Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Patents for Sale or License

Electrolysis Cell for Hydrogen Chloride Electrolysis

Apparatus for hydrogen chloride electrolysis, comprising a cathode that has a layer of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes having functional groups containing nitrogen.
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Gas Bubble Storage

Nano-bubble storage of hydrogen. A method and product patent. Extremely high pressure storage in a nano-scale water bubble that is producible under at atmospheric temperature and pressure. Product is a quasi-liquid that is comparable to gasoline in energy content. Interested rd&d parties have can take partial ownership. A sale or license of the invention is possible. Inventor/national lab scientist now deceased: Not yet produced or tested.
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Nanostructure-Enhanced stereo-electrodes for fuel cells and biosensors

This application provides nanostructure-enhanced stereo-electrodes. The application also provides novel ways to manufacture nanostructure-enhanced electrodes. In some embodiments, the invention also provides methods of use for devices equipped with the nanostructure-enhanced stereo-electrodes.
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Insufflator

The invention relates to an insufflator comprising a supply connection (22) and a delivery connection (14) and a pressure and flow measuring unit located between said connections (14, 22) for determining a gas pressure that prevails in the delivery connection and a measuring variable that characterises a volumetric gas flow in the delivery connection. The pressure and flow measuring unit comprises a multi-layer sheet (20), the interior of which contains at least one flow channel (26) that is con
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Method for Producing Oligo- And/or Polysiloxanes And/or N-substituted Urea Derivatives

The invention relates to a method for producing oligo- or polysiloxanes, which are widely used as silicone oils, silicone rubbers (elastomers), and silicone resins, and for producing N-substituted urea derivatives. The oligo- or polysiloxanes produced according to the invention are suitable for, inter alia, hydrophobing glass, ceramic, textiles, or leather, and as lubricants for plastics processing, lubricants in plastic gearing, polishing agent additives, for preventing pigments from floating i
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Generating Electrical Power By Coupling Aerobic Microbial Photosynthesis to an Electron-harvesting System

The present invention relates to an aerobic single-chamber photosynthetic microbial fuel cell (PMFC) that does not depend on organic substrate as an energy source but instead powered only by the energy of light. Its operation is CO2-free and does not require buffers or exogenous electron transfer shuttles to provide the electrical energy.
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Gas adsorption and gas mixture separations using carborane-based MOF material

A method of separating a mixture of carbon dioxide and a hydrocarbon gas using a metal-organic framework (MOF) material having a three-dimensional carborane ligand structure.
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Nonequilibrium Chemovoltaic Fuel Cell

A chemovoltaic cell converts chemical energy generated by an in-situ molecular hydrogen oxidation reaction into electrical energy by creating a chemically induced nonequilibrium electron population on a catalytic surface of a Schottky structure, followed by charge separation and electric power generation using the Schottky contact.
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Electrochemical Cell, and Particularly a Cell with Electrodeposited Fuel

The present invention relates to a method for charging the cell by electrodeposition of metal fuel on the anode thereof.
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System and Method for Growing Photosynthetic Cells.

Disclosed are a system and method for growing photosynthetic cells in conduit. The system and method supply light, CO2 and nutrients to the cells. The system and method also dampen thermal variations in the conduit.
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Counter-flow Membraneless Fuel Cell

A method for generating electrical current using a fuel cell includes flowing a first flow that includes a fuel and an electrolyte through a first channel. The fuel is oxidized at an anode to generate electrons for conduction to a load and oxidation products that remain in the first flow. The method includes flowing a second flow that includes an oxidizer and an electrolyte through a second channel that is open to the first channel. A cathode receives electrons from the load and the oxidation pr
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Microbial Electrolytic Cell

System and methods for efficiently capturing hydrogen gas from a microbial electrolytic cell. The systems and methods can be configured such that the cathode is located above the anode and proximal to a fluid level and a gas headspace in the single-chamber microbial electrolytic cell.
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Bicarbonate and Carbonate As Hydroxide Carriers in a Biological Fuel Cell

The present invention relates generally to a process that helps alleviate the pH gradient between anode and cathode compartments in any biological fuel cell or electrolytic cell configuration in which a pH gradient between anode and cathode is limiting the voltage efficiency. By providing acid to the cathode compartment in the form of CO2, the pH gradient is reduced and voltage efficiency and power output are increased. In one embodiment, carbon dioxide produced in the anode chamber is recycled
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Membraneless Microfluidic Fuel Cell

A fuel cell includes a plurality of individual fluid passageways each leading to a common outlet. Each fluid passageway includes an anode and a cathode. A plurality of fuel ports are connected to the fluid passageways and supply fuel to the passageways upstream of the anodes to flow in electrolyte towards the outlet. A plurality of oxidizer ports are connected to the fluid passageways and supply oxidizer to the passageways upstream of the cathodes to flow in electrolyte. The arrangement of the p
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Electrochemical Cell, and Particularly a Metal Fueled Cell with Non-parallel Flow

The present invention relates to an electrochemical cell with a gap between an anode and a cathode for transport flow of an electrolyte containing charge carrying ions from a solid fuel and an oxidizer.
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Multipass Membraneless Full Cell

A fuel cell having a first fluid passageway, a second fluid passageway, and an electrolyte passageway positioned at a first reaction zone between the first and second fluid passageways. The first fluid passageway has at least one anode and the second fluid passageway has at least one cathode. The fuel cell also has a fuel port in fluid communication with the first fluid passageway for supplying a fuel stream to the first fluid passageway, and an oxidizer port in fluid communication with the seco
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Fuel Cell, Membrane Electrode Assembly

An acid resistant composite catalyst comprising dumbbell-shaped composite nanoparticles each comprising a noble metal nanoparticle epitaxially conjugated to a ferrite particle, and/or flower-shaped composite nanoparticles each comprising a noble metal nanoparticle epitaxially conjugated to at least two ferrite particles. The acid resistant composite catalyst is useful to facilitate the reduction of oxygen. The acid resistant composite catalyst can be used in a fuel cell comprising a fuel electro
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Ion-Conducting Ceramic Apparatus, Method, Fabrication, and Applications

A c-axis-oriented HAP thin film synthesized by seeded growth on a palladium hydrogen membrane substrate. An exemplary synthetic process includes electrochemical seeding on the substrate, and secondary and tertiary hydrothermal treatments under conditions that favor growth along c-axes and a-axes in sequence. By adjusting corresponding synthetic conditions, an HAP this film can be grown to a controllable thickness with a dense coverage on the underlying substrate. The thin films have relatively h
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Electrocatalysts for Fuel Cells

Disclosed are metallized carbonaceous materials, processes for forming such materials, and electrodes and fuel cells comprising the disclosed materials.
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Methods for Low Temperature Hydrogen Sulfide Dissociation

A method Of H2S dissociation comprises generating radicals or ions. H2S dissociation is initiated at relatively low temperature, e.g., of less than 1875 K. The residence time for dissociation generally ranges from about 0.01 s to 10 s. In one embodiment, plasmas are used to generate ions for use in the H2S dissociation.
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Plasma Reactor

A plasma reactor (10) is provided. The plasma reactor (10) includes a reaction chamber (12) formed by a wall (13). Proximate to the first end of the reaction chamber, the plasma reactor includes a feed gas inlet (14) for creating a reverse vortex gas flow (16) in the reaction chamber. The plasma reactor (10) also includes an anode and a cathode connected to a power source for generation of an electric arc for plasma generation in said reaction chamber. The plasma reactor (10) may optionally incl
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Hydrogen Production from Hydrogen Sulfide

The present subject matter is directed to plasma dissociation of fluidic hydrogen sulfide to hydrogen and sulfur. A reactor is configured to have a plasma discharge and a vortex flow pattern. The plasma discharge provides energy to the hydrogen sulfide disassociation reaction and the vortex flow pattern helps to cause the condensation of sulfur molecules. The condensation of sulfur molecules helps to reduce the amount of energy input required to disassociate a certain amount of hydrogen sulfide.
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Electricity Generation in Single-Chamber Granular Activated Carbon Microbial Fuel Cells Treating Wastewater

An apparatus and method for producing electrical power and treating wastewater is provided. The apparatus and method oxidize bacteria and substrates naturally occurring in wastewater in a chamber, generating electrons which run from an anode to a cathode through an associated circuit. As a result of the oxidation reactions, the apparatus and method remove impurities from the wastewater and generate electrical power.
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Geobacter Strains That Use Alternate Organic Compounds, Methods of Making, and Methods of Use Thereof

In preferred embodiments, the present invention provides new isolated strains of a Geobacter species that are capable of using a carbon source that is selected from C3 to C12 organic compounds selected from pyruvate or metabolic precursors of pyruvate as an electron donor in metabolism and in subsequent energy production. In other aspects, other preferred embodiments of the present invention include methods of making such strains and methods of using such strains. In general, the wild type strai
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Production of Hydrogen, Liquid Fuels, and Chemicals from Catalytic Processing of Bio-oils

Disclosed herein is a method of generating hydrogen from a bio-oil, comprising hydrogenating a water-soluble fraction of the bio-oil with hydrogen in the presence of a hydrogenation catalyst, and reforming the water-soluble fraction by aqueous-phase reforming in the presence of a reforming catalyst, wherein hydrogen is generated by the reforming, and the amount of hydrogen generated is greater than that consumed by the hydrogenating. The method can further comprise hydrocracking or hydrotreating
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Geobacteraceae Strains and Methods

Embodiments of the present invention provide a method of producing genetically modified strains of electricigenic microbes that are specifically adapted for the production of electrical current in microbial fuel cells, as well as strains produced by such methods and fuel cells using such strains. In preferred embodiments, the present invention provides genetically modified strains of Geobacter sulfurreducens and methods of using such strains.
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Multilevel Dc/ac Porer Inverter with Hydrogen Fuel Cell

The invention refers to electrical engineering and can be applied in power electronics supply systems. Its objective is to increase the efficiency of a multilevel DC/AC power inverter. The offered multilevel DC/AC power inverter with hydrogen fuel cell contains fuel cell 1 and capacitor 8. The distinctive properties of the proposed topology are defined by a one phase transformer 10, where the common point of two primary windings in series connection is wired to the fuel cell 1 positive output. T
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Interface Polymer

A method of depositing an anion exchange polymer on an electrode substrate, said method comprising: a) contacting an electrode substrate with an anion exchange polymer in ionic form, wherein the polymer comprises a quaternary ammonium group as the anion exchange group, and b) treating the polymer, so as to render it insoluble on the substrate. The present invention relates to a method of depositing an anion exchange polymer on an electrode substrate. The present invention also relates to an e
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Apparatus and Method for Measuring Hydrogen Concentration in Molten Metals

The present invention concerns a probe for measuring hydrogen concentration in molten metals comprising a probe body and a hydrogen sensor. The sensor structure is based on a sensor body having a wall within which a sealed cavity is defined. The cavity contains a solid reference material for generating a reference partial pressure of hydrogen within the cavity. At least a portion of the wall of the cavity is formed from a solid electrolyte material carrying a measurement electrode on a surface o
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Microbial Fuel Cell

It is an object of the present invention to provide a microbial fuel cell capable of increasing a current density without employing a mediator. The microbial fuel cell 1 includes a 3-dimensionally structured agglomerate formed from conductive fine particles 2 and microorganisms 3. In the agglomerate 4, the conductive fine particles 2 disperse among pieces of Shewanella 3 and the conductive fine particles 2 are coupled to one another to hold Shewanella 3, thus forming the 3-dimensional structure
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System for Rapid Biohydrogen Phenotypic Screening of Microorganisms Using a Chemochromic Sensor

Provided is a system for identifying a hydrogen gas producing organism. The system includes a sensor film having a first layer comprising a transition metal oxide or oxysalt and a second layer comprising a hydrogen-dissociative catalyst metal, the first and second layers having an inner and an outer surface wherein the inner surface of the second layer is deposited on the outer surface of the first layer, and a substrate adjacent to the outer surface of the second layer, the organism isolated on
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Process for Selection of Oxygen-tolerant Algal Mutants that Produce H.sub.2

A process for selection of oxygen-tolerant, H.sub.2 -producing algal mutant cells comprising:(a) growing algal cells photoautotrophically under fluorescent light to mid log phase;(b) inducing algal cells grown photoautrophically under fluorescent light to mid log phase in step (a) anaerobically by (1) resuspending the cells in a buffer solution and making said suspension anaerobic with an inert gas; (2) incubating the suspension in the absence of light at ambient temperature;(c) treating the cel
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Method and Apparatus for Rapid Biohydrogen Phenotypic Screening of Microorganisms Using a Chemochromic Sensor

The invention provides an assay system for identifying a hydrogen-gas-producing organism, including a sensor film having a first layer comprising a transition metal oxide or oxysalt and a second layer comprising hydrogen-dissociative catalyst metal, the first and second layers having an inner and an outer surface wherein the inner surface of the second layer is deposited on the outer surface of the first layer, and a substrate disposed proximally to the outer surface of the second layer, the org
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Method and apparatus for determining diffusible hydrogen concentrations

A measuring apparatus and method for use in measuring diffusible hydrogen concentrations in materials, structures, and other objects. In an embodiment of the invention for use in welding applications, the measuring apparatus (10) includes a sensor assembly (20) that, with an included sealing member (40), defines a sample area (17) on a weld bead (16) from which hydrogen evolves into a sample volume (18) defined by the sealing member (40), a sensor housing (34) and a sensor (22) of the sensor ass
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Hydrogen Producting Using Hydrogenase-Containing Oxygenic Photosynthetic Organisms

This invention relates to photosynthetic hydrogen production and specifically to a biophotolysis process, which can be cycled, for the temporal separation of oxygen evolution and hydrogen production in algae.
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Hydrogen Permeable Protective Coating for a Catalytic Surface

Nanostructures and methods for production thereof by phase separation during metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE). An embodiment of one of the methods may comprise providing a growth surface in a reaction chamber and introducing a first mixture of precursor materials into the reaction chamber to form a buffer layer thereon. A second mixture of precursor materials may be provided into the reaction chamber to form an active region (14) on the buffer layer, wherein the nanostructure is embedde
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Fluorescence technique for on-line monitoring of state of hydrogen-producing microorganisms

Technology Description In situ fluorescence method to monitor state of sulfur-deprived algal culture's ability to produce H.sub.2 under sulfur depletion, comprising: a) providing sulfur-deprived algal culture; b) illuminating culture; c) measuring onset of H.sub.2 percentage in produced gas phase at multiple times to ascertain point immediately after anerobiosis to obtain H.sub.2 data as function of time; and d) determining any abrupt change in three in situ fluorescence parameters; i) increa
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System for Rapid Biohydrogen Phenotypic Screening of Microorganisms Using a Chemochromic Sensor

Provided is a system for identifying a hydrogen gas producing organism. The system includes a sensor film having a first layer comprising a transition metal oxide or oxysalt and a second layer comprising a hydrogen-dissociative catalyst metal, the first and second layers having an inner and an outer surface wherein the inner surface of the second layer is deposited on the outer surface of the first layer, and a substrate adjacent to the outer surface of the second layer, the organism isolated on
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Process for Selection of Oxygen-tolerant Algal Mutants that Produce H.sub.2

A process for selection of oxygen-tolerant, H.sub.2 -producing algal mutant cells comprising:(a) growing algal cells photoautotrophically under fluorescent light to mid log phase;(b) inducing algal cells grown photoautrophically under fluorescent light to mid log phase in step (a) anaerobically by (1) resuspending the cells in a buffer solution and making said suspension anaerobic with an inert gas; (2) incubating the suspension in the absence of light at ambient temperature;(c) treating the cel
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Method and Apparatus for Rapid Biohydrogen Phenotypic Screening of Microorganisms Using a Chemochromic Sensor

The invention provides an assay system for identifying a hydrogen-gas-producing organism, including a sensor film having a first layer comprising a transition metal oxide or oxysalt and a second layer comprising hydrogen-dissociative catalyst metal, the first and second layers having an inner and an outer surface wherein the inner surface of the second layer is deposited on the outer surface of the first layer, and a substrate disposed proximally to the outer surface of the second layer, the org
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Method and apparatus for determining diffusible hydrogen concentrations

A measuring apparatus and method for use in measuring diffusible hydrogen concentrations in materials, structures, and other objects. In an embodiment of the invention for use in welding applications, the measuring apparatus (10) includes a sensor assembly (20) that, with an included sealing member (40), defines a sample area (17) on a weld bead (16) from which hydrogen evolves into a sample volume (18) defined by the sealing member (40), a sensor housing (34) and a sensor (22) of the sensor ass
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Hydrogen Producting Using Hydrogenase-Containing Oxygenic Photosynthetic Organisms

This invention relates to photosynthetic hydrogen production and specifically to a biophotolysis process, which can be cycled, for the temporal separation of oxygen evolution and hydrogen production in algae.
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Hydrogen Permeable Protective Coating for a Catalytic Surface

Nanostructures and methods for production thereof by phase separation during metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE). An embodiment of one of the methods may comprise providing a growth surface in a reaction chamber and introducing a first mixture of precursor materials into the reaction chamber to form a buffer layer thereon. A second mixture of precursor materials may be provided into the reaction chamber to form an active region (14) on the buffer layer, wherein the nanostructure is embedde
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Fluorescence technique for on-line monitoring of state of hydrogen-producing microorganisms

In situ fluorescence method to monitor state of sulfur-deprived algal culture's ability to produce H.sub.2 under sulfur depletion, comprising: a) providing sulfur-deprived algal culture; b) illuminating culture; c) measuring onset of H.sub.2 percentage in produced gas phase at multiple times to ascertain point immediately after anerobiosis to obtain H.sub.2 data as function of time; and d) determining any abrupt change in three in situ fluorescence parameters; i) increase in F.sub.t (steady-stat
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