Optical Science Patents for Sale or License

Auto-regulation System for Intraocular Pressure

A device and system for controlling pressure via fluid exchange in the body is presented. The device and system may be used to control intraocular eye pressure. The system is comprised of four main components: a cannula, a sensor, a controller and a pump. The system works to engage in a fluid exchange which slowly increases/decreases intraocular pressure until a desired level is reached. Once the desired level is reached, the intraocular pressure is held steady and any external pressure perturba
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Differential Fiber Optical Sensor with Interference Energy Analyzer

A fiber optic sensor, which includes an interference energy analyzer, is used to measure strain and temperature distribution along a test fiber. The sensor includes the following: a plurality of double-Bragg grating elements positioned along a test fiber, a broadband light source which produces a broadband spectral profile that propagates along the test fiber, an optical filter that is able to change the parameters of the broadband spectral profile, an optical reflection detector, a fiber optic
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Fiber Optic Sensor with Transmission/Reflection Analyzer

Fiber optic sensor with transmission/reflection analyzer for detection and localization of a perturbation that generates additional losses in the test fiber. The sensor includes a test fiber having a first port and a second port; a light source for producing a beam of light propagating along the test fiber; a fiber optic beamsplitter having a first port connected to the light source, a second port connected to the first port of the test fiber, and a third and a fourth port; a plurality of reflec
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Fiber-optic Sensing System for Distributed Detection and Localization of Alarm Conditions

An optical fiber sensor system comprising of an optical fiber including plurality of sensitive elements, each sensitive element has characteristic spectral band which in normal undisturbed condition lies in a first wavelength range and, under an influence of some specified condition to be detected, shifts to a second wavelength range; first and second wavelength ranges do not overlap. Means for probing an optical transmission or reflection of the fiber operate within second wavelength range to m
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Alarm condition distributed fiber optic sensor with storage transmission-reflection analyzer

This invention pertains to alarm condition fiber optic sensor with storage transmission-reflection analyzer for detection and localization of any number of consecutive loss-inducing disturbances along the test fiber.
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Tunable ring laser - Easy Access IP

Fast and Digitally Wavelength-Tunable Semiconductor Ring Laser Tunable lasers are used in optical telecommunications systems, and in particular in Dense Wave-division Multiplexing (DWDM), a technology widely used to greatly expand the capacity of optical links in the backbone network. Tunable lasers have the capacity for replacing a set of lasers with a single component. For example it can be used to build in network redundancy economically in case other lasers fail, by replacing any failed l
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High Efficiency LED lighting unit

A LED Light unit which can be installed in a new luminaire or can be used as a retro-fit lamp in existing devices. Complete with proprietary optic system, heatsink and assembly methods.
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Coded Aperture Snapshot Spectral Imager and Method Therefor

The present invention enables snap-shot spectral imaging of a scene at high image generation rates. Light from the scene is processed through an optical system that comprises a coded-aperture. The optical system projects a plurality of images, each characterized by only one of a plurality of spectral components, onto a photodetector array. The plurality of images is interspersed on the photodetector array, but no photodetector receives light characterized by more than one of the plurality of spe
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Transformation-optical Design of Reconfigurable Optical Devices

The design method for complex electromagnetic materials is expanded from form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwell's equations to finite embedded coordinate transformations. Embedded transformations allow the transfer of electromagnetic field manipulations from the transformation-optical medium to another medium, thereby allowing the design of structures that are not exclusively invisible. A topological criterion for the reflectionless design of complex media is also disclosed and is
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High-Speed Multi-Dimensional Beam Scanning System with Angle Amplification

A beam-steering system having high positional resolution and fast switching speed is disclosed. Embodiments of the beam-steering system comprise a diffraction limited optical system that includes a reflective imager and two controllably rotatable MEMS elements. The optical system is characterized by a folded optical path, wherein light propagating on the path is incident on each MEMS element more than once. Each MEMS element imparts an optical effect, such as angular change, on the output beam.
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Optical Isolator

Various optical isolator embodiments are disclosed. Embodiments comprise a waveguide section utilizing materials that induce a propagation constant shift that is propagation-direction-dependent. Embodiments are characterized by a cutoff frequency for forward propagating waves that is different than the cutoff frequency for reverse waves; the dimensions and direction of magnetization of the waveguide can be tailored so that, in a particular embodiment, the cutoff frequency for forward propagating
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Systems and Methods for Performing Optical Spectroscopy Using a Self-calibrating Fiber Optic Probe

Systems and methods for performing optical spectroscopy using a self- calibrating fiber optic probe are disclosed. One self-calibrating fiber optic probe includes a sensing channel for transmitting illumination light to a specimen and for collecting spectral data of the specimen. The spectral data includes the illumination light diffusely reflected from the specimen at one or more wavelengths. The self-calibrating fiber optic probe may also include a calibration channel for transmitting calibrat
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Multiscale Optical System

A means of enabling an imaging lens system that overcomes some of the costs and disadvantages of the prior art is disclosed. A lens system in accordance with the present invention reduces or eliminates one or more aberrations of an optical input by separating image collection functionality from image processing functionality. As a result, each function can be performed without compromising the other function. An embodiment of the present invention comprises a collection optic that provides a fir
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Methods, Systems and Computer Program Products for Characterizing Structures Based on Interferometric Phase Data

Structure profiles from optical interferometric data can be identified by obtaining a plurality of broadband interferometric optical profiles of a structure as a function of structure depth in an axial direction. Each of the plurality of interferometric optical profiles include a reference signal propagated through a reference path and a sample signal reflected from a sample reflector in the axial direction. An axial position corresponding to at least a portion of the structure is selected. Phas
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Implantable System for Determining the Accommodation Requirement By Measuring the Eyeball Orientation Using an External Magnetic Field

The present invention relates to an implantable system for determining the Akkommodationsbedarfs in an artificial accommodation system by measuring the Augapfelorientierung using an external magnetic field, comprising a) at least one optical system (3), b) at least one to the ciliary non-contact information recording system (8) with means for acquisition of a spatial orientation of both eyeballs as control signal for the autologous Akkommodationsbedarf, c) at leastan information processing syste
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Microarray-based Spatial Filter

The invention relates to a spatial filter measuring arrangement (1) and a spatial filter measuring device (2) comprising at least one sensor (4, 5; 41I - 41IV; 51) and a spatial filter, wherein electromagnetic radiation, in particular light, that is emitted or reflected by a measurement object (13), is imaged onto the sensor (4, 5; 41I - 41IV; 51, 52) by means of the spatial filter. The invention further relates to a method for spatial filter measurement. The spatial filter measuring arrangement
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Implantable System for Determining Accommodation Need

The invention relates to an implantable system for determining accommodation need in an artificial accommodation system by means of measuring eyeball orientation comprising a) at least one optical system (3), b) at least one information recording system (8) having means for recording the eyeball orientation of both eyeballs as an autologous control signal for the accommodation need, c) at least one information processing system (9) for generating an actuating signal for the optical system (3) fr
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Novel Anchoring Ligands for Sensitizers of Dye-sensitized Photovoltaic Devices

The present invention provides novel dyes for dye sensitized photovoltaic conversion devices. The dyes contain novel anchoring ligands, which have a vinyl or phenylethenyl moiety incorporated in the anchoring bipyridine. Such dyes exhibit an increased molar extinction coefficient and enhanced red response in the visible regions.
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Electro-optical Camera Having Demodulated Detector Array

Known in the prior art is a camera for registering electromagnetic radiation in a first frequency range, having an electro-optical crystal, an analyzer and a detector array having a plurality of detectors for registering electromagnetic radiation in a second frequency range, wherein the analyzer is arranged in the emission direction of the electromagnetic radiation in the second frequency range between the electro-optical crystal and the detector array. The problem to be solved by the invention,
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Path Sensor

A path sensor comprises an optical waveguide (40) with a core and a sheath which is at least partly transparent to light at a first end (42) of the optical waveguide (40) and so surrounding light (30) enters the core. A sensor element (20) is attached to a second end of the optical waveguide (40). Moreover, provision is made for a sleeve (10) which at least partly surrounds the first end of the optical waveguide (40) and can be displaced along the first end, wherein a position of the sleeve (10)
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Broadband Metamaterial Apparatus, Methods, Systems, and Computer Readable Media

Broadband metamateriai apparatus, methods, systems, and computer readable media are disclosed, as well as exemplary embodiments that provide cloaking, beam steering, and beam focusing. In one exemplary implementation, a broadband interface structure has a front surface region and a back surface region. The broadband interface structure is arranged to provide electromagnetic energy characteristic of an apparent profile of the back surface region substantially different than an actual profile of t
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Gradient Index Lenses and Methods with Zero Spherical Aberration

Gradient index lenses with no aberrations and related methods for making such lenses are described. In one aspect, a gradient index lens can be a substantially spherically-shaped lens that has at least one side that is flattened such that a locus of focal points resides on a plane. A method for making a gradient index lens can include forming material layers, each of the material layers defining an effective refractive index, and laminating the material layers together to form a substantially sp
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Interferometric Chemical Sensor Array

The device is a gas/vapor/aerosol/particulate sensor with a receiver/transmitter option. This optical MEMS device is designed to be a self-contained optical bench, integrating of an entire interferometer into a MOEMS 'optical bench' system-on-a-chip, and includes multiplexed optical path sensors. The sensing structures consist of laser sources, semiconductor photo detectors, refractive/reflective optical elements, and specialized optical transmission paths. Each individual laser source and photo
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Combined fiber-optic absorption and emission measurement apparatus

Disclosed is a spectroscopic system having a fiber-optic probe for simultaneous IR and Raman measurement. The probe includes a single strand of optical fiber, such as sapphire which is suitable for IR absorption measurements as far as 4 [mu]m and Raman excitation at wavelengths as short as 300 nm. The probe is immersed in the sample and functions in the evanescent wave mode for both IR absorption and Raman scattering measurements. The sensing system makes possible the synergistic, and simultaneo
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Apparatus and Measuring Arrangement for Determining the Particle Concentration, the Particle Size, the Mean Particle Size and the Particle Size Distribution of the Particles in a Disperse Phase Inside

The invention relates to an apparatus and a measuring arrangement for determining the particle concentration, the particle size, the mean particle size and the particle size distribution of the particles in a disperse phase inside a disperse system (2) and the turbidity thereof by measuring the transmission and/or by measuring the scattered light (4') of a measuring beam (4, 20, 27, 30) after travelling over a measuring path (L, L1, L2) running in the disperse system. In this case, the apparatus
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Arrangement, Method, and Sensor for Detecting Fluid Parameters

The invention relates to an optical measurement arrangement for detecting physical and/or chemical parameters of a fluid sample. Said measuring arrangement comprises an infrared light source, a sample container holding the fluid to be analyzed disposed in the optical path of the infrared light source, a spectroscope disposed behind the same for selecting and/or masking individual or multiple wavelength regions, such as an infrared detector, which is coupled to an analysis unit. The spectroscope
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Force-moment Sensor

The invention relates to a force-moment sensor for measuring at least one force and/or a moment. Said force-moment sensor comprises a first part (1), a second part (2), and an intermediate optical fiber (3), at least one section of which is provided with a means (5) for sensing deformations and/or strains of the fiber (3) transverse to the longitudinal axis thereof. The invention further relates to a method for measuring forces and/or moments. In said method, a fiber (3) is provided that compris
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Angle of rotation sensor has fiber optical waveguide with fiber-Bragg-grating, where fiber optical waveguide is birefringent in area of fiber-Bragg-grating, which is spaced together

The angle of rotation sensor has a fiber optical waveguide (1) with the fiber-Bragg-grating (2). The fiber optical waveguide is birefringent in area of the fiber-Bragg-grating, which is spaced together. A device has the fiber squilgee (3), and the angle of rotation sensor has a light source and light detector. An independent claim is included for a method for measuring the rotation and rotation angle.
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Selection device for converting optical input signal into electrical output signal, has demultiplexer with transmission characteristic whose transmission maxima lie in flank region of transmission cha

The device (1) has a fiber input (7) at which a fiber optical waveguide (2) is attachable. An edge filter arrangement (18) includes an edge filter input (17) and an edge filter output (19), where the input and output are respectively assigned to an output (15) of a demultiplexer (9) and to one of photodetectors (21). Transmission maxima of a transmission characteristic of the demultiplexer lie in a flank region of transmission points of a transmission characteristic of the edge filter arrangemen
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Measuring device, particularly optical measuring device, for detecting mechanical stress for detecting mechanical stress, has light source designed to emit variable optical primary radiation in wavele

The measuring device (100) has a light source (101) designed to emit a variable optical primary radiation (407) in a wavelength. The sensor elements (301,302,303) are connected to the mechanical stress (409). An optical transmission device (200) is designed to transfer the radiation emitted from the light source. An independent claim is also included for a measuring method for detecting a mechanical stress.
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Fluorescence Microscope in a Microwave Cavity

The present invention relates to an optical imaging system communicatively connected to a microwave energy producing source wherein the combination provides for increases in chemical reaction times and the ability to monitor the reactions in real time with sufficient resolution to view the location of intracellular components labeled with luminescent molecules as well as interaction with other biomolecules and responses to localized environmental variables in living cells and tissues during the
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Apparatus and Methods of Broadband Second Harmonic Generation

Apparatus and methods for second harmonic generation with a waveguide. In one embodiment, a method includes the steps of providing a waveguide, wherein the waveguide has a substrate, and a polydomain epitaxial thin film on the substrate, wherein the polydomain epitaxial thin film defines a plane and has a first surface and a second, opposite surface defining a body portion of the polydomain epitaxial thin film therebetween with a film thickness, l, and wherein the polydomain epitaxial thin film
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Organic Electro-optic Modulators with Transparent Conducting Electrodes and Related Device Structures

Electro-optic (EO) modulator and related device structures which can be used in conjunction with high EO materials to lower switching voltage and improve related performance parameters.
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Layer by layer self-assembly of large response molecular electro-optic materials by a desilylation strategy

The preparation of robust, thin film materials with large second-order optical nonlinearities through the covalent self-assembly of chromophoric compositions and innovative use of silyl chemistry.
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Energy-efficient Optoelectronic Smart Window

In an aspect, described herein is a dynamically controllable optoelectronic smart window which utilizes a diffraction grating for selective transmission or rejection of a specific region of the electromagnetic spectrum, for example the infrared, near-infrared and/or visible regions. Window embodiments described herein may further utilize a selectively controlled and/or patterned total internal reflection layer to assist with the selective rejection of a specific spectral region while allowing fo
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Methods and Devices for Characterizing Particles in Clear and Turbid Media

The invention provides methods and devices for detecting, identifying, classifying and characterizing particles in a fluid sample. Optical analyzers are provided having a rotating and/or translating sample container for measuring the concentrations of fluorescent particles present in very low concentrations and for characterizing fluorescent particles on the basis of size, shape, diffusion constant and/or composition. Scanning optical analyzers are provided using pattern recognitions data analys
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Method and Apparatus for Producing Linearized Optical Signals

A first form of a method for producing an optical output in substantially linear relationship with an electrical AC signal, includes the following steps: providing a light-emitting transistor having emitter, base, and collector regions, and associated respective emitter, base, and collector terminals, the transistor having a light-emitting output port; applying the AC signal to a first input port defined across a given one of the terminals and a common one of the terminals; applying an amplified
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Surface enhanced raman spectroscopy on optical resonator (e.g., photonic crystal) surfaces

Highly sensitive Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) sensors are described in the form of a optical resonator and a metal nanostructure deposited on surface of the optical resonator. In one embodiment the optical resonator is in the form of a photonic crystal, but other optical resonators are contemplated. Examples are described in which the resonant near-fields of a large-area replica molded photonic crystal efficiently couples light from a laser to dielectric-metal "post-cap" nanostruct
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Method and Apparatus for Calibrating a Digital X-ray Radiation Detector

The invention relates to a method and to an apparatus (1) for calibrating a digital X-ray radiation detector (4, 14), which is irradiated with X-rays for creating at least one calibrating image, wherein the calibrating image is linked to an X-ray image recorded with the digital X-ray radiation detector (4, 14) after creating the calibrating image, the X-rays passing a collimator before they impinge on the digital X-ray radiation detector (4, 14) in order to take the X-ray image. In order to prov
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Spect Gamma Camera, Spect Scanner, and Uses of a Spect Gamma Camera

The invention relates to a SPECT gamma camera (10) comprising a scintillator (1) to convert incoming gamma quanta (?) having radiation energy especially in the 100 keV to 250 keV range into secondary quanta of light (h v ), a focusing device (2) mounted upstream of the scintillator to focus the incoming gamma quanta (?), and at least one microchannel plate-type secondary electron multiplier (MCP-PMT) mounted downstream of the scintillator (1).; The MCP-PMT has a photocathode (3) to convert the i
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Optical frequency up-conversion of femtosecond pulses into targeted single bands in the visible and ultraviolet

An apparatus and methods for generating a substantially supercontinuum-free widely-tunable multimilliwatt source of radiation characterized by a narrowband line profile. The apparatus and methods employ nonlinear optical mechanisms in a nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (PCF) by detuning the wavelength of a pump laser to a significant extent relative to the zero-dispersion wavelength (ZDW) of the PCF. Optical phenomena employed for the selective up-conversion in the PCF include, but are not limit
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Fluorescence detection enhancement using photonic crystal extraction

Enhancement of fluorescence emission from fluorophores bound to a sample and present on the surface of two-dimensional photonic crystals is described. The enhancement of fluorescence is achieved by the combination of high intensity near-fields and strong coherent scattering effects, attributed to leaky photonic crystal eigenmodes (resonance modes). The photonic crystal simultaneously exhibits resonance modes which overlap both the absorption and emission wavelengths of the fluorophore. A signifi
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Fiberscopes and Fiber Bundles

An elongate imaging fiber bundle may include a plurality of elongate optical fibers coherently arranged in the bundle, the plurality including peripheral fibers at a periphery of the bundle and deep fibers deep to the peripheral fibers, and a coating surrounding the plurality of fibers. An exposed length of the bundle, intermediate the bundle's proximal and distal ends, may be chemically etched to be denuded of the coating, and peripheral fibers are so severed as to permit injection of light int
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Optical diffraction arrangement for use in e.g. optical spectral apparatus, has mirror whose reflection plane is aligned parallel to and in symmetry plane of optical diffraction structure, where rays

The arrangement has a mirror (2) whose reflection plane is aligned parallel to and in a symmetry plane of an optical diffraction structure (1). Rays (4.1) that are incident in a defined area outside of an aperture are reflected on the diffraction structure, where the size of the diffraction structure is increased upto a factor two. Outside radius of the defined area outside of the aperture of the diffraction structure corresponds to the double radius of the aperture of the diffraction structure.
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Device for Amplifying Light Pulses

The invention relates to a device (1, 11) for amplifying light pulses (2, 12), comprising a stretcher (4, 14) that temporally stretches the light pulses (2, 12), at least one amplifier (5, 15) that amplifies the stretched light pulses (2, 12), and a compressor (6, 16) that recompresses the stretched and amplified light pulses (2, 12), the stretcher (4, 14) and the compressor (6, 16) being dispersive elements that have substantially reversed identical dispersion. In order to design a light pulse
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Pixelated, diffractive optical element with two height levels for generating a phase distribution with arbitrary phase shift

The present invention relates to the field of diffractive optics on a pixel-profiled, diffractive optical element for generating an arbitrary, quasi-continuous phase shift.
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Adaptive Deformable Mirror for Compensating Errors of a Wave Front

The invention relates to the production of an adaptive deformable mirror for compensating errors of a wave front. The adaptive mirror, in its most simple form, consists of a thin substrate layer (1) having a first surface (2) to which a reflective layer (4) is applied and a second surface (3) connected to at least one actuator (5). According to the invention, the substrate layer (1) has a thickness less than or equal to 1000 μm.
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Stabilisation of the Repetition Rate of a Passively Q-switched Laser By Means of Coupled Resonators

The invention relates to a Q-switched laser comprising a pump light source (1), an optical resonator, in which a laser medium (6) is situated and a passive Q-switch (5). The aim of the invention is to provide an improved Q-switched laser which has a simple, compact construction with a repetition rate that has at the same time the smallest possible degree of time jitter. To achieve this, according to the invention, part of the light that is decoupled from the optical resonator is fed to an optica
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Device for Amplifying Light Pulses

The invention relates to a device (1, 11) for amplifying light pulses (2, 12), comprising a stretcher (4, 14) that temporally stretches the light pulses (2, 12), at least one amplifier (5, 15) that amplifies the stretched light pulses (2, 12), and a compressor (6, 16) that recompresses the stretched and amplified light pulses (2, 12), the stretcher (4, 14) and the compressor (6, 16) being dispersive elements that have substantially reversed identical dispersion. In order to design a light pulse
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Scanning Optical Microscope with Long Working Distance Objective

A scanning optical microscope, including: a light source to generate a beam of probe light; collimation optics to substantially collimate the probe beam; a probe-result beamsplitter; a long working-distance, infinity-corrected objective; scanning means to scan a beam spot of the focused probe beam on or within a sample; relay optics; and a detector. The collimation optics are disposed in the probe beam. The probe-result beamsplitter is arranged in the optical paths of the probe beam and the resu
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Eo Polymer-based Dual Slot Waveguide Modulators

Electro-optic modulators are disclosed. An electro-optic modulator comprises an electro-optic polymer layer, semiconductor layers, ferroelectric material layers, and electrodes. The semiconductor layers are positioned on each surface of the electro-optic polymer layer. The refractive index of the semiconductor layers in the optical and RF domains is higher than the refractive index of the electro-optic polymer layer in the optical and RF domains. The ferroelectric material layers are positioned
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Formation of Reflective Surfaces in Printed Circuit Board Waveguides

The present invention relates to an apparatus and method for creating an printed circuit board including one or more waveguides having one or more reflective surfaces. Waveguides are embedded within a printed circuit board. A reflective surface is formed within the embedded waveguides by mechanically milling the printed circuit board. The reflective surfaces enable intra chip, chip-to-chip, or chip-to-component optical interconnections through the waveguides embedded within the printed circuit b
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System and Method for Modulator-based Optical Interconnections

Systems and methods for modulator-based optical interconnections are disclosed. An optical interconnect system comprises a substrate, a wave path, a coupling structure, and a modulator. The wave path may be a waveguide disposed on the substrate. The coupling structure is coupled to the substrate and disposed within the wave path. The modulator is positioned between the substrate and the coupling structure. An optical interconnect method comprises the steps of transmitting light through a wave pa
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Method and System for Aligning Color Filter Array

A method and system of aligning color filter array are disclosed. Other embodiments are disclosed herein.
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Synthesis of Four Coordinated Platinum Complexes and their Applications in Light Emitting Devices Thereof

Platinum complexes that exhibit photoabsorption and photoemission, methods of making such complexes, and applications thereof are disclosed, including optical devices comprising the complexes.
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Applicable Fluorescence of Diamondoids

Provided is a fluorescent diamondoid material which when energized, either by an electric field or by high energy radiation, emits light. The light emitted is generally in the visible range. The diamondoid material can be fine tuned by internal or external doping. The fluorescent materials comprised of diamondoids, have applications in several fields. One application is in solar cells where these materials can be used to improve the overall efficiency of the device. A second application is in in
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Software-controlled Maskless Optical Lithography Using Fluorescence Feedback

A software-controlled maskless optical lithography system uses fluorescence feedback to control an aspect of the lithography, such as light source dose, wavelength, or flashing instances or duration, spatial light modulator (SLM) pattern, an optics parameter, a beamsplitter control parameter, or movement or positioning of a stage carrying a target workpiece, such as a semiconductor wafer.
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Optical Device Components

Embodiments of the invention relate to an apparatus including a light source to generate a plurality of light beams with each of the plurality of light beams having a different wavelength range. The apparatus also includes a light funnel to direct the plurality of light beams to the target area, an aperture to direct the plurality of light beams emitting from the target area to a lens, the lens configured to collect the light beams emitting from the target area. Further, the apparatus includes a
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Noise Cancellation in Fourier Transform Spectrophotometry

Increasing signal to noise ratio in optical spectra obtained by spectrophotometers. An interferometer introduces interference effects into a source light beam. A dual beam configuration splits the source beam having the interference effects into a reference beam and a sample beam. The reference beam interacts with a reference substance and is detected by a reference detector. The sample beam interacts with a sample substance and is detected by a sample detector. An optical spectra of the sample
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Optical Spectroscopy Device for Non-invasive Blood Glucose Detection and Associated Method of Use

An apparatus for concentrating light and associated method of use is disclosed. This apparatus includes a first outer wall having an anterior end, a posterior end, an inner surface and an outer surface, the inner surface defining an interior portion, the interior portion having an anterior end and a posterior end, and a light source disposed within the interior portion. The first outer wall has an opening in the posterior end, the opening having an opening diameter. The interior portion has a su
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Adaptive Lens for Vision Correction

An adaptive liquid crystal lens system comprising a first substrate assembly, a second substrate assembly having a continuous phase profile, and a liquid crystal layer disposed between the first and second substrate assemblies. The first substrate assembly includes a first transparent substrate, an alignment layer, and a first conductive layer. The first conductive layer is disposed on the bottom surface of the first transparent substrate and adjacent to the top surface of the alignment layer. T
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External/internal Optical Adapter with Biased Photodiodes for Ftir Spectrophotometer

A Fourier Transfer Infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometer having reduced baseline noise. The system and method include internal or external optical adapters having a moveable beamsplitter for splitting the source light beam into a reference beam and a sample beam, and may include a variable bandpass filter, variable preamplifier and reversed biased photodiodes.
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Optical Barrier to Pests

A device generates a light barrier that can be used for different purposes. The barrier consists of one or more surfaces (or volume) exhibiting an abrupt change in light intensity. In some embodiments the change in intensity affects animals, including insects, approaching or crossing it. In some embodiments, the light generates thermal or density variations in the air that cause air movements that perturb particles, such as pollen, or other pests to human activity. In some embodiments, an approa
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Systems and Methods for Storing Optical Data

An optical data storage system and method of use thereof are presented. The optical data storage system includes one or more optical buffer modules connected in series. Each optical buffer module includes a cross connect. Each cross connect is connected, by a pair of inputs and outputs, to an optical data storage unit, for example, a fiber delay line, by a pair to either an optical packet network or a cross connect of a first adjacent buffer module in the series, and by a pair to a cross connect
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Devices and Methods for Providing Stimulated Raman Lasing

Devices and methods for providing stimulated Raman lasing are provided. In some embodiments, devices include a photonic crystal that includes a layer of silicon having a lattice of holes and a linear defect that forms a waveguide configured to receive pump light and output Stokes light through Raman scattering, wherein the thickness of the layer of silicon, the spacing of the lattice of holes, and the size of the holes are dimensioned to provide Raman lasing. In some embodiments, methods include
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Confocal Double Crystal Monochromator

A monochromator is adapted to select at least one band of wavelengths from diverging incident radiation. The apparatus includes a first crystal and a second crystal. A band of emitted wavelengths of the first crystal is adapted to the at least one band of wavelengths. A surface curvature of the first crystal is adapted to focus emitted radiation in a first plane. A band of emitted wavelengths of the second crystal also is adapted to the at least one band of wavelengths. Parallel faces of a latti
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Laser Device Comprising a Diffraction Grating and Coupled Laser Resonators

The present invention provides a laser device wherein one diffraction grating (1) and at least two reflectors (4, 2) are arranged such that two coupled resonators (A, B) are formed for the light path. This laser device is an arrangement forming a first optical resonator (A) comprising a first (4) and a second (2) reflector including in its light path the diffraction by the grating (1). The second reflector (2) is arranged perpendicularly to an order of diffraction of the grating (1). Coupled wit
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Surround Structured Lighting for Recovering 3d Object Shape and Appearance

Disclosed are methods and apparatus for recovering the shape and appearance of an object illuminated by a coded structured light pattern that is observed by a camera, which simultaneously captures multiple views of the object. In one embodiment a Fresnel lens and a data projector are used as the means of illuminating the object with surrounding structured light patterns. The projector projects several patterns and the camera captures images of the object for each pattern. The images are decoded
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Enhanced Magnetic Dipole Transitions in Lanthanide Materials for Optics and Photonics

An optically active material contains a mixture of Lanthanide ions and an optical scattering agent, where the optical scattering agent is selected to enhance magnetic dipole transitions from Lanthanide ions so as to modify emission spectra and/or tune the composite's effective permeability and permittivity.
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System and Method for Detecting and Analyzing Particles Utilizing Online Light Scattering and Imaging Techniques

A chromatographic system that includes a light source and an imaging and analysis system for detecting particle size and analyzing other characteristics of particles in the effluent of a filtration column while filtration is ongoing. The effluent is directed into a guiding tube having a flow axis. Coherent light from the light source is shone into the guiding tube along the flow axis, thereby illuminating particles in the effluent within the guiding tube. An imaging device is used to capture ima
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Polarization Converter, Optical system, Method and Applications

A stress-induced polarization converter in the form of a zero power optical window or, alternatively, a single element, positive or negative power optical lens, that is subject to a controlled amount of symmetric, peripheral stress. The stress may be provided by appropriate mechanical, thermal, hydraulic, electromagnetic/piezo, annealing/molding, or other known techniques. The applied symmetric stress will advantageously be trigonal or four-fold, but is not so limited. Advantageously, the polari
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Spectral Filtering Method and Apparatus in Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification

Method and apparatus embodiments of the invention are directed to mitigating temporal contrast degradation in optical parametric chirped pulse amplification (OPCPA) laser systems. A spectral filter is used in an OPCPA laser system to remove or reduce of out-of-band amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) from an amplified pump pulse and/or the longitudinal modes of a seed laser used to generate the pump pulse, which typically cause detrimental temporal intensity fluctuations in the amplified pump s
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Stepped Light Collection and Concentration System, Components Thereof, and Methods

A light guide includes a light guide layer having a transversely oriented side-end surface that forms a primary output aperture (exit) for light traveling in a forward propagation direction out of the end surface of the light guide (for, e.g., CPV applications) and, which forms a primary input aperture (entrance) for light traveling in a rearward propagation direction into the end surface of the light guide (for, e.g., illuminator applications), and a first plurality of light injection elements
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Dimpled Light Collection and Concentration System, Components Thereof, and Methods

A light guide apparatus includes a light guide layer further including light injection elements and respective light bypass elements disposed optically upstream of the light injection elements. The light injection elements and/or the bypass elements can take the form of injection facets (air prisms), surface diffraction elements, volume diffraction elements, and gradient index profiles. A light collection and concentration system comprises a single light guide apparatus, a light-transmitting med
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Single-shot Optical Cross-correlator Apparatus and Method

An apparatus and method pertaining to a single-shot cross-correlator based on a pulse replicator is described. The correlator uses a discrete sequence of sampling pulses that are nonlinearly mixed with a pulse under test. The sequence of spatially-displaced and temporally- delayed sampling pulses is generated using the combination of a high-reflector and partial reflector replicating an optical input pulse by multiple internal reflections. High-dynamic range and high sensitivity are obtained ove
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All-Optical Flip-Flop and Control Methods Thereof

Embodiments of the invention pertain to remote optical control of holding beam-type, optical flip-flop devices, as well as to the devices themselves. All-optical SET and RE-SET control signals operate on a cw holding beam in a remote manner to vary the power of the holding beam between threshold switching values to enable flip-flop operation. Cross-gain modulation and cross-polarization modulation processes can be used to change the power of the holding beam.
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Apparatus and Methods Using Highly Optically Dispersive Media

Embodiments of the invention pertain to the optical phenomena of 'slow-light' and 'fast-light', provided by a highly optically dispersive medium; that is, one in which the absolute value of the group index of refraction of the medium is equal to or greater than four. Apparatus embodiments of the invention are directed to an optical spectroscopic parameter detection and/or measurement apparatus. In various non-limiting aspects, the apparatus may be in the form of an interferometer, a spectral int
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Flow Cell and System for Detection of Target in Aqueous Environment Using Arrayed Imaging Reflectometry

A flow cell for use in an arrayed imaging reflectometry detection system is described herein. The flow cell includes: first and second members that are secured together to define a substantially fluid-tight chamber having an inlet and an outlet, at least the second member being light transmissive; and a chip having a substrate, one or more coating layers on the substrate, and one or more probe molecules tethered to the outermost coating layer, the chip being positioned with the outermost coating
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Enhanced Surface-selective Spectroscopy Using Broad-band Heterodyne-detected Sum Frequency Generation

Method and apparatus for performing spectroscopy, include the combining of first and second light beams to form a reference beam, focusing the first and second light beams and the reference beam onto a sample, receiving a reflected light beam from the sample at a monochromator, and viewing a predetermined wavelength band of the reflected light beam from the monochromator. Portions of the first and second light beams, which may be visible and IR forms of electromagnetic energy, are heterodyned th
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Resonant Optothermoacoustic Detection of Optical Absorption

A device comprising an acoustic detector, one or more thermal sensing elements coupled to the acoustic detector, and a light source. A method comprising directing a beam of light at a wavelength at or near one or more thermal sensing elements, wherein the thermal sensing elements are coupled to an acoustic detector, determining a resonance frequency of the acoustic detector, wherein the acoustic detector is coupled to one or more of the thermal sensing elements, and measuring the response of the
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Fast wavelength tuning techniques for external cavity lasers

An apparatus comprising a laser source configured to emit a light beam along a first path, an optical beam steering component configured to steer the light beam from the first path to a second path at an angle to the first path, and a diffraction grating configured to reflect back at least a portion of the light beam along the second path, wherein the angle determines an external cavity length. Included is an apparatus comprising a laser source configured to emit a light beam along a first path,
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Optical Rectification Device and Method of Making Same

A general approach is provided for producing devices that absorb optical photons (visible to near IR) and performs charge separation with a useful voltage between holes and electrons. These holes and electrons may be collected in electrodes for performing useful work outside the device. The described technology is generally based upon rectification of plasmons (collective electric excitations) generated by absorbing light with tuned metallic antennas. According to some embodiments, the present i
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Dual-ring Silicon Electro-optic Modulator

A device, system, and method for the electro-optic modulation of light. The device includes a substrate having a first ring waveguide and a second ring waveguide on the surface. The device includes a first p-doped region inside the first ring waveguide and a second p-doped region inside the second ring waveguide. The device includes a first n-doped region interposed between the first ring waveguide and the second ring waveguide, a second n-doped region outside the first ring waveguide, and a thi
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Ultra-wide Band Slow Light Structure Using Plasmonic Graded Grating Structures

A slow light system includes a substrate and a metal layer formed thereon, the metal layer having a graded grating structure formed at a surface thereof, wherein the grating depth of the grating structure is sized such that surface-plasmon polariton dispersion behavior of the grating structure differs at different respective locations along the grating structure. Different wavelengths of incident light waves can be slowed at the respective locations along the grating structure.
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Vertical Plasmonic Mach-zehnder Interferometer

An optical device includes first and second optical branches. The first optical branch is formed at an interface between a first substrate and a second substrate, and the second optical branch is formed at an interface between the second substrate and an ambient medium. The second substrate defines first and second spaced apart slits that are each coupled to the first and second optical branches. The first slit is configured to receive at least partially coherent light from a light source and in
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Methods and Devices for Generation of Broadband Pulsed Radiation

Methods and apparatus for non-collinear optical parametric amplification (NOPA) are provided. Broadband phase matching is achieved with a non-collinear geometry and a divergent signal seed to provide bandwidth gain. A chirp may be introduced into the pump pulse such that the white light seed is amplified in a broad spectral region.
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Establishing Compatibility Between Two-and Three Dimensional Optical Coherence Tomography Scans

Advances in optical coherence tomography (OCT) have prompted a transition from time domain OCT, providing 2D OCT images, to spectral domain OCT, which has a 3D imaging capability. Yet conventional technology offers little toward the goal of inter-device compatibility between extant 2D OCT images and newer 3D OCT images for the same or comparable subjects, as in the context of ongoing monitoring the quantitative status of a patient's eyes. The inventive methodology is particularly useful to ident
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Microreactor for Solution Deposition and Method of Use

A novel microreactor producing customized deposition products and a method for optimizing the deposition process. The microreactor has a unique design with high surface-to-volume ratio that produces high deposition yield with a minimal amount of waste. The invention may be particularly applicable to the field of optoelectronics and photovoltaics.
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Compositions and Methods for Generating White Light

Crystalline inorganic-organic hybrid structures having a plurality of layers of a repeating unit characterized by a first organic ligand layer, a second organic ligand layer, and a two- dimensional semiconducting inorganic double layer having two opposing surfaces therebetween, wherein the two-dimentional semiconducting inorganic double layer is characterized by two single atom thick layers of a II- VI chalcogenide compound; and the first organic ligand layer and the second organic ligand layer
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Device and method for the detection of biological material

Device for the detection of biological material, with a light (2) into an object (5) irradiating light source (1), where the object is brought into contact with a photonic crystal, and a photonic through the crystal (6) and the object light transmitted (7) and using a detector (8), characterized by a between the light source (1) and the photonic crystal (6) arranged first polarizing filter (3), and (8) between the object (5) and the detectorarranged, the first polarizing filter (3) by 90 ° rota
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Method and Apparatus for Making and Detecting a Document Verification Indicator Using Optical Pattern Encryption

A method and apparatus for creating and detecting an optically encoded document having a uniquely designed document verification indicator is disclosed. One embodiment includes applying a spatially varying Brewster angle pattern on a substrate. Another embodiment includes an apparatus for detecting the spatially varying Brewster angle pattern including a light source, a slit aperture, a polarizer, at least one parabolic mirror, and an image capturing device.
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Optical Thin-film Structure with a Distributed Cavity

In an optical thin-film structure (2) with a periodic variation of the refractive index along an optical axis (1), wherein the variation comprises a multiplicity of periods and wherein an optical length of the periods is increased along the optical axis (1) within the thin-film structure (2), in order to form an optical cavity between distributed Bragg reflectors, the increase in the optical length for forming the optical cavity is distributed over a plurality of periods of the variation of the
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Lay-up Head and Method for a Controlled Lay Up of Cut-to-length Fibre Strands

The present invention relates to a lay-up head for a controlled lay up of a cut-to-length fibre strand. The lay-up head comprises a specially constructed transport channel, which allows the supplied endless phase to be cut to length already in the lay-up head. The invention further specifies a corresponding method.
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Optical Leaky Integrate-and-fire Neuron

An optical system includes an optical integrator, a readout mechanism, and an optical thresholder. The optical integrator is configured to perform temporal integration of an optical input signal having a first wavelength received at an input. The readout mechanism is coupled to the optical integrator and provides optical signals having a second wavelength to the optical integrator for measuring a state of the optical integrator. The optical thresholder is coupled to an output of the optical inte
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Organic Photosensitive Devices

The present invention generally relates to organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices. More specifically, it is directed to organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices having a photoactive organic region containing encapsulated nanoparticles that exhibit plasmon resonances. An enhancement of the incident optical field is achieved via surface plasmon polariton resonances. This enhancement increases the absorption of incident light, leading to a more efficient device.
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Organic Photosensitive Devices Using Subphthalocyanine Compounds

An organic photosensitive optoelectronic device, having a donor-acceptor heterojunction of a donor-like material and an acceptor-like material and methods of making such devices is provided. At least one of the donor-like material and the acceptor-like material includes a subphthalocyanine, a subporphyrin, and/or a subporphyrazine compound; and/or the device optionally has at least one of a blocking layer or a charge transport layer, where the blocking layer and/or the charge transport layer inc
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Method for Suppressing Light Shift in Optical Pumping Systems

The present invention relates to a method and system to suppress or eliminate light shift in an optical pumping system, such as an atomic clock. The method uses modulation of a radiation source, such as a radio frequency or microwave source, to simultaneously lock the frequency of the radiation source to an atomic resonance and lock the frequency of the optical pumping source in order to suppress or eliminate light shift. In one embodiment, the method of the present invention directly utilizes t
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Organic Light-emitting Device with a Phosphor-sensitized Fluorescent Emission Layer

The present invention relates to organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), and more specifically to OLEDS that emit light using a combination of fluorescent emitters and phosphorescent emitters. The emissive region of the devices of the present invention comprise at least one phosphor-sensitized layer which has a combined emission from a phosphorescent emitter and a fluorescent emitter. Ih preferred embodiments, the invention relates to white-emitting OLEDS (WOLEDs).
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Very high efficiency organic light emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence

The invention relates to an organic light emitting device comprising an anode, a cathode, and an emissive layer, wherein the emissive layer is located between the anode and the cathode, and the emissive layer comprises a phosphorescent organometallic compound, wherein the phosphorescent organometallic compound is a cyclometallated iridium or osmium compound in particular including a cyclometallated ring having a carbon-metal bond.
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System and Method for Coupling a Multi-mode Optical Fiber to a Single Mode Optical Fiber

A multi-mode to single mode optical interface device includes an optically pumped edge emitting semiconductor laser device and a lens. The optically pumped edge emitting semiconductor laser device includes (1) a gain area, and (2) an edge located single mode output. The lens focuses a multi-mode optical fiber output beam into a substantially line shaped output beam focused onto the gain area of the optically pumped edge emitting semiconductor laser device. A method for converting a multi-mode op
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System, Optode and Cap for Near-infrared Diffuse-optical Functional Neuroimaging

An optode for a functional infrared diffuse optical neuroimaging system uses a GRIN lens and prism for coupling to an optical fiber at a right-angle to the lens. The lens is inserted into a grommet for attachment to an elastomeric cap worn by a subject. In an embodiment, the cap also has an array of electroencephalographic electrodes, with optodes arranged such that an optical path exists between a transmitter and a receiver optode beneath each electroencephalographic electrode. In an embodiment
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Optical Fiber Pressure Sensor with Uniform Diaphragm and Method of Fabricating Same

An optical fiber sensor (100) can be used to measure pressure with high sensitivity and fine resolution. As a cavity (108) at the end of the sensor expands or contracts, the spectrum of a beam reflected from the end of fiber shifts, producing a change linked to pressure exerted on the sensor. Novel aspects of the present inventive sensor include the direct bonding of a silica thin film diaphragm (110) to the optical fiber with localized or confined heating and a uniform thickness of the diaphrag
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Flexible Electrochromic Device, Electrodes Therefor, and Method of Manufacture

An electrochromic fiber or fabric using electrochromic fiber electrodes (72, 74) is disclosed. The fiber or fabric includes a flexible, electrically- conductive fiber (76, 78), and a layer (80, 92) comprising an electrochromic material disposed on and surrounding the flexible, electrically conductive fiber. In one embodiment, the fiber or fabric is both flexible and elastic. The fibers and fabrics are of particular utility in electrochromic devices (70), particularly those which form or are a pa
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Resonant Leaky-Mode Photonic Elements and Methods for Spectral and Polarization Control

Optical devices with versatile spectral attributes are provided that are implemented with one or more modulated and homogeneous layers to realize leaky-mode resonance operation and corresponding versatile spectral-band design. The first and/or higher multiple evanescent diffraction orders are applied to excite one or more leaky modes. The one- or two-dimensional periodic structure, fashioned by proper distribution of materials within each period, can have a resulting symmetric or asymmetric prof
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Self-propelled tilling device e.g. robot, navigating method, involves determining driving direction by evaluating determined vectors and by controlling distance to preceding tracks, and forming meande

The method involves capturing surrounding images e.g. 360 degree panorama image, in track points by a camera module (10). Vectors from actual track points to two preceding track points are determined by comparing the surrounding images of the actual track points with the surrounding images of the two preceding track points by a controller (8). A driving direction is determined by evaluating the vectors and by controlling a distance to preceding tracks by the controller, and a meander or spiral s
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Method for Stabilizing a Laser Beam

The invention relates to a method for stabilizing a laser beam, which performs a reciprocating movement about a pivot point, at an examination location, in which the pivot point (D1) of the reciprocating movement is projected onto the examination location (D2) by means of an arrangement having at least one focusing element (L1, L2), which is arranged at a specific distance (A) from the pivot point (D1).
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Method for Measurement of the Force which Acts on an Object which Is Held in Optical Tweezers/an Optical Catch, and Optical Tweezers/an Optical Catch

The invention relates to a method for measurement of the force which acts on an object which is held in optical tweezers/an optical catch, in which the light which is scattered back from the held object through the objective of the optical tweezers/catch is detected by a detector and the detector signal is used to determine the force in the case of which a laser beam (1) which is used to produce the optical tweezers/catch and is polarized linearly in a first direction passes through a polarizing
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Method and Apparatus for Generating Two Light Waves which Have Stable Frequencies Relative to One Another

The invention relates to a method for generating two light waves (3, 11) which have stable frequencies relative to one another, in which method an accumulation of particles of a lambda system is illuminated by a control light beam (3) and a first signal light beam (4), wherein the control light beam (3) and the signal light beam (4) are matched to the range of a dark resonance of the particles of the lambda system in terms of the respective wavelength and relative wavelength difference with resp
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Systems, Devices, and Methods Employing Fiber Optic Shape Tracking

The present invention provides systems, devices, and methods employing fiber optic shape and position tracking. The systems, devices, and methods permit measurement of and continuous tracking of the shape and position of objects whose shape dynamically changes with time. Applications include tracking and monitoring of endoscopes for diagnostic and surgical procedures.
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Optical Devices Featuring Nonpolar Textured Semiconductor Layers

A semiconductor emitter, or a precursor therefor, has a substrate and one or more textured semiconductor layers deposited onto the substrate in a nonpolar orientation. The textured layers enhance light extraction, and the use of nonpolar orientation greatly enhances internal quantum efficiency compared to conventional devices. Both the internal and external quantum efficiencies of emitters of the invention can be 70-80% or higher. The invention provides highly efficient light emitting diodes sui
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Method for Identifying in Particular Unknown Substances By Mass Spectrometry

The problem was to be able to use the mass spectrometrical analysis at the same time to determine the structure and/or families and/or the chemical properties of said substances, free of subjective evaluation, in the shortest amount of time, in an automatable fashion and with high accuracy, without requiring identical fragmentation patterns and/or defined comparison or identification rules. According to the invention, a fragmentation graph is formed from one or more mass spectrometrical fragment
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Device and Method for Angularly Resolved Scattered Light Measurement

The invention relates to a device for angularly resolved scattered light measurement, comprising an illuminating device having a light source (1) for illuminating a sample (6) with light at a non-vanishing angle of incidence (? i) and a detector (7) for registering a proportion of the light scattered at the sample, an evaluation unit (13) for evaluating output signals from the detector, and an absorber (8). The illuminating device includes a first converging lens system (2) and a second convergi
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Mounted Optical Component, Method for the Production Thereof and Use of Same

The invention relates to a mounted optical component and to a method for producing mounted optical components. The invention also relates to the use of mounted optical components.
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Device for Amplifying And/or Transporting Electromagnetic Radiation

The invention relates to a device (1) for amplifying and/or transporting electromagnetic radiation, comprising a radiation source (2) for generating the electromagnetic radiation and an amplifier (4) for amplifying or a medium for transporting the generated electromagnetic radiation. In order to make available a device (1) for amplifying or transporting electromagnetic radiation that provides a very easy to implement possibility for reducing the influence of non-linear effects, the electromagnet
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Device for improving contrast ratio of short pulse laser utilized in e.g. radiation therapy, has plasma mirror or target material arranged relative to radiation of pulses in laterally displaceable man

The device has a plasma mirror at which plasma for reflection of a main pulse of laser radiation is produced by incidence of a laser pulse i.e. prepulse. An intermediate chamber (4), vacuum chambers (1, 7, 8, 14) and target chambers (10) are optically connected together and are pneumatically separated by respective structures, a target manipulator (12) and vacuum units (22, 23). A plasma mirror (18) or a target material (11) is arranged relative to radiation of incident, focused laser pulses in
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Pixelated, Diffractive Optical Element Having Two Scale Factors for Producing a Phase Distribution Having an Arbitrary Phase Shift

The present invention relates in the field of diffractive optics to a pixelated, diffractive optical element for producing an arbitrary quasi-continuous phase shift.
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Method for three-dimensional reconstruction of objects for projecting pattern sequences on reconstructing object, involves detecting pattern sequences in form of pattern views, which are compared with

The method involves detecting pattern sequences in the form of pattern views, which are compared with each other in different image views. One or multiple corresponding pixels or image pixels are assigned to the selected pixels. An assigned surface area of the image view including image pixels is determined by the selected image pixels of the former image view and by the image pixels of latter image view.
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Method for Producing an Optical Assembly Having At Least Two Optical Functional Surfaces, an Optical Device and Unit for Carrying Out the Method

The invention relates to a method for producing an optical assembly, comprising at least two optical functional surfaces (5, 6) arranged in a fixed positional relationship to one another on a common supporting structure (9), wherein by means of a processing machine (15), in various process steps, at least two optical functional surfaces (5, 6) and at least one reference structure (13) having a defined and measurable relative position to the optical functional surfaces (5, 6) are produced. The su
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Transverse Mode Filter for Waveguides

The invention relates to a transverse mode filter in an optical waveguide (3). The aim of the invention is to produce a transverse mode filter that permits a monolithic construction of a laser in a multi-mode waveguide. To achieve this, according to the invention the filter comprises a Fabry-Perot cavity integrated into the optical waveguide (3) and comprising two reflective elements (5) situated at a distance from one another. In addition, the waveguide (3) is modified in the region of the Fabr
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Stabilisation of the Repetition Rate of a Passively Q-switched Laser By Means of Coupled Resonators

The invention relates to a Q-switched laser comprising a pump light source (1), an optical resonator, in which a laser medium (6) is situated and a passive Q-switch (5). The aim of the invention is to provide an improved Q-switched laser which has a simple, compact construction with a repetition rate that has at the same time the smallest possible degree of time jitter. To achieve this, according to the invention, part of the light that is decoupled from the optical resonator is fed to an optica
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Optical Device for Producing a Frustration-capable Total Internal Reflection and Use Thereof

The aim was to create a device for frustration-capable total internal reflection having the lowest possible design effort and a small size, by means of which the optical conditions of the total reflection can also be influenced for the most universal use possible. According to the invention, a substrate (7) having a surface designed as an optical phase grating (8) is used as an internal reflection element (IRE) for coupling the light (9, 12) in and out. The invention is used to evaluate frustrat
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Systems and Methods of All-Optical Fourier Phase Contrast Imaging Using Dye Doped Liquid Crystals

An assembly for converting a microscope into a phase contrast microscope includes a first optical Fourier element that Fourier transforms light from a coherent light source, a cell in the Fourier plane arranged to receive light from the first optical Fourier element, a second optical Fourier element arranged to receive light from the cell and inversely Fourier transform the received light to provide an image, an image sensor that detects the image and generates an electronic representation of th
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Optical System That Selectively Provides Either of a Collimated Light Beam Or a Convergent Light Beam

There is provided a method that includes projecting a collimated light beam from an optical system to a plane during a first mode of operation of the optical system, and projecting a convergent light beam from the optical system to the plane during a second mode of operation of the optical system. The method further includes, (a) during the first mode of operation, controlling a trajectory of a first light bundle in a first light path in the optical system, to steer the collimated light beam thr
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Controlling Absorption of Light in a Cavity

Described is a method of controlling the absorption of light in a cavity, a system in which absorption is so controlled, and an interferometer embodying the underlying physical concept. Materials can be made to completely absorb incident light when the light is imposed in a specific pattern of illumination. Coherent perfect absorption, as the process is referred to, is achieved when a cavity is illuminated coherently and monochromatically by the time-reverse of the output of a lasing mode. Varyi
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Method and Apparatus for Efficient Direct Generation and Delivery of Ultrashort Laser Pulses

A method and apparatus are disclosed for the direct generation and efficient non-dispersive delivery of broadband few-cycle femtosecond laser pulses by temporal solitonic compression of low-energy ultrashort laser pulses in nonlinear waveguides with constant (spatially independent) negative dispersion. The input laser pulses are sent through a linear optical system for adjustment of their energy, chirp and duration (1) and are coupled by a focusing optic (2) into a nonlinear waveguide with negat
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System and Method for Obtaining High-contrast Images of the Vascular Tree of the Fundus of the Eye

The invention relates to a system for obtaining high-contrast images of the vascular tree of the fundus of the eye, which offers a non-invasive alternative to retinal angiography.
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Method and Apparatus for Measuring the Optical Forces Acting on a Particle

Apparatus and method for measuring the optical forces acting on a trapped particle. In one embodiment, the apparatus and method can be adapted for insertion in the optical train of an optical microscope configured to trap, with a single light beam, a particle suspended in a suspension medium, between the entry face and exit face of a chamber placed on or in the microscope. The apparatus and methods involve the use of a single system of collector lenses, the latter having a numerical aperture tha
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Light-emitting Device Based on Nanocrystals with Integrated High-speed Modulation

The invention relates to a method and a device which can be used to modulate an electrically excited light source according to an electric signal and which can be used for silicon photonics. The device includes a field-effect transistor having a dielectric gate means with embedded dopants and nanocrystals. The device is provided with first means for injecting charges and exciting the nanocrystals producing excitons and second means for injecting charges into the dielectric responding to a second
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Photothermal Detection System

A photothermal system for performing high throughput single particle detection, the system comprising: a first optical path for directing a probe laser beam (PB) and a heating laser beam (MHB) towards a target or sample area (62); and a second optical path for directing the probe laser beam from the sample to a detector for detecting phase changes (?F) induced in the probe beam (PB) by the photothermal effect due to local heating of the sample by the heating beam (MHB), wherein the first optical
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Optical Tactile Sensors

A sensor for sensing pressure is described. Such a sensor may be a pressure sensor for sensing pressure, or a tactile sensor for sensing tactile events through pressure measurement. The sensor comprises at least one pressure sensor comprising at least one VCSEL (11) on a substrate (10). It furthermore comprises a compressible sensor layer (14) covering a top surface of the at least one VCSEL (11) and a reflecting element (15) covering a top surface of the sensor layer. The invention furthermore
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Grating Structures for Simultaneous Coupling to TE and TM Waveguide Modes

Disclosed are an integrated optical coupler, and a method of optically coupling light, between an optical element and at least one integrated optical waveguide. The optical coupler includes a grating structure and is adapted for coupling light to waveguide modes with different polarization with low polarization dependent loss. For example, polarization dependent loss may be smaller than 0.5 dB. The waveguide modes may include a Transverse Electric (TE) waveguide mode and a Transverse Magnetic (T
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Methods and Systems for Reducing Polarization Dependent Loss

An photonics integrated circuit (11) for processing radiation. The photonics integrated circuit (11) comprises a first two-dimensional grating coupler (14) for coupling in radiation, a second two-dimensional grating coupler (15) for coupling out radiation and a waveguide structure comprising two distinct waveguide arms (16, 17) for splitting radiation received from the first grating coupler (14) and recombining radiation in the second grating coupler (15). A phase shifting means (40) furthermore
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Methods and Systems for Optical Buffering

The present invention describes an optical buffer (100) for buffering optical signals. The optical buffer comprises a plurality of fibre delay lines (110) of different lengths and a controller (120) adapted for controlling the delay of packet in a packet stream. The controller (120) is adapted for delaying a packet by subsequently using different fibre delay lines (110) and for using, for the delay of each packet, each fibre delay line at most once. A method for optically buffering, a controller
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Retro-Reflective Structures

A photonic integrated circuit (410) is described comprising at least one signal processing circuit (110). The signal processing circuit (110) comprises at least one input coupling element (120) for coupling incident light from a predetermined incoupling direction into the photonic integrated circuit (410), and at least one output coupling element (130) for coupling light out of the photonic integrated circuit (410) into an outcoupling direction. The relation between the incoupling direction and
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Method and System for Coupling Radiation

The present invention relates to a coupler (100) for coupling radiation to one optical element. The coupler (100) comprises a splitter (110) for splitting a received radiation beam in at least two radiation sub-beams, at least two distinct sub-gratings (120a, 120b) adapted for directing radiation sub-beams such that all radiation is coupled out by the coupler into substantially one direction, and a means for guiding (130a, 130b) each of the radiation sub-beams between the splitter and a sub-grat
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Waveguide Integrated Photodetector

A waveguide integrated photodetector (100) is described. The waveguide integrated photodetector comprises a first layer (110) of plasmon supporting material whereby the first layer (110) has an input slit (112) extending through the first layer (110) for coupling first radiation to the waveguide. The photodetector (100) also comprises a second layer (120) of plasmon supporting material facing the first layer and separated from the first layer by a first distance in a first direction. The second
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Diffractive Head-up Display Device Provided with a Device for Adjusting the Position of the Virtual Image

The invention relates to a diffractive head-up display device comprising a projection unit generating a light beam to be directed towards a diffractive combiner, the projection unit comprising a light source generating a projection light beam directed towards a display element for forming a source image transmitted towards the diffractive combiner. The device is characterised in that the projection unit comprises a projection mask arranged after the display element and provided with a projection
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Device for Projecting Structured Light Using Vcsels and Phase Diffractive Optical Components

The invention relates to a device for projecting structured light in the form of fringes or other patterns using laser sources, which includes an optical head (1) including three consecutive elements mounted on a substrate, i.e. a laser source (10) including VCSELs (9), a collimation diffractive optical element (11) and a light-structuring diffractive optical element (12). The laser source includes at least one VCSEL matrix obtained by combining M bars (14) of N VCSELs in order to obtain (M x N)
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System and Method for Measuring Optical Signal-to-noise Ratio

The invention provides a system and method for measuring optical signal-to-noise-ratio (OSNR) in an optical communication system. A channel filter is adapted to select one specific optical communication channel from a wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) optical communication system, wherein the channel comprises an optical signal carrying digital bit information and noise from associated optical power amplifiers in the system. At least one optical delay interferometer is adapted to measure at
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Correction of Optical Lateral Chromatic Aberration in Digital Imaging Systems

A technique for removing the effects of a particular optical aberration: Lateral Chromatic Aberration (LCA) in digital imaging systems is presented. The process is targeted on single, multi-spectral sensors, arranged in a predefined pattern with spectral filters. Removal process based on a pre-mosaicing or preinterpolation processing of the raw sensor data. This enacts a non-linear displacement of pixels with an inverse profile to the LCA produced by the optical assembly. The pre-mosaicing proce
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Electroluminescent Device

The present invention relates to an electroluminescent device (1). The device comprises a transparent substrate (6), formed from a mouldable material. The device also comprises a transparent electron transport layer (4) on the substrate and at least one inorganic semiconductor light-emitting component (3) in contact with the electron transport layer. The semiconductor may be a copper halide, or an equivalent wide- bandgap semiconducting UV or blue/UV light-emitting material. The invention also r
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Optical Biochip Platform with Plasmonic Structure

Luminescent sensors which are configured such that operably plasmonic effects contribute to the output of the sensors are described. In a preferred arrangement there is provided a sensor having an optical element which operably effects generation of a luminescence signal for subsequent detection, the optical element being configured such that operably plasmonic effects contribute to at least one of the generation or capture of the luminescence signal. The invention also provides an optical bioch
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An Optical Amplifier, a Laser and Methods of Manufacture Thereof

An optical waveguide device (2000) comprising at least one optical waveguide (2002) formed within a bulk optical material (2001), the waveguide having a central longitudinal axis (2004), and a grating formation (2005) within the bulk optical material (2001) co-axial with the axis of at least one optical waveguide (2004). The device (2000) may be used, for example, as an amplifier or laser when combined with a pump means.
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Continuous-wave Laser

A continuous wave Raman laser for producing visible laser output comprising: a resonator cavity; at least a first reflector and a second reflector said first and second reflectors being located at opposite ends of the resonator cavity; a laser gain medium located in the resonator cavity for generating a continuous wave fundamental beam which resonates within the resonator cavity when pumped by a pump beam from a pump source external to the resonator cavity; a solid Raman-active medium positioned
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Method and Apparatus for Writing Grating Structures Using Controlled Phase Delay Between Beams

A method of writing a grating structure with at least one of predetermined amplitude, period and phase properties in a photosensitive waveguide, the method comprising providing at least two light beams which overlap in an overlap region to form an interference pattern; moving the photosensitive waveguide through the overlap region; and modulating the phase of at least one of the light beams relative to the phase of the other light beams using a non-mechanical beam modulator so that the interfere
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Method and System for Polarization Supported Optical Transmission

A method comprising splitting a received optical signal into split optical signals, the split optical signals being at least initially orthogonally polarized, coherently detecting at least one of the split optical signals and generating an electrical signal indicative thereof, and processing said electrical signal, the processing being adapted for received optical signals with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation. A transmission system, a transmitter and a receiver are al
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Optical Analysis System and Method

An optical system comprising: a nonlinear material having a ferroelectric domain structure, the nonlinear material capable of converting first and second optical signals respectively to first and second frequency-converted optical signals; and alignment means for respectively aligning the first and second optical signals such that they propagate collinearly, but in opposite directions, through the nonlinear medium to obtain a overlap region in the nonlinear material where the first and second op
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Methods and systems for frequency stabilisation of multiple lasers

A system and method for stabilising a plurality of output frequencies (wavelengths) of a plurality of lasers (106). The laser beams are combined using optical multiplexer (110) and coupled into length-imbalanced (armlength-mismatched) Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) (114) having an optical modulator (e.g. AOM) (122) in one of its arms. The output of the MZI is divided into corresponding beams via optical demultiplexer (128) and each beam is detected by a respective photo-diode (PD) (134). The
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Optical Displacement Sensor

The present invention relates to a compact and inexpensive optical displacement sensor that does not require accurate control of the distance to the object. A repetitive optical structure is utilized for formation of a repetitive optical signal emitted by an illuminated moving object. The repetitive optical structure is illuminated by the light source for formation of a fringe pattern similar to Laser Doppler Anemometry, and/or, an object is illuminated by the light source and the repetitive opt
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An Optical Encryption and Decryption Method and System

The invention relates to securing of information utilising optical imaging technologies and more specifically to phase encryption and decryption of images. An image is encrypted into a mask having a plurality of mask resolution elements (Xm, Ym) by encoding the image using e.g. a phase mask with an encoded phase value phi (Xm, Ym) and an encoded amplitude value a (Xm, Ym), and by further encrypting the mask (using e.g. a spatial light modulator) by addition of an encrypting phase value phi c (Xm
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Optical Arrangement and Method

Processing of electromagnetic radiation is described, said incoming electromagnetic radiation comprising radiation in a first wavelength interval and a plurality of spatial frequencies. An arrangement comprises a focusing arrangement for focusing the incoming electromagnetic radiation, a first cavity configured to comprise an intra cavity laser beam, a nonlinear crystal arranged in the first cavity such that it is capable of receiving the focused electromagnetic radiation and, in dependence on t
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Method and Device for Measuring the Force Acting on an Object Trapped in an Optical Trap Arrangement

The invention relates to a method for measuring the force acting on an object trapped in an optical trap arrangement, wherein a laser beam (1) is focused by means of a trap lens (2), and an object is trapped in said focus, and wherein further light scattered on the object is detected by a detector (4), and a force acting on the object, or a deflection of the object, is determined from the detector signal, wherein an obstruction filter (6) is disposed in the optical path of the trap arrangement o
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Method and Device for Supporting Properties of an Object in a Medium

The invention relates to a method to support the properties of an object in a medium and the use of the method and a device to carry out the method. According to the invention, a method is provided to support properties of an object in a medium, wherein an object in the medium is illuminated and then an optical signal from the object is detected. The optical signal is converted into a plurality of surface signals and then processed by way of applying a mathematical method to the plurality of sur
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Optical Devices and Methods

An optical method comprises allowing light to become incident on an SLM, the SLM having a spatially varying property that affects light, and causing light affected by the property at one location to interfere with light affected by the property at another location, the interference allowing control of the intensity of a portion of an image in an image plane.
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Light Emitting Device Having Vertically Stacked Light Emitting Diodes

Disclosed is a light emitting device having vertically stacked light emitting diodes. It comprises a lower semiconductor layer of a first conductive type positioned on a substrate, a semiconductor layer of a second conductive type on the lower semiconductor layer of a first conductive type, and an upper semiconductor layer of a first conductive type on the semi¬ conductor layer of a second conductive type. Furthermore, a lower active layer is interposed between the lower semiconductor layer of
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Analyzer and Analysis Method

[PROBLEMS] To reduce the amount of, for example, a capturing antibody to be employed without lowering detection sensitivity. At the same time, to enable the achievement of intense color development or light emission in a determination area even in the case where only a small amount of a labeled antibody is accumulated. To lower the detection limit in the sandwich method. To enlarge the dynamic range in the competition method. [MEANS FOR SOLVING PROBLEMS] A method of analyzing a test substance b
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Curable resin composition

A resin composition having a viscosity suitable for encapsulating optical devices such as light-emitting devices is provided. Specifically, the cured product of the resin composition has a refractive index greater than or equal to that of epoxy resins, exhibits excellent heat resistance and light resistance, and has thermal stress relaxation properties. The curable resin composition contains a fluorene group-containing acrylate or methacrylate represented by the following formula and a specific
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Terahertz Signal Generator

A signal generator (1) including an optical radiation means for generating a first optical radiation (4) having a first frequency, a second optical radiation means (5) having a second frequency and a third optical radiation means (12) having a third frequency; a difference- frequency means (3) for generating from a said first optical radiation and a said second optical radiation an electromagnetic local oscillator signal having a frequency substantially equal in value to the difference between t
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Erbium-doped Optical Glass

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an erbium-doped optical glass having the advantage that it has a gain profile which is both smoother and broader than known silica-based glasses. ; SOLUTION: The erbium-doped glass includes: (a) host glass; (b) an effective amount of erbium dopant; (c) a concentration of 10-40 mol% network modifying metal fluoride; and (d) further ingredients, wherein the amounts of (a), (b), (c) and (d) are totally 100%. ; COPYRIGHT: (C)2011,JPO&INPIT
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Compensation for the Gouy Phase Shift in Quasi-phase Matching

A sample of nonlinear optical material for use in a nonlinear optical device contains a grating comprising alternating regions of inverted and non-inverted nonlinear coefficient of the material, with the regions separated by boundaries positioned such that the grating can provide quasi-phase matching of a selected nonlinear optical interaction, and compensate for phase mismatch arising from the Gouy phase shift of one or more focused optical beams involved in the interaction. The boundary positi
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An Optical Device

An improved optoelectronic device is described, which employs optically responsive nanoparticles and utilises a non-radiative energy transfer mechanism. The nanoparticles are disposed on the sidewalls of one or more cavities, which extend from the surface of the device through the electronic structure and penetrate the energy transfer region. The nanoparticles are located in close spatial proximity to an energy transfer region, whereby energy is transferred non-radiatively to or from the electro
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Apparatus for the Absolute Measurement of Two Dimensional Optical Path Distributions Using Interferometry

An apparatus for the absolute measurement of a two dimensional optical path distribution comprising: a light source (4) for illuminating an object (26) with light having a plurality of wavelengths: an interferometer (12) for forming an image of at least part of the object, which image comprises a broad band interferogram; a hyperspectral imager (30) in optical communication with the interferometer for spectrally separating the broad band interferogram into a plurality of narrow band two dimensio
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Measurement system having a detector array for detecting interference fringes

The invention relates to the measurement of physical properties including spatial metrology, such as a translational and/or angular position determination system. Further uses include the analysis of properties of light (i.e. wavelength). Still further uses include the analysis of one or more properties (e.g. refractive index) of the matter through which the light passes. The invention provides means to form an interference pattern having maxima and minima. Part of the interference pattern, incl
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Interfaces and Method for Wireless-optical and Optical-wireless Conversion

A wireless-optical interface device for converting a received wireless signal to a corresponding optical signal for transferring digital information from the wireless domain to the optical domain. The interface device includes an oscillator (e.g. a negative differential resistance oscillator such as a resonant tunnelling diode) capable of synchronisation with the wireless signal, and an optical output device (e.g. semiconductor laser) controllable by an output of the oscillator to provide the co
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Pressure Measurement Device

A non-invasive device adapted to measure intraocular pressure (IOP) comprising: a pressure sensor mounted on a soft contact lens to be worn on the eye of a subject, wherein the device is adapted such that, when worn on the eye, the pressure sensor is located at or near the transitional region of the cornea. The pressure sensor communicates wirelessly to an external controlling device through a magnetic field- based telemetry system that serves to power the pressure sensor and transmit the pressu
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Approximal Imaging Device

The invention relates to an intraoral approximal assessment device comprising an approximal optical portion adapted to fit within an intraoral approximal space, a means of applying a disclosing substance to the intraoral approximal space or at least one of the approximal surfaces of the contacting teeth and a detector, with the the approximal optical portion and the detector being operably connected via a light transmitting material. The invention also relates to a method of assessing one or bot
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Core mounting structure and camera device

A core mounting structure and a camera device are disclosed. The core mounting structure includes a frame body. The frame body includes sidewalls that are opposite to each other. A core mounting bracket is available between sidewalls, and fixedly connected through a power bracket and a balancing bracket. The power bracket is pin-jointed to one sidewall through a power shaft that is fixedly connected to the power bracket. The balancing bracket is pin-jointed to the other sidewall through a rotat
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Large scale liquid crystal structures

A liquid crystal structure (200) comprising first and second reflective regions (214a, 214b, 214c) arranged to reflect respective first and second colours. The first and second reflective regions (214a, 214b, 214c) are disposed transversely to the direction of reflection (R). Each region includes a reflective back area and a selector (210) controllable to control light reflected from the region. Furthermore, a controllable reflector (212) is superposed over the reflective region in the direction
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Conductive Polymer Compositions in Opto-electrical Devices

a polymer having a HOMO level greater than or equal to-5.7eV and a dopant having a LUMO level less than-4.3eV. TM KIPO & WIPO 2009
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Method of Forming an Image and Image Projection Device

A method of forming an image comprising providing a device for imparting respective phase-shifts to different regions of an incid not ent wavefront, wherein the phase shifts give rise to an image in a replay field, and causing zero-order light to be focused into a re not gion between the replay field and the device.
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An Integrated Planar Polymer Waveguide for Low-loss, Low-crosstalk Optical Signal Routing

The present invention provides a planar waveguide. In one embodiment, the planar waveguide includes first and third layers formed above a substrate and adjacent each other. The first and third layers are formed of a first material having a first index of refraction. The planar waveguide also includes a second layer formed between the first and third layers of a second material having a second index of refraction that is larger than the first index of refraction. The planar waveguide further incl
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Optical Beam Steering

This invention generally relates to an optical beam steering apparatus and a method of manufacturing an optical beam steering apparatus, and more particularly to an optical add drop multiplexer (OADM) such as a reconfigurable OADM (ROADM) comprising the optical beam steering apparatus. In one embodiment, the apparatus comprises a slab and a plurality of optical elements in or on a first surface of said slab, the plurality of optical elements including at least one liquid crystal on silicon eleme
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Phase Modulation Devices for Optical Applications

An optical phase modulation device having a layer of flexoelectro-optic effect liquid crystal material and electrode for applying an electric field to the layer of liquid crystal material. In this way, the optic axis of the liquid crystal layer can be deflected. This provides a phase shift to light transiting the liquid crystal layer. The substrate of the device is based on a liquid crystal over silicon (LCOS) microdisplay. The device is capable of providing multilevel phase shifts, e.g. for hol
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Liquid Crystal Device Comprising Chiral Nematic Liquid Crystal Material in a Helical Arrangement

This invention generally relates to a liquid crystal device, and more particularly to such a device in the form of a liquid crystal cell such as for a display device, and further relates to a display device having the liquid crystal device, an optical waveguide device comprising the liquid crystal device, a Variable Optical Attenuator comprising the liquid crystal device, an optical switch comprising the liquid crystal device, a method of controlling transmission of polarised light, and to a fur
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Liquid Crystal Device Comprising a Polymer Template with Periodic Voids and Manufacturing Method Therefor

This invention generally relates to methods of forming a template for a liquid crystal device, a method of forming a structure for a liquid crystal device, a structure for a liquid crystal device, a method of curing monomer, and more particularly to a liquid crystal device, optical switch, filter, laser, biosensor, opto-fluidic device, non-linear optics device, display cell or display. In an embodiment, a method of forming a template structure for a liquid crystal device comprises: combining a c
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High-speed Optical Transceiver, a Bi-directional Duplex Optical Fiber Link, and a Method for Providing a Bi-directional Duplex Optical Fiber Link

A duplex optical fiber link is provided that includes two bi-directional optical fiber links. Each of the bi-directional links includes a multimode optical fiber and an optical transceiver connected to each of the ends of each of the fibers. Each of the optical transceivers includes a bi-directional optical multiplexer (MUX) that is configured to simultaneously optically couple optical data signals produced by a laser diode of the transceiver into an end of one of the fibers and to optically cou
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Composite optical materials, uses of composite optical materials and methods for the manufacture of composite optical materials

A thermochromic composite optical body formed of a composite optical material. The material has a three dimensionally periodic arrangement of particles of a first material having refractive index n1 disposed in a matrix of a second material, different to the first material, having refractive index n2. The material is capable of being modified by an external stimulus to provide an optical effect based on the three dimensionally periodic arrangement of particles. At a first condition of the extern
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Conductive Polymer Compositions in Opto-Electrical Devices

A conductive polymer composition comprising: a polymer having a HOMO level greater than or equal to -5.7 eV and a dopant having a LUMO level less than -4.3 eV.
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Arrangement for laser system, particularly solid laser system and optical amplification device, and for optical amplification of light beam, comprises two lenses and polarization rotating unit

The arrangement comprises two lenses (L1,L2) and polarization rotating unit, which are arranged between opposite end surfaces (1a,2a) of two stretched elements (1,2). The two stretched elements are made of an optical active material. The polarization rotating unit (QR) is formed between the former lens and the end surface of the stretched element.
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Data Transfer Optical Electronic Device

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a data transfer optical electronic device 300 operated in a pulse organization, which emits a pulsed laser beam, and including: an active section 106 having an active element component which generates optical gain when a forward bias is applied; an absorption section 206; a wave guide 103 which contains the active section and the absorption section; and mirrors 116, 117 which make light return, while the waveguide is arranged between the mirrors. ; SOLUTION: This
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Device for wavelength conversion of optical signal wavelength into another wavelength, has laser light source, which emits optical signal of wavelength

The device has laser light source, which emits an optical signal (S1) of a wavelength (Lambda1), and another laser light source (L2), which emits another optical signal (S2) of another wavelength (Lambda2). An optical filter (10) is provided for central wavelength of the latter laser light source. The optical semiconductor amplifier (SOA) has a length greater than 1.5 millimeter. An independent claim is included for a method for conversion of amplitude-modulated laser radiation of a wavelength i
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Through-container optical evaluation system

An apparatus, and method of its use, to determine a characteristic of a fluid sample contained inside a closed container. The ratio of intensity for detected radiation (e.g., light), subsequent to its transmission through the container's walls and fluid in the container, at each of a reference wavelength and a measurement wavelength is compared to a predetermined value to make a determination of the fluid's characteristic. Desirably, the wavelengths are applied to the same location on the contai
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Rear Projector Device

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a rear projector device whose screen adjustments can precisely be made. ; SOLUTION: An optical sensor 17 is arranged between a projection lens 2 and a screen 4 in a position where projection light from the projection lens 2 is not in focus to be inserted and extracted, and the optical sensor 17 measures lightnesses for light beams of respective colors R, G, and B transmitted through transmission type color filters 12a, 12b, and 12c. ; COPYRIGHT: (C)2009,JPO&INPIT
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Illumination Source That Emits Reduced Short Wavelengths of Light to Protect Eyes

The object of this invention is an illumination source that reduces, to a variable extent, the emission of short wavelengths of light to protect healthy and/or pseudophakic eyes (subjected to cataract surgery) and/or eyes suffering neurodegeneration from the short wavelengths of the visible spectrum from 500 to 380 nm. The light source can be incandescent, halogen, fluorescent or any other source. The invention avoids the difficulties and risks of existing ways of protecting healthy eyes or eyes
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Surface plasmon resonance spectrometer, has sensor film arranged on transparent substrate for radiation, where radiation source is attached in layer construction on transparent substrate

The spectrometer (13) has a radiation source (15) with a radiation detector (25) and a sensor film (2) controlling a radiation from the radiation source to the radiation detector. The sensor film is arranged on a transparent substrate (1) for the radiation. The radiation source is attached in a layer construction on the transparent substrate. The radiation source has a substrate-near electrode (16), an electroluminescent intermediate layer (17) and a substrate-far electrode (18), where the subst
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Near-infrared Shielding Material, Laminate Including the Same, and Optical Filter for Display Including the Same

To provide a laminate which is excellent in heat-ray shielding properties, transparency, and weatherability and is suitable for use in laminated glass; and an optical filter for display which has excellent near-infrared shielding properties and is excellent in transparency, weatherability, and display performance. The laminate comprises two substrates and an intermediate layer sandwiched therebetween and bonded and united thereto, wherein a heat-ray shielding layer, a plastic film, and an interm
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Cleaning Module, EUV Lithography Device and Method for the Cleaning Thereof

In order to clean optical components (35) inside an EUV lithography device in a gentle manner, a cleaning module for an EUV lithography device includes a supply line for molecular hydrogen and a heating filament for producing atomic hydrogen and hydrogen ions for cleaning purposes. The cleaning module also has an element, (33) arranged to apply an electric and/or magnetic field, downstream of the heating filament (29) in the direction of flow of the hydrogen (31, 32). The element can be designed
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Holding Device for Optical Element

To provide a device for holding sealing support of an optical element without causing smearing of an objective space, by avoiding interference on optical property caused by a holding device or the sealing. ; SOLUTION: The optical element includes at least: one holding element (1) for mounting an optical element; and a sealing element (3) in sealing contact with at least part of the holding element. As to the device or operation of the device, especially for holding the optical lens (2) and espec
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Optical Imaging Device

An optical imaging device for microlithography is provided to reduce the coat for correction of the optical imaging error and to decrease the effect of dynamic variation of the pressure difference between the first atmosphere and the second atmosphere. An optical imaging device comprises at least one optical unit(109); and at least one maintenance device(104) related with the optical unit, wherein the maintenance device maintains the optical unit, the first part(109.1) of the optical unit is in
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Projection exposure system for manufacturing semiconductor component

The system has an optical assembly held within a housing (2) by a bearing unit (4), and a changing unit for changing the optical assembly, where the optical assembly is exchangeably formed. The bearing unit reduces deformations of an optical element caused by a holder. The optical assembly has a support (1) for the optical element, where the bearing unit is formed as a part of the support. The bearing unit has a rotatable and formfit ball (41) supported in a recess of the support, where the ball
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Magnetic apparatus for the treatment of cataracts and other eye conditions

Cataract is the leading cause of blindness in the world today. More than 160 million people have visual impairment, with three quarters of the cases related to cataracts. Sixty per cent of world blindness occurs in China, India and Sub-Saharan-Africa; blindness numbers are estimated to be increasing at the rate of of more than 2 million cases annually; and as the population ages, the number of people older than 45 years is expected to double by the year 2020. Cataract is treated with surge
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Oblique Selected Plane Microscopy for Optically Sectioned Imaging

Conventional optical microscopy provides high resolution images and has a huge range of applications. In many cases, it is desirable to obtain so-called ‘optically sectioned’ images, i.e. an image of only a thin axial slice through the sample. The conventional method for obtaining high quality optically sectioned images is confocal microscopy. Confocal microscopy involves scanning a point of illumination and detecting the reflected or fluorescent light back to a confocal point detector.
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Organic Multi-Photon Absorbing Molecules

BACKGROUND: Two-photon or other multi-photon absorbing molecules have been designed in a variety of technologies involving such subjects as optical data storage, 3-D microfabrication techniques, frequency upconverted lasing, optical power limiting, photodynamic therapy, and multi-photon fluorescence microscopy for biological imaging. The absorption of two or more photons by such molecules can trigger chemical and physical changes that make these substances useful for two-photon applications.
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Brighter Organic Light Emitting Diodes

BACKGROUND: Triplet emitters are promising materials for creating bright organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Iridium (Ir) organometallic complexes are especially attractive because of their high quantum yield of phosphorescence and their tunability over a broad emissive spectral range. However, at high carrier injection rates, saturation of emissive states and triplet-triplet quenching limits OLED performance. Thus, there is a need to accelerate Ir radiative decay in OLEDs while keeping other
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Soluble Tetrahedral Compounds for use in Electroluminescent Devices

BACKGROUND: Recent research efforts have produced stable amorphous materials that can be cast into films directly from solution. However, a tendency towards crystallization minimizes the utility of these materials as the electroluminescent layer in light emitting diodes (LEDs). Attempts to use these materials as the emissive component for organic LEDs were discouraged because the restricted conjugation length would potentially inhibit efficient charge transport. DESCRIPTION: Scientists at t
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Fabrication of Robust Electro-Optical Switching Devices

Highlights Method for producing robust, long-lasting electro-optical light-controlling devices May be used for beam steering or switching or electro-optically tuneable filter devices Concept for beam switching device demonstrated in laboratory Applications in telecommunications or wherever there is a need to steer or deflect a beam of light Our Innovation Fabrication methods for constructing permanent patterns in electro-optical crystals by forming patterned variations in the composition
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Novel Optical Analyte Detection System

The present invention provides an optical method and device for the determination of an analyte in an assayed sample. The method and device of the invention are based on the use of semiconductor nanoparticles that carry a recognition agent. The detection is based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the semiconductor nanoparticle donors, which are excited with electromagnetic radiation, and acceptors in the form of dye-labeled or semiconductor nanoparticle-labeled agents, tha
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Novel Luminescent Polymers

Highlights There is a great need for functional materials made from organic semiconducting polymers that exhibit the electronic/optical/mechanical/chemical properties of inorganic materials Currently available building blocks for incorporating metals into such materials have low stability and properties of the resulting polymers are subject to dramatic changes as a result of even minute changes in structure of the organo-metals Organo-metallic polymers have broad practical applications in ele
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Image Denoising with Unsupervised, Information- Theoretic, Adaptive Filtering (UITAF)

The technology offers unsupervised adaptive filtering technique that automatically discovers the statistical properties of the signal and thereby reduces noise in a wide spectrum of images and applications. It is a nonparametric approach and adapts to the statistics of the input image. The new method improves the predictability of pixel intensities from the intensities in the neighborhoods by decreasing the joint entropy. The filtering operation is non linear and operates without any prior kn
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Divcam – Distance Mapping Camera

A novel, inexpensive distance mapping camera that uses the rate of decay of illumination light with distance, as a means of measuring the distance. Infrared LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes) are typically used as cost-effective illuminators. The effect of reflectivity of the objects is removed by taking the ratio of the two photographs with two different illuminators placed at different distances from the object (i.e. reflectivity cancels out). Special features include: simplicity, compa
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Controlled Beam Steering Using Two-Beam Coupling for Optical Routing Applications

Optical routing applications involve the re-direction of an optical beam from one path direction to another in a well-controlled, rapid manner. One possible means of re-direction involves the use of two-beam coupling in photorefractive polymer films. Novel polymer photorefractive systems are attractive candidates for beam steering since two-beam coupling in many polymer composites is very efficient and temporarily fast. In two beam coupling, the direction of the beam diffraction is a function
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Thermal Management System

Engineers have developed a functionally graded, high temperature optical surface engineered to provide thermal management for broad range of near solar loads and environments including thermal cycling, intense thermal fluxes, chemical stability, resistance to extreme ultraviolet (EUV), and survivability from particulate impact. Optical surfaces have been designed for compatibility with carbon-carbon and ceramic matrix composites.
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Thermal Management System

Engineers have developed a functionally graded, high temperature optical surface engineered to provide thermal management for broad range of near solar loads and environments including thermal cycling, intense thermal fluxes, chemical stability, resistance to extreme ultraviolet (EUV), and survivability from particulate impact. Optical surfaces have been designed for compatibility with carbon-carbon and ceramic matrix composites.
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Planar Optical Penetration Sensor (POPS)

An optical sensor and method for detecting a projectile velocity vector includes optically detecting the arrival of a projectile. The sensor includes a sandwich of a transparent layer within two reflective layers, which in turn are within two opaque layers. An optical sensor structure includes a set of sensors positioned in respective planes, wherein at least two non-parallel optical sensors are used for each trajectory dimension of interest that differs from the primary direction of motion of t
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Optical Beamformer

A method of setting an apparent optical length of an optical fiber for a given optical wavelength includes heating the trimmed optical fiber to selectively vary a refractive index thereof in response to comparison of a determined arrival phase angle with a reference value representing a desired arrival phase angle to change the determined arrival phase angle so that a difference between the desired and determined arrival phase angles does not exceed an acceptable tolerance of a phase error.
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Field-Portable Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer System

A field portable mass spectrometer system comprising a sample collector and a sample transporter. The sample transporter interfaces with the sample collector to receive sample deposits thereon. The system further comprises a time of flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. The time of flight mass spectrometer has a sealable opening that receives the sample transported via the sample transporter in an extraction region of the mass spectrometer. The system further comprises a control unit that processes a
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Scatterer Controlled Emission for Novel Optical Taggants

Sensors and/or taggants feature high optical gain materials which are disposed in a high scattering environment. These materials, when adequately excited, emit intense and spectrally narrow light that is dependent on the chemical environment in which high gain materials are dispersed. When two materials are placed in the same high scattering environment, the spectal emission properties of each emitter will depend on the chemical composition of the surrounding medium. The switching or transferrin
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Fiber Optic Ionizing Radiation Detection

An ionizing radiation detector employs optical fibers as the medium for sensing ionizing radiation emitted by a radioactive source. Light in the infrared region is pumped continuously through an optical fiber located in an area or region where the unintentional discharge of ionizing radiation may be expected, so that such emission is detected the moment it occurs. The source of optical light emits a constant output within a specific wavelength band which changes only when irradiation of the fibe
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Optical Beam Deflection Thermal Imaging

The present invention provides a thermal imaging method to evaluate the surface and subsurface properties of a material and is based on techniques of optical beam deflection thermal imaging. The invention uses a localized excitation source, such as an optical beam, to provide localized heating of the sample surface. A surface thermal gradient is induced on the sample surface as heat flows, in three dimensions, from the area of localized excitation into the test material. The surface temperature
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New Optics See More with Less (MFS-31475)

Abstract: Developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), this technology combines a panoramic refracting optic (PRO) lense with a unique detection system to acquire a true 360-degree field of view. Although current imaging systems can acquire panoramic images, they must use up to five cameras to obtain the full field of view. MSFC’s technology obtains its panoramic images from one vantage point.
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A Real-Time Parylene-Thickness Monitoring Optical Sensor System (GSC-14757)

Abstract: The invention is an optical film-thickness sensor for use in Parylene deposition systems, to accurately measure the deposited film thickness in real time. The sensor would be secured to the coating chamber feed-through. The face of the sensor will have cleaved embedded optical fibers, onto which the Parylene film will deposit. The light is split through a 2x2 coupler, with 1 leg forming the sensor, and the other leg being directly coupled to a photodetector. The formed fiber/Parylene,
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Method and Means for Ultra High Sensitive, Absolute, Linear and Rotary Encoding (GSC-13703)

Abstract: Developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, these linear and rotary encoders use a CCD array to detect the relative and absolute position of an object by reading a microlithographic scale on the object. Optical encoders perform precision measurement of angular and linear position and speed for a variety of applications. This invention won the NASA Government Invention of the Year Award for 1999. NASA offers companies the opportunity to jointly develop and license these technologies
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Fiber Optics-Distributed Sensor System (TOP1-468)

Abstract: The DSS determines the Bragg reflectivity and wavelength at every point along an optical fiber by measuring the interference of the light reflected from the Bragg gratings with the light from a reference reflector. The reflected spectrum of any section of fiber can then be computed. Shifts in this spectrum provide an accurate measurement of the strain in that section of fiber.
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New Manufacturing Devices for Improved Fiber Optic Assemblies (GSC-13644)

Abstract: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has invented four new technologies that can improve the quality and dependability of fiber optic assemblies used in aerospace, military, telecommunication, and cable television applications.
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Multi-Scale Retinex with Color Restoration (TOP1-478)

Abstract: The Retinex method is an automatic, general purpose algorithm that greatly improves the visual realism, quantity, and quality of perceived information in the digital image. Currently, the visual quality of images is poor for scenes with lighting variations such as shadows and when color shifts in illumination occur, as in photos taken at sunset. The Multi-Scale Retinex with Color Restoration corrects all these commonplace problems by synthesizing dynamic range compression, color const
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Photonic Switching Devices Using Light Bullets (TOP1-477)

Abstract: At the specified wavelengths, these optical materials have a sufficiently negative group velocity dispersion and high nonlinear index of refraction to support stable light bullets. The light bullets counter-propagate through, and interact within the waveguide to selectively change each other's directions of propagation into predetermined channels. In one embodiment, the switch utilizes a rectangularly planar slab waceguide, and further includes two central channels and a plurality of
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Method of Doping Barium Titanate Ferroelectric Oxide ( 94001A)

INVENTION: In this invention, thin film modulators are made with ferroelectric materials that offer higher bandwidth and lower voltage operations compared to lithium niobate and indium phosphide. U. S. Patent No. 6,303,393
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Oriented Niobate Ferroelectric Thin Films for Electrical and Optical Devices ( 94019DIV)

INVENTION: Thse films can be used in electronic, electro-optic and frequency doubling components. U. S. Patent No. 6,208,453
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Optimizing Launch Points for Dispersion-Managed Solitons ( 97054)

INVENTION: Researchers at Northwestern have developed an effective analytic tool for predicting the behavior of dispersion-managed solitons, and a dispersion map design configuration specially optimized for WDM systems. U. S. Patent No. 6,462,849
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Tunable Fiber-Optic Parametric Oscillator ( 98091)

INVENTION: This invention relates to a tunable FOPO which employs a nonlinear-fiber Sagnac interferometer as a parametric amplifier. U. S. Patent No. 6,501,591
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Oxide Thin Films and Composites and Related Methods of Deposition ( 99070/99020)

The synthesis of epitaxial functional oxide thin films on silicon is required for large-scale integration of microelectronic, microwave, and optical devices. This invention provides deposition techniques overcoming limitations of the prior art. Metal organic molecular beam epitaxy (MOMBE) is employed for the deposition of nanometer dimension metal oxide thin films of desired composition and morphology on Si, Ge and other substrates. The technology enables the production of a thin highly uniform
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Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembly of Large Response Molecular Electro-Optic Materials by a Desilylation Strategy (20010)

A new efficient "one-pot" synthesis of organic self-assembled superlattices having excellent electrooptic response properties. The method provides thermally and photochemically robust thin films that adhere to glass, silicon and ITO coated substrates. The technology is suited for the assembly of photonic and electronic components employed in modulators and non-linear optical (NLO) systems. ADVANTAGES: A single reactor self-assembly process affording polar superlattices of large response molec
...

High Performance Self-Assembled Electro-optic Materials and Modulating Devices (20042)

Electric field poled polymers are currently used to fabricate organic based modulators. The present invention provides a chemical process, employing self-assembly molecules to create the electro active layer in organic based modulators,without electric field poled polymers. This affords greater device stability atpotentially reduced fabrication cost. ADVANTAGES: Robust,adherent, intrinsically acentric microstructures are produced without electric field poling. The self-assembly process is
...

Refractive Index Tuning of Siloxane-Based Electro-Optic Self-Assembled Superlattices (21001)

A “wet-chemical” process affording molecule-based electro-optic (EO) material refractive index tuning in self-assembled superlattice (SAS) organic structures. The process retains essential microstructural acentricity, without electric field poling. Application potential exists in a wide range of EO devices including modulators, waveguides, switches, emitters and detectors. ADVANTAGES: Robust, adherent, intrinsically acentric microstructures are produced without electric field poling. The
...

Commercial-Scale Synthesis of p-type Transparent Conductors (21006)

A new process affording a single step route to polycrystalline samples of any delafossite-like (ABO2) material with phase purity has been developed. These materials exhibit luminescence, catalysis, and p-type conducting properties. These materials can be employed as sputtering targets in thin film fabrication, p-type transparent conducting oxides (TCOs), and in opto-electronic and photo-voltaic applications. ADVANTAGES: The synthesis of solid solutions, previously unattainable via other synth
...

A System to Prevent Power Outages in Optical Transmission Lines (21073)

This breakthrough method provides the only known practical means by which to predict power outage probabilities and bit-error rates in fiber optic lines caused by "polarization mode dispersion (PMD)." Today’s stringent standards permit only very infrequent power outages, so system designers need to have a way to predict and prevent such outages. The Northwestern invention provides a way to do this. It has been used in the form of software, but potentially can be implemented in hardware. Co
...

Organic Light-Emitting Diodes and Methods for Assembly and Enhanced Charge Injection (22012

The integrity of electrode/organic interfacial contact is crucial to the performance and stability of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). This invention addresses the problem by employing a well defined self-assembly strategy that improves the ITO anode / hole transport layer (HTL) interface morphology and integrity, hence device performance and thermal robustness. These self-assembling interlayer materials may be readily applied to enhanced performance and stability in OLEDs, organic FETs, a
...

Efficient, Compact Device for All-Optical Processing (22091)

The invention is a series of devices, including an optical parametric oscillator, that are compact and efficient because they exploit phenomenon of a new kind of commercially available microstructure optical fiber. Competing all-optical devices require powerful sources and extremely long lengths of fiber. For this reason, competing devices are not commercially viable. By exploiting newly discovered phenomena, the invention enables devices to operate using a few watts of optical power and a f
...

Enhanced Performance of Blue Light Emitting Polymer Diodes via Anode Modification (22103)

Researchers at Northwestern University invented a process that significantly improves Blue polymer light emitting diode (PLED) performance, efficiency, and stability. Blue PLED devices generally require anode coating with a conductive polymer hole transport layer (HTL), which can adversely impact device fabrication, useful spectral range, performance and stability. This invention replaces the conductive polymer with an ultra-thin siloxane-derivative that enhances the ITO anode / HTL interface, t
...

Vapor Deposited Electro-Optic Films Self-Assembled Through Hydrogen Bonding (22107/22065)

Northwestern researchers created a new family of designed molecular chromophores that afford acentric films essential to non-linear electro-optic applications. These novel materials exhibit excellent physical and non-linear optical properties for waveguiding modulator applications. Intermolecular hydrogen bonding is utilized to produce stable non-centrosymmetric films with unique orientation normal to the substrate plane. Vapor film deposition supports scalable device manufacture. ADVANTAG
...

New Hole Transport Layer Materials for Polymer Light Emitting Diodes (23071)

Northwestern University researchers invented a new hole transport system for polymer light emitting diodes (PLEDs) with negligible visible light absorption, stability to ITO, solvent resistance and tunable electronic properties. ADVANTAGE: Superior PLED performance and efficiency is observed versus conventional PEDOT-PSS based hole transport layer (HTL) devices. ITO interface stability promises enhanced device life and solvent resistance accommodates emissive layer (EML) coating. SUMMARY
...

Low-Voltage Organic Electro-Optic Modulators Using Transparent Conducting Oxides As Electrodes (23080)

A novel organic electro-optic modulator using transparent conducting oxide electrodes has been created by Northwestern University scientists. The modulator functions at significantly lower switching voltages than conventional metallic electrode modulators. Modulation frequencies of 10-20 GHz are potentially attainable with this new construct. ADVANTAGE: Modulators fabricated with transparent conducting oxide (TCO) electrodes exhibit low optical loss and operate at significantly lower switchin
...

Individually Addressed Large Scale Patterning of Conducting Polymers by Localized Electric Fields (23097)

A new multiplexed and parallel polymer patterning process, with individual addressability, via electropolymerization within the gap of electrodes has been developed at Northwestern University. The technology permits the scaleable and controlled patterning of conducting polymer structures on the micro-nanometer scale, desirable for fabricating optical, electronic, opto-electronic and sensing devices, such as light emitting devices, polymer transistor junctions, chemical sensors, among many others
...

Batio3 Thin Film Waveguides and Related Modulator Devices (24060)

A low-voltage, wide bandwidth, strip-loaded BaTiO3 thin film electrooptic amplitude modulator for use in high-speed optical communication networks has been created by Northwestern researchers. Broadband modulation out to 40 GHz has been demonstrated, offering the potential for low power electrooptic waveguide modulators with high EO coefficient. ADVANTAGES: The new modulator construct indicates 3-dB operational bandwidth in excess of 40 GHz is achievable through optimized design. SUMMARY:
...

Nanoscale Self-Assembled Organic Dielectrics for Ultra-Low Voltage High-Speed Electronic Devices (24062)

Self-assembling siloxane fabrication of extremely thin nanostructurally ordered, pinhole-free, ultra-high-capacitance/low leakage organic dielectrics has been achieved by Northwestern University scientists. These organic nanoinsulators can be efficiently integrated into large thin film transistor (TFT) structures using a variety of substrates. ADVANTAGE: The organic nanoinsulators overcome the dielectric limitations of conventional "high k" dielectric materials and in turn enable the construc
...

CUS Focalized Carrier Augmented Sensor (25015)

The invention is a novel avalanche-free single photon detector in the short infrared range that is suitable for ultra-sensitive high-density infrared imaging arrays. The pixel element is low voltage and operates at near room temperatures, does not depend on a large power supply/source, and has near zero excess noise. The ability to perform fast imaging with star light sensitive infrared photon counting arrays (PCAR) promotes a decisive advantage in many infrared imaging applications. This techno
...

Twisted π-Electron System Chromophores with Very Large Molecular Hyperpolarizabilities (25019)

A series of unconventional twisted π-electron system electro-optic (EO) chromophores with ultra-large first hyperpolarizabilities have been created by Northwestern University scientists. These compounds have great potential in optoelectronic and photonic technologies such as high-speed optical communications, integrated optics and optical data processes and storage. ADVANTAGE: Organic molecular chromophores exhibiting the largest known electric field-induced second harmonic generation (EFIS
...

Intercalated Metal Oxide Superlattice Dielectrics (25092)

A family of intercalated metal oxide self-assembled superlattice dielectrics providing extraordinary insulative and capacitance properties for thin film transistor and organic electronic devices. ADVANTAGE: Dielectric materials that enable low voltage operation of thin film transistors with wide potential for electronic, photonic and display applications. SUMMARY: Integrated circuits (IC) fabricated from organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) offer the potential of cheap, logic circuits wi
...

Transparent Flexible Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Thin-Film Transistors (25093)

Northwestern researchers have created a range of transparent and flexible inorganic – organic hybrid n-type thin film transistors (TFTs) with high mobility and ultrathin high capacitance/low leakage gate dielectrics that exhibit excellent operating properties. ADVANTAGE: Transparent and flexible TFTs with high field effect mobility, drain-source current on/off modulation and low threshold voltage offering wide potential for low power electronic, photonic and display applications. Quality d
...

High Performance GaAs MISFETs with Self-Assembled Nanodielectrics (26042)

Novel SAND organic dielectrics suitable for high-performance III-V semiconductor devices such as metal-insulator-semiconductor field effect transistors (MISFETs). ADVANTAGE: New process for manipulating the complex GaAs surface chemistry and thin film organic dielectrics for III-V semiconductor devices. The SAND process is flexible, low-cost, and simpler to implement than previously reported dielectric deposition processes. SUMMARY: Using III-V compound semiconductors as conduction channe
...

High Performance all Transparent Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Thin-Film Transistors (26105)

Transparent and flexible inorganic – organic hybrid n-type thin film transistors (TFTs) with operating properties suitable for “invisible” electronics have been developed at Northwestern. ADVANTAGE: Transparent and flexible TFTs with field effect mobility, drain-source current on/off modulation and threshold voltage characteristics operating at low power conditions. Hybrid TFTs are produced in a scalable process utilizing conventional semiconductor operations SUMMARY: The growing int
...

Catalytic Synthesis of High Energy Density Nanocomposite Dielectric Materials (26136)

A process affording homogeneously dispersed ceramic nanoparticles within the matrix of processable, high-strength polymers. The high energy density polymer-metal oxide composites provide effective high energy storage in capacitor and insulator applications. ADVANTAGES: Polymer-metal oxide composite materials exhibiting excellent permittivities and high breakdown strength insulator properties in a readily processable matrix for high energy dielectric applications. The scaleable preparation pro
...

Organic Light-Emitting Diodes and Methods for Assembly and Emission Control (99027)

This invention presents a new route to the fabrication of multilayer heterojunction devices useful for large and small, multicolored display applications by means of molecular self-assembly techniques. The technology addresses major coating issues in organic light-emitting diode (OLED) construction, and promises improved device performance and stability. The invention ADVANTAGE: Devices with uniform conformal layers, high light generation efficiency, emission wavelength control, and enhanced
...

Method of Doping Barium Titanate Ferroelectric Oxide ( 94001A

In this invention, thin film modulators are made with ferroelectric materials that offer higher bandwidth and lower voltage operations compared to lithium niobate and indium phosphide. U. S. Patent No. 6,303,393
...

Oriented Niobate Ferroelectric Thin Films for Electrical and Optical Devices ( 94019DIV

Thse films can be used in electronic, electro-optic and frequency doubling components. U. S. Patent No. 6,208,453
...

Thin Film Electro-Optic Modulator for Broadband Applications ( 97028

This invention addresses thin film, BaTiO3 channel waveguide structures with the potential for traveling-wave electro-optic modulator applications. U.S. Patent No. 6,118,571
...

Optimizing Launch Points for Dispersion-Managed Solitons ( 97054)

: Researchers at Northwestern have developed an effective analytic tool for predicting the behavior of dispersion-managed solitons, and a dispersion map design configuration specially optimized for WDM systems. U. S. Patent No. 6,462,849
...

Tunable Fiber-Optic Parametric Oscillator ( 98091)

This invention relates to a tunable FOPO which employs a nonlinear-fiber Sagnac interferometer as a parametric amplifier. U. S. Patent No. 6,501,591
...

Oxide Thin Films and Composites and Related Methods of Deposition ( 99070/99020)

The synthesis of epitaxial functional oxide thin films on silicon is required for large-scale integration of microelectronic, microwave, and optical devices. This invention provides deposition techniques overcoming limitations of the prior art. Metal organic molecular beam epitaxy (MOMBE) is employed for the deposition of nanometer dimension metal oxide thin films of desired composition and morphology on Si, Ge and other substrates. The technology enables the production of a thin highly uniform
...

Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembly of Large Response Molecular Electro-Optic Materials by a Desilylation Strategy (20010)

A new efficient "one-pot" synthesis of organic self-assembled superlattices having excellent electrooptic response properties. The method provides thermally and photochemically robust thin films that adhere to glass, silicon and ITO coated substrates. The technology is suited for the assembly of photonic and electronic components employed in modulators and non-linear optical (NLO) systems. ADVANTAGES: A single reactor self-assembly process affording polar superlattices of large response mole
...

High Performance Self-Assembled Electro-optic Materials and Modulating Devices (20042)

Electric field poled polymers are currently used to fabricate organic based modulators. The present invention provides a chemical process, employing self-assembly molecules to create the electro active layer in organic based modulators,without electric field poled polymers. This affords greater device stability atpotentially reduced fabrication cost. ADVANTAGES: Robust,adherent, intrinsically acentric microstructures are produced without electric field poling. The self-assembly process is
...

Refractive Index Tuning of Siloxane-Based Electro-Optic Self-Assembled Superlattices (21001)

A “wet-chemical” process affording molecule-based electro-optic (EO) material refractive index tuning in self-assembled superlattice (SAS) organic structures. The process retains essential microstructural acentricity, without electric field poling. Application potential exists in a wide range of EO devices including modulators, waveguides, switches, emitters and detectors. ADVANTAGES: Robust, adherent, intrinsically acentric microstructures are produced without electric field poling. The
...

Commercial-Scale Synthesis of p-type Transparent Conductors (21006

A new process affording a single step route to polycrystalline samples of any delafossite-like (ABO2) material with phase purity has been developed. These materials exhibit luminescence, catalysis, and p-type conducting properties. These materials can be employed as sputtering targets in thin film fabrication, p-type transparent conducting oxides (TCOs), and in opto-electronic and photo-voltaic applications. ADVANTAGES: The synthesis of solid solutions, previously unattainable via other synth
...

A System to Prevent Power Outages in Optical Transmission Lines (21073)

This breakthrough method provides the only known practical means by which to predict power outage probabilities and bit-error rates in fiber optic lines caused by "polarization mode dispersion (PMD)." Today’s stringent standards permit only very infrequent power outages, so system designers need to have a way to predict and prevent such outages. The Northwestern invention provides a way to do this. It has been used in the form of software, but potentially can be implemented in hardware. Co
...

Organic Light-Emitting Diodes and Methods for Assembly and Enhanced Charge Injection (22012)

The integrity of electrode/organic interfacial contact is crucial to the performance and stability of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). This invention addresses the problem by employing a well defined self-assembly strategy that improves the ITO anode / hole transport layer (HTL) interface morphology and integrity, hence device performance and thermal robustness. These self-assembling interlayer materials may be readily applied to enhanced performance and stability in OLEDs, organic FETs, a
...

Efficient, Compact Device for All-Optical Processing (22091)

The invention is a series of devices, including an optical parametric oscillator, that are compact and efficient because they exploit phenomenon of a new kind of commercially available microstructure optical fiber. Competing all-optical devices require powerful sources and extremely long lengths of fiber. For this reason, competing devices are not commercially viable. By exploiting newly discovered phenomena, the invention enables devices to operate using a few watts of optical power and a f
...

Enhanced Performance of Blue Light Emitting Polymer Diodes via Anode Modification (22103)

Researchers at Northwestern University invented a process that significantly improves Blue polymer light emitting diode (PLED) performance, efficiency, and stability. Blue PLED devices generally require anode coating with a conductive polymer hole transport layer (HTL), which can adversely impact device fabrication, useful spectral range, performance and stability. This invention replaces the conductive polymer with an ultra-thin siloxane-derivative that enhances the ITO anode / HTL interface, t
...

Vapor Deposited Electro-Optic Films Self-Assembled Through Hydrogen Bonding (22107/22065)

Northwestern researchers created a new family of designed molecular chromophores that afford acentric films essential to non-linear electro-optic applications. These novel materials exhibit excellent physical and non-linear optical properties for waveguiding modulator applications. Intermolecular hydrogen bonding is utilized to produce stable non-centrosymmetric films with unique orientation normal to the substrate plane. Vapor film deposition supports scalable device manufacture. ADVANTAG
...

New Hole Transport Layer Materials for Polymer Light Emitting Diodes (23071

Northwestern University researchers invented a new hole transport system for polymer light emitting diodes (PLEDs) with negligible visible light absorption, stability to ITO, solvent resistance and tunable electronic properties. ADVANTAGE: Superior PLED performance and efficiency is observed versus conventional PEDOT-PSS based hole transport layer (HTL) devices. ITO interface stability promises enhanced device life and solvent resistance accommodates emissive layer (EML) coating. SUMMARY
...

Low-Voltage Organic Electro-Optic Modulators Using Transparent Conducting Oxides As Electrodes (23080)

A novel organic electro-optic modulator using transparent conducting oxide electrodes has been created by Northwestern University scientists. The modulator functions at significantly lower switching voltages than conventional metallic electrode modulators. Modulation frequencies of 10-20 GHz are potentially attainable with this new construct. ADVANTAGE: Modulators fabricated with transparent conducting oxide (TCO) electrodes exhibit low optical loss and operate at significantly lower switchin
...

Individually Addressed Large Scale Patterning of Conducting Polymers by Localized Electric Fields (23097)

A new multiplexed and parallel polymer patterning process, with individual addressability, via electropolymerization within the gap of electrodes has been developed at Northwestern University. The technology permits the scaleable and controlled patterning of conducting polymer structures on the micro-nanometer scale, desirable for fabricating optical, electronic, opto-electronic and sensing devices, such as light emitting devices, polymer transistor junctions, chemical sensors, among many others
...

Batio3 Thin Film Waveguides and Related Modulator Devices (24060)

A low-voltage, wide bandwidth, strip-loaded BaTiO3 thin film electrooptic amplitude modulator for use in high-speed optical communication networks has been created by Northwestern researchers. Broadband modulation out to 40 GHz has been demonstrated, offering the potential for low power electrooptic waveguide modulators with high EO coefficient. ADVANTAGES: The new modulator construct indicates 3-dB operational bandwidth in excess of 40 GHz is achievable through optimized design. SUMMARY:
...

Nanoscale Self-Assembled Organic Dielectrics for Ultra-Low Voltage High-Speed Electronic Devices (24062)

Self-assembling siloxane fabrication of extremely thin nanostructurally ordered, pinhole-free, ultra-high-capacitance/low leakage organic dielectrics has been achieved by Northwestern University scientists. These organic nanoinsulators can be efficiently integrated into large thin film transistor (TFT) structures using a variety of substrates. ADVANTAGE: The organic nanoinsulators overcome the dielectric limitations of conventional "high k" dielectric materials and in turn enable the construc
...

FOCUS Focalized Carrier Augmented Sensor (25015

The invention is a novel avalanche-free single photon detector in the short infrared range that is suitable for ultra-sensitive high-density infrared imaging arrays. The pixel element is low voltage and operates at near room temperatures, does not depend on a large power supply/source, and has near zero excess noise. The ability to perform fast imaging with star light sensitive infrared photon counting arrays (PCAR) promotes a decisive advantage in many infrared imaging applications. This techno
...

Twisted π-Electron System Chromophores with Very Large Molecular Hyperpolarizabilities (25019)

A series of unconventional twisted π-electron system electro-optic (EO) chromophores with ultra-large first hyperpolarizabilities have been created by Northwestern University scientists. These compounds have great potential in optoelectronic and photonic technologies such as high-speed optical communications, integrated optics and optical data processes and storage. ADVANTAGE: Organic molecular chromophores exhibiting the largest known electric field-induced second harmonic generation (EFIS
...

Transparent Flexible Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Thin-Film Transistors (25093)

Northwestern researchers have created a range of transparent and flexible inorganic – organic hybrid n-type thin film transistors (TFTs) with high mobility and ultrathin high capacitance/low leakage gate dielectrics that exhibit excellent operating properties. ADVANTAGE: Transparent and flexible TFTs with high field effect mobility, drain-source current on/off modulation and low threshold voltage offering wide potential for low power electronic, photonic and display applications. Quality d
...

High Performance GaAs MISFETs with Self-Assembled Nanodielectrics (26042)

INVENTION: Novel SAND organic dielectrics suitable for high-performance III-V semiconductor devices such as metal-insulator-semiconductor field effect transistors (MISFETs). ADVANTAGE: New process for manipulating the complex GaAs surface chemistry and thin film organic dielectrics for III-V semiconductor devices. The SAND process is flexible, low-cost, and simpler to implement than previously reported dielectric deposition processes. SUMMARY: Using III-V compound semiconductors as cond
...

High Performance all Transparent Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Thin-Film Transistors (26105)

Transparent and flexible inorganic – organic hybrid n-type thin film transistors (TFTs) with operating properties suitable for “invisible” electronics have been developed at Northwestern. ADVANTAGE: Transparent and flexible TFTs with field effect mobility, drain-source current on/off modulation and threshold voltage characteristics operating at low power conditions. Hybrid TFTs are produced in a scalable process utilizing conventional semiconductor operations SUMMARY: The growing in
...

Catalytic Synthesis of High Energy Density Nanocomposite Dielectric Materials (26136)

process affording homogeneously dispersed ceramic nanoparticles within the matrix of processable, high-strength polymers. The high energy density polymer-metal oxide composites provide effective high energy storage in capacitor and insulator applications. ADVANTAGES: Polymer-metal oxide composite materials exhibiting excellent permittivities and high breakdown strength insulator properties in a readily processable matrix for high energy dielectric applications. The scaleable preparation prom
...

Organic Light-Emitting Diodes and Methods for Assembly and Emission Control (99027)

This invention presents a new route to the fabrication of multilayer heterojunction devices useful for large and small, multicolored display applications by means of molecular self-assembly techniques. The technology addresses major coating issues in organic light-emitting diode (OLED) construction, and promises improved device performance and stability. The invention ADVANTAGE: Devices with uniform conformal layers, high light generation efficiency, emission wavelength control, and enhance
...

Processing of Optical Coherence Tomography Signals - for both Medical and Non-Medical Applications (22044)

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is the optical analog of ultrasound tomography. In OCT, an optical wave is launched into a tissue sample where it is reflected off of interfaces and where optical energy returns to a detector. These interfaces are located where the speed of light, i.e. the index of refraction, changes. One can map the intensity of the reflected light as a function of spatial dimension within the tissue to form an image. The advantage of OCT over ultrasound is that, whil
...

Two-photon absorbing materials with quenched emission

This invention describes a method of making materials to dramatically increase storage capacities of optical storage (holographic) devices to levels proportional to higher orders of the intensity. Non-linear optical materials that exhibit 2-photon ab sorption, a known phenomenon proportional to the square of the intensity of light and absorption cross-section (a trait) of the material, are employed. Resultant emissions are quenched to heat. The heat is retained (stored) in a specific location of
...

An Improved Process for the Preparation of a Symmetrical Thiopyrylium Pentamethine Dye Useful in Graphic Arts Imaging

Pyrylium based compounds are ideal as sensitizing dyes in the world of lasers. Earlier methods of manufacturing thio- and seleno-pyrylium based compounds did not take off due to the high costs and difficulties of synthesis. Pyrylium compounds functio n in the infra region and are valued for use with organic matter. This invention describes a novel method of synthesizing thiopyrylium and seleno-pyrylium pentamethine compounds. The method includes the following values: a)Ease and low cost of ma
...

A Method to Produce Water Dispersible Highly Luminescence CdSe/CdS/ZnS Quantum Dots for Biomedical Imaging

It’s a “Novel” method aimed to- a) Produce highly luminescent CdSe/CdS/ZnS Quantum Dots. b) Enable transfer of these Quantum Dots from Organic to Aqueous (Essential requirement for Bio Imaging, biosensors and other optoelectronic applications ) Phase with Colloidal and Optical stability intact Categories: Optics, Nanotechnology
...

Solution-processed pentacene quantum-dot polymeric hybrid nanocomposite photodetector

The present disclosure combines broad spectral access enabled by semiconductor nanocrystallites (different compositions and sizes having different band gaps) with enhanced carrier transport via high-mobility organic semiconductors, in a polymeric mat rix, to realize hybrid nanocomposite photodetectors. Using the prototypical species of PbSe QDs, and pentacene in a PVK matrix highly efficient IR photodetection and photoconductivity is achieved. Efficient harvesting of IR photo-generated carriers
...

Novel Polarimetry Scheme to Monitor Phase-polarization Characteristics of Light Under Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensing

Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) sensor technology has been commercialized rapidly as a tool for bimolecular interaction analysis, drug discovery and life science research. However, phase detecting technology has not been utilized in commercial produc ts although it offers higher sensitivity. One of the reasons being, the non-linear relation between phase and refractive index change on the sensor surface, which may lead to a difficult calibration in bio-sensing applications. In this invention,
...

Efficient surface functionalization of luminescent silicon quantum dots by photoinitiated hydrosilylation

This technology describes a 3-phased process to synthesize luminescent silicon nanoparticles in different colors. 3nm to 15nm diameter nanoparticles are synthesized at a high-rate by laser decomposition of silane. Wet chemical etching is done using a combination of acids (HF and HNO3) resulting in reduction in size and photoluminescence. In the second phase, the acid-combination proportions are optimized to produce high density of hydrogen and low density of oxygen on the nanoparticle surfaces.
...

Preparation of stable blue-emitting silicon nanoparticles

This technology describes two methods to synthesize blue luminescent silicon nanoparticles. The first is a 3-phase process. In the first phase, laser decomposition of silane and wet chemical etching using a combination of acids (HF and HNO3) yields photoluminescent nanoparticles of diameter 10-15 nm. The second phase involves optimization of acid-combination proportions to produce high density of hydrogen and low density of oxygen on the nanoparticle surfaces. In the final phase, secondary atta
...

Two-photon absorbing materials with quenched emission

This invention describes a method of making materials to dramatically increase storage capacities of optical storage (holographic) devices to levels proportional to higher orders of the intensity. Non-linear optical materials that exhibit 2-photon ab sorption, a known phenomenon proportional to the square of the intensity of light and absorption cross-section (a trait) of the material, are employed. Resultant emissions are quenched to heat. The heat is retained (stored) in a specific location of
...

Backward stimulated Rayleigh-Bragg scattering devices based on multi-photon absorbing materials and their applications

This invention describes the observation and characterization of a new type of stimulated scattering in a multi-photon absorbing medium which offers significant operational improvements in precision laser applications. Brillouin scattering (state of the art) requires a very narrow spectral line width of the input laser pump (<0.01 cm-1). Only single longitudinal-mode lasers, often very expensive, can offer such narrow spectral line width. The invention can offer significant cost savings in th
...

PROtection with MultIple SEgments (PROMISE)

Major challenges in designing a survivable network include how to allocate minimal amounts of spare resources using scalable algorithms, and how to enable quick recovery, in case a failure occurs. Existing efforts in achieving maximal bandwidth effi ciency often resort to time-consuming integer linear programming (ILP) which is not tractable/feasible for large-scale networks. Other heuristic approaches sacrifice bandwidth efficiency, or trade recovery time for bandwidth efficiency. This inve
...

An Improved Process for the Preparation of a Symmetrical Thiopyrylium Pentamethine Dye Useful in Graphic Arts Imaging

Pyrylium based compounds are ideal as sensitizing dyes in the world of lasers. Earlier methods of manufacturing thio- and seleno-pyrylium based compounds did not take off due to the high costs and difficulties of synthesis. Pyrylium compounds functio n in the infra region and are valued for use with organic matter. This invention describes a novel method of synthesizing thiopyrylium and seleno-pyrylium pentamethine compounds. The method includes the following values: a)Ease and low cost of ma
...

Foveal Sensor architecture with charge normalization

The invention describes a CMOS foveal image sensor integrated circuit and the process of making the same. Also included is a novel photo charge normalization technique that enables use of the same charge amplifier with different size pixels, while s imultaneously providing a wide dynamic response to the incoming light. In contrast to the uniform acuity of conventional imaging systems, all advanced biological systems sample visual scenes in a space variant fashion. This technique is called fo
...

Micromachined Microsensor Arrays for Chemical Sensing Applications

Chemical sensor arrays are low cost, compact, robust and versatile alternatives to large analytical tools like optical spectrometers. This invention describes the rapid fabrication of reusable chemical sensor arrays for simultaneous multi-analyte qua ntification by machining a novel array on the face of an LED. The array can be specifically tailored for any known class of analytes. Other values are: 1) Low power consumption (LEDs run cheap on batteries); inexpensive sensor light source; autom
...

Low Power Solid-State Sensor Device

This invention describes the design of a novel sensor to quantify molecular Oxygen (O2) based entirely on solid-state electronics. A derivative compound of Ruthenium II has been found to exhibit luminescence of a very specific quality. Upon reacting with molecular O2, the characteristics of the luminescence are found to change (quenching). This technology detects the change and enables quantification of the amount of Oxygen present. The method involves: Immobilizing the ruthenium complex within
...

Novel Polarimetry Scheme to Monitor Phase-polarization Characteristics of Light Under Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensing

Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) sensor technology has been commercialized rapidly as a tool for bimolecular interaction analysis, drug discovery and life science research. However, phase detecting technology has not been utilized in commercial produc ts although it offers higher sensitivity. One of the reasons being, the non-linear relation between phase and refractive index change on the sensor surface, which may lead to a difficult calibration in bio-sensing applications. In this invention,
...

Micromachined Microsensor Arrays for Chemical Sensing Applications

Chemical sensor arrays are low cost, compact, robust and versatile alternatives to large analytical tools like optical spectrometers. This invention describes the rapid fabrication of reusable chemical sensor arrays for simultaneous multi-analyte qua ntification by machining a novel array on the face of an LED. The array can be specifically tailored for any known class of analytes. Other values are: 1) Low power consumption (LEDs run cheap on batteries); inexpensive sensor light source; autom
...

Low Power Solid-State Sensor Device

This invention describes the design of a novel sensor to quantify molecular Oxygen (O2) based entirely on solid-state electronics. A derivative compound of Ruthenium II has been found to exhibit luminescence of a very specific quality. Upon reacting with molecular O2, the characteristics of the luminescence are found to change (quenching). This technology detects the change and enables quantification of the amount of Oxygen present. The method involves: Immobilizing the ruthenium complex within
...

A New Protocol of Diels-Alder Lattice Hardening for Highly Efficient Electro-optic Materials Showing Outstanding Temporal Stability over 200 Degrees C

Introduction Organic electro-optic (EO) materials have attracted much interest in the past two decades because of their extensive potential applications in various fields, ranging from waveguides, switches, emitters, and detectors. Though EO materials have a huge potential in Photonics and Electronics devices, the fact that chromophores are not thermally robust enough to survive the device fabrication steps (short-term excursions to the order of 250oC) limits their application range. Technology
...

Smart Ladder

Introduction A leading cause of worker injury in the fruit tree industry involves orchard ladder stability and the level of awareness of the user when climbing and dismounting the ladder. Due to cultural and economic reasons, industry acceptance of all-new designs has been low. Rather than radically changing ladder design to address these issues, a better approach is to design safety features into currently-used ladders. Technology description Researchers at the University of Washington have dev
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Microfluidic liquid-core, liquid-cladding optical waveguides

Summary Background: Optical detection and spectroscopic analysis are important in a wide variety of systems. Typical methods used for delivery of electromagnetic radiation to the microchannels of microfluidic systems, such as lab-on-a-chip systems, rely on the coupling of external sources of light to microfluidic devices that typically consist of optical fibers made by a glass core and a glass cladding. The use of optical fiber causes limitations on possible designs as it requires multiple so
...

Coherent Control of Optical Information with Matter Wave Dynamics

Summary The invention is a technique for stopping light pulses, converting them to matter, and then transporting them to another location. A laser pulse is sent toward one Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) – a collection of atoms cooled to nearly absolute zero – where it is stopped and then stored. The light is converted to a traveling matter wave, sent some distance away to another BEC and the light pulse is revived at the second location. Effectively, the laser pulse is extinguished
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Portable and Inexpensive Chemical and Biological Sensors

Summary The broadly tunable quantum cascade laser (QCL) described in this invention enables the production of a small, portable chemical and biological sensor that can detect a range of molecules within a single, compact device. Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs) are intraband semiconductor lasers that can emit within the mid-infrared and terahertz spectral regions, in particular, the molecular ‘fingerprint’ range where many molecules have tell-tale absorptions. The broadly tunable QCL u
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Slowing Down Light for Enhanced Detection of Biomolecules

Summary Allows for optical sensing and chemical and biological detection using extremely small and highly-sensitive devices. Also allows for fabrication of exceptionally small lasers for applications in displays and telecommunications, quantum optical devices, and barcoding. Applications The photonic crystal device is a novel method for localizing and trapping light, where the light can be utilized for a wide-variety of chemical, biological, and optical applications. Traditional chemical and
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Slowing Down Light for Enhanced Detection of Biomolecules

Summary Allows for optical sensing and chemical and biological detection using extremely small and highly-sensitive devices. Also allows for fabrication of exceptionally small lasers for applications in displays and telecommunications, quantum optical devices, and barcoding. Applications The photonic crystal device is a novel method for localizing and trapping light, where the light can be utilized for a wide-variety of chemical, biological, and optical applications. Traditional chemical and
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General Synthesis and Properties of Hetero-Branched Nanostructures

Summary The bottom-up assembly of nanostructures from individual building blocks offers distinct advantages over traditional top-down fabrication techniques including greatly simplified and cost-effective fabrication and the enablement of unique properties only available at the nanoscale. There is a need for the development of nanostructures of increased compositional complexity to serve as building blocks for more advanced nanostructures and nanodevices. For the first time branched nanowire str
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Microfabricated, Chip-Based, Low-Power Optical Tweezers

Summary Since they were first demonstrated over twenty years ago, optical tweezers have been widely used for the manipulation and measurement of many microscale particles, particularly in the biological sciences. However, many of these systems require large, high-powered laser systems along with bulky and expensive optical objectives. With growing interest in microfluidics and other chip-based systems for high-throughput biological studies, a compact and integrated optical tweezer would be highl
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Fabrication of Carbon Microstructures

Summary This invention provides a convenient, inexpensive, rapid, and reproducible method for making high-carbon solid structures on the micro scale (dimensions of less than 2 mm, less than 100 nm, or less than 50 nm) by molding them from fluid precursors. These high carbon materials can be rendered electrically conducting or insulating by tailoring the materials to a selected thermal treatment. Furthermore, their mechanical properties can be tailored by use of different additives. Applicatio
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Surface Plasmon Enhanced Illumination

Summary The resonant excitation of surface plasmons (SPs) by photons of poynting vectors normal to the surface in which the SPs exist through periodic perforation has been a topic of interest for several years. The extraordinary enhancement of photonic transport through substantially sub-wavelength sized holes in symmetric metallic films due to this resonance has immense promise in fields such as data storage, photolithography, ultra-high resolution optical microscopy and single molecule biosens
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Sub-wavelength Diameter Silica Wires for Low-Loss Optical Wave Guiding or High Strength Applications

Summary Silica wires can be utilized to transmit light for use as optical waveguides. Typical silica waveguides in use today in optical communication, sensors, and other applications, have widths (or diameters) that are larger than the wavelength of transmitted light. Photonic device applications will benefit from limiting the width of the waveguides, as this lowers optical loss. To date, fabricating low-loss optical waveguides has been challenging because of strict requirements on surface rough
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Microfluidic liquid-core, liquid-cladding optical waveguides

Summary Background: Optical detection and spectroscopic analysis are important in a wide variety of systems. Typical methods used for delivery of electromagnetic radiation to the microchannels of microfluidic systems, such as lab-on-a-chip systems, rely on the coupling of external sources of light to microfluidic devices that typically consist of optical fibers made by a glass core and a glass cladding. The use of optical fiber causes limitations on possible designs as it requires multiple so
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A Low-threshold, High-efficiency Microfluidic Waveguide Laser

Summary Background: A common type of optical waveguides has been optical fibers which have been used to guide electromagnetic waves in the optical spectrum. They are mainly used as components in integrated optical circuits or as a transport medium in distant communication systems. A typical optical fiber consists of an inner solid glass core and an outer cladding with a refractive index lower than the core causing light to propagate throughout the fiber. Variations of the waveguide have em
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New Method of Measure Refractive Indices, (linear and circular) birefringences, as well as optical activity using a ring-resonator

Summary The invention is a new method and apparatus for performing refractive index, birefringence and optical cavity measurements of a material such as a solid, liquid or thin film. The invention makes use of an optical ring-resonator in the form of a fiber-loop resonator, or a race-track resonator, or any waveguide-ring or other structure with a closed optical path that constitutes a cavity. Such a cavity is typically of low loss and characterized by a high quality factor. Light is coupled to
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Portable and Inexpensive Chemical and Biological Sensors

Summary The broadly tunable quantum cascade laser (QCL) described in this invention enables the production of a small, portable chemical and biological sensor that can detect a range of molecules within a single, compact device. Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs) are intraband semiconductor lasers that can emit within the mid-infrared and terahertz spectral regions, in particular, the molecular ‘fingerprint’ range where many molecules have tell-tale absorptions. The broadly tunable QCL u
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Coherent Control of Optical Information with Matter Wave Dynamics

Summary The invention is a technique for stopping light pulses, converting them to matter, and then transporting them to another location. A laser pulse is sent toward one Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) – a collection of atoms cooled to nearly absolute zero – where it is stopped and then stored. The light is converted to a traveling matter wave, sent some distance away to another BEC and the light pulse is revived at the second location. Effectively, the laser pulse is extinguished
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Fabrication of Small-Scale Coils and Bands as Photomasks on Optical Fibers for G

Summary This invention provides simple, inexpensive processes for reliably and reproducibly creating diffraction gratings in optical fibers and waveguides. This novel external writing technique allows use of diffuse, broad band light and simple, readily-available materials for optically writing any of a wide variety of gratings into optical fiber cores. This invention inherently avoids the need to protect the fiber, light source and other apparatus from vibration during writing. Techniques for f
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Multilevel Modulation for Free Space Optical (FSO) Communications and Error Correction Methodology

Introduction Wireless optical links, or free space optics (FSO), enable point-to-point, high-speed communication with low installation costs and high levels of security, and they are especially useful in situations where fiberoptics are impractical. Unfortunately, this technique suffers from signal scattering and attenuation during certain weather conditions—such as rain, fog, or smog—that can deteriorate or even sever the connection. More universally robust methodologies would better positi
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Scalable, Rapidly Tunable Wavelength Selective Ring Resonator

Introduction Wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) is a capacity increasing technology used in fiber-optic communications to carry different optical signals in a single optical fiber. Optical add-drop multiplexers are required at either end of a fiber for WDM. Current technologies switch too slowly, only switch over a limited wavelength range, are not compatible with silicon processing, do not scale well (both by number of fibers and wavelengths), and have other problems limiting their usefulne
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Continuous Production of Microcellular Fibers

Introduction In microcellular plastic foams, inert gas is dissolved in thermoplastic under high pressure. The forced evacuation of this gas during processing creates pores (or cells) within the final plastic. The pores are small enough that clarity of the plastic is unaffected, and because of the pores, much less starting material is required in microcellular plastics than in conventional plastics, greatly reducing weight and cost. As a wide range of pore densities is achievable, this technology
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Microcellular Foaming of Cyclic Olefin Copolymer (COC)

Introduction Cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) is a commercially available thermoplastic. It possesses exceptional clarity in its natural form, similar to that of glass, and it has high moisture resistance and low absorption rates. This thermoplastic’s many qualities make it an exceptional candidate for many applications, ranging from optics to packaging. The ability to create microcellular plastic foams using COC would further increase its range of applications with a significant reduction in mat
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Application of Grating Light Reflection Spectroscopy in Analytical Sensors

Introduction There are a number of methods for measuring bulk fluid compositions in statics and flow by visible light reflection characteristics from the optically inhomogeneous wall of a vessel. Surface Plasmon Spectroscopy (SPS) on gratings and randomly rough surfaces has proven to be especially sensitive to fluid composition near the wall. However, SPS techniques have inherent drawbacks when used as analytical sensing techniques. Grating Light Reflection Spectroscopy (GLRS) relies on an optic
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Scalable, Rapidly Tunable Wavelength Selective Ring Resonator

Introduction Wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) is a capacity increasing technology used in fiber-optic communications to carry different optical signals in a single optical fiber. Optical add-drop multiplexers are required at either end of a fiber for WDM. Current technologies switch too slowly, only switch over a limited wavelength range, are not compatible with silicon processing, do not scale well (both by number of fibers and wavelengths), and have other problems limiting their usefulne
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Influencing the orientation of chromophores to increase the opticelectric effect

Introduction The electro-optic effect, important for optical communications and quantum optics, occurs in materials that alter their refractive index in the presence of an electrical field. One of the more important specific electro-optic effects is known as the Pockels effect. Materials exhibiting the Pockels effect show a change in the refractive index that is linearly proportional to the electric field. The alignment of dipolar chromophores enhances this effect. Traditional methods of perform
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Multilevel Modulation for Free Space Optical (FSO) Communications and Error Correction Methodology

Introduction Wireless optical links, or free space optics (FSO), enable point-to-point, high-speed communication with low installation costs and high levels of security, and they are especially useful in situations where fiberoptics are impractical. Unfortunately, this technique suffers from signal scattering and attenuation during certain weather conditions—such as rain, fog, or smog—that can deteriorate or even sever the connection. More universally robust methodologies would better positi
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Prism for Millipol Technology

Introduction For more than two centuries, polarized light microscopes have been used to study linear birefringence and linear dichroism in all manner of organized media. However, deriving quantitative information from the colorful signatures rendered by the polarizing microscope has required the use of external components like optical retarders and in general required the alignment of the sample with the polarimetric reference system of the microscope. Methods have been developed that allow the
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A Microfluidic Device and Methodology for Rapid, Quantitative Determination of Analyte Concentration in a Fluid Sample

Introduction Advances in microfluidic technology are constantly opening doors to new and exciting applications, especially for biosensors and environmental monitoring. One recent area of interest is point-of-care diagnostic devices. These devices provide fast, accurate, and inexpensive sample analysis. Recent advances have enabled a universal platform that is adaptable to a potentially limitless array of analytes and could lead to affordable health care devices, including for the developing worl
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Simultaneous Beam-focus and Coherence-gate Tracking for Real-time Optical Coherence Tomography

Introduction Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging technology that can image tissue microanatomy at depths of up to 2mm in real time. Technology description Researchers at the UW have developed a method to perform simultaneous geometric beam focus and coherence gate tracking for real-time optical coherence tomography. This approach dynamically tracks the geometric beam focus in the sample during depth scanning and aligns the coherence gate with the geometric beam focus. Business oppo
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Pyrroline and Pyrrolizine Chromophores for Photonic Applications

Introduction A new level of performance is being achieved with photonic devices for telecommunication and computing applications through the application of cutting edge organically-based electro-optic materials and polymers into proven device formats. The ability to integrate non-linear optical chromophores into devices requires that they exhibit both high molecular hyperpolarizability and long-term stability. Technology description The inventors have developed a flexible chromophore system base
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Solution Processable n-Type polymers

Introduction Conjugated polymers and organic semiconductors promise great advances in electronics because of the benefits they offer over silicon, including being cheaper with less demanding manufacturing requirements and allowing for larger, more flexible, and more robust materials that are more responsive to chemical and biochemical stimulus. A critical roadblock in developing this technology, however, is the lack of easily synthesized n-type polymers and, subsequently, the lack of effective p
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Crosslinkable Hole Transporting Materials for Organic Lightemitting Diodes

Introduction High-performance organic or polymer light-emitting diodes comprise multilayer configurations having hole-transporting, emissive and electron-transporting layers to balance the injection and transport of both holes and electrons. In general, holetransporting material is the first applied layer onto the anode upon sequential layerby- layer fabrication of a device. This hole-transporting layer (HTL) plays a very important role in the efficiency of multilayer PLEDs. Technology descripti
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Tunable Wavelength Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) Microscope

Introduction SPR microscopy investigates spatially resolved areas on the surface through the excitation of plasmons at the metal-sample interface by incident photons. For the SPR phenomenon to be observed, the SPR angle, i.e. the angle of incident light and the SPR wavelength, i.e. the wavelength of the excitation source, are critical experimental parameters. Molecular interactions alter the refractive index at the sample surface and hence alter the conditions under which the surface plasmons ar
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Application of Grating Light Reflection Spectroscopy in Analytical Sensors

Introduction There are a number of methods for measuring bulk fluid compositions in statics and flow by visible light reflection characteristics from the optically inhomogeneous wall of a vessel. Surface Plasmon Spectroscopy (SPS) on gratings and randomly rough surfaces has proven to be especially sensitive to fluid composition near the wall. However, SPS techniques have inherent drawbacks when used as analytical sensing techniques. Grating Light Reflection Spectroscopy (GLRS) relies on an optic
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Two-axis, Torque-Stabilized, Passive Micro-Positioner for Precision Mechanical Instrumentation

Introduction A variety of passive micro-positioners are available on the market today. Most, however, are scaled-down versions of conventional large positioners. This invention is an entirely new configuration which has been designed specifically for micro applications. Technology description Researchers at the UW have developed a two-axis linear positioning mechanism for manual relative translation of objects. Such positioning is frequently needed in many types of high-precision mechanical and
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Scalable, Rapidly Tunable Wavelength Selective Ring Resonator

Introduction Wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) is a capacity increasing technology used in fiber-optic communications to carry different optical signals in a single optical fiber. Optical add-drop multiplexers are required at either end of a fiber for WDM. Current technologies switch too slowly, only switch over a limited wavelength range, are not compatible with silicon processing, do not scale well (both by number of fibers and wavelengths), and have other problems limiting their usefulne
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A New Protocol of Diels-Alder Lattice Hardening for Highly Efficient Electro-optic Materials Showing Outstanding Temporal Stability over 200 Degrees C

Introduction Organic electro-optic (EO) materials have attracted much interest in the past two decades because of their extensive potential applications in various fields, ranging from waveguides, switches, emitters, and detectors. Though EO materials have a huge potential in Photonics and Electronics devices, the fact that chromophores are not thermally robust enough to survive the device fabrication steps (short-term excursions to the order of 250oC) limits their application range. Technology
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Multilevel Modulation for Free Space Optical (FSO) Communications and Error Correction Methodology

Introduction Wireless optical links, or free space optics (FSO), enable point-to-point, high-speed communication with low installation costs and high levels of security, and they are especially useful in situations where fiberoptics are impractical. Unfortunately, this technique suffers from signal scattering and attenuation during certain weather conditions—such as rain, fog, or smog—that can deteriorate or even sever the connection. More universally robust methodologies would better positi
...

Influencing the orientation of chromophores to increase the opticelectric effect

Introduction The electro-optic effect, important for optical communications and quantum optics, occurs in materials that alter their refractive index in the presence of an electrical field. One of the more important specific electro-optic effects is known as the Pockels effect. Materials exhibiting the Pockels effect show a change in the refractive index that is linearly proportional to the electric field. The alignment of dipolar chromophores enhances this effect. Traditional methods of perform
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Update of Dynamic Change of Focus for True 3D, Scanned Retinal Images

Introduction Generating true 3-D computer displays will enable the creation of more realistic and informative images, allowing improved functionality when relying on visual display data. Technology description Researchers at the UW have developed a spatial light modulator for changing optical wavefronts entering the eye for a scanned light display that has a variable plane of focus. A new polymer based electro-optical material is used for the spatial light modulators for either transmission or r
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New Optical Mixer for Microfluidics

Introduction One of the fastest growing areas of microfluidics research involves the development of Labon- a-Chip (LOC) technology. LOCs combine several laboratory processes on a chip commonly only millimeters in size while manipulating liquid volumes of picoliter size or less. In order to effectively perform the many processes that may be required of an LOC, various tools are required, such as pumps, valves, and mixers. In particular, the development of mixers has realized many effective, novel
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A Compact integrated Electro-Optic Based Interferometer

Introduction Interferometry uses the principles of constructive and destructive interference to combine two or more waveforms, such as light, to form a phase-dependent source of the two signals. It is used to compare light from two or more sources to obtain measurements with higher resolution and precision than could be obtained by conventional direct methods. Technology description Researchers at the UW have developed a compact integrated electro-optic based Fabry Perot interferometer, utilizin
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Optical Coherence Tomography: High-Resolution Balloon Catheter Imaging, Dispersion Management, and Lateral-Priority Real-Time Imaging and Focus Tracking

Introduction Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging technique that uses light to acquire three-dimensional images of biological tissue. This non-invasive technique generates highquality images in real time and easily integrates with existing endoscope technologies. It is commonly used to image intravascular and intraluminal spaces. Technology Description Professor Li at the University of Washington has developed an optical coherence tomography (OCT) device that incorporates a balloon c
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Dynamic Change of Focus for True 3-D, Scanned Retinal Displays

Introduction Generating true 3-D computer displays will enable the creation of more realistic and informative images, allowing improved functionality when relying on visual display data. Technology description Researchers at the UW have developed the use of optical elements to dynamically adjust the wavefront of scanning beams of light for scanned retinal displays. These elements adjust the phase of the wavefront spatially across the beam, changing the focal point of the beam. The virtual retina
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Automatic Phase Calibration of Two-Dimensional Resonant Scanners

Introduction Mechanically resonant scanners are widely used in optical or near-field imaging. The scanner can trace out imaging beam paths in two-dimensional space in response to a drive waveform near the scanner’s mechanical resonant frequency. The mechanical response will not in general be in phase with the driving signal and the phase difference can vary as a function of the scanning radius, and this phase difference will make a given pixel acquired at a given position different from what i
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A Three-Dimensional Distributed Sensor using an integrated Optical Waveguide Array

Introduction A flexible shear and pressure sensor array has been developed by researchers at the University of Washington. The sensors are fiber optic-based, and are imbedded in a thin polymer sheet to allow their use in a wide range of pressure & shear sensing applications. Technology description An array of optical waveguides form the sensing network, which is designed to distinguish between pressure, i.e., a force normal to the sensor array, and shear, or forces parallel to the surface of the
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Larger Area Pressure and Shear Measurement Using Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (OTDR)

Introduction Lower limb complications associated with diabetes include the development of plantar ulcers that can lead to infection and subsequent amputation. Several authors have postulated that shear stress is an important component of ulcer development. While it is known from force plate analyses that there are medial/lateral and anterior /posterior shear components of the ground reaction force, there is little known about the actual distribution of this force during daily activities, nor abo
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A Polymer-Based Integrated Optical Image Acquisition and Display System

Introduction Imaging devices are used in a variety of roles from medical imaging to barcode reading, and as these devices get smaller, their number of potential applications only increases. Endoscopes, for example, allow for real-time imaging inside the body; conventional versions, however, are limited in how small their diameter can get by the need for relatively large bundles of optic fiber or arrays of detectors. To further decrease the size of these devices, alternatives must be developed Te
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Quantum Dot Waveguides

Introduction Realization of ultrahigh-density photonic integrated circuits requires the ability to guide light at subdiffraction limit dimensions without extensive loss due to sharp waveguide bending. Existing technologies may be difficult to integrate with optical and electronic components on chip, and cannot maintain low-loss guiding at sharp junctions. Waveguides using a gain-enabled material that can be easily fabricated and integrated on a chip would be an important addition to a nanophoton
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Osmium based Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs)

Introduction OLED-based displays are being incorporated into digital cameras and cell phones. Bright, vivid colors and a wide viewing angle are the key advantages of these OLED displays. Current OLED technologies and products are susceptible to water and oxygen reactivity damage and exhibit low efficiency. Encapsulation of these displays is critical to prevent degradation. Technology description The inventors have systematically engineered a series of osmium based OLED emitters. The first in thi
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Crosslinkable Hole Transporting Materials for Organic Light emitting

Introduction High-performance organic or polymer light-emitting diodes comprise multilayer configurations having hole-transporting, emissive and electron-transporting layers to balance the injection and transport of both holes and electrons. In general, holetransporting material is the first applied layer onto the anode upon sequential layerby- layer fabrication of a device. This hole-transporting layer (HTL) plays a very important role in the efficiency of multilayer PLEDs. Technology descripti
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Acousto-optic Modulators with a Broadband Spectrum Throughput and a Tunable Peak Wavelength

Introduction Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging technology that can image tissue microanatomy at depths of up to 2mm in real time. Technology description Researchers at the UW have developed a method to optimize the optical spectral throughput of a pair of acousto-optic modulators (AOM). The peak wavelength can be tuned over a broad range (650-1650 nm) depending the optical spectrum of interest. A modulator with a spectral bandwidth of more than 200 nm at a center wavelength of 82
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Signal Amplification Method for SPR-based Chemical Detection

Introduction Surface plasma resonance (SPR) is a general spectroscopic method for sensing refractive index changes near the surface of a metal film. Its sensitivity to these changes provides a versatile platform for the observation and quantitation of chemical reactions and intermolecular binding at the metal/solution interface. The generality of the technique has led to its application to a variety of chemical systems, including biological interactions and reactions. Technology description Rese
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An Optical Switch Driven by Shape Memory Alloy Actuators

Introduction Optical switching provides the means for controlling light signals, which is vital in telecommunications and photonic signal processing. For a certain class of optical switches, both electrostatic and magnetic actuation is common, but each of these techniques has significant drawbacks. Shape memory alloys, however, utilize thermoelectric actuation, which provides higher force potentials than its electrostatic counterparts and simpler device integration than its magnetic counterparts
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Energy Nano-probe

This invention includes techniques for the fabrication and utilization of a high resolution probe capable of detecting the variation of the energy states of sample being scanned. The probe is a scanning energy probe in radiative mode (SEP-R) consisting of an AFM/STM tip appropriately modified into an Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) to enable the transfer of light to a sample.Current NSOM techniques for achieving high-resolution optical probing have several limitations that have prevented the
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Autonomous Micro-Pulse Lidar System (GSC-13493)

Abstract: The MPL system uses an optical telescope to transmit and expand solid-state laser pulses, allowing it to produce a high level of sensitivity and reliability using eye-safe pulse energy levels. MPL has several advantages over similar systems including: aerosol detection and better sensitivity at higher altitudes; ability to detect cirrus clouds; and efficient operation in day and night time conditions.
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Dedicated Test Surface for Calibration of High-Performance Optical Systems

IB-2499 APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: • A prototype binary pseudo-random grating test surface is etched into a silicon substrate using a conventional lithographical process. • Testing of surface profilometers • Calibrates modulation transfer function (MTF) of microscopes • Direct 2D calibration of instrumental MTF • Can be used to test interferometric, atomic force and scanning probe microscopes, as well as optical, extreme ultraviolet and x-ray scatterometers • Potentially ap
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Atmospheric Optical Calibration System (AOCS)

An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitabl
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Application of Optical Processing for Growth of Silicon Dioxide

A process for producing a silicon dioxide film on a surface of a silicon substrate. The process comprises illuminating a silicon substrate in a substantially pure oxygen atmosphere with a broad spectrum of visible and infrared light at an optical power density of from about 3 watts/cm.sup.2 to about 6 watts/cm.sup.2 for a time period sufficient to produce a silicon dioxide film on the surface of the silicon substrate. An optimum optical power density is about 4 watts/cm.sup.2 for growth of a 100
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Production of PT/PZT/PLZT Thin Films, Powders, and Laser 'Direct Write' Patterns

Abstract This invention encompasses methods and reagents for making PT, PZT, and PLZT as well as their extrinsic ions doped powders and thin films. In particular, the invention includes methods for localized laser annealing of PT, PZT, PLZT films to the surface of materials to provide articles useful in electronic devices such as high value capacitors, optical switches, wave guides, and the like. The solution acetate technique is easy, fast, and well-controlled stoichiometry compositions of na
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Monolithic Photodiode Array with Impedance Match

High-bit-rate optical fiber networks and photonic microwave applications currently rely on photodiodes to serve as optical-to-electrical (O/E) converters. In such high performance, high-speed applications the O/E converters must exhibit high 3db bandwidth as well as a large saturation photocurrent. Traditionally, these performance constraints have necessitated the design of a photodiode with small carrier transit times and low capacitance. However, this traditional design leaves the photodiod
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High Resolution Phase Contrast Imaging of Phase Objects in the Human Eye for Glaucoma Diagnosis, Cellular and Microcirculation Imaging (“HR-PCI”)

New Market Opportunity The human eye is a challenging and constrained optical system within which to perform optical imaging. One of the greatest challenges in applied optics has been to image, in vivo, using optical coherence tomography (OCT), certain transparent cells and the aqueous humour in the eye, a challenging and constrained optical system. Of specific interest are: (i) the imaging of ganglion cells and their axons, which are particularly vulnerable to the degenerative disease glaucom
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