Science Patents for Sale or License

Multilayer Silk Protein Films

The present invention is directed to a method of forming multilayer silk protein films and a multilayer film obtained therefrom. The invention is further directed to various materials, products and compositions containing said multilayer film and to the use of Said multilayer film in several applications.
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Haptics and Virtual Reality

Licensing of Software and/or Hardware technologies covering high performance collocated virtual reality and haptics, applicable to a number of fields.
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Plasma Discharge Self-cleaning Filtration System

The present invention is directed to a novel method for cleaning a filter surface using a plasma discharge self-cleaning filtration system. The method involves utilizing plasma discharges to induce short electric pulses of nanoseconds duration at high voltages. These electrical pulses generate strong Shockwaves that disintegrate and dislodge particulate matter located on the surface of the filter.
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Device, Instrument and Process for Detecting Magnetically Labeled Analytes

The present invention is directed to a device for quantitative analysis of an analyte in a liquid sample by detecting a magnetic label, an instrument for controlling the analysis process and displaying the results and a method for performing said analysis with said device and said instrument.
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Sensitive Paints

A sensitive paint being sensitive with respect to a physical parameter, preferably pressure, temperature, CO2 concentration, etc., comprises a luminophor being incorporated into polymeric beads and having at least one luminescence property, e.g. intensity or decay, which depends on said physical parameter. The polymeric beads are nanoparticles comprising a hydrophobic core, containing said luminophor and a hydrophilic shell enabling dispersion of said nanoparticles in water. The luminophor conta
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Dielectric Sensor

It is very important to accurately measure the thickness of thin layered films, which are used in many scientific fields. There are several techniques available for non-invasive estimation of film thickness. However most of them are limited to certain type of films, or may not be suitable for making in-situ measurements in real-time. This technology describes a novel method for thickness measurements based on admittance measurements of microdielectric Fringe-Effect (FE) sensors. The technique al
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Sample Retrieval Device for Environmental Aerosol Collection Used in Conjunction with a Field-Portable Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

The remote collection of chemical and biological samples has become increasingly important in recent years. JHU/APL has developed a series of Field-Portable Time–of–Flight Mass Spectrometers to rapidly (<1 minute from receipt of sample) identify various pathogens and chemical agents. These devices must be taken to areas under investigation, where the samples are collected via aerosol impaction places in specific locations or manual swabbing of a target area. In both cases a person must go to
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Industrial, Medical and Art Restoration Applications of Surface Texturing (TOP3-00071)

Abstract: The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) seeks to transfer technologies that can produce surface textures which enhance heat transfer, cell attachment, and other surface properties, as well as provide surface cleaning for delicate objects.
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Optimized Image Compression (DCTune) (ARC-12015)

Abstract: The DCTune technology represents a fundamental improvement on existing optimization techniques known as Quantization. Quantization selectively increases or decreases the amount of information used to render a picture. The image compression uses a DCT and each DCT coefficient yielded by the transform is quantized by an entry in a quantization matrix which determines the perceived image quality and the bit rate of the image being compressed. The invention adapts or customizes the quanti
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NASA Smart Materials and Structures ()

Abstract: The Morphing Project seeks to integrate smart, biologically inspired, or other unconventional approaches to lead to aggressive improvements in the efficiency, versatility and safety of future air and spacecraft. The foundation of this multi-disciplinary project is research on smart materials and the associated micro-electronics to develop advanced actuators and sensors for control, sensing and real-time adaptation to system changes. The smart technologies under development are modifia
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Global Qualitative Flow Path Modeling for Local State Determination (MSC-22618)

Abstract: The technology supports reconfigurable models needed for analysis and simulation of industrial process automation where operations change the active flow paths in the system. The technology can be used to validate advanced process automation designs and software, where the active system structure changes during asynchronous interactive dynamic simulation. The technology can be used to analyze and predict global effects of local control actions and other events on the plant in various
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A Microfluidic Device and Methodology for Rapid, Quantitative Determination of Analyte Concentration in a Fluid Sample

Introduction Advances in microfluidic technology are constantly opening doors to new and exciting applications, especially for biosensors and environmental monitoring. One recent area of interest is point-of-care diagnostic devices. These devices provide fast, accurate, and inexpensive sample analysis. Recent advances have enabled a universal platform that is adaptable to a potentially limitless array of analytes and could lead to affordable health care devices, including for the developing worl
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Design of Thermal Interface Material Based on High Temperature Shape Memory Alloy for Connecting Two Thermoelectric Legs

Introduction Efficient heat management is crucial for electronics to optimize performance and to avoid premature component deterioration. An area of primary concern is at the interface of adjoining thermal components, such as with heatsink interfaces and with connections between thermoelectric legs. Problems arise due to the inability of the two surfaces, necessarily of differing metals, to fully connect because of imperfections. This issue is addressed by using thermal interface material (TIM)
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Inductive Salinometer with Data Logging Capabilities and Toroidal Sensor

Introduction Salinity levels in seawater are not constant and can vary dramatically both temporally and spatially due to phenomena such as temperature, precipitation, deep-water upwelling, and tidal action. These variations are especially pronounced in coastal and estuarine waters where seawater interfaces with land and fresh water. While technologies do exist to measure salinity, they do not currently exist to monitor it over time and space while unattended. Technology Description Professor Bus
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Method of Detecting, Characterizing, and Quantifying Bulk, Light-Element Materials Using High-Energy, Penetrating X-Rays

Introduction X-rays have long been used in the characterization of a wide variety of materials. However, conventional techniques for dealing with light-element (or low-Z) materials, such as those containing nitrogen and carbon, are too low in energy to penetrate significant distances into enclosing material or into the bulk of the material of interest. A higher energy technique is required to solve this problem. Technology Description Researcher Elam at the University of Washington has developed
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Nanocellular Foaming of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene using Ultrasound

Introduction Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a thermoplastic consisting of molecules of incredibly long chains with molecular weights of several million. It has the highest impact strength of any thermoplastic, has a high resistance to corrosion, moisture, and abrasion, and has a friction coefficient similar to that of Teflon. The ability to create nano-structured UHMWPE materials could yield many useful and unique properties, including mechanical and optical properties, and
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Solution Processable n-Type polymers

Introduction Conjugated polymers and organic semiconductors promise great advances in electronics because of the benefits they offer over silicon, including being cheaper with less demanding manufacturing requirements and allowing for larger, more flexible, and more robust materials that are more responsive to chemical and biochemical stimulus. A critical roadblock in developing this technology, however, is the lack of easily synthesized n-type polymers and, subsequently, the lack of effective p
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Nav1.2/β1/contactin cell line

Introduction Mammalian Na+ channels are heteromultimeric structures that include the poreforming α subunit in association with auxiliary β subunits. Contactin is a neuronal cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily. Numerous lines of evidence indicate a role for contactin in regulating functional expression and distribution of Na+ channels in neurons. Technology description Dr William A Catterall’s laboratory has constructed a stable line of NaIIAβ1 cells expressing rat Nav
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Respiratory Detection System (RDS)

Introduction Respiration rates are an important indicator of cellular and metabolic states in cells ranging from mammalian to bacterial, from individuals to large populations. Unfortunately, conventional techniques have significant drawbacks: for instance, electrochemical techniques have low sensitivity and consume oxygen and optical techniques are difficult to integrate. With more effective monitoring techniques, the detection of microorganisms, the characterization of disease states, and the c
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Retinoic Acid Activated Reporter

Introduction Retinoic Acid Receptors (RARs) are transcription factors that are involved in many cellular processes. Upon binding of activators such as Retinoic Acid, a derivative of Vitamin A, RARs bind a consensus DNA sequence, termed the Retinoic Acid Response Element (RARE), and initiate transcription. RAREs are used in certain transcriptional reporters. Upon activation of the reporter, the bioluminescent protein luciferase is produced and easily quantified through its enzymatic activity, the
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Phospholipase C-γ1 Fusion Protein Constructs

Introduction Phosphoinositide phospholipase C (PLC) is a family of eukaryotic intracellular enzymes that play an important role in signal transduction processes. PLCs participate in phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2) metabolism and lipid signaling pathways in a calcium-dependent manner. Phospholipase C-γ1 (PLC-γ1) is recognized for its role in growthfactor- dependent signal transduction. Its Src-homology 2 (SH2) domains mediate the association of PLC-γ with tyrosine-phosphorylated prote
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Continuous Production of Microcellular Fibers

Introduction In microcellular plastic foams, inert gas is dissolved in thermoplastic under high pressure. The forced evacuation of this gas during processing creates pores (or cells) within the final plastic. The pores are small enough that clarity of the plastic is unaffected, and because of the pores, much less starting material is required in microcellular plastics than in conventional plastics, greatly reducing weight and cost. As a wide range of pore densities is achievable, this technology
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Microcellular Foaming of Cyclic Olefin Copolymer (COC)

Introduction Cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) is a commercially available thermoplastic. It possesses exceptional clarity in its natural form, similar to that of glass, and it has high moisture resistance and low absorption rates. This thermoplastic’s many qualities make it an exceptional candidate for many applications, ranging from optics to packaging. The ability to create microcellular plastic foams using COC would further increase its range of applications with a significant reduction in mat
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BCRP expressing cell lines

Introduction The breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is an ATP-binding cassette efflux transporter originally identified by its ability to confer multidrug resistance in cancer cells. BCRP mediates the efflux transport of a broad spectrum of substrates, including many drugs routinely administered to pregnant women to treat various diseases. Given its tissue localization pattern, BCRP is expected to play an important role in absorption, distribution, and elimination of drugs. Indeed, the impo
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Application of Grating Light Reflection Spectroscopy in Analytical Sensors

Introduction There are a number of methods for measuring bulk fluid compositions in statics and flow by visible light reflection characteristics from the optically inhomogeneous wall of a vessel. Surface Plasmon Spectroscopy (SPS) on gratings and randomly rough surfaces has proven to be especially sensitive to fluid composition near the wall. However, SPS techniques have inherent drawbacks when used as analytical sensing techniques. Grating Light Reflection Spectroscopy (GLRS) relies on an optic
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A New and More Accurate Mouse Model for Alzheimer’s disease

Introduction Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a neurogenerative disease with two cardinal features: the senile plaque consisting of an amyloid core surrounded by dystrophic neuritic and glial processes; and the neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) composed largely of filamentous hyperphosphorylated tau. A disease similar to AD does not develop naturally in mice or in any other non-human species. Transgenic mice expressing human AD mutations recapitulate only some aspects of the human disease, some of them
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Electrospray Evaporative Spray Cooling (EESC)

Introduction As electronic devices get increasingly more powerful and more compact, there are an increasing number of semiconductor components that emit an increasing amount of heat. In order to ensure that these devices remain long-lived and reliable, more efficient methods of dissipating heat buildup is essential. Conventional cooling techniques, such as heat sinks and convective airflow, are becoming less and less appropriate for the evolving electronics landscape. However, evaporative spray
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Recombinant Baculovirus that Produces Human Topoisomerase I

Introduction Eukaryotic topoisomerase I (Topo I) is capable of relaxing both negatively and positively supercoiled DNA. The enzyme catalyzes changes in the superhelical state of duplex DNA by transiently breaking a single strand. Technology description Dr James Champoux’s laboratory has generated recombinant baculovirus that express wild type and active-site mutant (Y723F) versions of the full-length human Topo I and a 70-kDa protein (Topo70) which is missing the first 174 NH2-terminal amino a
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Dice1.1 and Dice1.2 congenic mice

Technology description Dice1.1 and Dice1.2 inbred congenic mouse strains were produced on a BALB/c background and contain discrete non-overlapping chromosome 16 congenic intervals inherited from B10.D2. These congenic intervals contain genetic loci that control the propensity of CD4+ helper T cells to produce IL4 and become TH2 cells. In addition, the Dice1.2 locus (or a tightly-linked locus) controls susceptibility to the infectious protozoal parasite (Leishmania major) that causes cutaneous le
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Droplet Compartmentalization for Chemical Separations and On-Line Sampling

Introduction The ability to separate complex mixtures of chemicals and biomolecules is an important component of any chemical synthesis or biological processing. To date, there is no technology available to combine the high resolution of analytical separations with monodisperse droplet generation. Integrating these two technologies will allow for the detailed analysis of extremely low concentration analytes, such as are found in single cells, sub-cellular organelles, or low concentration synthet
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The Gene Encoding the Drosophila Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor & Its Expression in Mammalian Cells

Introduction Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are involved in the activation of various signal transduction pathways through their interaction with G protein. They play a major role in regulating the functions of the target organs of the parasympathetic nervous system of mammals. Acethylcholine is also a major excitatory transmitter of the central nervous system of insects. Technology description Dr Neil M. Nathanson’s laboratory has isolated genomic and cDNA clones encoding a muscarinic ace
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Clonal Cell Lines Expressing Sodium Channel RIIA (Nav1.2) and Subunits

Introduction Voltage-gated sodium channels are responsible for action potential initiation and propagation, placing them in ideal position to regulate firing and conduction in neurons. Nav1.2 (rat brain type IIa) represents a highly tetrodotoxin (TTX)–sensitive sodium channel that is broadly expressed in neurons. Technology description Dr William A Catterall’s laboratory has generated continuous mammalian somatic cell lines expressing genes encoding voltage-sensitive sodium channel subunits
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Monoclonal antibody to RGS9

Introduction RGS9 is a member of the RGS family of GTPase accelerating proteins (GAPs) and is the predominant source of GAP activity in rod outer segments. Because of its pivotal position in the inactivation phase of the light response, RGS9, found predominately in vertebrate cone and rod photoreceptors, is a useful model for understanding how rapid recovery kinetics of the light responses in retinal photoreceptors take place. Technology description Researchers at the University of Washington ha
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A novel mouse model to screen compounds for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders

Introduction Protein misfolding and aggregation are thought to play a central role in the pathogenesis of many, if not most, neurodegenerative disorders. The pharmaceutical industry has recently invested significant effort to identify small molecule inhibitors of protein misfolding and aggregation, which could be used to treat neurodegenerative disorders. However, one major obstacle is the lack of cost and time-effective in vivo models for tests of drug bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, pharmac
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Cell line stably expressing rat cardiac sodium channel α subunits (Nav1.5)

Introduction The Nav1.5 sodium ion channel protein is an integral membrane protein and tetrodotoxinresistant voltage-gated sodium channel subunit. The encoded protein is found primarily in cardiac muscle and is responsible for the initial upstroke of the action potential in an electrocardiogram. Defects in this gene are a cause of long QT syndrome type 3 (LQT3), an autosomal dominant cardiac disease. Technology description Dr William Catterall’s laboratory has generated a chinese hamster lung
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3-D Tissue Culture Chamber

Introduction Many of the seminal findings in cell and molecular biology have come from cultures of cells grown in two dimensions but the limitations of biology in just 2D are becoming clear. Cells in tissue are not just autonomous masses but consist of many interdependent cell types and their surrounding extracellular materials in which the complex and dynamic interplay between them determine of affect the tissues’ function, development and physiological balance. Researchers at the University
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Genetically Encoded Cell Death Reporter

Introduction Determining cell viability is critical to a wide variety of scientific disciplines. Currently, cell viability is assessed by incubating the cells of interest with a chemical dye or stain that reacts differently with living cells compared to dead cells. The stained cells are then analyzed using traditional microscopy or by using a flow cytometer to conduct the live/dead analysis. Chemical viability stains are limited to single cell systems because of their poor ability to penetrate c
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Type 1 X Type 8 Adenylyl Cyclase double Knockout Mice (DKO strain)

Introduction Production of cAMP by adenylyl cyclase (AC) provides an important mechanism for the regulation of neuronal physiology. The calcium-stimulated AC isoforms have been strongly implicated in the alteration of neuronal function. Targeted inactivation of the calciumstimulated AC type I (AC1) results in defective spatial learning, motor coordination, and hippocampal and cerebellar long-term potentiation. AC8 is a critical molecule for the translation of increased intracellular calcium to a
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SV2A Knockout Mouse

Introduction Synaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2) is a membrane glycoprotein found only in the secretory vesicles of neural and endocrine cells. It appears to be unique to vertebrates, suggesting that it evolved as a part of complex signaling systems. SV2A was shown to be the binding site for the antiepileptic drug levetiracetam, suggesting that it plays a role in modulating neuronal excitability. Indeed, gene disruption studies indicate that SV2 is essential for survival and for normal nervous syst
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A New p53 Cell-Based Assay

Summary Harvard researchers developed a reliable, high-throughput screening assay to identify activators and inhibitors of p53. This cell-based luminescence assay measures the level of a reporter gene product under the control of a promoter containing a p53-binding site. P53 is a transcription factor that can activate multiple genes involved in cell cycle regulation, DNA repair and programmed cell-death. It is often described as the "gatekeeper" of cellular integrity and plays a central role
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A New p53 Cell-Based Assay

Summary Harvard researchers developed a reliable, high-throughput screening assay to identify activators and inhibitors of p53. This cell-based luminescence assay measures the level of a reporter gene product under the control of a promoter containing a p53-binding site. P53 is a transcription factor that can activate multiple genes involved in cell cycle regulation, DNA repair and programmed cell-death. It is often described as the "gatekeeper" of cellular integrity and plays a central role
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"Teabag" Processing: an Automated, High Throughput Method for Affinity Purification

Summary A high throughput system for protein purification has been developed, whereby a “tea-bag” structure is used to house microspheres for targeted protein binding and elution. The microspheres are compatible with any solid-phase protein purification, which includes coupling of Ni++/Histidine, Glutathione/Glutathione-S-transferase, avidin/biotin, and immunoprecipitation (beads with either protein A or G). From an efficacy perspective, the system has demonstrated equivalent purifie
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Crosslinkable Hole Transporting Materials for Organic Lightemitting Diodes

Introduction High-performance organic or polymer light-emitting diodes comprise multilayer configurations having hole-transporting, emissive and electron-transporting layers to balance the injection and transport of both holes and electrons. In general, holetransporting material is the first applied layer onto the anode upon sequential layerby- layer fabrication of a device. This hole-transporting layer (HTL) plays a very important role in the efficiency of multilayer PLEDs. Technology descripti
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Purified Compositions of Stem Cell Derived Differentiating Cells

Introduction Stem cells have a capacity for both self-renewal and the generation of differentiated cell types. Embryonic Stem (ES) cells are derived from cultures of inner cell mass (ICM) cells, and have the property of participating as totipotent cells when placed into host blastocysts. The development pathways that endogenous ICM cells or transferred ES cells take to tissue formation and organogenesis has led many to hope that these pathways can be controlled for the development of tissue and
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A Three-Dimensional Distributed Sensor using an integrated Optical Waveguide Array

Introduction A flexible shear and pressure sensor array has been developed by researchers at the University of Washington. The sensors are fiber optic-based, and are imbedded in a thin polymer sheet to allow their use in a wide range of pressure & shear sensing applications. Technology description An array of optical waveguides form the sensing network, which is designed to distinguish between pressure, i.e., a force normal to the sensor array, and shear, or forces parallel to the surface of the
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A New Protocol of Diels-Alder Lattice Hardening for Highly Efficient Electro-optic Materials Showing Outstanding Temporal Stability over 200 Degrees C

Introduction Organic electro-optic (EO) materials have attracted much interest in the past two decades because of their extensive potential applications in various fields, ranging from waveguides, switches, emitters, and detectors. Though EO materials have a huge potential in Photonics and Electronics devices, the fact that chromophores are not thermally robust enough to survive the device fabrication steps (short-term excursions to the order of 250oC) limits their application range. Technology
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Larger Area Pressure and Shear Measurement Using Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (OTDR)

Introduction Lower limb complications associated with diabetes include the development of plantar ulcers that can lead to infection and subsequent amputation. Several authors have postulated that shear stress is an important component of ulcer development. While it is known from force plate analyses that there are medial/lateral and anterior /posterior shear components of the ground reaction force, there is little known about the actual distribution of this force during daily activities, nor abo
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Novel Methods of Creating a True Smart Structure for Stress Monitoring and Active Mechanical Support on Footwear

Introduction Investigation of strain sensing has been an active research area for the past 60 years and has the potential to affect a large number of industries and disciplines. The characteristics of all strain sensors depend, to some degree, on the properties of the deformable contact materials. Each material has its advantages and disadvantages, depending on physical properties and manufacturing concerns. Technology description Researchers at the University of Washington have developed a poly
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Design of Surface Plasmon Biosensor Based on Self-Referencing and Digital Window System

Introduction Surface Plasmon resonance (SPR) has attracted strong attention as a biosensor in the past two decades because it can provide label-free, real-time detection with high sensitivity. Technology description Researchers at the UW have developed an SPR biosensor with increased accurate referencing. In this design sensing and referencing materials are prepared adjacently in one channel so the bulk affect for the sensing and referencing surface are almost the same. As a result, a more preci
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Polymer based bendloss waveguide sensor for shear and pressure measurement

Introduction Lower limb complications associated with diabetes include the development of plantar ulcers that can lead to infection and subsequent amputation. Several authors have postulated that shear stress is an important component of ulcer development. While it is known from force plate analyses that there are medial/lateral and anterior /posterior shear components of the ground reaction force, there is little known about the actual distribution of this force during daily activities, nor abo
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Extrusion of Microcellular Foams and Foam Composites

Introduction Conventional extrusion of microcellular foams using supercritical carbon dioxide as a blowing agent needs expensive equipment or specialized modification in order to operate. High pressure and high temperature seals are required on the extruder barrel at the injection for the supercritical fluid. The mixing of the gas and polymer phases in the extruder barrel requires specialized screws. The blowing agent is injected directly into the extruder barrel while the polymer is in its molt
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A flexible polymer based smart skin

Introduction For some applications, it is essential to obtain the real time 2-D profiling of certain physical parameters such as temperature, force, pressure, and shear stress on a 3-D object. If the surface of the object is flat, one can use a monolithic MEMS device with large amounts of sensors. However, difficulties are encountered if the surface area is non-planar. This problem has been approached by using a skin made of polyamide connecting arrays of silicon based MEMS devices. The major fa
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Programmable Ultrasound Back-End System Using Multi-Core Processor

Introduction Ultrasonography is a noninvasive medical imaging technique, which utilizes ultrasonic waves to visualize soft tissue within the body, and advances in this technology have led to various therapies, including those that utilize high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) capable of rapidly heating small areas of tissue deep within the body. Ultrasound offers a real-time, inexpensive, and noninvasive alternative to complex imaging techniques and to some surgeries. Unfortunately, ultrasou
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Tissue-Engineered Urinary Bladder Using Autologous Cells

Introduction There is a variety of reasons that a person’s bladder may fail or require removal, including bladder acontractility, cancer, and cystitis. Unfortunately, conventional artificial bladders tend to suffer from critical complications, such as inadequate performance, infection, and adverse host response. Ideally, a new bladder could simply be formed from the patient’s own cells. Technology Description Professor Ratner at the University of Washington has developed a technique to creat
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A Polymer-Based Integrated Optical Image Acquisition and Display System

Introduction Imaging devices are used in a variety of roles from medical imaging to barcode reading, and as these devices get smaller, their number of potential applications only increases. Endoscopes, for example, allow for real-time imaging inside the body; conventional versions, however, are limited in how small their diameter can get by the need for relatively large bundles of optic fiber or arrays of detectors. To further decrease the size of these devices, alternatives must be developed Te
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Novel Adsorbent Systems for Water Purification Using Metal Oxide Bound to Substrate and Heated Metal Oxide Particles

Introduction There is an ever increasing need for potable water. Improvements in conventional purification technologies allow for savings in both time and money and ensure that clean water is available in areas that need it. Technology Description Professor Benjamin at the University of Washington has developed a device and process for enhancing water decontamination whereby either standard membrane filtration or slow sand filtration is coupled to metal oxide particles, which adsorb many common
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Novel Adsorbent Systems for Water Purification Using Metal Oxide Bound to Substrate and Heated Metal Oxide Particles

Introduction There is an ever increasing need for potable water. Improvements in conventional purification technologies allow for savings in both time and money and ensure that clean water is available in areas that need it. Technology Description Professor Benjamin at the University of Washington has developed a device and process for enhancing water decontamination whereby either standard membrane filtration or slow sand filtration is coupled to metal oxide particles, which adsorb many common
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Method of Detecting, Characterizing, and Quantifying Bulk, Light-Element Materials Using High-Energy, Penetrating X-Rays

Introduction X-rays have long been used in the characterization of a wide variety of materials. However, conventional techniques for dealing with light-element (or low-Z) materials, such as those containing nitrogen and carbon, are too low in energy to penetrate significant distances into enclosing material or into the bulk of the material of interest. A higher energy technique is required to solve this problem. Technology Description Researcher Elam at the University of Washington has developed
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Nanocellular Foaming of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene using Ultrasound

Introduction Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a thermoplastic consisting of molecules of incredibly long chains with molecular weights of several million. It has the highest impact strength of any thermoplastic, has a high resistance to corrosion, moisture, and abrasion, and has a friction coefficient similar to that of Teflon. The ability to create nano-structured UHMWPE materials could yield many useful and unique properties, including mechanical and optical properties, and
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Solution Processable n-Type polymers

Introduction Conjugated polymers and organic semiconductors promise great advances in electronics because of the benefits they offer over silicon, including being cheaper with less demanding manufacturing requirements and allowing for larger, more flexible, and more robust materials that are more responsive to chemical and biochemical stimulus. A critical roadblock in developing this technology, however, is the lack of easily synthesized n-type polymers and, subsequently, the lack of effective p
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Continuous Production of Microcellular Fibers

Introduction In microcellular plastic foams, inert gas is dissolved in thermoplastic under high pressure. The forced evacuation of this gas during processing creates pores (or cells) within the final plastic. The pores are small enough that clarity of the plastic is unaffected, and because of the pores, much less starting material is required in microcellular plastics than in conventional plastics, greatly reducing weight and cost. As a wide range of pore densities is achievable, this technology
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Microcellular Foaming of Cyclic Olefin Copolymer (COC)

Introduction Cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) is a commercially available thermoplastic. It possesses exceptional clarity in its natural form, similar to that of glass, and it has high moisture resistance and low absorption rates. This thermoplastic’s many qualities make it an exceptional candidate for many applications, ranging from optics to packaging. The ability to create microcellular plastic foams using COC would further increase its range of applications with a significant reduction in mat
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Thulium-Doped Fiber Laser Amplifier at 1762 nm

Introduction The role of a fiber amplifier is to increase the signal from an optical source, such as a laser, and this function is vital for effective telecommunications. In practice, this fiberoptic component is pumped with energy corresponding to a specific wavelength range, and the original optical signal is amplified and propagated onward. This technology typically consists of fiberoptic cable doped with rare earth metals, such as thulium. Unfortunately, with conventional amplifiers, the win
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Design of Thermal Interface Material Based on High Temperature Shape Memory Alloy for Connecting Two Thermoelectric Legs

Introduction Efficient heat management is crucial for electronics to optimize performance and to avoid premature component deterioration. An area of primary concern is at the interface of adjoining thermal components, such as with heatsink interfaces and with connections between thermoelectric legs. Problems arise due to the inability of the two surfaces, necessarily of differing metals, to fully connect because of imperfections. This issue is addressed by using thermal interface material (TIM)
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Toughening Structural Adhesives Using Novel Core-Shell Thermoplastic Nanoparticles

Introduction Structural Adhesives are increasingly replacing traditional fastening methods such as welding, bolts and rivets, in industrial applications. They are used to bond many different material types including ceramics, metals, glass, plastics and composites, and are designed for high strength, creep resistance, and resistance to harsh service environments such as high temperatures and chemicals. Several methods are available to toughen thermosetting resins, such as epoxies, commonly used
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3-D Tissue Culture Chamber

UW Ref# 7654 Introduction Many of the seminal findings in cell and molecular biology have come from cultures of cells grown in two dimensions but the limitations of biology in just 2D are becoming clear. Cells in tissue are not just autonomous masses but consist of many interdependent cell types and their surrounding extracellular materials in which the complex and dynamic interplay between them determine of affect the tissues’ function, development and physiological balance. Researchers at th
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Methods for Production of Thick Microcellular Sheets and Composite Structures

Introduction Microcellular manufacturing processes have been developed largely for production of thin films (thickness <3 mm) in applications such as packaging. Attempts to date to produce thick flat microcellular sheets using conventional batch microcellular process have resulted in specimens with surfaces that are curved and grossly distorted. Technology description Researchers at the UW have developed novel methods to create thick microcellular thermoplastic sheets and composite structures us
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Microcellular Poly (vinyl Chloride) Structures

Introduction A novel process for continuous production of microcellular foams has been developed and applied to make microcellular profiles from PVC. Technology description Researchers at the UW have developed microcellular poly (vinyl) chloride polymeric structures made in an extrusion or injection molding process. The articles have an average cell size of less than 100 microns and specific tensile strength ranging from 15 MPa to 20 MPa. Specific tensile modulus ranges from 2 GPa to 3 GPa. The
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A novel graded-modulus-interphase material for polymeric composites

Introduction Filler- (e.g., particulate or fiber) reinforced structural polymers or polymeric composites have changed the way things are made. Today, they are found, for example, in air/ground transportation vehicles, sporting goods, ballistic barrier applications and weapons, electronic packaging, musical instruments, fashion items, and more. As the demand increases, so does the desire to have not only well balanced mechanical properties, but also light weight and low cost. This leads to a cons
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Novel Compound Semiconductor Use as a Buffer Layer for Controlled Oxide Growth on Silicon

Introduction An area of research that has gained increasing importance in recent years is the controlled growth of oxides other than SiO2 on silicon. Technology description Researchers at the UW have developed the use of Ga2Se3 as a novel buffer layer preventing SiOx and silicide formation during the controlled growth of oxides on silicon. Oxides can be grown on silicon without unwanted silicon reactions, and the growth of titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been demonstrated. Business opportunity Oxide
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Biochemical Sensor in Open Nanochannel

Introduction Micro and nano-sized biochips are convenient for exploring molecular interactions because of their small feature size. The small size of the chips allows for sensitive detection on the molecular level while reducing testing time and sample volumes. Technology description Researchers at the University of Washington have developed a biochemical sensor that uses an array of open nanochannels (10 – 1000nm) to study molecules such as DNA. Channels are fabricated by nanomachining or sha
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Ferromagnetic Shape Memory Alloys

Introduction Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) are metals which return to their original shape after deformation. Conventional SMAs are thermally activated, requiring heat to change the metal’s crystal structure and allow it to resume its pre-deformation shape. Technology description Material scientists at the University of Washington have developed magnetically activated shape memory alloys, thus allowing a magnetic field to be used instead of heat to restore the original shape of a deformed SMA. Lin
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Super-low Fouling Zwitterionic-based Materials

Introduction Tin-based antifouling paints are being phased out due to marine pollution concerns. Non-toxic silicone and fluorinated coatings are under development, but these are easy release coatings rather than antifouling. PEG is the most commonly used antifouling polymer coating, but its susceptibility to oxidation damage may reduce its utility in the marine industry. A more stable super-low fouling material is desirable for marine coating applications. Technology description This invention r
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Nanocellular, Microcellular, and Macrocellular Foams from TPU’s and TPE’s and their Method of Manufacture

Introduction Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPE’s) are a class of flexible materials with a wide range of applications. To date TPE’s, and a subclass of these materials, Thermoplastic Urethanes (TPU’s), have been difficult to foam by conventional means. Technology description Researchers at the UW have developed a new solid-state foaming process that allows creation of uniform cellular structures at length scales from nano to macro. The material cell size distribution is narrow and the microstr
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Production of Thick Microcellular & Thermoplastic Sheets and Components

Introduction Thick microcellular plastics for lightweight, energy efficient building materials and other applications have been developed. Up to 70% reduction in relative density of the materials has been achieved. Technology description Researchers at the UW have developed a process to make thick, lightweight plastic sheets. A key aspect of the invention is production of flat sheets that could provide a new basic construction material. Business opportunity This technique reduces the density of
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Crosslinkable Hole Transporting Materials for Organic Light emitting

Introduction High-performance organic or polymer light-emitting diodes comprise multilayer configurations having hole-transporting, emissive and electron-transporting layers to balance the injection and transport of both holes and electrons. In general, holetransporting material is the first applied layer onto the anode upon sequential layerby- layer fabrication of a device. This hole-transporting layer (HTL) plays a very important role in the efficiency of multilayer PLEDs. Technology descripti
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Energy Harvesting Composite Made of Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Composite Made of Piezoelectric

Introduction Shape memory alloy (SMA) materials are easily deformed at low temperature and return to their original configuration by heating. Via the piezoelectric effect, some materials will produce an electric potential as a result of stress from changes in temperature. The alternating current (AC) potential produced may then be converted into direct current (DC) and stored in a capacitor. Thus, an energy harvesting system is possible. Technology description Researchers at the University of Wa
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Design of Active Materials and Structures based on Composites of Shape Memory Alloy and Shape Memory Polymer

Introduction Shape memory alloys (SMA) and shape memory polymers (SMP) have shown tremendous promise for a wide variety of applications because of their ability to “remember” a previous state when heated. However, they can only remember a single shape. The ability to remember two shapes would make these materials much more useful as morphing or “smart” materials in which the change of shape is reversible between the two “remembered” states. Technology Description Professor Taya at
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Advanced Biomimetic Surfaces for Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS)

Introduction Raman spectroscopy characterizes molecules by their Raman scattering. As incoming light scatters off a molecule, most does so elastically, neither gaining nor losing energy, and this is known as Rayleigh scattering. Some of this light, however, about 1 in 10 million photons, is the subject of an energy exchange with the molecule and scatters inelastically, possessing more or less energy than it started with, and this is known as Raman scattering. Raman scattering acts as a vibration
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Design of Bio-Actuator for Medical Treatment Based on Ferromagnetic Shape Memory Alloy Helical Spring

Introduction FSMA (ferromagnetic shape memory alloy) materials provide fast speed of actuation using magnetic fields and large strain and stress capability. Technology description Researchers at the University of Washington have developed applications for FSMA devices in stents encapsulated with micro-bioactuators for removal of plaque accumulated in tube walls, not normally removed during a standard stent installation procedure. The helical spring removes plaque by oscillating at a frequency of
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Design of coiled ferromagnetic composite plate spring

Introduction In general, motors are constructed by both electro and permanent magnets, and move due to the attractive magnet using force, which originates from these magnets. The motors rotate infinitely in principal; however the output torque is limited. Technology description Researchers at the UW have developed an actuator that uses a ferromagnetic plate spring and electromagnets (or hybrid magnets which are constructed from both electro and permanent magnets). The output power of the torque
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Intracellular Delivery Vector

Introduction Some drugs require cellular uptake to be effective and methods to increase cellular uptake are desired to improve on the efficacy and reduce the side-effects of certain drugs. One way to increase cellular uptake of a drug is by attaching it to a cellpenetrating peptide (CPP). CPPs, such as the TAT peptide from HIV, have been used extensively in the study of cellular uptake. Constructing fusions between CPPs and the target drug can be difficult and time consuming; additionally, it ap
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Production of Palladium Nanostructures with Shape Selection by Adding Bromide

Introduction Single-crystal, one-dimensional nanostructures of palladium are attractive as interconnects for fabricating nanoscale electronic devices. Polycrystalline, mesoscopic wires made of palladium have been utilized for resistance-based detection of hydrogen gas. However, polycrystalline wires containing gaps between adjacent grains often shrink after initial exposure to hydrogen and may cause random, irreversible changes to the resistance of a sensing device. It should be possible to over
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A New Protocol of Diels-Alder Lattice Hardening for Highly Efficient Electro-optic Materials Showing Outstanding Temporal Stability over 200 Degrees C

Introduction Organic electro-optic (EO) materials have attracted much interest in the past two decades because of their extensive potential applications in various fields, ranging from waveguides, switches, emitters, and detectors. Though EO materials have a huge potential in Photonics and Electronics devices, the fact that chromophores are not thermally robust enough to survive the device fabrication steps (short-term excursions to the order of 250oC) limits their application range. Technology
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Microfluidic Device and Method for Detection and Separation of Particles by Isoelectric Focusing

Introduction Electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing techniques are well suited to rapid isolation and detection of biological particles. Microfluidic devices are particularly amenable to electrophoresis-based applications, offering advantages such as low reagent and sample consumption, reduced energy consumption and reduced analysis time. Technology description Researchers at the University of Washington have invented a microfluidic device that can rapidly and continuously fractionate a hetero
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Methods and Apparatus for Force Reduction in the Self-Piercing Riveting Process with Resistance Heating and Multi-Step Punching

Introduction Self-piercing riveting (SPR) requires a very high processing force to finish its piercing and riveting actions. U.S. auto manufacturers are hesitant to adopt SPR because of this particular disadvantage. Reducing the processing force is therefore a key factor in eventually adopting SPR for robotic automation. Technology description Researchers at the UW have developed a method to reduce the SPR processing force by elevating metal temperatures, thereby lowering the yield stress and re
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Concentration and Selectivity of Nucleic Acids using a Nano needle

Introduction There is a need in the medical industry for cost-effective, non-invasive methods of sampling biological fluids that often contain bio-markers such as nucleic acids, which can be indicative of disease states; thus, sensitive and specific diagnostic tests to locate bio-markers are needed. Technology description Researchers at the University of Washington have developed highly sensitive and specific method of sampling nucleic acids in peripheral blood using a high aspect ratio nano-nee
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Thermo-reversibly Crosslinked Cladding Materials with Highly Tunable Conductivity for Nonlinear Optical Polymer-based Devices

Introduction A typical electro-optic waveguide device includes a lower electrode layer, a lower cladding layer, an active guiding layer, an upper cladding layer, and an upper electrode layer. The purpose of the cladding layers in an electro-optic device is to confine light in the active guiding layer and to isolate the guiding layer from poling and device operating electrodes. Once particular problem associated with optimizing the nonlinear optical (NLO) activity of an active guiding layer in a
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A method for quantitative, proteome-wide analysis of protein phosphorylation

Introduction Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important regulatory events in cells. The state of activity of numerous enzymes and processes and the association of specific proteins into functional complexes are frequently controlled by reversible protein phosphorylation. Because cellular proteins are coordinately phosphorylated to control specific biological processes, the complex mechanisms that control biological systems by protein phosphorylation are difficult to investigate using c
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Method for Fast Crosslinking of Silicone Compounds at Low Temperature By in Situ Water Generation

Introduction Deposition of small amounts of functional materials has recently become a matter of intensive research. Inkjet printing technology is a promising and widely used technique for the fabrication of small parts with specific functionalities into welldefined locations. The limits of this technology are largely based on materials science properties of the “inks” used, such as viscosity, amount of solid in the dispersant liquid, shrinkage of the product, and temperatures required. Proc
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Episodic Monitor

Introduction Epilepsy affects over three million Americans and is characterized by recurring seizures, which typically involve problems with motor, sensory, and/or cognitive functions. These seizures may occur with or without loss of consciousness. One of the hazards of having a seizure, especially without notice or notification to caregivers, is the chance for the victim to become seriously injured. Epileptic seizures are often followed by vomiting where unattended, unconscious victims are at r
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Novel Stabilization Scheme for Obtaining Single Longitudinal Mode (SLM) Radiation from a Pulsed Nd:Yag laser

Background: Pulsed, q-switched solid-state lasers are an almost ubiquitous light source for powerful, short laser pulses, as used in industry and research labs. Typically, a simple free running cavity design is employed, while more demanding applications require seeded lasers. In that case a narrow bandwidth beam is introduced into the cavity of the host laser. The wavelength of the CW laser is adjusted to coincide with the fluorescence maximum of the gain material of the host. When the CW lase
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Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron (EZVI) (KSC-12246)

Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron is a versatile technology that can be used at many of these locations. Applicable sites may include: dye and paint manufacturers;dry cleaners; chemical manufacturers; metal cleaning and degreasing facilities; leather-tanning facilities; pharmaceutical manufacturers; adhesive and aerosol manufacturers; and government facilities. Thousands of DNAPL-contaminated sites have been identified across the United States; however, few technologies exist that can treat DNAPL¿s i
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Control System for Prosthetic Devices (MSC-21941)

Although many prosthetic devices have been developed, including computer controlled "bionic" or hydraulically actuated devices, these devices do not provide user feedback. Additionally, below-the-elbow amputees favor some derivation of the traditional hook-and-cable harness system developed in the last century because of the low cost, ease of repair, reliability and simple hook prehension (derived from the shoulder and back muscles through a harness and cable assembly). The Myoelectric Prosth
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Proton-Transfer-Reaction/Ion-Mobility-Spectrometer (PTR-IMS) (NPO-21187)

A small, portable detector with high sensitivity suitable for detection of trace amounts of organic compounds, PTR-IMS does not suffer from problems associated with commonly used gas chromatography/mass spectrometry-based instruments (GC/MS) such as limited sensitivity, fragmentation of large organic species and high vacuum requirements. This instrument, which is lightweight and consumes low power, would be an important part of future in-situ investigations on planetary bodies. Use as an air qua
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Rapid Low-Temperature Epitaxial Growth Using a Hot-Element Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition Process

The invention provides a process for depositing an epitaxial layer on a crystalline substrate, comprising the steps of providing a chamber having an element capable of heating, introducing the substrate into the chamber, heating the element at a temperature sufficient to decompose a source gas, passing the source gas in contact with the element; and forming an epitaxial layer on the substrate.
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Reactive Codoping of GaAlInP Compound Semiconductors

A GaAlInP compound semiconductor and a method of producing a GaAlInP compound semiconductor are provided. The apparatus and method comprises a GaAs crystal substrate in a metal organic vapor deposition reactor. Al, Ga, and In vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing organometallic compounds. P vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing phospine gas; group II vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing an organometallic group IIA or IIB compound. Group VIB vapors are prepared by thermally
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Method of Preparing Nitrogen Containing Semiconductor Material

A method of combining group III elements with group V elements that incorporates at least nitrogen from a nitrogen halide for use in semiconductors and in particular semiconductors in photovoltaic cells.
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Using liquid desiccant as a regenerable filter for capturing and deactivating contaminants

A method, and systems for implementing such method, for purifying and conditioning air of weaponized contaminants. The method includes wetting a filter packing media with a salt-based liquid desiccant, such as water with a high concentration of lithium chloride. Air is passed through the wetted filter packing media, and the contaminants are captured with the liquid desiccant while the liquid desiccant dehumidifies the air. The captured contaminants are then deactivated in the liquid desiccant, w
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Purification of Caprolactam from Recycled Nylon

A method of removing 1,11-diamino-6-undecanone from the pyrolysis product of nylon comprising: a) pyrolyzing nylon-6 to form a pyrolyzate containing a caprolactam mixture;b) dissolving the caprolactam mixture in a solvent to form a solution;c) passing carbon dioxide gas through the solution to form a precipitate;d) removing the precipitate from the solution; ande) recovering the purified caprolactam from the solution.
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Process for the Conversion of and Aqueous Biomass Hydrolyzate into Fuels or Chemicals by the Selective Removal of fermentation Inhibitors

A process of making a fuel or chemical from a biomass hydrolyzate is provided which comprises the steps of providing a biomass hydrolyzate, adjusting the pH of the hydrolyzate, contacting a metal oxide having an affinity for guaiacyl or syringyl functional groups, or both and the hydrolyzate for a time sufficient to form an adsorption complex; removing the complex wherein a sugar fraction is provided, and converting the sugar fraction to fuels or chemicals using a microorganism.
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Pretreatment of Microbial Sludges

Methods are described for pretreating microbial sludges to break cells and disrupt organic matter. One method involves the use of sonication, and another method involves the use of shear forces. The pretreatment of sludge enhances bioconversion of the organic fraction. This allows for efficient dewatering of the sludge and reduces the cost for final disposal of the waste.
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Interdigitalized Photovoltaic Power Conversion Device

A photovoltaic power conversion device has a top surface adapted to receive impinging radiation. The device includes at least two adjacent, serially connected cells. Each cell includes a semi-insulating substrate and a lateral conductivity layer of a first doped electrical conductivity disposed on the substrate. A base layer is disposed on the lateral conductivity layer and has the same electrical charge conductivity thereof. An emitter layer of a second doped electrical conductivity of opposite
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High Efficiency Low Cost Thin Film Silicon Solar Cell Design and Method for Making

A semiconductor device having a substrate, a conductive intermediate layer deposited onto said substrate, wherein the intermediate layer serves as a back electrode, an optical reflector, and an interface for impurity gettering, and a semiconductor layer deposited onto said intermediate layer, wherein the semiconductor layer has a grain size at least as large as the layer thickness, and preferably about ten times the layer thickness. The device is formed by depositing a metal layer on a substrate
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Electrical Isolation of Component Cells in Monolithically Interconnected Modules

A monolithically interconnected photovoltaic module having cells which are electrically connected which comprises a substrate, a plurality of cells formed over the substrate, each cell including a primary absorber layer having a light receiving surface and a p-region, formed with a p-type dopant, and an n-region formed with an n-type dopant adjacent the p-region to form a single pn-junction, and a cell isolation diode layer having a p-region, formed with a p-type dopant, and an n-region formed w
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Crystallization from High-Temperature Solutions of Si in Copper

A liquid phase epitaxy method for forming thin crystalline layers of device quality silicon having less than 5X10.sup.16 Cu atoms/cc impurity, comprising: preparing a saturated liquid solution melt of Si in Cu at about 16% to about 90% wt. Si at a temperature range of about 800.degree. C. to about 1400.degree. C. in an inert gas; immersing a substrate in the saturated solution melt; supersaturating the solution by lowering the temperature of the saturated solution melt and holding the substrate
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Controlled Metal-Semiconductor Sintering/Alloying by One-directional Reverse Illumination

Metal strips deposited on a top surface of a semiconductor substrate are sintered at one temperature simultaneously with alloying a metal layer on the bottom surface at a second, higher temperature. This simultaneous sintering of metal strips and alloying a metal layer on opposite surfaces of the substrate at different temperatures is accomplished by directing infrared radiation through the top surface to the interface of the bottom surface with the metal layer where the radiation is absorbed to
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Welding/Sealing Glass Enclosed Space in a Vacuum

A method of welding and sealing the edges of two juxtaposed glass sheets together to seal a vacuum space between the sheets comprises the steps of positioning a radiation absorbant material, such as FeO, VO.sub.2, or NiO, between the radiation transmissive glass sheets adjacent the edges and then irradiating the absorbant material, preferably with a laser beam, through at least one of the glass sheets. Heat produced by the absorbed radiation in the absorbant material melts glass in the portions
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Thin Film Method of Conductin Lithium-Ions

The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.
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Stand-Alone Photovoltaic (PV) Powered Electrochromic Window

A variable transmittance double pane window includes an electrochromic material that has been deposited on one pane of the window in conjunction with an array of photovoltaic cells deposited along an edge of the pane to produce the required electric power necessary to vary the effective transmittance of the window. A battery is placed in a parallel fashion to the array of photovoltaic cells to allow the user the ability to manually override the system when a desired transmittance is desired.
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Solid Lithium-Ion Electrolyte

The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.
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Solar-Induced Chemical Vapor Deposition of Diamond-Type Carbon Films

An improved chemical vapor deposition method for depositing transparent continuous coatings of sp.sup.3 -bonded diamond-type carbon films, comprising: a) providing a volatile hydrocarbon gas/H.sub.2 reactant mixture in a cold wall vacuum/chemical vapor deposition chamber containing a suitable substrate for said films, at pressure of about 1 to 50 Torr; and b) directing a concentrated solar flux of from about 40 to about 60 watts/cm.sup.2 through said reactant mixture to produce substrate tempera
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Self Bleaching Photoelectrochemical-Electrochromic Device

A photoelectrochemical-electrochromic device comprising a first transparent electrode and a second transparent electrode in parallel, spaced relation to each other. The first transparent electrode is electrically connected to the second transparent electrode. An electrochromic material is applied to the first transparent electrode and a nanoporous semiconductor film having a dye adsorbed therein is applied to the second transparent electrode. An electrolyte layer contacts the electrochromic mate
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Redox Polymer Electrodes for Advanced Batteries

Advanced batteries having a long cycle lifetime are provided. More specifically, the present invention relates to electrodes made from redox polymer films and batteries in which either the positive electrode, the negative electrode, or both, comprise redox polymers. Suitable redox polymers for this purpose include pyridyl or polypyridyl complexes of transition metals like iron, ruthenium, osmium, chromium, tungsten and nickel; porphyrins (either free base or metallo derivatives); phthalocyanines
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Preparation of Superconductor Precursor Powders

A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the me
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Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Depositions (PECVD) Method of Forming Vanadium Oxide Films and Vanadium Oxide Thin-Films Prepared Thereby

A method is disclosed of forming a vanadium oxide film on a substrate utilizing plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The method includes positioning a substrate within a plasma reaction chamber and then forming a precursor gas comprised of a vanadium-containing chloride gas in an inert carrier gas. This precursor gas is then mixed with selected amounts of hydrogen and oxygen and directed into the reaction chamber. The amounts of precursor gas, oxygen and hydrogen are selected to optimize t
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Photoenhanced Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Acids

A process is described for rapid conversion of organic acids and alcohols anaerobic digesters into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, the optimal precursor substrates for production of methane. The process includes addition of photosynthetic bacteria to the digester and exposure of the bacteria to radiant energy (e.g., solar energy). The process also increases the pH stability of the digester to prevent failure of the digester. Preferred substrates for photosynthetic bacteria are the organic acid and
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Photoconversion of Gasified Organic Materials Into Biologically Degradable Plastics

A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into a bioplastic suitable for use as a biodegradable plastic. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide and hydrogen, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for production of useful biodegradable plastic polymer.
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PD/NI-WO3 Anodic Double Layer Gasochromic Device

An anodic double layer gasochromic sensor structure for optical detection of hydrogen in improved response time and with improved optical absorption real time constants, comprising: a glass substrate; a tungsten-doped nickel oxide layer coated on the glass substrate; and a palladium layer coated on the tungsten-doped nickel oxide layer.
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Molecular Water-Oxidation Catalyst

A dimeric composition of the formula: ##STR1## wherein L', L", L'", and L"" are each a bidentate ligand having at least one functional substituent, the ligand selected from bipyridine, phenanthroline, 2-phenylpyridine, bipyrimidine, and bipyrazyl and the functional substituent selected from carboxylic acid, ester, amide, halogenide, anhydride, acyl ketone, alkyl ketone, acid chloride, sulfonic acid, phosphonic acid, and nitro and nitroso groups. An electrochemical oxidation process for the produ
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Microwave Impregnation of Porous Materials with Thermal Energy Storage Materials

A method for impregnating a porous, non-metallic construction material with a solid phase-change material is described. The phase-change material in finely divided form is spread onto the surface of the porous material, after which the porous material is exposed to microwave energy for a time sufficient to melt the phase-change material. The melted material is spontaneously absorbed into the pores of the porous material. A sealing chemical may also be included with the phase-change material (or
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Method of High-Purity Silane Preparation

A process for the preparation of high purity silane, suitable for forming thin layer silicon structures in various semiconductor devices and high purity poly- and single crystal silicon for a variety of applications, is provided. Synthesis of high-purity silane starts with a temperature assisted reaction of metallurgical silicon with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. Alcoxysilanes formed in the silicon-alcohol reaction are separated from other products and purified. Simultaneous reduction a
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Method and Apparatus for Rapid Biohydrogen Phenotypic Screening of Microorganisms Using a Chemochromic Sensor

The invention provides an assay system for identifying a hydrogen-gas-producing organism, including a sensor film having a first layer comprising a transition metal oxide or oxysalt and a second layer comprising hydrogen-dissociative catalyst metal, the first and second layers having an inner and an outer surface wherein the inner surface of the second layer is deposited on the outer surface of the first layer, and a substrate disposed proximally to the outer surface of the second layer, the org
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Method for Improving the Durability of Ion Insertion Materials

The invention provides a method of protecting an ion insertion material from the degradative effects of a liquid or gel-type electrolyte material by disposing a protective, solid ion conducting, electrically insulating, layer between the ion insertion layer and the liquid or gel-type electrolyte material. The invention further provides liquid or gel-type electrochemical cells having improved durability having a pair of electrodes, a pair of ion insertion layers sandwiched between the pair of ele
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Method for Charging a Hydrogen Getter

A method for charging a sample of either a permanent or reversible getter material with a high concentration of hydrogen while maintaining a base pressure below 10.sup.-4 torr at room temperature involves placing the sample of hydrogen getter material in a chamber, activating the sample of hydrogen getter material, overcharging the sample of getter material through conventional charging techniques to a high concentration of hydrogen, and then subjecting the sample of getter material to a low tem
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Zymomonas Pentose-Sugar Fermenting Strains and Uses Thereof

Disclosed in the present invention is a Zymomonas integrant and derivatives of these integrants that posess the ability to ferment pentose into ethanol. The genetic sequences encoding for the pentose-fermenting enzymes are integrated into the Zymomonas in a two-integration event of homologous recombination and transposition. Each operon includes more than one pentose-reducing enzyme encoding sequence. The integrant in some embodiments includes enzyme sequences encoding xylose isomerase, xyluloki
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Low Thermal Resistance Power Module Assembly

A power module assembly with low thermal resistance and enhanced heat dissipation to a cooling medium. The assembly includes a heat sink or spreader plate with passageways or openings for coolant that extend through the plate from a lower surface to an upper surface. A circuit substrate is provided and positioned on the spreader plate to cover the coolant passageways. The circuit substrate includes a bonding layer configured to extend about the periphery of each of the coolant passageways and is
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Increasing Jet Entrainment, Mixing and Spreading

A free jet of air is disturbed at a frequency that substantially matches natural turbulences in the free jet to increase the entrainment, mixing, and spreading of air by the free jet, for example in a room or other enclosure. The disturbances are created by pulsing the flow of air that creates the free jet at the desired frequency. Such pulsing of the flow of air can be accomplished by sequentially occluding and opening a duct that confines and directs the flow of air, such as by rotating a disk
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High Rate Chemical Vapor Deposition of Carbon Films Using Fluorinated Gases

A high rate, low-temperature deposition of amorphous carbon films is produced by PE-CVD in the presence of a fluorinated or other halide gas. The deposition can be performed at less than 100.degree. C., including ambient room temperature, with a radio frequency plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition process. With less than 6.5 atomic percent fluorine incorporated into the amorphous carbon film, the characteristics of the carbon film, including index of refraction, mass density, optical clarit
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Fiber Optic Device for Sensing the Presence of Gas

A fiber-optic device for sensing the presence of a gas in an environment is provided. The device comprises a light source for directing a light beam to a layer system having a first surface and a second surface opposite the first surface. The first surface is exposable to the light beam and the second surface is exposable to the environment. A first light portion encounters and reflects from the first surface at an angle of incidence free from optical wave guide resonance phenomenon and the seco
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Electrochromic Projection and Writing Device

A display and projection apparatus includes an electrochromic material and a photoconductive material deposited in tandem used in conjunction with a light filtering means for filtering light transmitted through the electrochromic material. When an electric field is applied across the electrochromic material and the photoconductive material, light that is incident onto the photoconductive material through the surface of the projection apparatus causes the photoconductive material to conduct curre
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Electrochromic-Photovoltaic Film for Light-Sensitive Control of Optical Transmittance

A variable transmittance optical component includes an electrochromic material and a photovoltaic device-type thin film solar cell deposited in a tandem type, monolithic single coating over the component. A bleed resistor of a predetermined value is connected in series across the electrochromic material and photovoltaic device controlling the activation and deactivation of the electrochromic material. The electrical conductivity between the electrochromic material and the photovoltaic device is
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Isolation of Levoglucosan from Pyrolysis Oil Derived from Cellulose

High purity levoglucosan is obtained from pyrolysis oil derived from cellulose by: mixing pyrolysis oil with water and a basic metal hydroxide, oxide, or salt in amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of from about 12 to about 12.5, and adding an amount of the hydroxide, oxide, or salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range until colored materials of impurities from the oil are removed and a slurry is formed; drying the slurry azeotropically with methyl isobutyl ketone
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Direct printing of thin-film conductors using metal-chelate inks

A process for forming an electrical conductor on a substrate is provided, consisting essentially of providing an ink comprised of a metallic chelate, printing directly thereon the ink, and decomposing the ink wherein the metal-chelate is converted to a solid metal conductor on the substrate.
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Buried anode lithium thin film battery and process

A reverse configuration, lithium thin film battery (300) having a buried lithium anode layer (305) and process for making the same. The present invention is formed from a precursor composite structure (200) made by depositing electrolyte layer (204) onto substrate (201), followed by sequential depositions of cathode layer (203) and current collector (202) on the electrolyte layer. The precursor is subjected to an activation step, wherein a buried lithium anode layer (305) is formed via electropl
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