Apparatus for Treating Tissue with Microwave Radiation and Antenna Calibration System and Method
A calibration method and apparatus for surgical antennas which are arranged to deliver microwave radiation (e.g. having a treatment frequency of 500 MHz to 100 GHz) into biological tissue is disclosed. An emitting region of the antenna is exposed to a plurality of calibration standards each having a different complex impedance at the treatment frequency. In one embodiment the calibration standards are created in a short-circuit-terminated waveguide cavity of variable length. In another embodiment, each calibration standard is a different mixture of two or more liquids. Measurement of the magnitude and phase of signals reflected from the emitting region when exposed to the calibration standard can permit calibration of the antenna, e.g. by generating a mapping function based on the measured values and known or reference values for the calibration standards. Also disclosed is tissue treatment apparatus having an ablation channel for conveying microwave radiation to a surgical antenna at a high power level and a separate measurement channel for conveying microwave radiation to a surgical antenna at a low power level, wherein the measurement channel bypasses noisy components on the ablation channel. A surgical antenna having an impedance transformer for matching an e.g. coaxial feed structure which terminates in one or more radiating elements with tissue to be treated is also disclosed.
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