Batteries with Orthorhombic Sodium Manganese Oxide Cathodes
APPLICATION OF TECHNOLOGY:
Electric vehicles Load-levelling Consumer goods
Compatible with solid polymer electrodes Low-cost Environmentally benign
Berkeley National Laboratory researchers have discovered a low-cost, low-toxicity manganese oxide for rechargeable lithium and sodium batteries. This material is based on an orthorhombic sodium manganese oxide, and has a capacity of approximately 160 mAh/g in sodium batteries in a voltage range compatible with polymer electrodes (3.4-2.2 V vs. Na). To date a sodium polymer cell has cycled through 150 deep discharge cycles at moderate rates. Berkeley National Laboratory scientists can readily oxidize, reduce or use mild chemical routes to exchange the orthorhombic sodium manganese oxide to form a material suitable for use in lithium rechargeable cells. This material has a capacity of 180 mAh/g from 3.7-2.5 V vs. lithium and 90 deep discharge cycles have been obtained in lithium/polymer cells to date. The lithiated form of the orthorhombic sodium manganese oxide maintains its structural integrity upon deep discharge and prolonged cycling in lithium cells. An advantage of this material over LiMn2O4, commonly used in lithium and lithium ion cells, is its compatibility with solid polymer electrolytes such as poly(ethylene oxide).
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