Biomass Patents for Sale or License

Electrolysis Cell for Hydrogen Chloride Electrolysis

Apparatus for hydrogen chloride electrolysis, comprising a cathode that has a layer of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes having functional groups containing nitrogen.
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Thermostable cellulase and methods of use

A Clostridium thermocellum thermostable cellulase enzyme with both endocellulase activity and exocellulase activity that is able to degrade cellulose in the absence of scaffolding and other cellulosomic proteins is provided. The use of the enzyme to degrade cellulosic materials to soluble sugars is also provided.
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Thermostable cellulase and methods of use

A Dictyoglomus turgidum thermostable cellulase enzyme with both endocellulase activity and exocellulase activity that is able to degrade cellulose in the absence of scaffoldins and other cellulosomic proteins is provided. The use of the enzyme to degrade cellulosic materials to soluble sugars is also provided. Also described are nucleic acid constructs that encode and express the cellulase, and hosts transformed to contain the nucleic acid constructs.
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zero atmospheric emissions I/C engine

engine recycles waste stream gases, converting waste stream gases into usable fuel while adding biomass based fuel thru the gasification process. Other byproducts such as biochar and biooil are seperated to be refined again into usable fuel. Steam and hydrogen gas injection systems further eliminate any emissions into the atmoshere, making it a zero atmosphere polluting engine.
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Non Pyrolysis 100% Liquefaction of All Cellulose Materials to Versatile Agro-Inputs & Mutipurpose Emulsion BioPolymers

This invention is about the novel heat-free liquefaction/conversion of carbohydrate/Cellulose materials like raw sugar/refined sugar, cellulose/cellulose waste, wood/forest residues and farm wastes to produce primary products applicable in pre-emergent weed control, CCA alternative in Wood preservation , Fertilizer building blocks e.tc. Secondary products are produced via defoamer/oxidizer processing , the secondary product is applicable as emulsion polymerization Initiator for converting all
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Apparatus and Methods for Treating Biomass

An apparatus for treating plant biomass is described herein. Generally, the apparatus includes a pressurizable vessel and a heating element in thermal communication with the vessel. Also described herein are methods of treating plant biomass. Generally, the methods include heating plant biomass under conditions effective to at least partially depolymerize hemicellulose and/or cellulose present in the plant biomass. In one embodiment, the method includes heating a plant biomass substrate to a tem
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Methods, Microorganisms, and Compositions for Plant Biomass Processing

Disclosed herein are methods of degrading plant biomass, and microorganisms and polypeptides used in such methods, hi certain embodiments, the methods include growing Anaerocellum thermophilum on a substrate that comprises plant biomass under conditions effective for the A. thermophilum to convert at least a portion of the plant biomass to a water soluble product or a water insoluble product, hi some cases, the method can further include one or more steps to further process the water soluble pro
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Paenibacillus Ssp. and Methods for Fermentation of Lignocellulosic Materials

Provided herein are methods for producing a fermentation product, such as ethanol, by co-culture of a member of the genus Paenibacillus and an ethanologenic microbe, such as yeast or E. coli. Also provided are methods for making enzymes useful in the saccharification of a pretreated lignocellulosic material. The enzymes may be made by culturing a member of the genus Paenibacillus in a composition suitable for production of such enzymes. An example of such a composition is a pretreated lignocellu
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Yeast Cells and Methods for Increasing Ethanol Production

Provided herein are methods for producing ethanol using yeast to ferment pretreated solid lignocellulosic materials such as pretreated solid lignocellulosic materials obtained from softwoods like pine. The pretreated solid lignocellulosic material is present at a concentration of at least 12% solids, and at least 30 grams ethanol per liter, preferably at least 40 grams ethanol per liter, are produced within 48 hours. In some aspects, the pretreated solid lignocellulosic material is not detoxifie
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Methods and Compositions for Degrading Pectin

The present invention provides enriched polynucleotides, and enriched polypeptides having pectinase activity. The present invention also includes methods of using the polynucleotides and polypeptides described herein. For instance, the methods include producing a metabolic product, such as ethanol.
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Substrate-selective Co-fermentation Process

Biological method for conversion of a sugar-containing organic material into a desired biochemical product. Use of a plurality of substrate-selective cells allows different sugars in a complex mixture to be consumed concurrently and independently. The method can be readily extended to remove inhibitory compounds from hydrolysate.
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Biochars, Methods of Using Biochars, Methods of Making Biochars, and Reactors

Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for biochar impregnated with microbes, methods of making biochar impregnated with microbes, methods of using biochar impregnated with microbes, methods of using biochar to produce gas, reactors using biochar and/or biochar impregnated with microbes, methods of using the reactors, and the like.
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Roduction of Higher Quality Bio-oils By In-line Esterification of Pyrolysis Vapor

The disclosure encompasses in-line reactive condensation processes via vapor phase esterification of bio-oil to decease reactive species concentration and water content in the oily phase of a two-phase oil, thereby increasing storage stability and heating value. Esterification of the bio-oil vapor occurs via the vapor phase contact and subsequent reaction of organic acids with ethanol during condensation results in the production of water and esters. The pyrolysis oil product can have an increas
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Mixotrophic Algae for the Production of Algae Biofuel Feedstock on Wastewater

The disclosure encompasses, among other aspects, mixed algal populations able to survive and proliferate on culture media that have a high proportion of an industry wastewater. In particular, at least one strain of an alga in the algal population proliferates mixotrophically. Embodiments further encompass methods of cultivating mixed populations of freshwater and marine alga comprising a plurality of genera and species to provide a biomass from which may be extracted lipids, or converted into bi
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Compositions and Methods for Modulating Biomass in Energy Crops

Methods for modulating plant biomass are provided. In some embodiments, the methods include the step of modulating in a plant cell the expression of an UPBEAT1 gene product. Also provided are improved energy crop plants, and seeds and parts thereof, which contain a heterologous nucleic acid that encodes an UPBEAT1 gene product and/or that encodes an inhibitor of an UPBEAT1 gene product.
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Process for Producing Lower Alkyl Alcohols from Cellulosic Biomass Using Microorganisms

At least one isolated microorganism, which converts at least 10% by weight, and preferably 50% by weight, of cellulosic biomass to a lower alkyl alcohol by direct digestion, and which produces at least 4% by volume of the lower alkyl alcohol in an aqueous-based digestion medium.
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Highly Active Xylose Reductase from Neurospora Crassa

A new xylose reductase encoding gene from Neurospora crassa was heterologously expressed in E. coli as a His-tag fusion protein and subsequently purified in high yield. This xylose reductase was shown to have a high turnover rate and catalytic efficiency, high stability at room temperature, broad pH profile, and a preference of NADPH over NADH. This enzyme is utilized in production of xylitol and other sugar alcohols such as sorbitol and also in the metabolic enhancement of organisms used for fe
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Hydrothermal Processing (HTP) of Algae Grown in HTP Waste Streams

A process for the conversion of organic waste to biofuel is provided comprising cultivating organisms in the aqueous product of the HTP conversion process.
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Arabinitol Dehydrogenases from Neurospora crassa

Stable and active arabinitol dehydrogenases (LAD) from Neurospora crassa and mutants thereof are disclosed. Arabinitol dehydrogenases are useful in the production of xylitol and ethanol from an arabinose containing substrate. Recombinant and heterologously expressed arabinitol dehydrogenases are useful in converting biomass into biofuels and other industrial food products.
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Cell's bioactive protein production determining method, involves bonding catch antibody to beads, and analyzing spatial catch-antibody/protein/detection antibody-structures of beads for evaluating pro

The method involves bonding a catch antibody to beads e.g. Dynabeads(RTM: Superparamagnetic, monosized polymer particles). The beads are mixed with a suspension of cells in an analysis container. The beads are separated from the cell by action of a magnetic field, and brought in contact with a detection antibody for marking proteins. The spatial catch antibody/protein/detection antibody-structures of the beads are analyzed for evaluating protein in a flow cytometer, where the beads are made of p
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Improved Process for Preparing Bio-oils from Biomass

The invention described herein provides an improved process for preparing bio- oils from biomass using pyrolysis. The process can comprise a step of acid pre-treatment of biomass prior to microwave assisted pyrolysis, and comprise a reformation step prior to condensation. The process of the invention can be used to produce simpler higher quality bio-oil compositions from a given biomass input, and with greater liquid percent yield relative to starting biomass solid weight. Resultant bio-oil outp
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Method and Apparatus for Producing a Fuel from a Biomass Or Bio-oil

Methods and reactors for producing a fuel are disclosed herein. In some embodiments, the method uses a biomass feedstock and alkane and/or alcohol feedstock, which can be contacted with a metal-containing catalyst to form products including a bio-oil. In some embodiments, oxygen-containing functional groups can be removed from a bio-oil using one or more zeolite thin films.
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Photobioreactor System with High Specific Growth Rate and Low Dilution Rate

Systems and methods for growing photosynthetic cells that may be used to produce a biomass. The systems and methods recycle liquid and can produce a high cell concentration harvested biomass.
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Fossil Fuel-free Process of Lignocellulosic Pretreatment with Biological Hydrogen Production

The invention provides an isolated haloalkaliphilic microorganism designated as strain sapolanicus belonging to the genus Halanaerobium, which is capable of producing hydrogen from biomass. Methods of producing biohydrogen comprising the fermentation of the microorganism with alkaline pretreated biomass are also provided. Fermentation is preferably carried out without neutralization of the pretreated biomass and at a pH of greater than or equal to about 10.
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Enclosed Photobioreactors with Adaptive Internal Illumination for the Cultivation of Algae

The present invention provides an enclosed, internally-lighted bioreactor apparatus, methods for growing photosynthetic microorganisms in the enclosed, internally lighted bioreactor and methods for enhancing growth of a photosynthetic microorganism culture in the enclosed internally-lighted bioreactor.
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Method and Composition for Generating Programmed Cell Death Resistant Algal Cells

The present invention provides transgenic algal cells resistant to programmed cell death (PCD) and methods and compositions useful in generating such cells. Specifically, the invention utilizes expression of one or more mammalian anti-apoptotic genes in algal cells to promote resistance to PCD, which is useful for stress tolerance and increased cell viability and biomass production during cultivation.
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Modification of Hydrogenase Activities in Thermophilic Bacteria to Enhance Ethanol Production

Bacteria consume a variety of biomass-derived substrates and produce ethanol. Hydrogenase genes have been inactivated m Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum to generate mutant strains with reduced hydrogenase activities. One such mutant strain with both the ldh and hydtrA genes inactivated shows a significant increase in ethanol production. Manipulation of hydrogenase activities provides a new approach for enhancing substrate utilization and ethanol production by biomass-fermenting microorganis
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Thermophillic Organisms for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol

Mutant thermophilic organisms that consume a variety of biomass derived substrates are disclosed herein. Strains of Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum with acetate kinase and phosphotransacetylase expression eliminated are disclosed herein. Further, strain ALK1 has been engineered by site directed homologous recombination to knockout both acetic acid and lactic acid production. Continuous culture involving a substrate concentration challenge lead to evolution of ALK1, and formation of a more
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Modified Cipa Gene from Clostridium Thermocellum for Enhanced Genetic Stability

Bacteria consume a variety of biomass-derived substrates and produce ethanol. The scaffoldin gene cipA from Clostridium thermocellum is modified to generate a mutated gene with enhanced genetic stability. This mutated cipA gene can be introduced into a heterologous host, such as Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum. Other cellulosome components may be introduced into the host to build a full-sized cellulosome in T. saccharolyticum. Manipulation of the scaffoldin genes provides a new approach fo
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Systems for Alkyl Ester Production

In one embodiment, an alkyl ester production system can comprise: a first transesterification reactor comprising a liquid biomass inlet located between a liquid glycerol outlet and a liquid alkyl ester outlet, a water wash vessel comprising an alkyl ester inlet, a water inlet located near a top of the water wash vessel, and a washed alkyl ester outlet located near the top of the water wash vessel, wherein the alkyl ester inlet is located near a bottom of the water wash vessel, and a drier compri
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Geobacter Strains That Use Alternate Organic Compounds, Methods of Making, and Methods of Use Thereof

In preferred embodiments, the present invention provides new isolated strains of a Geobacter species that are capable of using a carbon source that is selected from C3 to C12 organic compounds selected from pyruvate or metabolic precursors of pyruvate as an electron donor in metabolism and in subsequent energy production. In other aspects, other preferred embodiments of the present invention include methods of making such strains and methods of using such strains. In general, the wild type strai
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Catalytic Pyrolysis of Solid Biomass and Related Biofuels, Aromatic, and Olefin Compounds

This invention relates to compositions and methods for fluid hydrocarbon product, and more specifically, to compositions and methods for fluid hydrocarbon product via catalytic pyrolysis. Some embodiments relate to methods for the production of specific aromatic products (e.g., benzene, toluene, naphthalene, xylene, etc.) via catalytic pyrolysis. Some such methods may involve the use of a composition comprising a mixture of a solid hydrocarbonaceous material and a heterogeneous pyrolytic catalys
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Catalytic Process for the Production of Alcohols from Biomass-related Feedstock

The present invention pertains generally to a catalytic technology for converting biomass- related feedstock into useful or value-added chemicals. More specifically, this invention relates to a catalytic process for the production of lower alcohols, and preferably for the production of C4 to C6 polyols from polysaccharides with ss-glycoside linkages. A particular aspect of the present invention relates to a single-step catalytic process, using a heterogeneous catalyst, to produce C4 to C6 polyol
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Catalyst for Reforming Tar Used in the Steam Gasification of Biomass

The present invention relates to a catalyst including an olivine substrate on which an iron compound layer is deposited, produced by impregnating the olivine substrate with a solution including an iron salt, and then heat-treating same. Said catalyst is useful for steam-reforming tar, in particular in gaseous media from the steam gasification of biomass. Further, the catalyst can be used alone for catalyzing the steam gasification of organic compounds from biomass while limiting the amount of ta
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Cell Culture Device and Method

A cell culture device (10) including a base (12) and a perimeter wall (14) extending upwardly from the base (12) to define a vessel for holding a cell culture medium therein. Means (30) for mounting a cell culture surface (16) within the vessel above and spaced from the base (12) are provided. The mounting (30) is formed integrally with the base (12).
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Methods and Apparatuses Relating to Cell Culture Media

A method of preparing cell culture media for use in culturing cells and an apparatus for carrying out the method. The method includes providing a vessel containing cell culture media and exposing the cell culture media to a first controlled atmosphere having a predetermined O2 concentration that is less than an external atmospheric O2 concentration, to reduce the O2 concentration in the cell culture media before culturing cells in the cell culture media. The cell culture media may be agitated du
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Liquid Recovery and Purification in Biomass Pretreatment Process

The invention includes a process for recovering the liquids used in pretreatment of biomass for production of biofuels and other biomass based products. Liquid recovery and purification minimizes waste production and enhances process profitability.
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Method to regulate contents of microbial biomass in biogas process comprises mixing microbial biomass with magnetic particle in reactor, partially separating and contacting separated microbial biomass

Method for regulating contents of microbial biomass in one or more reactors (10, 12) in a biogas process, comprises mixing the microbial biomass with magnetic particle in the reactor; partially separating an expiring microbial biomass by a magnetic field mechanism through an outlet (5); and contacting the separated microbial biomass over reconducting mechanism in reactors for further use in biogas production, where the outlet is arranged in connection with the reactor. An independent claim is in
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Biomass

The present invention relates to altering the biomass and/or structure of a plant, in order to maximise its potential as a source of feedstock or increase its potential as a feedstock for the paper industry. CLE41 and/or CLE42 are used to manipulate growth and structure of the vascular tissue of the plant. The present invention also provides plants in which the levels of CLE41 and/or CLE42 are increased compared to those of a native plant grown under identical conditions, and parts of such plant
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Biomass Gasifiers using Agri-waste for Generation of Electricity

Joint Venture in -- Amazing Futuristics - Agri Farm Biomass - THRU 'BOOSTED Power Gasification' We are a New Zealand based Biomass Gasifier manufacturing Company that is finally going the much wanted step further, in POWER BOOSTING the LHV of 'Producer Gas' generated through our gasification process. For those of us who may need to revisit the process involved - very briefly, is as follows:— Generally, Biomass Gasification is a thermal conversion technology where a solid fuel (suc
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Amide Forming Chemical Ligation under Mild Reagent-Free Conditions

BACKGROUND: Despite the importance of amide (peptide) bonds, there are currently few methods for their preparation. The synthesis of amide bonds is generally limited to methods requiring the use of excess coupling reagents and side chain protected amino acid residues. These processes are inefficient and can prove difficult to use when joining large strands or fragments. DESCRIPTION: Researchers at the University of California have developed a novel peptide ligation process to prepare nativ
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Lignin from Biomass to Co-Products

APPLICATION OF TECHNOLOGY: * Convert lignin from sustainable biomass to high value products ADVANTAGES: * Produce high value products without the need for petroleum * Improve biofuels cost effectiveness by utilizing lignin to produce high value co-products * Produce products through a greener manufacturing process ABSTRACT: Development of a process that can efficiently convert lignin remains one of the most elusive issues associated with biomass conversion to biofuels.
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Enhancing Biomass Pretreatment Using Ionic Liquids EIO-2587

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: - Pretreating biomass to extract sugars for conversion to liquid biofuels ADVANTAGES: - Increased yield. Cellulose recovery of 95% by mass. Current techniques recover 50-90%. - Reduced time to recover sugars from plant material from 3-4 days for acid-based techniques to 5-12 hours with the JBEI technique. - Significantly lower process temperatures and pressures than hydrothermolysis, dilute-acid, and ammonium explosion techniques, increase energy efficiency and
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Lignin-blocking Treatment of Biomass and Uses Thereof

Conversion of biomass into ethanol generally involves three steps: pretreatment to open up biomass for enzyme action; enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated material to release sugars; and fermentation of the sugars by microorganisms, such as yeast, to produce ethanol. The second step, enzymatic hydrolysis, typically targets cellulose, which is the predominant component of biomass, while the sugars from hemicellulose are often released during pretreatment. The cellulose substrate is hydrolyze
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Reducing Acid Use in Pretreatment of Celluosic Biomass Through Mineral Removal

Biomass contains cellulose wrapped in a recalcitrant lignin and hemicellulose sheath that must be chemically and/or physically disrupted in a pretreatment step. One of the most common pretreatments involves exposure of the biomass to dilute acid at elevated temperatures. Usually, sulfuric acid is employed (rather than nitric or hydrochloric acid) because of its low cost. However, pretreatment expenditures are large, even when sulfuric acid is used, because substantial quantities of acid are r
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Process for Charcoal Production

Description The process employs a combination of temperature and pressure along with an electric or natural gas heat source to convert nearly all kinds of plant-derived biomass into high-quality charcoal at conversion yields of 40% to 60% and in time periods of of less than 30 minutes. Steam, combustible gases, and tars produced by the process can be recycled, processed into by-products, and/or flared-off with minimal environmental impact. The process will convert biomass, such as wood logs
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Zymomonas Pentose-Sugar Fermenting Strains and Uses Thereof

U.S. Patent 7,223,575 Technology Description Disclosed in the present invention is a Zymomonas integrant and derivatives of these integrants that posess the ability to ferment pentose into ethanol. The genetic sequences encoding for the pentose-fermenting enzymes are integrated into the Zymomonas in a two-integration event of homologous recombination and transposition. Each operon includes more than one pentose-reducing enzyme encoding sequence. The integrant in some embodiments includes en
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Use of a Region of the Visible and Near Infrared Spectrum to Predict Mechanical Properties of Wet Wood and Standing Trees

U.S. Patent 6,525,319 Technology Description In a method for determining the dry mechanical strength for a green wood, the improvement comprising: (a) illuminating a surface of the wood to be determined with a reduced range of wavelengths in the VIS-NIR spectra 400 to 1150 nm, said wood having a green moisture content; (b) analyzing the surface of the wood using a spectrometric method, the method generating a first spectral data of a reduced range of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra; and (c)
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Thermostable Purified Endoglucanase II from Acidothermus Cellulolyticus ATTC

U.S. Patent 5,366,884 Technology Description A purified low molecular weight endoglucanase II from Acidothermus cellulolyticus (ATCC 43068) is disclosed. The endoglucanase is water soluble, possesses both C.sub.1, and C.sub.x types of enzyme activity, a high degree of stability toward heat, and exhibits optimum temperature activity at about 81.degree. C. at pH's from about 2 to about 9, and at a inactivation temperature of about 100.degree. C. at pH's from about 2 to about 9.
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Thermal Tolerant Cellulase from Acidothermus Cellulolyticus

U.S. Patent 7,059,993 Technology Description The invention provides a thermal tolerant cellulase that is a member of the glycoside hydrolase family. The invention further discloses this cellulase as GuxA. GuxA has been isolated and characterized from Acidothermus cellulolyticus. The invention further provides recombinant forms of the identified GuxA. Methods of making and using GuxA polypeptides, including fusions, variants, and derivatives, are also disclosed.
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Synthesis of an Acid Addition Salt of Delta-Aminolevulinic Acid from 5-Bromo Levulinic Acid Esters

U.S. Patent 5,907,058 Technology Description A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid comprising:dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and an alkali metal diformylamide in an organic solvent selected from the group consisting of acetonitrile, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and methylformate or mixtures thereof to form a suspension of an alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate ester; and hydrolyzing said alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) lev
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Synthesis of Acid Addition Salt of Delta-Aminolevulinic Acid from 5-Bromo Levulinic Acid Esters

U.S. Patent 6,583,317 Technology Description A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising:a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; andb) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an ac
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Sterilization of Fermentation Vessels by Ethanol/Water Mixtures

A method for sterilizing process fermentation vessels with a concentrated alcohol and water mixture integrated in a fuel alcohol or other alcohol production facility. Hot, concentrated alcohol is drawn from a distillation or other purification stage and sprayed into the empty fermentation vessels. This sterilizing alcohol/water mixture should be of a sufficient concentration, preferably higher than 12% alcohol by volume, to be toxic to undesirable microorganisms. Following sterilization, this st
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Stable zymomonas mobilis xylose and arabinose fermenting strains

The present invention briefly includes a transposon for stable insertion of foreign genes into a bacterial genome, comprising at least one operon having structural genes encoding enzymes selected from the group consisting of xylAxylB, araBAD and tal/tkt; and at least one promoter for expression of the structural genes in the bacterium, a pair of inverted insertion sequences, the operons contained inside the insertion sequences, and a transposase gene located outside of the insertion sequences. A
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Single Zymomonas Mobilis Strain for Xylose and Arabinose Fermentation

This invention relates to single microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugars which are genetically altered to ferment the pentose sugars, xylose and arabinose, to produce ethanol, and a fermentation process utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with a combination of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, L-ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase, transaldolase and transketolase. Expression of a
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Sequential Pyrolysis of Plastic to Recover Polystyrene HCL and Terephthalic Acid

A process of pyrolyzing plastic waste feed streams containing polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene terephthalate, polystyrene and polyethylene to recover polystyrene HCl and terephthalic acid comprising: heating the plastic waste feed stream to a first temperature; adding an acid or base catalyst on an oxide or carbonate support; heating the plastic waste feed stream to pyrolyze polyethylene terephthalate and polyvinyl chloride; separating terephthalic acid or HCl; heating to a second temperature to
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Recombinant Zymomonas for Pentose Fermentation

The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the cont
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Recombinant Zymomonas for Pentose Fermentation

The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment a pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment this pentose to produce ethanol. A representative example is Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with E. coli xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase and transketolase genes. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. This newly created microorganism is useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hyd
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Recombinant Zymomonas Mobilis with Improved Xylose Utilization

A strain derived from Zymomonas mobilis ATCC31821 or its derivative capable of producing ethanol upon fermentation of a carbohydrate medium containing xylose to provide enhanced xylose utilization and enhanced ethanol process yield, the strain or its derivative comprising exogenous genes encoding xylose isornerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase and transketolase, the genes are fused to at least one promotor recognized by Zymomonas which regulates the expression of at least one of the genes.
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Recombinant Lactobacillus for Fermentation of Xylose to Lactic Acid and Lactate

A recombinant Lactobacillus MONT4 is provided which has been genetically engineered with xylose isomerase and xylulokinase genes from Lactobacillus pentosus to impart to the Lactobacillus MONT4 the ability to ferment lignocellulosic biomass containing xylose to lactic acid.
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Pyrolysis of Polystyrene - Polyphenylene Oxide to Recover Styrene and Useful Products

A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide plastic waste to a given polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising:selecting a first temperature range to cause pyrolysis of given polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide and its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components;selecting a catalyst and a support and treating the f
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Pyrolysis and Hydrolysis of Mixed Polymer Waste Comprising Polyethyleneterephthalate and Polyethylene to Sequentially Recover

A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feedstream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; sele
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Purification of Caprolactam from Recycled Nylon

A method of removing 1,11-diamino-6-undecanone from the pyrolysis product of nylon comprising: a) pyrolyzing nylon-6 to form a pyrolyzate containing a caprolactam mixture;b) dissolving the caprolactam mixture in a solvent to form a solution;c) passing carbon dioxide gas through the solution to form a precipitate;d) removing the precipitate from the solution; ande) recovering the purified caprolactam from the solution.
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Progressing Batch Hydrolysis Process

A progressive batch hydrolysis process for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock, comprising passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feedstock to glucose; cooling said dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, then feeding said dilute acid
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Process for the Conversion of and Aqueous Biomass Hydrolyzate into Fuels or Chemicals by the Selective Removal of fermentation Inhibitors

A process of making a fuel or chemical from a biomass hydrolyzate is provided which comprises the steps of providing a biomass hydrolyzate, adjusting the pH of the hydrolyzate, contacting a metal oxide having an affinity for guaiacyl or syringyl functional groups, or both and the hydrolyzate for a time sufficient to form an adsorption complex; removing the complex wherein a sugar fraction is provided, and converting the sugar fraction to fuels or chemicals using a microorganism.
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Process for Selection of Oxygen-tolerant Algal Mutants that Produce H.sub.2

A process for selection of oxygen-tolerant, H.sub.2 -producing algal mutant cells comprising:(a) growing algal cells photoautotrophically under fluorescent light to mid log phase;(b) inducing algal cells grown photoautrophically under fluorescent light to mid log phase in step (a) anaerobically by (1) resuspending the cells in a buffer solution and making said suspension anaerobic with an inert gas; (2) incubating the suspension in the absence of light at ambient temperature;(c) treating the cel
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Process for Producing Phenolic Compounds from Lignins

A process for the production of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignins through the pyrolysis of the lignins in the presence of a strong base. In a preferred embodiment, potassium hydroxide is present in an amount of from about 0.1% to about 5% by weight, the pyrolysis temperature is from about 400.degree. C. to about 600.degree. C. at atmospheric pressure, and the time period for substantial completion of the reaction is from about 1-3 minutes. Examples of low molecular weight phen
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Process for Preparing Phenolic Formaldehyde Resole Resin Products Derived from Fractionated Fast-pyrolysis Oils

A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde resole resins and adhesive compositions in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenol/neutral fractions extract obtained from fractionating fast-pyrolysis oils.
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Process for Fractionating Fast-Pyrolysis Oils, and Products Derived Therefrom

A process is disclosed for fractionating lignocellulosic materials fast-prolysis oils to produce phenol-containing compositions suitable for the manufacture of phenol-formaldehyde resins. The process includes admixing the oils with an organic solvent having at least a moderate solubility parameter and good hydrogenThe United States Government has rights in this invention under Contract No. DE-AC02-83CH10093 between the United States Department of Energy and the Solar Energy Research Institute, a
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Pretreatment of Microbial Sludges

Methods are described for pretreating microbial sludges to break cells and disrupt organic matter. One method involves the use of sonication, and another method involves the use of shear forces. The pretreatment of sludge enhances bioconversion of the organic fraction. This allows for efficient dewatering of the sludge and reduces the cost for final disposal of the waste.
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Pretreatment of High Solid Microbial Sludges

A process and apparatus for pretreating microbial sludges in order to enhance secondary anaerobic digestion. The pretreatment process involves disrupting the cellular integrity of municipal sewage sludge through a combination of thermal, explosive decompression and shear forces. The sludge is pressurized and pumped to a pretreatment reactor where it is mixed with steam to heat and soften the sludge. The pressure of the sludge is suddenly reduced and explosive decompression forces are imparted wh
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Preparation of Brightness Stabilization Agent for Lignin Containing Pulp from Biomass Pyrolysis Oils

A process for producing a brightness stabilization mixture of water-soluble organic compounds from biomass pyrolysis oils comprising:a) size-reducing biomass material and pyrolyzing the size-reduced biomass material in a fluidized bed reactor;b) separating a char/ash component while maintaining char-pot temperatures to avoid condensation of pyrolysis vapors;c) condensing pyrolysis gases and vapors, and recovering pyrolysis oils by mixing the oils with acetone to obtain an oil-acetone mixture;d)
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Prehydrolysis of Lignocellulose

The invention relates to the prehydrolysis of lignocellulose by passing an acidic or alkaline solution through solid lignocellulosic particles with removal of soluble components as they are formed. The technique permits a less severe combination of pH, temperature and time than conventional prehydrolysis. Furthermore, greater extraction of both hemicellulose and lignin occurs simultaneously in the same reactor and under the same conditions.
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Prehydrolysis of Lignocellulose

The invention relates to the prehydrolysis of lignocellulose by passing an acidic or alkaline solution through solid lignocellulosic particles with removal of soluble components as they are formed. The technique permits a less severe combination of pH, temperature and time than conventional prehydrolysis. Furthermore, greater extraction of both hemicellulose and lignin occurs simultaneously in the same reactor and under the same conditions.
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Prehydrolysis of Lignocellulose

The invention relates to the prehydrolysis of lignocellulose by passing an acidic or alkaline solution through solid lignocellulosic particles with removal of soluble components as they are formed. The technique permits a less severe combination of pH, temperature and time than conventional prehydrolysis. Furthermore, greater extraction of both hemicellulose and lignin occurs simultaneously in the same reactor and under the same conditions.
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Photoconversion of Gasified Organic Materials Into Biologically Degradable Plastics

A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into a bioplastic suitable for use as a biodegradable plastic. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide and hydrogen, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for production of useful biodegradable plastic polymer.
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Phenol Removal Pretreatment Process

A process for removing phenols from an aqueous solution is provided, which comprises the steps of contacting a mixture comprising the solution and a metal oxide, forming a phenol metal oxide complex, and removing the complex from the mixture.
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Pentose Fermentation of Normally Toxic Lignocellulose Prehydrolysate with Strain of Pichia Stipitis Yeast Using Air

Strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis NPw9 (ATCC PTA-3717) useful for the production of ethanol using oxygen for growth while fermenting normally toxic lignocellulosic prehydrolysates.
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Pentose Fermentation by Recombinant Zymomonas

The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the cont
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Method of Separating Lignocellulosic Material into Lignin, Cellulose and Dissolved Sugars

U.S. Patent 5,730,837 Technology Description A method for separating lignocellulosic material into (a) lignin, (b) cellulose, and (c) hemicellulose and dissolved sugars. Wood or herbaceous biomass is digested at elevated temperature in a single-phase mixture of alcohol, water and a water-immiscible organic solvent (e.g., a ketone). After digestion, the amount of water or organic solvent is adjusted so that there is phase separation. The lignin is present in the organic solvent, the cellulos
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Method of Predicting Mechanical Properties of Decayed Wood

A method for determining the mechanical properties of decayed wood that has been exposed to wood decay microorganisms, comprising:a) illuminating a surface of decayed wood that has been exposed to wood decay microorganisms with wavelengths from visible and near infrared (VIS-NIR) spectra;b) analyzing the surface of the decayed wood using a spectrometric method, the method generating a first spectral data of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra region; andc) using a multivariate analysis to predict mec
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Method for Predicting Dry Mechanical Properties from Wet Wood and Standing Trees

A method for determining the dry mechanical strength for a green wood comprising: illuminating a surface of the wood to be determined with light between 350-2,500 nm, the wood having a green moisture content; analyzing the surface using a spectrometric method, the method generating a first spectral data, and using a multivariate analysis to predict the dry mechanical strength of green wood when dry by comparing the first spectral data with a calibration model, the calibration model comprising a
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Method for Increasing Thermostability in Cellulase Enzymes

The gene encoding Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endoglucanase is cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris. A new modified E1 endoglucanase enzyme comprising the catalytic domain of the full size E1 enzyme demonstrates enhanced thermostability and is produced by two methods. The first method of producing the new modified E1 is proteolytic cleavage to remove the cellulose binding domain and linker peptide of the full size E1. The second method of producing the new modified E1 is genetic truncation
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Low Molecular Weight Thermostable .Beta.-D-Glucosidase from Acidothermus Cellulolyticus

A purified low molecular weight .beta.-D-glucosidase is produced from Acidothermus cellulolyticus ATCC 43068. The enzyme is water soluble, possesses activity against pNP-.beta.-D-glucopyranoside, has a high of degree of stability toward heat, exhibits optimal temperature activity at about 65.degree. C. at a pH range of from about 2 to about 7, has an inactivation temperature of about 80.degree. C. at a pH range of from about 2 to about 7 and has a molecular weight of about 50.5-54.5 kD as determ
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Isolation of Levoglucosan from Pyrolysis Oil Derived from Cellulose

U.S. Patent 5,371,212 Technology Description High purity levoglucosan is obtained from pyrolysis oil derived from cellulose by: mixing pyrolysis oil with water and a basic metal hydroxide, oxide, or salt in amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of from about 12 to about 12.5, and adding an amount of the hydroxide, oxide, or salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range until colored materials of impurities from the oil are removed and a slurry is formed; drying the
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Isolation of Levoglucosan from Lignocellulosic Pyrolysis Oil Derived from Wood or Waste Newsprint

U.S. Patent 5,432,276 Technology Description A method is provided for preparing high purity levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oils derived from wood or waste newsprint. The method includes reducing wood or newsprint to fine particle sizes, treating the particles with a hot mineral acid for a predetermined period of time, and filtering off and drying resulting solid wood or newsprint material; pyrolyzing the dried solid wood or newsprint material at temperatures between about 350.d
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Hydrolysis and Fractionation of Lignocellulosic Biomass

A multi-function process is described for the hydrolysis and fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass to separate hemicellulosic sugars from other biomass components such as extractives and proteins; a portion of the solubilized lignin; cellulose; glucose derived from cellulose; and insoluble lignin from said biomass comprising one or more of the following: optionally, as function 1, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0-5.0 into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing a lignocellulosic bioma
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Gene Encoding Acetyl-Coenzyme a Carboxylase

U.S. Patent 5,559,220 Technology Description A DNA encoding an acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) from a photosynthetic organism and functional derivatives thereof which are resistant to inhibition from certain herbicides. This gene can be placed in organisms to increase their fatty acid content or to render them resistant to certain herbicides.
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Expression of Enzymes Involved in Cellulose Modification

U.S. Patent 6,013,860 Novel compositions and methods useful for genetic engineering of plant cells to provide expression in the plastids of a plant or plant cell of cellulose degrading enzymes.
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Ethanol Production with Dilute Acid Hydrolysis Using Partially Dried Lignocellulosics

A process of converting lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol, comprising hydrolyzing lignocellulosic materials by subjecting dried lignocellulosic material in a reactor to a catalyst comprised of a dilute solution of a strong acid and a metal salt to lower the activation energy (i.e., the temperature) of cellulose hydrolysis and ultimately obtain higher sugar yields. U.S. Patent 6,660,506
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Dilute Acid/Metal Salt Hydrolysis of Lignocellulosics

A modified dilute acid method of hydrolyzing the cellulose and hemicellulose in lignocellulosic material under conditions to obtain higher overall fermentable sugar yields than is obtainable using dilute acid alone, comprising:impregnating a lignocellulosic feedstock with a mixture of an amount of aqueous solution of a dilute acid catalyst and a metal salt catalyst sufficient to provide higher overall fermentable sugar yields than is obtainable when hydrolyzing with dilute acid alone;loading the
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Controlled Catalytic and Thermal Sequential Pyrolysis and Hydrolysis of Polymer Waste Comprising Nylon 6 and a Poyolefin or Mixtures of Polyolefins to Sequentially Recover Monomers or Other High Value

A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feedstream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; sele
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Controlled Catalytic and Thermal Sequential Pyrolysis and Hydrolysis of Phenolic Resin Containing Waste Streams to Sequentially Recover Monomers and Chemicals

A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a waste phenolic resin containing feedstreams in a manner such that pyrolysis of said resins and a given high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolyses of the resins in other monomeric components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said resin and a given high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other monomeric components; select
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Controlled Catalytic and Thermal Sequential Pyrolysis and Hydrolysis of Mixed Polymer Waste Streams to Sequentially Recover Monomers or Other High Value Products

A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feedstream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; sele
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Controlled Catalytic and Thermal Sequential Pyrolysis and Hydrolysis of Mixed Polymer Waste Streams to Sequentially Recover Monomers or Other High Value Products

A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feedstream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; sele
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Controlled Catalytic and Thermal Sequential Pyrolysis and Hydrolysis of Mixed Polymer Waste Stream to Sequentially Recover Monomers or Other High Value Products

A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feedstream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; sele
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Controlled Catalystic and Thermal Sequential Pyrolysis and Hydrolysis of Polycarbonate and Plastic Waste to Recover Monomers

A process of using fast pyrolysis to convert a plastic waste feed stream containing polycarbonate and ABS to high value monomeric constituents prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituents prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting an acid or base catalysts and an oxide or carbonate support for treating the
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Cloning of Cellulas Genes from Acidothermus cellulolyticus

A process is described for moving fragments that code for cellulase activity from the genome of A. cellulolyticus to several plasmid vectors and the subsequent expression of active cellulase acitivty in E. coli. U.S. Patent 5,514,584
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Aqueous Fractionation of Biomass Based on Novel Carbohydrate Hydrolysis Kinetics

A multi-function process for hydrolysis and fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass to separate hemicellulosic sugars from other biomass components comprising extractives and proteins; a portion of a solubilized lignin; cellulose; glucose derived from cellulose; and insoluble lignin from said biomass comprising:a) introducing either solid fresh biomass or partially fractioned lignocellulosic biomass material with entrained acid or water into a reactor and heating to a temperature of up to about
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Alkaline Tolerant Dextranase from Streptomyces Anulatus

A process for production of an alkaline tolerant dextranase enzyme comprises culturing a dextran-producing microorganism Streptomyces anulatus having accession no. ATCC PTA-3866 to produce an alkaline tolerant dextranase, Dex 1 wherein the protein in said enzyme is characterized by a MW of 63.3 kDa and Dex 2 wherein its protein is characterized by a MW of 81.8 kDa. U.S. Patent 6,509,184
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Extraction and Purification of carotenoid compounds from biomass

Commercial opportunity: A proven process technology for the removal of carotenoid and other pigments from biomass, concentration, purification and packaging in accordance with EU specifications. What is it that is novel and inventive about the invention? New low cost system, mutliple products, implemented and proven commercially. The main competitive advantage of this innovation: Processing and formulation of a products to meet stringent EU specifications. Offer to facilitate EU market
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Increased Fungal Biomass for Bio Ethanol Production

The Invention Dr. Amir Sharon and his team from Tel Aviv University have developed a transformation-based approach through which fungi can be modified to be less sensitive to external conditions and environmental stresses, have increased sustainability in culture during fermentation, and have both enhanced growth rate and spore production. As a result, the fungal cultures exhibit a dramatic increase in fresh and dry biomass production, reduced sensitivity to stress conditions, enhanced spore pr
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Recombinant Zymomonas for Pentose Fermentation

The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment a pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment this pentose to produce ethanol. A representative example is Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with E. coli xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase and transketolase genes. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. This newly created microorganism is useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hyd
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Recombinant Lactobacillus for Fermentation of Xylose to Lactic Acid and Lactate

A recombinant Lactobacillus MONT4 is provided which has been genetically engineered with xylose isomerase and xylulokinase genes from Lactobacillus pentosus to impart to the Lactobacillus MONT4 the ability to ferment lignocellulosic biomass containing xylose to lactic acid.
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Pyrolysis of Polystyrene - Polyphenylene Oxide to Recover Styrene and Useful Products

A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide plastic waste to a given polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising:selecting a first temperature range to cause pyrolysis of given polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide and its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components;selecting a catalyst and a support and treating the f
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Pyrolysis and Hydrolysis of Mixed Polymer Waste Comprising Polyethyleneterephthalate and Polyethylene to Sequentially Recover

A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feedstream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; sel
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Purification of Caprolactam from Recycled Nylon

A method of removing 1,11-diamino-6-undecanone from the pyrolysis product of nylon comprising: a) pyrolyzing nylon-6 to form a pyrolyzate containing a caprolactam mixture;b) dissolving the caprolactam mixture in a solvent to form a solution;c) passing carbon dioxide gas through the solution to form a precipitate;d) removing the precipitate from the solution; ande) recovering the purified caprolactam from the solution.
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Progressing Batch Hydrolysis Process

A progressive batch hydrolysis process for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock, comprising passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feedstock to glucose; cooling said dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, then feeding said dilute acid
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Process for the Conversion of and Aqueous Biomass Hydrolyzate into Fuels or Chemicals by the Selective Removal of fermentation Inhibitors

A process of making a fuel or chemical from a biomass hydrolyzate is provided which comprises the steps of providing a biomass hydrolyzate, adjusting the pH of the hydrolyzate, contacting a metal oxide having an affinity for guaiacyl or syringyl functional groups, or both and the hydrolyzate for a time sufficient to form an adsorption complex; removing the complex wherein a sugar fraction is provided, and converting the sugar fraction to fuels or chemicals using a microorganism.
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Process for Producing Phenolic Compounds from Lignins

A process for the production of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignins through the pyrolysis of the lignins in the presence of a strong base. In a preferred embodiment, potassium hydroxide is present in an amount of from about 0.1% to about 5% by weight, the pyrolysis temperature is from about 400.degree. C. to about 600.degree. C. at atmospheric pressure, and the time period for substantial completion of the reaction is from about 1-3 minutes. Examples of low molecular weight phen
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Process for Preparing Phenolic Formaldehyde Resole Resin Products Derived from Fractionated Fast-pyrolysis Oils

A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde resole resins and adhesive compositions in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenol/neutral fractions extract obtained from fractionating fast-pyrolysis oils.
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Process for Fractionating Fast-Pyrolysis Oils, and Products Derived Therefrom

A process is disclosed for fractionating lignocellulosic materials fast-prolysis oils to produce phenol-containing compositions suitable for the manufacture of phenol-formaldehyde resins. The process includes admixing the oils with an organic solvent having at least a moderate solubility parameter and good hydrogenThe United States Government has rights in this invention under Contract No. DE-AC02-83CH10093 between the United States Department of Energy and the Solar Energy Research Institute, a
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Pretreatment of Microbial Sludges

Methods are described for pretreating microbial sludges to break cells and disrupt organic matter. One method involves the use of sonication, and another method involves the use of shear forces. The pretreatment of sludge enhances bioconversion of the organic fraction. This allows for efficient dewatering of the sludge and reduces the cost for final disposal of the waste.
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Pretreatment of High Solid Microbial Sludges

A process and apparatus for pretreating microbial sludges in order to enhance secondary anaerobic digestion. The pretreatment process involves disrupting the cellular integrity of municipal sewage sludge through a combination of thermal, explosive decompression and shear forces. The sludge is pressurized and pumped to a pretreatment reactor where it is mixed with steam to heat and soften the sludge. The pressure of the sludge is suddenly reduced and explosive decompression forces are imparted wh
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Preparation of Brightness Stabilization Agent for Lignin Containing Pulp from Biomass Pyrolysis Oils

A process for producing a brightness stabilization mixture of water-soluble organic compounds from biomass pyrolysis oils comprising:a) size-reducing biomass material and pyrolyzing the size-reduced biomass material in a fluidized bed reactor;b) separating a char/ash component while maintaining char-pot temperatures to avoid condensation of pyrolysis vapors;c) condensing pyrolysis gases and vapors, and recovering pyrolysis oils by mixing the oils with acetone to obtain an oil-acetone mixture;d)
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Prehydrolysis of Lignocellulose

The invention relates to the prehydrolysis of lignocellulose by passing an acidic or alkaline solution through solid lignocellulosic particles with removal of soluble components as they are formed. The technique permits a less severe combination of pH, temperature and time than conventional prehydrolysis. Furthermore, greater extraction of both hemicellulose and lignin occurs simultaneously in the same reactor and under the same conditions.
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Thermostable Purified Endoglucanases from Thermophilic Bacterium Acidothermus Cellulyticius

A purified low molecular weight cellulase endoglucanase I having a molecular weight of between about 57,420 to about 74,580 daltons from Acidothermus cellulolyticus (ATCC 43068). The cellulase is water soluble, possesses both C.sub.1 and C.sub.x types of enzyme activity, a high degree of stability toward heat, and exhibits optimum temperature activity at about 83.degree. C. at pH's from about 2 to about 9, and in inactivation temperature of about 110.degree. C. at pH's from about 2 to about 9.
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Thermostable Purified Endoglucanases from Thermophilic Bacterium Acidothermus Cellulyticius

A substantially purified high molecular weight cellulase enzyme having a molecular weight of between about 156,000 to about 203,400 daltons isolated from the bacterium Acidothermus cellulolyticus (ATCC 43068) and a method of producing it are disclosed. The enzyme is water soluble, possesses both C.sub.1 and C.sub.x types of enzymatic activity, has a high degree of stability toward heat and exhibits both a high optimum temperature activity and high inactivation characteristics.
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Phenol Removal Pretreatment Process

A process for removing phenols from an aqueous solution is provided, which comprises the steps of contacting a mixture comprising the solution and a metal oxide, forming a phenol metal oxide complex, and removing the complex from the mixture.
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Pentose Fermentation of Normally Toxic Lignocellulose Prehydrolysate with Strain of Pichia Stipitis Yeast Using Air

Strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis NPw9 (ATCC PTA-3717) useful for the production of ethanol using oxygen for growth while fermenting normally toxic lignocellulosic prehydrolysates.
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Pentose Fermentation by Recombinant Zymomonas

The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the cont
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Method of Separating Lignocellulosic Material into Lignin, Cellulose and Dissolved Sugars

A method for separating lignocellulosic material into (a) lignin, (b) cellulose, and (c) hemicellulose and dissolved sugars. Wood or herbaceous biomass is digested at elevated temperature in a single-phase mixture of alcohol, water and a water-immiscible organic solvent (e.g., a ketone). After digestion, the amount of water or organic solvent is adjusted so that there is phase separation. The lignin is present in the organic solvent, the cellulose is present in a solid pulp phase, and the aqueou
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Method of Predicting Mechanical Properties of Decayed Wood

A method for determining the mechanical properties of decayed wood that has been exposed to wood decay microorganisms, comprising:a) illuminating a surface of decayed wood that has been exposed to wood decay microorganisms with wavelengths from visible and near infrared (VIS-NIR) spectra;b) analyzing the surface of the decayed wood using a spectrometric method, the method generating a first spectral data of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra region; andc) using a multivariate analysis to predict mec
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Method for Predicting Dry Mechanical Properties from Wet Wood and Standing Trees

A method for determining the dry mechanical strength for a green wood comprising: illuminating a surface of the wood to be determined with light between 350-2,500 nm, the wood having a green moisture content; analyzing the surface using a spectrometric method, the method generating a first spectral data, and using a multivariate analysis to predict the dry mechanical strength of green wood when dry by comparing the first spectral data with a calibration model, the calibration model comprising a
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Method for Increasing Thermostability in Cellulase Enzymes

The gene encoding Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endoglucanase is cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris. A new modified E1 endoglucanase enzyme comprising the catalytic domain of the full size E1 enzyme demonstrates enhanced thermostability and is produced by two methods. The first method of producing the new modified E1 is proteolytic cleavage to remove the cellulose binding domain and linker peptide of the full size E1. The second method of producing the new modified E1 is genetic truncation
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Low Molecular Weight Thermostable .Beta.-D-Glucosidase from Acidothermus Cellulolyticus

A purified low molecular weight .beta.-D-glucosidase is produced from Acidothermus cellulolyticus ATCC 43068. The enzyme is water soluble, possesses activity against pNP-.beta.-D-glucopyranoside, has a high of degree of stability toward heat, exhibits optimal temperature activity at about 65.degree. C. at a pH range of from about 2 to about 7, has an inactivation temperature of about 80.degree. C. at a pH range of from about 2 to about 7 and has a molecular weight of about 50.5-54.5 kD as determ
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Isolation of Levoglucosan from Lignocellulosic Pyrolysis Oil Derived from Wood or Waste Newsprint

A method is provided for preparing high purity levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oils derived from wood or waste newsprint. The method includes reducing wood or newsprint to fine particle sizes, treating the particles with a hot mineral acid for a predetermined period of time, and filtering off and drying resulting solid wood or newsprint material; pyrolyzing the dried solid wood or newsprint material at temperatures between about 350.degree. and 375.degree. C. to produce pyrolysis oil
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Isolated Gene Encoding an Enzyme with UDP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase and Phosphoglucomutase Activities from Cyclotella Cryptica

The present invention relates to a cloned gene which encodes an enzyme, the purified enzyme, and the applications and products resulting from the use of the gene and enzyme. The gene, isolated from Cyclotella cryptica, encodes a multifunctional enzyme that has both UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and phosphoglucomutase activities.
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Hydrolysis and Fractionation of Lignocellulosic Biomass

A multi-function process is described for the hydrolysis and fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass to separate hemicellulosic sugars from other biomass components such as extractives and proteins; a portion of the solubilized lignin; cellulose; glucose derived from cellulose; and insoluble lignin from said biomass comprising one or more of the following: optionally, as function 1, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0-5.0 into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing a lignocellulosic bioma
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Gene Encoding Acetyl-Coenzyme a Carboxylase

A DNA encoding an acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) from a photosynthetic organism and functional derivatives thereof which are resistant to inhibition from certain herbicides. This gene can be placed in organisms to increase their fatty acid content or to render them resistant to certain herbicides.
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Dilute Acid/Metal Salt Hydrolysis of Lignocellulosics

A modified dilute acid method of hydrolyzing the cellulose and hemicellulose in lignocellulosic material under conditions to obtain higher overall fermentable sugar yields than is obtainable using dilute acid alone, comprising:impregnating a lignocellulosic feedstock with a mixture of an amount of aqueous solution of a dilute acid catalyst and a metal salt catalyst sufficient to provide higher overall fermentable sugar yields than is obtainable when hydrolyzing with dilute acid alone;loading the
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Controlled Catalytic and Thermal Sequential Pyrolysis and Hydrolysis of Polymer Waste Comprising Nylon 6 and a Poyolefin or Mixtures of Polyolefins to Sequentially Recover Monomers or Other High Value

A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feedstream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; sele
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Controlled Catalytic and Thermal Sequential Pyrolysis and Hydrolysis of Phenolic Resin Containing Waste Streams to Sequentially Recover Monomers and Chemicals

A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a waste phenolic resin containing feedstreams in a manner such that pyrolysis of said resins and a given high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolyses of the resins in other monomeric components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said resin and a given high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other monomeric components; select
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Controlled Catalytic and Thermal Sequential Pyrolysis and Hydrolysis of Mixed Polymer Waste Stream to Sequentially Recover Monomers or Other High Value Products

A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feedstream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; sele
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Controlled Catalytic and Thermal Sequential Pyrolysis and Hydrolysis of Mixed Polymer Waste Streams to Sequentially Recover Monomers or Other High Value Products

A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feedstream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; sele
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Recombinant Zymomonas Mobilis with Improved Xylose Utilization

A strain derived from Zymomonas mobilis ATCC31821 or its derivative capable of producing ethanol upon fermentation of a carbohydrate medium containing xylose to provide enhanced xylose utilization and enhanced ethanol process yield, the strain or its derivative comprising exogenous genes encoding xylose isornerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase and transketolase, the genes are fused to at least one promotor recognized by Zymomonas which regulates the expression of at least one of the genes.
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Sequential Pyrolysis of Plastic to Recover Polystyrene HCL and Terephthalic Acid

A process of pyrolyzing plastic waste feed streams containing polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene terephthalate, polystyrene and polyethylene to recover polystyrene HCl and terephthalic acid comprising: heating the plastic waste feed stream to a first temperature; adding an acid or base catalyst on an oxide or carbonate support; heating the plastic waste feed stream to pyrolyze polyethylene terephthalate and polyvinyl chloride; separating terephthalic acid or HCl; heating to a second temperature to
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Single Zymomonas Mobilis Strain for Xylose and Arabinose Fermentation

This invention relates to single microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugars which are genetically altered to ferment the pentose sugars, xylose and arabinose, to produce ethanol, and a fermentation process utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with a combination of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, L-ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase, transaldolase and transketolase. Expression of a
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Stable zymomonas mobilis xylose and arabinose fermenting strains

The present invention briefly includes a transposon for stable insertion of foreign genes into a bacterial genome, comprising at least one operon having structural genes encoding enzymes selected from the group consisting of xylAxylB, araBAD and tal/tkt; and at least one promoter for expression of the structural genes in the bacterium, a pair of inverted insertion sequences, the operons contained inside the insertion sequences, and a transposase gene located outside of the insertion sequences. A
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Sterilization of Fermentation Vessels by Ethanol/Water Mixtures

A method for sterilizing process fermentation vessels with a concentrated alcohol and water mixture integrated in a fuel alcohol or other alcohol production facility. Hot, concentrated alcohol is drawn from a distillation or other purification stage and sprayed into the empty fermentation vessels. This sterilizing alcohol/water mixture should be of a sufficient concentration, preferably higher than 12% alcohol by volume, to be toxic to undesirable microorganisms. Following sterilization, this st
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Supercritical Separation Process for Complex Organic Mixtures

A process is disclosed for separating low molecular weight components from complex aqueous organic mixtures. The process includes preparing a separation solution of supercritical carbon dioxide with an effective amount of an entrainer to modify the solvation power of the supercritical carbon dioxide and extract preselected low molecular weight components. The separation solution is maintained at a temperature of at least about 70.degree. C. and a pressure of at least about 1,500 psi. The separat
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Synthesis of Acid Addition Salt of Delta-Aminolevulinic Acid from 5-Bromo Levulinic Acid Esters

A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising:a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; andb) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.
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Synthesis of an Acid Addition Salt of Delta-Aminolevulinic Acid from 5-Bromo Levulinic Acid Esters

A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid comprising:dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and an alkali metal diformylamide in an organic solvent selected from the group consisting of acetonitrile, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and methylformate or mixtures thereof to form a suspension of an alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate ester; and hydrolyzing said alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate with an inorganic acid to form an acid add
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Thermal Tolerant Cellulase from Acidothermus Cellulolyticus

The invention provides a thermal tolerant cellulase that is a member of the glycoside hydrolase family. The invention further discloses this cellulase as GuxA. GuxA has been isolated and characterized from Acidothermus cellulolyticus. The invention further provides recombinant forms of the identified GuxA. Methods of making and using GuxA polypeptides, including fusions, variants, and derivatives, are also disclosed.
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Thermostable Purified Endoglucanase II from Acidothermus Cellulolyticus ATTC

A purified low molecular weight endoglucanase II from Acidothermus cellulolyticus (ATCC 43068) is disclosed. The endoglucanase is water soluble, possesses both C.sub.1, and C.sub.x types of enzyme activity, a high degree of stability toward heat, and exhibits optimum temperature activity at about 81.degree. C. at pH's from about 2 to about 9, and at a inactivation temperature of about 100.degree. C. at pH's from about 2 to about 9.
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Use of a Region of the Visible and Near Infrared Spectrum to Predict Mechanical Properties of Wet Wood and Standing Trees

In a method for determining the dry mechanical strength for a green wood, the improvement comprising: (a) illuminating a surface of the wood to be determined with a reduced range of wavelengths in the VIS-NIR spectra 400 to 1150 nm, said wood having a green moisture content; (b) analyzing the surface of the wood using a spectrometric method, the method generating a first spectral data of a reduced range of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra; and (c) using a multivariate analysis technique to predict
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Zymomonas Pentose-Sugar Fermenting Strains and Uses Thereof

Disclosed in the present invention is a Zymomonas integrant and derivatives of these integrants that posess the ability to ferment pentose into ethanol. The genetic sequences encoding for the pentose-fermenting enzymes are integrated into the Zymomonas in a two-integration event of homologous recombination and transposition. Each operon includes more than one pentose-reducing enzyme encoding sequence. The integrant in some embodiments includes enzyme sequences encoding xylose isomerase, xyluloki
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Biological Production of Polymer Monomers

EJIB-2541 APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Producing a wide variety dicarboxylic acids for the manufacture of commercial polymers, e.g. polyesters, polyamides, polyurethanes ADVANTAGES: Starting material is renewable, cellulosic or other biomass instead of petroleum Enzymes can be modified to produce a wide-variety of diacid polymer precursors Compatible with a variety of host organisms and feedstocks, enabling yield/tolerance optimization Process does not release NO2, which damages
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Controlled Catalytic and Thermal Sequential Pyrolysis and Hydrolysis of Mixed Polymer Waste Streams to Sequentially Recover Monomers or Other High Value Products

A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feedstream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; sele
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Isolation of Levoglucosan from Pyrolysis Oil Derived from Cellulose

High purity levoglucosan is obtained from pyrolysis oil derived from cellulose by: mixing pyrolysis oil with water and a basic metal hydroxide, oxide, or salt in amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of from about 12 to about 12.5, and adding an amount of the hydroxide, oxide, or salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range until colored materials of impurities from the oil are removed and a slurry is formed; drying the slurry azeotropically with methyl isobutyl ketone
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Gene Coding for the E1 Endoglucanase

The gene encoding Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endoglucanase is cloned and expressed in heterologous microorganisms. A new modified E1 endoglucanase enzyme is produced along with variants of the gene and enzyme. The E1 endoglucanase is useful for hydrolyzing cellulose to sugars for simultaneous or later fermentation into alcohol.
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Expression of Enzymes Involved in Cellulose Modification

Novel compositions and methods useful for genetic engineering of plant cells to provide expression in the plastids of a plant or plant cell of cellulose degrading enzymes.
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Controlled Catalystic and Thermal Sequential Pyrolysis and Hydrolysis of Polycarbonate and Plastic Waste to Recover Monomers

A process of using fast pyrolysis to convert a plastic waste feed stream containing polycarbonate and ABS to high value monomeric constituents prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituents prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting an acid or base catalysts and an oxide or carbonate support for treating the
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Aqueous Fractionation of Biomass Based on Novel Carbohydrate Hydrolysis Kinetics

A multi-function process for hydrolysis and fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass to separate hemicellulosic sugars from other biomass components comprising extractives and proteins; a portion of a solubilized lignin; cellulose; glucose derived from cellulose; and insoluble lignin from said biomass comprising:a) introducing either solid fresh biomass or partially fractioned lignocellulosic biomass material with entrained acid or water into a reactor and heating to a temperature of up to about
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Ethanol Production with Dilute Acid Hydrolysis Using Partially Dried Lignocellulosics

A process of converting lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol, comprising hydrolyzing lignocellulosic materials by subjecting dried lignocellulosic material in a reactor to a catalyst comprised of a dilute solution of a strong acid and a metal salt to lower the activation energy (i.e., the temperature) of cellulose hydrolysis and ultimately obtain higher sugar yields.
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Cloning of Cellulas Genes from Acidothermus cellulolyticus U.S. Patent 5,514,584

Cloning of Cellulas Genes from Acidothermus cellulolyticus U.S. Patent 5,514,584
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Alkaline Tolerant Dextranase from Streptomyces Anulatus

A process for production of an alkaline tolerant dextranase enzyme comprises culturing a dextran-producing microorganism Streptomyces anulatus having accession no. ATCC PTA-3866 to produce an alkaline tolerant dextranase, Dex 1 wherein the protein in said enzyme is characterized by a MW of 63.3 kDa and Dex 2 wherein its protein is characterized by a MW of 81.8 kDa.
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