materials could yield many useful and unique properties, including mechanical and optical properties, and
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Solution Processable n-Type polymers

Introduction Conjugated polymers and organic semiconductors promise great advances in electronics because of the benefits they offer over silicon, including being cheaper with less demanding manufacturing requirements and allowing for larger, more flexible, and more robust materials that are more responsive to chemical and biochemical stimulus. A critical roadblock in developing this technology, however, is the lack of easily synthesized n-type polymers and, subsequently, the lack of effective p
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Continuous Production of Microcellular Fibers

Introduction In microcellular plastic foams, inert gas is dissolved in thermoplastic under high pressure. The forced evacuation of this gas during processing creates pores (or cells) within the final plastic. The pores are small enough that clarity of the plastic is unaffected, and because of the pores, much less starting material is required in microcellular plastics than in conventional plastics, greatly reducing weight and cost. As a wide range of pore densities is achievable, this technology
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Microcellular Foaming of Cyclic Olefin Copolymer (COC)

Introduction Cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) is a commercially available thermoplastic. It possesses exceptional clarity in its natural form, similar to that of glass, and it has high moisture resistance and low absorption rates. This thermoplastic’s many qualities make it an exceptional candidate for many applications, ranging from optics to packaging. The ability to create microcellular plastic foams using COC would further increase its range of applications with a significant reduction in mat
...

Design of Thermal Interface Material Based on High Temperature Shape Memory Alloy for Connecting Two Thermoelectric Legs

Introduction Efficient heat management is crucial for electronics to optimize performance and to avoid premature component deterioration. An area of primary concern is at the interface of adjoining thermal components, such as with heatsink interfaces and with connections between thermoelectric legs. Problems arise due to the inability of the two surfaces, necessarily of differing metals, to fully connect because of imperfections. This issue is addressed by using thermal interface material (TIM)
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Electrochemical Printing for 2 & 3 Dimensional Rapid Fabrication

Introduction Electrochemical Fabrication is the process of manufacturing a wide array of devices by either electrodeposition of pure metal/alloys on substrates or by selectively producing and/or removing material from the substrate through the use of spatially controlled electrochemical reactions. Most conventional fabrication techniques require the use of Masks to define the shape of fabricated structures. There are several limitations to the use of this technique, such as: the initial design a
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3-D Tissue Culture Chamber

UW Ref# 7654 Introduction Many of the seminal findings in cell and molecular biology have come from cultures of cells grown in two dimensions but the limitations of biology in just 2D are becoming clear. Cells in tissue are not just autonomous masses but consist of many interdependent cell types and their surrounding extracellular materials in which the complex and dynamic interplay between them determine of affect the tissues’ function, development and physiological balance. Researchers at th
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Electroactive Polymer Using Shape Memory Alloy

Introduction Shape memory polymers have shown tremendous promise for a wide variety of applications for their ability to “remember” a previous state when heated. Unfortunately, they have been slow to develop commercial availability. Many of these polymers also have small compression ratios. However, many of the same properties desired in shape memory polymers can be mimicked using shape memory alloys (SMA) in a polymer framework. This technique has many advantages over shape memory polymers,
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Improved Design of FSMA Inchworm Actuator

Introduction There is great demand for new, compact, but powerful actuators in a variety of industries which can replace heavy actuators, such as the hydraulic actuator and the electrical motor with gear box. Technology description Researchers at the UW have developed an improved design of a ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) inchworm actuator based on a hybrid mechanism and FSMA composite springs. The hybrid mechanism is based on a stress-induced martensitic phase transformation produced b
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Design of Fish Fin Actuators Based on Shape Memory Alloys

Introduction Shape memory alloys (SMA) are metals which can return to their original shape after deformation through the application of heat. They are in wide use for applications ranging from cardiovascular stents to reversible energy-absorbing bumpers for automobiles. SMA’s take advantage of the metal’s transition between two distinct crystal structures, providing rapid motion at moderate forces. Technology description Researchers at the UW have developed a new set of fish fin actuators ba
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Energy Harvesting Composite Made of Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Composite Made of Piezoelectric

Introduction Shape memory alloy (SMA) materials are easily deformed at low temperature and return to their original configuration by heating. Via the piezoelectric effect, some materials will produce an electric potential as a result of stress from changes in temperature. The alternating current (AC) potential produced may then be converted into direct current (DC) and stored in a capacitor. Thus, an energy harvesting system is possible. Technology description Researchers at the University of Wa
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Design of Active Materials and Structures based on Composites of Shape Memory Alloy and Shape Memory Polymer

Introduction Shape memory alloys (SMA) and shape memory polymers (SMP) have shown tremendous promise for a wide variety of applications because of their ability to “remember” a previous state when heated. However, they can only remember a single shape. The ability to remember two shapes would make these materials much more useful as morphing or “smart” materials in which the change of shape is reversible between the two “remembered” states. Technology Description Professor Taya at
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Advanced Biomimetic Surfaces for Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS)

Introduction Raman spectroscopy characterizes molecules by their Raman scattering. As incoming light scatters off a molecule, most does so elastically, neither gaining nor losing energy, and this is known as Rayleigh scattering. Some of this light, however, about 1 in 10 million photons, is the subject of an energy exchange with the molecule and scatters inelastically, possessing more or less energy than it started with, and this is known as Raman scattering. Raman scattering acts as a vibration
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Design of coiled ferromagnetic composite plate spring

Introduction In general, motors are constructed by both electro and permanent magnets, and move due to the attractive magnet using force, which originates from these magnets. The motors rotate infinitely in principal; however the output torque is limited. Technology description Researchers at the UW have developed an actuator that uses a ferromagnetic plate spring and electromagnets (or hybrid magnets which are constructed from both electro and permanent magnets). The output power of the torque
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Laser Treatment of Acne Using Scanning Fiber Delivery

Introduction Acne is a problem that affects approximately 85% of all teenagers. The typical drug treatments, such as isotretinoin, are known to have many risks and side effects. Many other over the counter treatments have little or no effect. Technology description Researchers at the UW have developed a system design and method utilizing a laser diode to treat acne. Unlike current laser treatment systems which use cryogenic cooling and operate at wavelengths of 800 – 900 nm or 1450 nm, this ne
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Multilevel Modulation for Free Space Optical (FSO) Communications and Error Correction Methodology

Introduction Wireless optical links, or free space optics (FSO), enable point-to-point, high-speed communication with low installation costs and high levels of security, and they are especially useful in situations where fiberoptics are impractical. Unfortunately, this technique suffers from signal scattering and attenuation during certain weather conditions—such as rain, fog, or smog—that can deteriorate or even sever the connection. More universally robust methodologies would better positi
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Air Velocity Sensor System

Introduction Detailed airflow measurements are not always easy or practical to obtain, especially when needing them over multiple points in time and space, when needing high precision, or when needing data from normally inaccessible locations. Technology Description Professor Mamishev at the University of Washington has developed an air velocity sensor system that enables detailed air velocity measurements over a predefined two-dimensional field of motion at small intervals. The system is fully
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Method of Detecting, Characterizing, and Quantifying Bulk, Light-Element Materials Using High-Energy, Penetrating X-Rays

Introduction X-rays have long been used in the characterization of a wide variety of materials. However, conventional techniques for dealing with light-element (or low-Z) materials, such as those containing nitrogen and carbon, are too low in energy to penetrate significant distances into enclosing material or into the bulk of the material of interest. A higher energy technique is required to solve this problem. Technology Description Researcher Elam at the University of Washington has developed
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Method for the synthesis of carboxylic acids from aldehydes

Invention An improved method for the preparation of carboxylic acids from aldehydes.The improvements consist of reducing the amount of environment polluting chemicals, higher yields and higher reaction rates than with conventional methods. The Need The known processes for preparing carboxylic acids from the corresponding aldehydes usually make use of catalysts and reaction solvents that often lead to undesired side reactions. In addition, they also require elaborate purification steps, to whi
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Novel Stabilization Scheme for Obtaining Single Longitudinal Mode (SLM) Radiation from a Pulsed Nd:Yag laser

Background: Pulsed, q-switched solid-state lasers are an almost ubiquitous light source for powerful, short laser pulses, as used in industry and research labs. Typically, a simple free running cavity design is employed, while more demanding applications require seeded lasers. In that case a narrow bandwidth beam is introduced into the cavity of the host laser. The wavelength of the CW laser is adjusted to coincide with the fluorescence maximum of the gain material of the host. When the CW lase
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Sub-5 Nanosecond Neutron Generator for Detection of Explosives

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: - Screening of luggage and cargo for explosives and fissile material - Gamma ray and neutron detection ADVANTAGES: - Produces short 5 nanosecond neutron pulses - Minimizes alignment problems - Reduces RF input power requirement - Removes spurious background particle generation almost completely - Drastically reduces beam power deposited into beam dump, decreasing cooling requirements ABSTRACT: Using a novel source and extraction geometry, Ka-Ngo Leung, Sami H
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