Higher Molar Weight in Sex Chromosome Responsible for Women’s Intrusion Reproductive Organ, Shorter Height or Lower Sporting
What causes difference between Men and Women in their anatomical characteristics and sporting standards? It has been shown that higher molar weight in sex chromosome is responsible for women’s intrusion reproductive organ, shorter height or lower sporting standards on the logic that biological phenomena mimic astrophysical principles in a gravitating environment within the embryo. It has equated that granular system exhibit duel properties – in a gravitational field, it may have a self-bounding free surface but also conform to the shape of the bounding wall, obeying continuum theories of fluid mechanics. As compacted granular system, it can support shear stress in absence of a shearing velocity.
What causes difference between Men and Women in their anatomical characteristics and sporting standards? It is generally admitted that men are better in sports or taller than women. If one compares world records in running and jumping sports between male and female, such sex differences in athletics standard become conspicuous. Women’s standard is less than men, even on imparting same quality training or administering equal nutrition. Apart from such difference in physical endurance, there is anatomical difference in reproductive system. The reproductive organs of both sexes develop from similar embryonic tissue, meaning they are homologous. Both systems have gonads (male have testes and female have ovaries) that produce gametes (testes produce sperm and ovaries produce egg or ovum) and sex organs. We studied such reason on the logic that biological phenomena mimic astrophysical principles in a gravitating environment within the embryo.
We have earlier1,2 pointed out that under neutral buoyancy, different class of macromolecules tend to occupy position within a biological cell as per their molar mass and density due to action of self gravity (Illustration 3).
Illustration 3: Macromolecules having higher molar mass and density tend to occupy central position.
Heavier macromolecules like nucleic acid having molar mass of 1,000,000 to 5,000,000 g/mol under tightly packed condition (highest density) tend to occupy the core position of the three dimensional biological cell, similar to collection of heterogeneous heavier elements in the nebula in the astrophysical objects. Proteins, being intermediate molar mass of 75-180 g/mol tend to occupy mantel position; fats and lipids in the periphery due to their lowest density (0.8 -0.9 g/ ml). Carbohydrates evade central attraction due to their highest miscibility.
Also we have pointed out earlier that under laboratory practices for separation of biological particles, centrifugation is adopted as common routine practice. Swedish chemist Theodor Svedberg in 1925 developed the ultracentrifuge and won 1926 Nobel Prize in chemistry, through which sub cellular materials, cells, large macromolecules like nucleic acids, proteins, ribosomes are now separated from a solution. Sedimentation coefficients, expressed using Svedberg unit (symbol S) depends on mass, density, size, and shape. It is the ratio of the speed of a substance in a centrifuge to its acceleration in comparable units. Why Svedberg choose centrifugation as process of separation of biomaterials and not any chemical or other physical methods to separate in dispersed colloidal systems? In gravitational terms, ‘centrifugation of any mass is an inverse process of central attraction’. The Svedberg values basically tell us about the comparative molecular weight and shape of biomaterials under ex vivo condition.
Illustration 4. Theodor Svedberg developed ultracentrifugation as process of separation of bio-particles - inverse process of central action of gravitation.
The protoplasm is granular colloidal in nature, because many macromolecules, tiny organelles are suspended in it, also exhibits sol and gel properties. Gutt3 expressed that granular system exhibit duel properties – in a gravitational field, it may have a self-bounding free surface but also conform to the shape of the bounding wall, obeying continuum theories of fluid mechanics. As compacted granular system, it can support shear stress in absence of a shearing velocity. Application of granular physics is still at nascent stage of study in life science. There is need for in-depth study on application of granular physics in life science to advance further on carbohydrate and other macromolecular movements.
In this matter, let us study why anatomical intrusion (ovary) and extrusion (testes) characteristics occurs or sporting standards between women and men differs in the light of aforesaid gravitational environment. The average human body is said to contain approximately 37.2 trillion (3.72 × 1013) cells. Within the nucleus of every cell, there is genetic code, say DNA that remains under tightly packed macromolecular condition. Out of 46 (22 pairs) chromosomes in human, the genetic differences between men and women lie in sex chromosomes. In the sex chromosomes or 23rd pair, females have two copies of X chromosome, while males have one X and one Y chromosome. Y chromosomes are about one-third the size of X chromosomes. The X chromosome represents about 5 percent of the total DNA in cells, while the Y chromosome represents about 2 percent of a cell's total DNA. Molar mass weight is therefore higher in women than men.
Molecular weight or molar mass of single strand DNA = 650 g/mol. (6.022×1023 = mole or Avogadro’s number). One mole of a base pair weighs 650 g. The molecular weight or molar mass of any double stranded DNA fragment can therefore be calculated by multiplying its length (in bp) by 650 and the answer will be expressed as g/mol or daltons. It is to be noted that chromosome X has 153 million (1,000,000 or 106) base pairs. On the other hand, chromosome Y has 60 million base pairs. Thus females having chromosome X contain extra 93 million base pairs. The molecular weight of accretion masses in females are thus higher (> one and half times) than their counterpart males (Illustration 4).
Illustration 4. Pictorial demonstration 1. There is comparatively higher weighty accretion mass in females than males. Females contain 153 million compared to 60 million base pairs of chromosomes for men. Females contain extra 93 million base pairs of chromosomes.
In the standard course of events, dense heavier macromolecules dipped in granular soft viscoelastic condensed matter, the central traction force from the dynamic core of the embryonic mass leads to either testes or embryo, depending on the comparative availability of higher or lower quantity of chromosomes in terms of molar mass and density in the nucleic acid materials. An embryo with two X chromosomes, having highest molar mass, becomes a girl, while an embryo with an X and a Y chromosome, having less molar mass, becomes a boy.
We have earlier4 pointed out that ‘mass’ has dual role. One is synonym of ‘gravitation’ and other is ‘metabolic energy’. Compression energy of self gravity in living mass is required to be counterbalanced by non-compressive metabolic energy (ME) to remain an organism as “living”. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) i.e. consumption of oxygen molecule per hour is 2/3 or ¾ power of mass. Naturally when gravitational energy gets higher with higher molar weight per unit in females, the efficiency of metabolic energy would be less. This is the reason why general sporting standards differ between men and women athletes, women standard being less than men or, men are typically taller than women. Distinction between male and female in height and sex is therefore proposed to be due to difference in molar weight of sex-linked chromosomes under maximum gravitation compression at the contemporary core in viscoelastic soft bio matters of embryo. Generally males are taller than female with extrusion sex (testes) feature, whereas females are on average shorter in height with intrusion type (ovary) sex feature. This is deemed to be happening due to difference in molar weight based sex-linked chromosomes, because in case of women, due to extra 93 millions of base pair in the chromosomes in each cell, the soft condensed mass of hypothetical 37.2 trillion (3.72 × 1013) cells would experience higher inward gravitation pressure, as pictorially demonstrated in (Illustration 5).
Illustration 5. Pictorial demonstration 2. Distinction between male and female in height and sex is proposed to be due to difference in molar weight of sex-linked chromosomes under maximum gravitation compression at the contemporary core in viscoelastic soft bio matters of embryo. Generally males are taller than female with extrusion sex (testes) feature, whereas females are on average shorter in height with intrusion type (ovary) sex feature.
From the above, it can be conceptualized that higher molar weight in sex chromosome is responsible for women reproductive organ, shorter height or lower sporting standards.
1. Iresh Ranjan Bhattacharjee (2018). Biological Phenomena Mimic Astrophysical Principles Of Gravitation – Opening Perspective. International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Scientific Research (IJAMSR ) ISSN:2581-4281 Vol 1, Issue 6, August, 2018, #Art.611, pp1-16. https://doi.org/10.31426/ijamsr.2018.1.6.611
2. Iresh Ranjan Bhattacharjee (2017) Gravitation Induced Mechanical Movement in Cells. Journal for Research | Volume 03| Issue 01 | March 2017 ISSN: 2395-7549. http://www.journal4research.org/articles/J4RV3I1015.pdf
1. Gutt, Gary Michael. The physics of granular systems. Ph.D. Dissertation, 1989 California Institute of Technology. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechETD:etd- 05302007-081951
3. Bhattacharjee, I.R. (2013) Self Gravity: The Major Investigation Gap in Life Science. Lambert Academic Publishing ISBN 978-3-659-42698-8. Attached files:2019 Fb Male-female paper.docx