Detection of Invasive Bladder Cancer by DNA Hypermethylation
Summary Background: The National Cancer Institute has estimated that in year 2008, 68,810 new cases of bladder cancer will be diagnosed in United States, causing 14,100 deaths. The mortality of this cancer is attributed to the invasiveness of solid tumors into the muscular layers of the bladder. Clinically, biological markers that can predict such an invasive phenotype at an early stage will be useful for determining patient prognosis as well as in properly designing treatment regimens. Alteration of the p53 tumor suppressor gene has been associated with the more aggressive form of bladder cancer; however, the sensitivity and specificity of using p53 alterations alone in making radical clinical judgments such as surgery or radiotherapy have been questioned, suggesting that additional biomarkers that can be used alternatively or in conjunction with altered p53 are necessary.
Applications In a clinical study conducted by investigators of the Harvard School of Public Health has indicated that a new bladder cancer biomarker, based on epigenetic inactivation of the Secreted Frizzled Receptor Proteins (SFRPs), provides significantly improved clinical identification of an aggressive and potentially fatal form of bladder cancer. A sensitive and specific PCR-based method has been successfully developed to provide such information. When considered together with p53 immunohistochemistry data, this technology provides physicians with the means to identify patients in need of more aggressive treatments.
Publication: Marsit CJ, Karagas MR, Andrew A, Liu M, Danaee H, Schned AR, Nelson HH, Kelsey KT. Epigenetic inactivation of SFRP genes and TP53 alteration act jointly as markers of invasive bladder cancer. 2005. Cancer Res. 65:7081-5.
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Marsit, Carmen J.
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