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ThirdEye – early detection of cerebral palsy (CP)

DOMAIN An early and accurate detection of cerebral palsy (CP) enables correct treatment at an early age to the infant at risk. Today’s methods for detecting CP are unable to establish a diagnosis until late in the first year of life, in some cases even later. Experts are currently doing analysis of
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A New PET Radiotracer for Serotonin 5HT1A Receptors

Background: Serotonin 5-HT1A receptors are implicated in Alzheimers disease, dementia, anxiety, schizophrenia, and depression, and significant efforts have been undertaken to develop various compounds that bind to these receptors for potential use in diagnosis and therapy of disorders associated wi
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Fiber optic bundle based optical coherence tomography

Background: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been used for high resolution optical imaging in many areas of medicine, especially ophthalmology. "Conventional wisdom" was that OCT could not be done through flexible fiber bundles. Indeed, the use of flexible fiberoptic bundles to deliver OCT di
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Real time hyperspectral imaging

In many situations it would be beneficial to have an instrument that can show directly the spatial distribution of various chemical components in real time of a surface. Typical application areas are forensic and military where investigators can rapidly locate the presence of blood, gunpowder, toxic
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Broadband Power Amplifier with a Novel Tunable Output Matching Network

Background: In the past decade, InGaP/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) have been the key technology in delivering solutions for both high efficiency and high linearity monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) power amplifiers in various wireless communication systems, such as GS
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SENSE-optimized MRI RF Coil Design with Target Field Method

Background: In the past, people have used general-purpose MRI RF coil structures, which were not optimized for accelerated SENSE imaging technique. Therefore, SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) was not maximized for this particular technique. Several researchers have tested several basic RF coil designs a
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Optimal selection of flurophores for bioimaging using hyperspectral cameras

DOMAIN In many situations it would be beneficial to have an instrument that can show In biology and medicine, fluorescent labelling is used to detect the location and concentration of various molecules. This can be used to discover how molecules are interacting in relation to diseases and biological
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Wall-Less Microfluidics with On-Site Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Pumps for Continuous Flow Control

Background: A disadvantage of closed microfluidic channels are that they are made from different materials. Also, most of the microchannels are fabricated from lithography techniques which require the utilization of cleanroom environments, increasing the fabrication costs. Another disadvantage of t
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A Microfabrication Process for Vertical Microelectrodes inside Polymer Microchannels

Background: For microfluidic applications, different electrodes inside the microfluidic channels may be patterned by metal evaporation methods such as thermal evaporation, electric beam evaporation, and sputtering. Since most of the deposition methods only deposit very thin layers of metal (e.g., u
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Rapid prediction of gene expression levels using spectroscopy

DOMAIN The study of gene expression in cells is increasingly being used to understand their biological function. The genes are up- and down-regulated by a complex protein regulatory network, which responds to the biochemical changes originating from within and outside the cell. One of the most popul
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Alginate - Drug Delivery System

DOMAIN The mucosal surfaces of the body (such as GI tract, respiratory tract, eye, and genitourinary tract) constitute the major target for drug and gene delivery. As such, mucous secretions can have a significant influence on drug/gene complex uptake. These effects of mucus are usually more pronoun
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Diagnosis and prognosis of cancers in GI tract

DOMAIN Although the incidence of gastric carcinoma (tumour in stomach) is declining, this disease is still the second most frequent cause of cancer death worldwide. Gastric carcinomas are often not detected until at an advanced stage; consequently, the 5-year survival rates are low and most often in
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Medical Spectroscopy

DOMAIN Aging of injuries on a victim’s body is an important aspect of forensic medicine. Currently, visual assessment and colorimetry based on empirical criteria are the most common techniques for this task, although the results are uncertain. The aim of this study was to develop a mathematical mode
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New Therapy to Inhibit Plasma Cells in Autoimmune Diseases

Background: In patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS) B cells, stimulated by axon antigens, infiltrate central nervous system. Technology: The inventors discovered a new class of antibodies that specifically binds to axons in early stage of acute lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS) brain
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Microfluidic Production of Monodispersed Submicron EmulsionsThrough Filtration and Sorting of Satellite Drops

Background: In the past decade, droplets have been intensively used by the industries as an agent for drug preparations, for plastic polymerizations, and chemical processing. Recent advancements in microfluidic droplet technology has enabled the precise sampling and processing of small volumes of f
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Rapid Multiplex Gene and mRNA Detection in Picoliter Droplets by Molecular Beacons

Background: Breast cancer is a world wide public health concern and the estimated death toll in the U.S. in 2001 was 20,000 and it also ranked first as the cause of cancer death for women between the ages of 20 to 59. People carrying a mutation in the BRCA1and BRCA2 genes are prone to breast cancer
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Formulation of Monodisperse Contrast Agents in Microfluidic Systems for Ultrasonic Imaging

Background: Ultrasound imaging may be used to produce a 2D image of the body's internal structures. However, since blood is much less (1000x less) echogenic than tissue, small vessels, blood pool volume and blood flow all are difficult, if not impossible, to image using traditional ultrasound techn
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Treatment of Retinal Disorders by Transforming Growth Factor-Beta (TFG-beta ) Superfamily Proteins and their Antagonists

Background: Retinal disorders often turn into debilitating diseases, and in most cases only few treatment options are available. With available treatment options, vision is usually not restored and treatments are often limited to delaying disease progression. Recent developments using implanted dev
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Use of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) for Use of Comprehensive Intra-oral Diagnosis

Background: In dentistry there exists a pressing need for novel diagnostic modalities. A strong consensus for reducing patient exposure to ionizing radiation is countered by the absence of other non-invasive diagnostic and monitoring tools. Diagnostic options for soft tissue pathologies are also li
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Purification of Laminin 5

Background: Lamin-5, a protein produced by skin, mammary and other epithelial cells, may be involved in the progression of cancer. Purified human laminin-5 is not commercially available, and we have developed a purification procedure that may make it more available to the research community. Tech
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LEF-1 Internal Ribosome Entry Site

Background: Full length Lymphoid Enhancer Factor-1 (LEF-1) is a transcription factor that promotes cell growth via its interaction with the WNT signaling mediator beta-catenin. Truncated LEF-1 lacks the beta-catenin binding domain and opposes WNT signaling as a competitive inhibitor for WNT respons
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Biomarker-Guided Prediction of Patient Adherence to Medications

Background: Adherence is one of the pivotal determinants of treatment outcomes for many medical disorders. It is estimated that 50% or more of patients with chronic conditions are noncompliant with medications at some time during their illness. Although there have been numerous attempts to develop
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Single-Mask Fabrication Process for Linear and Angular Piezoresistive Accelerometers

Background: Piezoresistive accelerometers are traditionally fabricated by doping selected areas of wafer to achieve isolated pn-junctions. Often, two separate doping steps are employed to obtain both highly-doped conductors as well as lightly-doped piezoresistors. Once the piezoresistors and conduc
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A Microfluidic Device for Enabling the Controlled Growth of Cells and Methods Relating to Same

Background: In many neurodegenerative diseases and in spinal cord injury, axons and synapses are damaged; a cell culture model is useful for investigation into these areas of research. In typical cell culture it is difficult to distinguish axon from dendrite, and fairly impossible to simulate micro
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Fabrication of Renewable RNA Microarrays and Methods

Background: Numerous methods and devices are available to detect and/or quantify target DNA in a test sample. In almost all of these methods, detection and/or quantification are performed utilizing a detectable label such as radiolabels, fluorescent and luminescent labels. Methodologies employing l
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Methods and Reagents for Screening New Drugs and Treating Ion Pump Associated Disorders

Background: Sodium/potassium ATPases (Na+/K+-ATPases), a family of multi-subunit ion pumps, are the most important active transporters in animal cells. They are required for maintaining the electrochemical gradient responsible for resting membrane potentials in neuronal cells and for the function o
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Advanced Materials Processing

Background: Materials with a grain size smaller than one micron, and larger than a nanometer, are known as ultra-fine grained materials. Ultra-fine grained materials are attracting considerable amounts of interest primarily due to their superior properties in strength, ductility, formability, fatig
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Novel Successive Beamforming Schemes for Multiple Antenna Systems

Background: A new trend in wireless communications is to use multiple transmit and receive antennas such as those found in MIMO wireless systems, to attain higher data rate, better signal quality, and superior system flexibility. Transmit beamforming has been widely adopted for wireless systems wit
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Successive Transmit Beamforming Algorithms for Multiple-Antenna OFDM Systems

Background: In this paper, we focus on the design and evaluation of new transmit beamforming algorithms for the multiple-input single-output (MISO) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. The OFDM technique is very effective in combating frequency selective fading since it conver
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Universal Gain Cells for Broadband Amplifiers

Background: Designing distributed amplifiers by using heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) is a great challenge compared with using field effect transistors. The reasons causing this challenge are a) the input capacitance, C?, of HBT is typically an order of magnitude larger than input capacit
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Development of Diagnostics and Therapeutics for Cornelia de Lange Syndrome

Background: Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS) is a moderately common multisystem birth defects disorder that poses severe medical and social challenges for affected children and their families. Diagnosis of Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS) is based on clinical signs, including abnormal upper limbs
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Generation of Stable Concentration Gradients in 2D and 3D Environments Using a Microfluidic Ladder Chamber

Background: In the chemical, biomedical, and pharmaceutical industries, it has become increasingly desirable to perform large numbers of chemical operations in a highly parallel fashion. For example, cell culture methods are a commonly used research techniques that allows the systematic manipulatio
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Wafer-Level Micro-Glass Blowing

Background: Large scale confinement chambers have been created in the past using traditional glass-blowing techniques. However, conventional glass-blowing can only be used to create large components and requires the components to be made one at a time. Micro-glass spheres have previously been fabri
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Transmit Beamforming for a Large Reconfigurable Antenna Array

Background: Many space-time transmission schemes have been proposed recently to exploit the high channel capacity of MIMO communication systems. However, algorithms for a large antenna array (LAA) remain an open research problem. The standard channel estimation and space-time modulation schemes are
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Real-Time Electrochemical Detection of Targets Using Phage-Displayed Polypeptides

Background: With up to 10^12 unique members, phage-displayed libraries provide a vast pool of candidate receptors to essentially any target. Despite this tremendous potential of phage-displayed libraries for universal molecular recognition, the technique has found only limited application in biosen
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A Method and Apparatus to Inactivate Stem Cell Nuclei

Background: Stem cells may hold the key to future cures for many diseases. These are embryonic cells that are thought to have the potential to develop in any kind of tissue: liver, kidney, brain, etc. There is great scientific, medical, and economic interest in any technology that can facilitate th
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Portable Load Monitoring Device for a Patient"s Foot

Background: Subsequent to a variety of medical procedures including, but not limited to knee arthroplasties, hip arthroplasties, and fracture repairs, post-operative weight-bearing on the affected leg must be limited to facilitate proper healing and avoid exacerbation of injury. However, some degre
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Distributed RF Front-End for UWB Receivers

Background: Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) wireless broadcasts are capable of carrying huge amounts of data up to 250 feet with extremely little transmit power and high immunity to interference and multipath fading. The spread spectrum characteristics of UWB wireless systems, and the ability of UWB wireless
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Novel Distributed Direct Conversion Receiver for UWB Systems

Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) wireless broadcasts are capable of carrying huge amounts of data up to 250 feet with extremely little transmit power and high immunity to interference and multipath fading. The spread spectrum characteristics of UWB wireless systems, and the ability of UWB wireless receivers to
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Six-Bar Rear Bicycle Suspension

Background: Current bicycle rear suspension designs cannot ensure that the axle of the rear wheel follows a circle around the bottom bracket that holds the pedal wheel axle. This means that pedal forces cause the suspension to deflect, which wastes rider energy. Technology: University researcher
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Hybrid Binding Proteins Against Pathological Protein Aggregates in the Central

Background: The pathological protein aggregates such as beta-amyloids, alpha-synuclein and prion protein deposits in the CNS can be removed by vaccination, i.e., immunization using specific antibodies andlor synthesized antigens. Studies have demonstrated that clearance of these pathological protei
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Protein Nanocapsule for Drug Delivery

Technology: University of California researchers are investigating a protein scaffold system for molecular transport, namely, the E2 protein of Bacillus stearothermophilus in the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. This model system has many features that make it attractive as a generalizable scaffold
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An Integrated Microfluidic Platform with Lateral Dielectrophoresis (DEP) Based Cell/Particle Separation

Background: Most of the current techniques used for Dielectrophoresis separation use planar electrodes which sit at the bottom of the channel. With this design the electric field decreases dramatically as the height increases. Correspondingly, the gradient of the electric filed which is denoted as
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Non-scattering Oxygen Carrying Media for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging

Background: If blood is replaced locally in the vascular system by injection of saline solutions, OCT images can be obtained for brief periods of time, but lack of oxygen is deleterious to the tissues, and ischemia and damage will result, compromising patient health, as well as the OCT images obtai
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Trace-Driven, Just-In-Time Compilation with a New Application of Static Single Assignment Form

Background: A decade after Java arrived, there have been improvements in the runtime performance of platform-independent virtual-machine based software. However, using such machine-independent software on resource-constrained devices such as mobile phones and PDAs remains a challenge, as both inter
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High-Velocity, Ion-Driven Wind Generator

Background: A fluid can be accelerated to high velocities using electrostatic forces and no moving parts. This concept, termed "ion-driven", "ionic", "Chattock", "electrohydrodynamic", "electrokinetic" or "corona" wind, has been known for over a hundred years. However, only a few meters per second
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A Platform for Seamless Multi-device Interactive Digital Content

Background: Previous mechanisms for connecting two or more devices in the same physical space have been cumbersome, and offered little advantage over connecting two devices that are hundreds of miles apart. There are two general methods: first, the automatic triggering of content when a device ente
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Wafer Scale Glass Blowing

Background: Large scale confinement chambers have been created in the past using traditional glass-blowing techniques. However, conventional glass-blowing can only be used to create large components and requires the components to be made one at a time. Micro-glass spheres have previously been fabri
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A Novel 7 Base Deletion in the Gene on Chromosome 21 for Diagnostic of Keratoconus

Background: Keratoconus is a noninflammatory progressive corneal thinning disorder leading to mixed myopic and irregular astigmatism and is implicated as a major cause of cornea transplants in the Western world. Genetic factors have been suggested as a cause of keratoconus. The stromal thinning of
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Methodology of Elasto-Mammography

Background: It has been well recognized that the tissue stiffness plays an important role for diagnosis of breast cancers, as tumors are stiffer than the surrounding breast tissues, and malignant tumors are much stiffer than benign ones. In other words, in vivo identification of the elastic moduli
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Methodology of Elasto-Mammography

Background: It has been well recognized that the tissue stiffness plays an important role for diagnosis of breast cancers, as tumors are stiffer than the surrounding breast tissues, and malignant tumors are much stiffer than benign ones. In other words, in vivo identification of the elastic moduli
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Asymmetric Clustered Processor Architecture based on Value Content

Background: Most conventional clustered processor architectures are symmetric systems. It is known that the scalability of ahigh-performance processor architecture has been limited in new system designs by various factors, including increasing clock frequencies, issue widths, and greater wire delay
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Technique to Characterize NIitric Oxide Exchange in the Lungs

Background: It has been reported that the concentration of Nitric oxide (NO) in the exhaled breath was substantially elevated in patients with asthma who were not treated with corticosteroids, suggesting that exhaled NO was a potential noninvasive index of assessing lung and airway inflammation. Be
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Microfluidic Device for Forming Monodisperse Lipoplexes

Background: The determinant factor for the successful applications of delivering drugs is to develop a non-viral and efficient carrier. Cationic lipid based liposomal carriers are the most attractive non-viral solution. Advantages of liposomal vectors include safety, lack of immunogenicity, ability
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Intragastric Balloon for Treatment of Obesity

Background: The BioEnterics Intragastric Balloon System™ is a non-surgical, non-pharmaceutical alternative for the treatment of obesity. The balloon system is designed to provide loss therapy to reduce health risks related to obesity or risks prior to vital supervised weight loss program. Endoscopi
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Flexible Endoscopic Tube

Background: In performing, through an anatomical channel inside the body, a diagnostic or surgical procedure, the surgeon or operator may need to rotate with precision the distal end inside the body, from the proximal end outside the body. Precise transfer of angular rotation from the proximal to t
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CAP/SORBS1 Gene and Diabetes

Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is one of the leading causes of death in the United States (Bassett). The molecular defects underlying the development of most human Type 2 DM are not yet clear. But we know a combination of insulin resistance and islet cell failure brings on Type 2 DM. Insulin ac
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Gene Encoding CRAC Channel

Background: CRAC stands for Ca2+-Release Activated Ca2+. When Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum (a major store of Ca2+) is depleted, a CRAC channel, is activated to slowly replenish the endoplasmic reticulum. The CRAC channel is critical to the activation of T lymphocytes, mast cells and other he
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Novel Stabilization Scheme for Obtaining Single Longitudinal Mode (SLM) Radiation from a Pulsed Nd:Yag laser

Background: Pulsed, q-switched solid-state lasers are an almost ubiquitous light source for powerful, short laser pulses, as used in industry and research labs. Typically, a simple free running cavity design is employed, while more demanding applications require seeded lasers. In that case a narrow
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Integrated Direct Electron Imaging Sensors

Background: Conventional charged particle imaging sensors use film and charged couple device (CCD). CCD has poor radiation tolerance and records images indirectly while the film is an analog recorder, unsuitable for high throughput digital imaging. What is needed then, is a direct, digital imaging
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Restoring Cough Using Microstimulators

Background: Respiratory complications are the most common cause of morbidity and mortality following spinal cord injury. Patients with such injuries often suffer a disruption in the neuromuscular central nervous system control of the expiratory muscles. Such disruption or loss of control leads to d
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Dynamic Skin Cooling with Non-Toxic Cryogen with Minimal Global Warming Potential

Background: An important issue in laser treatment of cutaneous lesions is to protect the epidermis from thermal damage. This heating, which is primarily caused by light absorption in the melanosomes, can easily bring the temperatures of the basal layer above the threshold damage value of 65-70 degr
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Beta-Amyloid and Neurofibriallary Tangle Imaging Agents

Background: Positron emission tomography (PET) is a non-invasive test that helps doctors diagnose abnormalities, determine the extent of disease, prescribe treatment, and track progress. The patient is given a positron-emitting radiopharmaceutical and the PET scan locates and measures radioactivity
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The Arhgap18 Gene and Schizophrenia

Background: Correlation of brain images and genotypes for diagnostics of neuropsychiatric disorders and drug discovery Technology: The invention includes general methods for identifying markers that correlate with neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The methods
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Lithographically Patterned Nanowire Electrodeposition

Background: Electron beam lithography (EBL), invented in the early 70's, provides a means for patterning polycrystalline metal nanowires as small as 20 nm in diameter onto surfaces. The applicability of EBL, however, has been limited to research and development applications because it is a serial p
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A New Mouse Model of Sjogren's Syndrome

Background: Sjogren's Syndrome is a grave autoimmune disease in which destruction of the exocrine glands leads to severe dryness of the eyes and mouth, with additional systemic complications. The pathogenesis of Sjogren's Syndrome is unclear, and treatment options are limited. Development of good a
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Pointer-Based Instruction Queue for Out-of-Order Processors

Background: Out-of-order processors issue instructions even before their source operands are available. The processor component central to out-of-order processing is the Instruction Queue (IQ). Its performance is critical to overall processor speed and power consumption. For instance, the issue log
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High Sensitivity Optical Coherence Tomography

Background: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive sub-surface optical imaging modality with high axial resolution and high signal to noise ratio compared to other imaging modalities such as ultrasound and MRI. Depending on the tissue's scattering and absorption, usually the imaging d
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Method for Making and Using Vascularized Tumor Spheroid to Predict Response to Antiangiogenesis Agents

Background: Angiogenesis drugs act to inhibit survival of newly formed blood vessels required for tumor growth and progression. These drugs have recently shown good activity in the clinic for breast, lung, colon and kidney cancer. However, these drugs can be toxic and even cause death. Only about h
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Method and Apparatus for Performing Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Produce (Fruit, Vegetables) Using Spatially Structured Illumination

Background: The use of wide-field, broadband, spatially illuminated imaging of turbid media has the potential for simultaneous surface and sub-surface mapping of media structure, function and composition. This method can be applied with no contact to the medium over a large area and can be used in
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Soft Tissue Dissector

Background: Laparoscopic surgery has become part of the standard armamentarium for many urologic surgeons. Currently a wide variety of instruments are used to facilitate dissection during laparoscopic surgery. Each time a different instrument is used, it requires removal and reinsertion. Over the c
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Multi-Projector Displays Using Plug and Play Projectors

Background: Plug and play projectors (PPP) have been used for several years and combining multiple projectors to display a single image is desirous in order to display large, synchronized displays tiled arrays in high resolution. When it comes to screen size, bigger is only better when resolution i
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Micromachined Passive Programmable Drug Delivery Systems

Background: The ability to deliver drugs locally to the site of need and over a prolonged period of time is important as a therapeutic method for many ailments and diseases. Many drugs are more effective if delivered at a specific site since they can be delivered in concentrated dosages at the poin
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Prokineticin 2 and Prokineticin Receptor 2 as a Target to Treat Epilepsy and Seizures

Background: PK2 belongs to a family of secreted peptides that regulate diverse biological functions including serving as a regulatory molecule for circadian rhythms. The signaling of PK2 is mediated through two cognate G-protein coupled receptors Prokineticin Receptor 1 and Prokineticin Receptor 2
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Eco Wireless Sensor Node

Background: Many wearable wireless sensor systems have similar looking architectures. To reduce unnecessary redundant design effort, modular, expandable platforms have been proposed. They include features such as snap-on connectors to make the interface pins accessible. End users can then customize
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Smart Colloidal Dampers with Controllable Damping Curves Using Magnetic Field

Background: Current dampers with controllable damping curves, e.g., magnetorheological fluid (MRF) dampers, are primarily hydraulic dampers, which are based on viscous flow through orifices. The viscous-flow dissipates energy by the internal friction mechanism of the fluid, converting external ener
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Construction of Single Molecule Electronic Devices, with Applications to Biosensing

Background: "Molecular Electronics" (ME) generally refers to a class of novel electronic devices in which the electronic response and function are entirely controlled by single molecules. In principle, a wide range of devices can result from the incorporation of different types of molecules (e.g. m
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A Multi-Band, Inductor Re-Use Low Noise Amplifier

Background: In recent years, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems have proven to enhance data rate and provide robust signal reception under a variety of environmental settings. However, its employment of multiple antennas in turn require multiple branches of RF front ends resulting in inc
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Single Wafer Fabrication Process for Wavelength Dependent Reflectance for Linear Optical Serialization of Accelerometers

Background: Fiber optic sensors (FOS) networks are an attractive approach for the pervasive monitoring of a wide variety of systems. FOS operate through the modulation of a light beam signal carried by an optical fiber by environmental effects in terms of its intensity, phase, frequency, polarizati
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A Capacitive Detection Scheme with Inherent Self-calibration for Resonant MEMS

Background: SEVERAL important classes of MEMS devices, such as resonators, gyroscopes, and chemical sensors, rely on resonance phenomenon in their operation. In these devices, resonant motion needs to be actuated, sensed, and controlled. Capacitive phenomena are commonly used for transduction in vi
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Quantitative Quantum Yield Measurements Using Flourescents Modulated Imaging

Background: Modulated imaging (MI) is a non-contact imaging modality that employs broadband, spatially modulated illumination capable of wide-field imaging, depth sectioning of turbid media, and the simultaneous extraction of the optical absorption (µa) and reduced scattering (µs') properties. The
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Antigens for Borrelia Infection Diagnosis and Prevention

Background: Lvme disease is the most frequently reported arthropod-borne disease in the United States and Europe. Serological assays are the most common laboratory tests used to confirm or support a diagnosis based on clinical features and epidemiological circumstances. Direct detection of the orga
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Optimizing Sound to Suppress Tinnitus

Background: Tinnitus is the perception of sound in the absence of corresponding external sounds. Although known for its high-pitched ringing, tinnitus is an internal noise that varies in pitch and frequency. Tinnitus affects approximately 50 million people in the United States. Treatments such as d
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A New Analog Hardware-Efficient Multi-Antenna Receiver Architechtur for Spatial Multiplexing, Spatial Diversity and Beamforming

Background: Multi-antenna communications have demonstrated remarkable performance improvements in wireless systems and hold a promising future for applications that demand higher data rate, enhanced quality of service, and better reliability. However, in systems where multiple transmit and multiple
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Rescanning Laser Scanning Confocal Microscope

Background: The laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) is widely used as a confocal microscopy technique for imaging fluorescent objects in a manner that removes out of focus fluorescent light and thus provides increased axial resolution and better imaging compared to a standard fluorescence mic
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Novel Inhibitors of N-Acylethanolamine-Hydrolyzing Acid Amidase (NAAA)

Background: Ethanoloamides of long-chain fatty acids, termed N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) have been reported to have a variety of biological activities. NAEs are a substrate of N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase (NAAA) that catalytically hydrolyze NAEs to ethanolamine and the corresponding f
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Conformal Deposition of Carbon Particles on Three-Dimensional Microstructures

Background: When working with carbon particles, the traditional manufacturing techniques require preparation of slurries that are afterwards coated onto a surface. With this method, only planar structures (layers) can be created. When three dimensional microstructures are needed, one of the options
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Methods of Manufacturing Microdevices in Laminates, Lead Frames, Packages, and Printed Circuit Boards

Background: Microelectrical-mechanical systems (MEMS) are miniature mechanical devices intended to perform non-electronic functions such as sensing or actuation. These devices are typically built from silicon using lithographic techniques borrowed from the semiconductor industry. This manufacturing
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Photoacoustic Indicators

This disclosure presents a method for using agents such as organic dyes, dye-embedded nanoparticles and metal nanoparticles as sensing agents for deep in-vivo tissue imaging. The agents The agents provide image contrast based on a specific parameter of the tissue such as: pH, calcium ion concentrati
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Tubular Electronics

Introduction As the demand for smaller and more portable consumer electronics increases, new designs and fabrication techniques must constantly be developed in order to accommodate and take advantage of the changes. Power supplies and adapters, for instance, are now often larger than the devices for
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Safer Endotracheal Tube Cuff Pressure Regulation System

Background: The means to regulate endotracheal tube cuff pressure have been proposed in order to decrease the incidence of post-intubation complications caused by cuffed endotracheal tube. The regulation of endotracheal tube cuff pressure in prior art is achieved via a complex external pressure reg
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Nanosecond Laser Cell Lysis in Microfluidic Devices

Background: To date, cell lysis in microfluidic devices for analytical purposes has been achieved using chemical, electrical, and optical means. Chemical cell lysis occurs on time scales of several to tens of seconds and is adequate for analytes whose chemical states change on such time scales. How
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Continuous Reciprocal Flow in a Microfluidic Device for Efficient Mixing

Background: In certain microfluidic devices, continuous mixing of fluids is desirable depending on the application. For example, in the conventional or passive hybridization method, a DNA microarray is placed in solution where the immobilized single stranded DNA probes hybridize with complementa
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Magnetic Resonance Compatible Electric Motor

Background: Standard electrical motors when used in magnetic resonance (MR) instrumentation may interfere with the functionality of the MR imaging. These interferences from the motor distort the resulting MR images. Developing a motor that operates in high magnetic fields used in MR imaging and MR
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A Device and Method to Remove Excess Glucose in the Small intestine for Prevention and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity

Background: Type 2 Diabetes, also known as non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes is the most common form of diabetes affecting 90-95% of the 21 million Americans diagnosed with the disease. While traditionally diagnosed in adults over the age of 40, it is increasin
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Ergonomic Tracheal Suction System

Background: Tracheal suction catheters used today by respiratory therapists have a number of drawbacks. First, the therapist operating the tracheal suction catheter is directly exposed to the patient's secretions and mucus due to the catheter's design. Second the design of the catheter causes the t
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Novel Method Using Laser in Assays to Induce Mechanotransduction

Background: Mechanotransduction, the process by which cells convert mechanical stresses to a biochemical signal, influences many cell functions including cell motility and proliferation and also modulates cell signaling events in the regulation of sensory neurons and in various molecular pathways s
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A Model of Heterogeneous Ventilation and Nitric Oxide Production in the Lungs

Background: Asthma is a pulmonary disorder characterized by chronic airway inflammation and airflow obstruction that is widespread, but variable in space and time. Although airflow obstruction is routinely monitored with spirometry, assessing inflammation in a non-invasive manner is more difficult.
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Fast Lysis Cell Traps

Background: Chemical cytometry involves the use of high-sensitivity analytical tools, such as mass spectrometry, electrochemistry and capillary or microfluidic separation methods to characterize single cells. In order to accomplish this analysis, it is desirable to selectively apply cells to predet
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Chronic Sequential Sensorimotor Neural Probe Array

Background: The Chronic Sequential Neural Probe Array is designed for patients with an axonal injury in the peripheral nerves or spinal cord who require chronic intervention where stimulation of and/or recording from the axonal bundles is desired. There are two major categories of potential patient
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