Dennis Denlinger

These are not inventions, but it is a correct understanding of how the muscles and bones of the human body work. In engineering a basic is that for any important primary system you incorporate a backup system in case the primary system goes down. For example, in your car there are two braking systems (one in front and one in back) to stop the car. If one of the systems goes down, there is a bright red light which lights up on the dashboard to let you know that you need to get to a repair shop and in the meantime the other brake system will still stop the car. In the body the ligaments are a backup to the muslces. The muscles have several jobs. One is to move the bones. Another is to shape the body such as keeping the body vertical rather than tilted to the side. The third job of the muscles is to keep the bones tight together at the joints. (The "experts" think that the ligaments do this all the time, including when the muscles are operating.) When the muscles are not operating, such as at night when you are asleep, the ligaments keep the bones (losely) together at the joints. Without the ligaments you could wake up in the morning with your toes mixed in with the ribs. If the muscles are not working when there is load on the bones and joints, the ligaments will stretch and hurt. The pain of the hurt corresponds to the bright red warning light on your dashboard when a brake system stops working.