A metamaterial includes a dielectric substrate and an array of discrete resonators at the dielectric substrate, wherein each of the discrete resonators has a shape that is independently selected from: an F-type shape; an E-type shape; or a y-type shape. A parameter of a chiral metamaterial is determined and a chiral metamaterial having such a parameter is prepared by the use of a model of the chiral metamaterial. The metamaterial model includes an array of discrete resonators. In one embodiment, each of the discrete resonators has a shape that is independently selected from the group consisting of: an F-type shape; an E-type shape; and a y-type shape. To the metamaterial model, electromagnetic (EM) radiation, preferably plane-polarized EM radiation in a visible, ultraviolet or near-infrared region, having at least one wavelength that is larger than the largest dimension of at least resonator of the metamaterial model, is applied. Varying at least one characteristic of the metamaterial model and/or at least one wavelength of the applied EM radiation modulates EM interaction of the applied EM radiation with the metamaterial model, thereby determining a parameter of the chiral metamaterial. By the use of a model of the chiral metamaterial, a number of discrete resonators of a chiral metamaterial that are arrayed in a direction perpendicular to a propagation axis of EM radiation is also determined.
AKYURTLU ALKIM [US]; MARX KENNETH A [US]; WONGKASEM NANTAKAN [TH]
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