GPS Roadside Integrated Precision Positioning System (GRIPPS) for Detecting Drowsy Drivers
According to studies done by the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration in 2003, 55% of fatal accidents in the U.S. are caused by lane departure. Various factors, including driver distraction, inattention or drowsiness can be responsible for these dangerous movements. Warning systems to alert drivers that their vehicle is about to move out of its lane could help minimize these avoidable accidents. Many different on-road vehicle systems exist or are being developed to address individual applications such as lane-keeping, lateral collision avoidance, intersection collisions, route planning, traffic management, collision notification, automated control, etc. Each of these systems varies in performance, implementation challenges and cost. An ideal system would be capable of addressing multiple transportation issues, thus lowering initial costs. It would be easily installed and operated. GPS has significant potential for enabling a variety of transportation user services.
The Roadside Integrated GPS System is a real-time, high-precision, GPS-based, robust (due to the use of other navigation aids in addition to GPS), automotive navigation system that can support a wide range of highway traffic applications. Developed at The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, it is used to precisely monitor a vehicle's location, in real time, relative to road lane boundaries and has been shown to detect highway lane deviations as small as two centimeters. Audible and visual alarms can be incorporated to alert errant drivers. It is suitable for highway speeds during all weather conditions and unlike optical and magnetic systems; this solution is not affected by weather and road conditions and it requires minimal maintenance. Vehicles equipped with the JHU/APL system would use GPS signals as well as data communicated from base stations, novel filters and microprocessors. The specific architecture would be based on convenience and utilization of existing hardware. Additionally, this same system could be used in other applications designed to avoid collisions, plan travel routes, and manage traffic.
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