Solar Patents for Sale or License

Transparent Contacts Organic Solar Panel by Spray

A method of fabricating organic solar panels with transparent contacts. The method uses a layer-by-layer spray technique to create the anode layer. The method includes placing the substrate on a flat magnet, aligning a magnetic shadow mask over the substrate, applying photoresist to the substrate using spray photolithography, etching the substrate, cleaning the substrate, spin coating a tuning layer on substrate, spin coating an active layer of P3HT/PCBM on the substrate, spray coating the subst
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Air Cooled Umbrella

An air cooled sunshade constructed to provide cooling under the canopy of the sunshade.
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System and Method for Increasing the Efficiency of a Solar Heating System

A modified evacuated tube solar collector is used to improve the performance of refrigerant based heat pumps. During cooler weather, when the heat pump does not draw sufficient heat from the air to heat effectively, the solar collector provides additional heat to the refrigerant boosting the heat pumps performance and negating the need for using electric or gas heat. The solar collector also helps eliminate "cold blow", which is cool air that is produced for the first several minutes the heat pu
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Photovoltaic Ladder Inverter

This invention is for a unique DC-AC conversion topology for solar photovoltaic arrays that incorporates the best features of both central string inverters and DC-DC optomizers. It has a simple, elegant design with high reliability, high efficiency and low cost. In patentese: Techniques for DC-to-AC conversion are disclosed, and may be embodied in a solar inverter device that can operatively couple to a power grid. The device includes a photovoltaic (PV) stack including series-connected PV m
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Heating cooling and storing energy in a building with just two moving parts

Solar-fin overview Nature is the most efficient collector of energy: A flower opens and closes with the sun to collect energy. So why can’t buildings do the same? The Solar-fin system emulates this simplicity with 2 moving parts to heat or cool a thermal storage medium and to then transfer this energy as required to the building’s thermal mass. The parts and materials are readily available to keep costs down so that payback periods are minimal. The façade is clear glass and the solar-fin
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Safety System to Reduce Risk of Electrocution at Photovoltaic Panels Level

Safety System to reduce risk of Electrocution at Photovoltaic Panels Level. The present invention relates to an electronic system and related methods of control, to be used as safety switch at Photovoltaic Panels Level. Said system can solve the dramatic issue of human exposition to electrocution in case of catastrophic event, like: fire, flooding, earthquakes, seaquakes… and also in case of installation or maintenance, without needs of further wiring and installation efforts. Said Syste
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Photocatalytic Structures, Methods of Making Photocatalytic Structures, and Methods of Photocatalysis

Embodiments of the present disclosure include structures, photocatalytic structures, and photoelectrochemical structures, methods of making these structures, methods of making photocatalysis, methods of splitting H2O, methods of splitting CO2, and the like
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Novel Anchoring Ligands for Sensitizers of Dye-sensitized Photovoltaic Devices

The present invention relates to novel pyridine compounds that can be used as anchoring ligands in metal-based sensitizing dyes of dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The dyes comprising the polypyridine compounds exhibit improved light harvesting ability and lead to increased conversion efficiencies, in particular in thin TiO2 film devices.
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Semiconductor Component Having Diamond-containing Electrodes and Use Thereof

The invention relates to a semiconductor component containing at least one electrode assembly, wherein the electrode assembly comprises at least two electrodes, of which at least one electrode is a diamond-containing electrode. The semiconductor component moreover comprises at least one monolithically integrated solar cell as an energy source for the at least one electrode assembly. The semiconductor component according to the invention is used, for example, in the production of hydrogen by elec
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Up and Down Conversion Systems for Improved Solar Cell Performance Or Other Energy Conversion

A system and a conversion element for power conversion. The power conversion system includes a power conversion device which produces electric power upon illumination and includes a light conversion device which down-converts and up-converts a radiant source of energy into a specific energy spectrum for the illumination of the power conversion device. The conversion element includes a first plurality of particles which upon radiation from a first radiation source radiate at a higher energy than
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Transparent Contacts Organic Solar Panel By Spray

A method of fabricating organic solar panels with transparent contacts. The method uses a layer-by-layer spray technique to create the anode layer. The method includes placing the substrate on a flat magnet, aligning a magnetic shadow mask over the substrate, applying photoresist to the substrate using spray photolithography, etching the substrate, cleaning the substrate, spin coating a tuning layer on substrate, spin coating an active layer of P3HT/PCBM on the substrate, spray coating the subst
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Solar Wall Element

The invention relates to a solar wall element (1) for generating heat from solar radiation energy (2), particularly for use as a component of an external building envelope. Said solar wall element (1) comprises a solid (3) and/or a hollow member made of at least partially transparent or at least light-permeable and/or light-conducting materials. According to the invention, the materials have heat insulating properties as a result of the material properties and/or the structure thereof. The inven
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Organic Photovoltaic Device with Interfacial Layer and Method of Fabricating Same

An organic photovoltaic device and method of forming same. In one embodiment, the organic photovoltaic device has an anode, a cathode, an active layer disposed between the anode and the cathode; and an interfacial layer disposed between the anode and the active layer, the interfacial layer comprising 5,5'-bis [(p-trichlorosilylpropylphenyl) phenylamino]-2,2'-bithiophene (PABTSi2).
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Arrays of Ultrathin Silicon Solar Microcells

Provided are solar cells, photovoltaics and related methods for making solar cells, wherein the solar cell is made of ultrathin solar grade or low quality silicon. In an aspect, the invention is a method of making a solar cell by providing a solar cell substrate having a receiving surface and assembling a printable semiconductor element on the receiving surface of the substrate via contact printing. The semiconductor element has a thickness that is less than or equal to 100 [mu]m and, for exampl
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Graded Organic Photovoltaic Device

A photovoltaic device includes a first heterojunction layer having a first donor type organic material and a first acceptor type organic material, in which a concentration of at least one of the first donor type organic material and the first acceptor type organic material is graded continuously from a first side of the first heterojunction layer to a second side of the first heterojunction layer.
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Photovoltaic Cell

A photovoltaic cell has two electrodes and a hole injection layer. A liquid crystal material and a plurality of particles can be disposed between the electrodes.
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High Efficiency Hybrid Solar Cell

This invention relates to a high efficiency hybrid solar cell comprised of a dichroic mirror, a first cell stack comprising two cells, the first cell being a GaInP cell and the second cell being a GaAs cell and a second cell stack comprising three cells, the first cell being a Si cell, the second cell being a GaInAsP cell and the third cell being a GaInAs cell. The dichroic mirror provides a separation of the solar light into two spectral components, one component of light with photons of energy
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Processes for Fabricating All-back-contact Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cells

Processes for fabricating back contacts for photovoltaic cell devices are disclosed. The processes involve depositing a passivation layer on the back surface of a wafer, depositing an emitter layer on the passivation layer, depositing a metal layer on the emitter layer, laser firing selected areas of the metal layer to form base contacts, laser cutting the metal layer to create at least one isolation region between emitter contacts and base contacts, and applying a stream of reactive gas to form
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Method for Maximum Power Point Tracking of Photovoltaic Cells By Power Converters and Power Combiners

This invention relates to a method for Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) a photovoltaic cell by a power converter that provides an output current at voltages useful to operate electronics or charge batteries. This invention also relates to a method for Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) multiple photovoltaic cells by a power combiner that combines the output of the multiple photovoitaic cells into a single output. The power combiner is comprised of multiple power converters, one for each phot
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Multijunction High Efficiency Photovoltaic Device and Methods of Making the Same

Photovoltaic devices and methods of making photovoltaic devices are provided. The photovoltaic device comprises a plurality of solar cells electrically coupled to each other. The plurality of solar cells are formed of respective semiconductor material having different band gaps. Each solar cell includes a plurality of sub-junctions having a respective plurality of p-n junctions and at least one tunnel junction located between juxtaposed sub-junctions of the plurality of sub-junctions.
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Thin Group IV Semiconductor Structures

Thin group IV semiconductor structures are provided comprising a thin Si substrate and a second region formed directly on the Si substrate, where the second region comprises either (i) a Ge1-xSnx layer; or (ii) a Ge layer having a threading dislocation density of less than about 105/cm2, and the effective bandgap of the second region is less than the effective bandgap of the Si substrate. Further, methods for preparing the thin group IV semiconductor structures are provided. Such structures are
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InGaN Columnar Nano-Heterostructures for Solar Cells

Methods, devices, and compositions of matter related to high efficiency InGaN-based photovoltaic devices. The disclosed synthesis of semiconductor heterostructures may be exploited to produce higher efficiency, longer lasting, photovoltaic cells.
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Functionally Graded Solar Roofing Panels and Systems

Solar panels and solar heating systems are disclosed. In some embodiments, the solar panels include the following: a top protective layer; a thin-film photovoltaic layer adjacent the top layer; a bottom polymeric substrate layer opposite the top layer; and a functionally graded material interlayer positioned between the top and bottom layers, the interlayer including a first homogeneous polymeric composite layer below the thin film photovoltaic layer, a second homogeneous polymeric composite lay
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Flash Light Annealing for Thin Films

A method of making a crystalline film includes providing a film comprising seed grains of a selected crystallographic surface orientation on a substrate; irradiating the film using a pulsed light source to provide pulsed melting of the film under conditions that provide a mixed liquid/solid phase and allowing the mixed solid/liquid phase to solidify under conditions that provide a textured polycrystalline layer having the selected surface orientation. One or more irradiation treatments may be us
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Hierarchical Assembly of Nanostructured Organic Heterojunctions for Photovoltaic Devices

Systems and methods for hierarchical assembly of nanostructured organic heterojunctions for photovoltaic devices are described. Particularly, an apparatus for converting light energy to electrical energy is provided. An apparatus includes one or more organic photovoltaic devices. Photovoltaic devices include a cathode in electrical contact with the apparatus and an anode in electrical contact with the apparatus. Photovoltaic devices further include an acceptor layer having molecules forming a su
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Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal Photovoltaic Device and Method for Making

A novel photovoltaic device including a polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) material that is capable of converting solar energy to electrical energy and method for making. The device may optionally include a conductive container for holding the PDLC material. In an exemplary embodiment, the invention is directed to a self assembled PDLC material, a holographically synthesized PDLC material or a block co-polymer dispersed liquid crystal material. It is envisioned that the invention may be use
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Tilting/Tracking System for Solar Devices

A tracking system is provided for a roof-mounted solar array. The system includes a sensor mechanism for sensing an orientation of the sun relative to the solar array, and a controller connected to the sensor mechanism that generates a signal that represents an optimal tilt angle of the solar array relative to the orientation of the sun. An actuator connected to the controller receives the signal from the controller and adjusts the tilt angle of the solar array in response to the received signal
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Type Ii Quantum Dot Solar Cells

A device comprises a plurality of fence layers of a semiconductor material and a plurality of alternating layers of quantum dots of a second semiconductor material embedded between and in direct contact with a third semiconductor material disposed in a stack between a p-type and n-type semiconductor material. Each quantum dot of the second semiconductor material and the third semiconductor material form a heterojunction having a type Il band alignment. A method for fabricating such a device is a
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Low Resistance Thin Film Organic Solar Cell Electrodes

A method which lower the series resistance of photosensitive devices includes providing a transparent film of a first electrically conductive material arranged on a transparent substrate; depositing and patterning a mask over the first electrically conductive material, such that openings in the mask have sloping sides which narrow approaching the substrate; depositing a second electrically conductive material directly onto the first electrically conductive material exposed in the openings of the
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Efficient Solar Cells Using All-organic Nanocrystalline Networks

An optoelectronic device and a method of fabricating a photosensitive optoelectronic device includes depositing a first organic semiconductor material on a first electrode to form a continuous first layer; depositing a layer of a second organic semiconductor material on the first layer to form a discontinuous second layer, portions of the first layer remaining exposed; and depositing the first organic semiconductor material on the second layer to form a discontinuous third layer, portions of at
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Solar Cells

Organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices are disclosed. The devises are thin-film crystalline organic optoelectronic devices capable of generating a voltage when exposed to light, and prepared by a method including the steps of: depositing a first organic layer over a first electrode; depositing a second organic layer over the first organic layer; depositing a confining layer over the second organic layer to form a stack; annealing the stack; and finally depositing a second electrode over t
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Organic Photovoltaic Devices

The present invention generally relates to organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices. More specifically, it is directed to organic photovoltaic devices, e.g., organic solar cells. Further, it is directed to an optimized organic solar cell comprising multiple stacked subcells in series. High power conversion efficiency are achieved by fabrication of a photovoltaic cell comprising multiple stacked subcells with thickness optimization and employing an electron blocking layer.
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Semiconductor Coated Microporous Graphene Scaffolds

A high surface area scaffold to be used for a solar cell, made of a three- dimensional percolated network of functionalized graphene sheets. It may be used in the preparation of a high surface area electrode by coating with a semi conductive material. Electronic devices can be made therefrom, including solar cells such as dye-sensitized solar cells.
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Organic Photosensitive Cells Grown on Rough Electrode with Nano-scale Morphology Control

An optoelectronic device and a method for fabricating the optoelectronic device includes a first electrode disposed on a substrate, an exposed surface of the first electrode having a root mean square roughness of at least 30 nm and a height variation of at least 200 nm, the first electrode being transparent. A conformal layer of a first organic semiconductor material is deposited onto the first electrode by organic vapor phase deposition, the first organic semiconductor material being a small mo
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Organic Photosensitive Optoelectronic Device Having a Phenanthroline Exciton Blocking Layer

An organic photosensitive optoelectronic device, having an anode, a cathode, and an organic blocking layer between the anode and the cathode is described, wherein the blocking layer comprises a phenanthroline derivative, and at least partially blocks at least one of excitons, electrons, and holes.
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Organic photosensitive optoelectronic device

The invention relates to a mixed electrical configuration stacked organic photosensitive optoelectronic device comprising a substrate having a proximal surface and a distal surface and plurality of subassemblies of organic photosensitive optoelectronic subcells, each of said subcells having a cathode and an anode, each of said cathode and anode being an electrode layer or a charge transfer layer, said subcells in superposed relation with each other and with said distal surface of said substrate,
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Controlled growth of larger heterojunction interface area for organic photosensitive devices

An optoelectronic device and a method of fabricating a photosensitive optoelectronic device includes depositing a first organic semiconductor material on a first electrode to form a continuous first layer having protrusions, a side of the first layer opposite the first electrode having a surface area at least three times greater than an underlying lateral cross-sectional area; depositing a second organic semiconductor material directly on the first layer to form a discontinuous second layer, por
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Increased open-circuit-voltage organic photosensitive devices

The invention relates to a photosensitive device comprising: an anode and a cathode; and a first organic material and a second organic material forming a donor-acceptor heterojunction electrically connected between the anode and the cathode, wherein the first and second organic materials, as arranged in the photosensitive device, each have a Franck-Condon Shift of less than 0.5 eV.
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Nanoscopically Thin Photovoltaic Junction Solar Cells

Nanoscopically thin photovoltaic junction solar cells are disclosed herein. In an embodiment, there is provided a photovoltaic film 100 that includes a p-doped region 102, an n-doped region 106, and an intrinsic region 104 positioned between the p-doped region 102 and the n-doped region 106, wherein an overall thickness of the photovoltaic film is between about 15 nm to about 30 nm so as to extract hot carriers excited across a band gap, wherein the extracted hot carriers are capable of resultin
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Apparatus and Methods for Visual Perception Using an Array of Nanoscale Waveguides

Nanoscale photovoltaic devices fabricated from nanoscale waveguides that receive, propagate, and convert incident light into electrical neural signals, and methods of using these photovoltaic devices for visual perception are disclosed herein. A visual neuroprosthetic device includes an array of nanoscale waveguides (170), each nanoscale waveguide (370) in the array (170) having a photovoltaic material (320) located between an internal conductor and an external conductor, wherein each nanoscale
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Solar Thermoelectric Conversion

Systems and methods utilizing solar-electrical generators are discussed. Solar- electrical generators are disclosed having a radiation-capture structure and one or more thermoelectric converters. Heat produced in a capture structure via impingement of solar radiation can maintain a portion of a thermoelectric converter at a high temperature, while the use of a low temperature at another portion allows electricity generation. Thus, unlike photovoltaic cells which are generally primarily concerned
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Apparatus and methods for solar energy conversion using nanoscale cometal structures

An apparatus and methods for solar conversion using nanoscale cometal structures are disclosed herein. The cometal structures may be coaxial and coplanar. A nanoscale optics apparatus (100) for use as a solar cell comprises a plurality of nanoscale cometal structures each including a photovoltaic material (180) located between a first electrical conductor (120) and a second electrical conductor (160). A method of fabricating solar cells comprises preparing a plurality of nanoscale planar structu
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Apparatus and methods for solar energy conversion using nanocoax structures

An apparatus and method for solar conversion using nanocoax structures are disclosed herein. A nano-optics apparatus for use as a solar cell comprising a plurality of nano-coaxial structures comprising an internal conductor surrounded by a semiconducting material coated with an outer conductor; a film having the plurality of nano-coaxial structures; and a protruding portion of the an internal conductor extending beyond a surface of the film. A method of fabricating a solar cell comprising: coati
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Nucleic Acid-based Photovoltaic Cell

Photovoltaic cells containing nucleic acid materials and methods of production and use are provided. The nucleic acid materials have photovoltaic donor and acceptor molecules incorporated therein and define a spatial organization and orientation for these molecules that inhibits recombination of excitons and promotes efficiency in the photovoltaic cell. Preferred nucleic acid materials contain nucleic acid molecules complexed with ionic surfactants and are in the form of films, fibers, nanofiber
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Protein-Based Photovoltaics and Methods of Use

Protein-based photovoltaic cells and the manufacture and use of protein-based photovoltaic cells are described. In one embodiment, bacteriorhodopsin from Halobacterium salinarum, which undergoes structural transitions when irradiated with a given wavelength of light, is used as the protein in the protein-based photovoltaic cells. In another embodiment, mutant bacteriorhodopsin from H. salinarum is used. Exposure of the protein to sunlight causes proton transfer across a membrane resulting in the
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Light Source and Method for Producing Light

The invention relates to a light source, comprising an optical resonator (1) and an optical medium (2) arranged therein that can be excited so as to emit light, wherein the optical medium (2) comprises at least one two-level system, in particular a two-level system that is not population-inverted, having an at least metastable lower state, and the optical length of the resonator (1) comprising at least one curved mirror (1) is selected such that the free spectral bandwidth of the resonator is eq
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Stabilisation of the Repetition Rate of a Passively Q-switched Laser By Means of Coupled Resonators

The invention relates to a Q-switched laser comprising a pump light source (1), an optical resonator, in which a laser medium (6) is situated and a passive Q-switch (5). The aim of the invention is to provide an improved Q-switched laser which has a simple, compact construction with a repetition rate that has at the same time the smallest possible degree of time jitter. To achieve this, according to the invention, part of the light that is decoupled from the optical resonator is fed to an optica
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Glass Sealing of Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

The present invent describes a new sealing process of a specific type of photovoltaic cells named dye-sensitized solar cells. Currently, the sealing of these cells is made by means of a polymer, which connects the two electrode substrates made of glass, isolating the cell's inner content from the outside. The glass-based sealing method has the advantage of enhancing the cell's lifetime. However, glass sealing should not lead to the heating of the whole cell, which may cause its degradation. The
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Smart Device for Absorbing Solar Energy and Controling Sunlight Admission

The present invention provides a process for absorbing solar energy and, simultaneously having a continuous control of the light admission making it possible to install the device in external openings of buildings and equipment, such as windows, shutters or skylights. The system comprises two frames which support plates of transparent material, between which it is possible to introduce a colourful solution coming from an external reservoir. Both frames are interconnected through a flexible membr
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Method and Device for Measuring Characteristic Curves in Photovoltaic Systems

The invention relates to a measuring device that can capture the characteristic curves in photovoltaic systems, such as current versus voltage (I-V) and power versus voltage (P-V) of a solar cell (CS), of a photovoltaic panel (PV) or of a group of same. The invention is characterised in that it is formed by one or more DC/DC converters (10) [Direct Current/Direct Current], one or more solar cells (20) or photovoltaic panels (30), a capture and display device (40) and a control circuit (50) conne
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Pyranometer

The invention relates to a high-precision pyranometer with a reduced production cost, the measurements from which are not affected by external temperature differences, thereby eliminating the problem of cosine error, as well as the problems of noise and uncertainties and errors in the processes involved in converting the signal obtained. For this purpose, the pyranometer, which is formed by a sealed casing (1), is provided with a ring cover (3) through which light radiation is collected by a sil
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Thin-film Solar Cells Having Combined Textures

The surface of the substrate has a micrometric pyramidal texture together with a superimposed nanometric random texture formed on the surface of the substrate of a layer of metal or of a layer of transparent conductive oxide (TCO). The corresponding laminas can be prepared by hot-embossing lithography (HEL) with a master having pyramids obtained through chemical attack (etching) of silicon (100) in alkaline medium, or with the corresponding pyramids thereof inverted. The combination of a nanomet
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Direct-bandgap Nano-crystalline Optoelectronic Devices

A photovoltaic device is provided comprising a thin-film of an energy conversion material. The energy conversion material includes one or more quantum structures, where the quantum structures comprise a semiconductor material having an indirect band-gap in the bulk. The average size of the quantum structures is selected such that a direct and an indirect band-gaps are modified in the semiconductor material such that the direct band-gap provides charge carrier generation when the quantum structur
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Solar Module for Summer Houses

Invention is connected with civil and thermal engineering technologies and proposes solutions for use of renewable energy sources - solar energy in case of periodical use of houses particularly summer houses in late autumn, winter time and early spring. Prolongation of life time of building outer constructions (doors, walls etc) of summer houses is main goal of invention. Specific conditions of operation are in summer houses connected with periodical use of building: heat flux from different sou
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Conducting self-cleaning materials and process for producing same

The invention provides a self-cleaning material suitable for use as a front contact in a photovoltaic solar cell structure comprising zinc oxide and indium. The advantage of the invention is to provide a multifunctional thin film material, properties of which include (1) transparency, (2) high levels of conductance, (3) durability (4) UV induced photocatalysis and (5) a hydrophilic surface, that can be employed as the front contact on solar cells to minimise the build up of contaminants whilst g
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Photovoltaic Devices

A photovoltaic device including cathode and anode electrodes (3, 11), and a photovoltaically active layer (5) located over both said electrodes
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Novel Block Copolymers, Methods of Preparation and their Use in Heterojunction Devices

The invention relates to novel block copolymers having both electron donor and electron acceptor monomer units and to methods for their preparation. A further aspect of the invention relates to the use of the novel block copolymers in the fabrication of polymer film based heterojunction devices. In one form the devices display high conversion efficiencies in solar cell applications.
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Novel Compounds, Derivatives Thereof and their Use in Heterojunction Devices

The invention relates to novel polyaromatic and polyheteroaromatic compounds and derivatives thereof. The compounds display high solubility in organic solvents. A further aspect of the invention relates to the use of the novel compounds in the fabrication of organic film based heterojunction devices. In one form the devices display high conversion efficiencies in solar cell applications.
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Method of Manufacturing Mesoscopic Solar Cells

A method of manufacturing a dye sensitised solar cell or other mesoscopic solar cell, including the steps of coating at least a portion of a surface of a substrate with an electrode film or other functional layer, and applying an isostatic pressure over the coated substrate to thereby compact the electrode film or functional layer on the substrate.
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Methods for Fabricating Photovoltaic Modules By Tuning the Optical Properties of Individual Components

Methods for fabricating a photovoltaic module, and the resulting photovoltaic module, are provided and include selecting a photovoltaic cell operable to convert photons to electrons, selecting a light transparent superstrate material having a superstrate absorption coefficient and a superstrate refractive index, and selecting an encapsulant having an encapsulant absorption coefficient and an encapsulant refractive index, wherein an absorption coefficient relationship between the superstrate abso
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Photovoltaic Cell

We developed carbon nanotube-on-silicon heterojunction solar (photovoltaic) cells are provided with moderate efficiencies (>7%) and excellent air stability by integrating nanotechnology with silicon technology. The manufacturing process is simple and scalable, involving solution transfer of a uniform, single-layer or multilayer film of carbon nanotubes onto silicon surface to form heterojunctions (p-n) with high density, and does not require separation of metallic and semiconducting nanotubes. T
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Liquid Crystalline Interpenetrating Polymer Networks

A photovoltaic cell is provided. The photovoltaic cell can be an interconnecting liquid crystalline polymer network. Reactive mesogens of the formula B-S-A-S-B wherein A is a chromophore, S is a spacer and B is an end group susceptible to polymerization are used in the manufacture of the interconnecting liquid crystalline polymer network.
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Solar Energy Harvesting System

Disclosed is a solar energy harvesting system comprising: a solar radiation redirecting layer, comprising an array of features with a sub millimetre scale, adapted to redirect solar radiation having a predetermined range of wavelengths; a solar radiation guiding layer for guiding solar radiation; wherein the system further comprises solar energy harvesting means adapted to convert solar energy into electric energy; where the solar radiation redirecting layer, redirects solar radiation with the p
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System for Selectively Filling Pin Holes, Weak Shunts And/or Scribe Lines in Photovoltaic Devices and Photovoltaic Cells Made Thereby

A system for selectively filling pin holes, weak shunts and/or scribe lines in photovoltaics devices and photovoltaic cells made thereby is described.
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System and Method for High Yield Deposition of Conductive Materials Onto Solar Cells

A system for reducing damage to solar cells during a process for depositing a conductive material on a solar cell is disclosed where an electrical bias or floating potential is applied to the solar cell; and/or an electrical bias is applied to an external electrode(s) so that charged particles of a certain type are redirected away from the solar cells, avoiding the creation of a sufficiently high reverse bias on the solar cell to breakdown the cell.
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Flexible Photovoltaic Cells Having a Polyimide Material Layer and Method of Producing Same

A photovoltaic cell is fabricated onto a polyimide film using an unbalanced RF magnetron sputtering process. The sputtering process includes the addition of 0.05% to 0.5% oxygen to an inert gas stream. Portions of the photovoltaic cell are exposed to an elevated temperature CdCl2 treatment which is at or below the glass transition temperature of the polyimide film.
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Nanodipole Photovoltaic Devices, Methods of Making and Methods of Use Thereof

A photovoltaic device includes a built-in electric field generated by electric dipoles of nanoparticles embedded in a photoconducting host.
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Method of Producing a Flexible Photovoltaic Cell Using a Flexible Polymer-fixture Laminate

A roll-to-roll manufacturing process for producing flexible, thin-film photovoltaic cells includes a flexible manufacturing fixture to transport a superstrate layer between successive processing stations. The processing stations apply functional layers of the photovoltaic cell in succession while the flexible fixture absorbs the loads imparted by the manufacturing process to prevent delamination of the built up cell layers. The superstrate is releasably retained onto the fixture. The fixture is
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Back Contact Buffer Layer for Thin-film Solar Cells

A photovoltaic cell structure is disclosed that includes a buffer/passivation layer at a CdTe/Back contact interface. The buffer/passivation layer is formed from the same material that forms the n-type semiconductor active layer. In one embodiment, the buffer layer and the n-type semiconductor active layer are formed from cadmium sulfide (CdS). A method of forming a photovoltaic cell includes the step of forming the semiconductor active layers and the buffer/passivation layer within the same dep
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Nanostructured Organic Solar Cells

Solar cells having at least one N-type material layer and at least one P-type material layer forming a patterned p-n junction are described. A conducting layer may provide electrical communication between the p-n junction and an electrode layer.
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A Solar Water Heater

The present invention provides a solar water heating apparatus which includes concentric inner and outer vessels defining an annular cavity therebetween, within which cavity a phase change material is located, and which is vaporised when solar radiation is incident on the outer vessel, in order to transfer heat to a water store contained in the inner vessel, this water store being fed fresh unheated water while the heated water is extracted therefrom for domestic or other purposes.
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Method of Forming a Solar Cell Absorber Layer

A method of forming a layer of CuxZny(Gp14)z(Gp16) w where [x/(y+z) lies in the range 0.6 - 1.4], y/(y + z) lies in the range 0.25 - 0.7 and w/(x + y + z) lies in the range 0.8 - 1.2 comprising the steps of : depositing a primary structure on a substrate, the primary structure comprising a first component, a second component and a third component substantially in the stoichiometric ratio x:y:z, the first component comprising Cu, the second component comprising Zn and the third component comprisi
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Solar Cell Assembly

A solar cell assembly comprising a solar cell and light collector, said solar cell comprising a photoconducting material which has a generally planar structure comprising first and second opposing sides having the largest surface area of the sides of said structure with remaining sides forming the edges of said structure; said light collector being provided adjacent to at least one of the edges of said solar cell, said light collector being configured to collect solar radiation and provide radia
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Semiconductor Optoelectronic Devices and Methods for Making Semiconductor Optoelectronic Devices

A semiconductor-based optoelectronic device such as a solar cell has an n-type layer and a p-type layer, together forming a p-n junction. Contact regions are formed on the device, with light-receiving regions between contact regions. A window layer is formed over the n-type layer or the p-type layer at the light-receiving region, the window layer promoting reduced carrier recombination at the surface of the n-type or p-type layer, and/or reflection of minority carriers in the n-type or p-type la
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Intermediate Band Semiconductor Photovoltaic Devices, Uses Thereof and Methods for their Manufacture

A photovoltaic device such as a solar cell is disclosed having an n-base layer of Inx (AlyGai-y) 1-xP and a p-emitter layer of Inx (AlyGa1-y) 1-xP. x is typically 0.48 for the n-base and for the p-emitter. The n-base layer comprises a superlattice structure, or a superlattice structure is provided between the n-base layer and the p-emitter layer. Each repeating unit of the superlattice structure has quantum dots of InAsZP1-Z where 0 = z = 1 with a strain balancing layer of Inx (AlyGa1-y) 1-xP. x
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Photovoltaic Devices Comprising Ion Pairs

A photovoltaic (PV) device having an electron donor region and electron acceptor region, the donor and acceptor regions comprising conjugated polymers and/or molecular semiconductors, ion pairs being, preferably preferentially, located at, near or towards the interface between the donor and acceptor regions.
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Photovoltaic module for use on roof to produce energy, has solar cells arranged on substrate, predominantly covered with expandable material and arranged in such manner that solar cells are partly spa

The module (1) has solar cells (6) arranged on a substrate (2), which consists of an expandable material. The cells are predominantly covered with another expandable material and arranged in such a manner that the cells are partly spaced to each other, where the latter expandable material is polyurethane or thermoplastic. The cells cover a surface of the substrate to about 50 to 80 percent. The cells are designed as printed solar cells, organic solar cells and thin film solar cells such as carci
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Method for Manufacturing Solar Cell

A method for manufacturing a solar cell having a single crystal silicon substrate and an amorphous silicon layer provided at least on one side surface of the single crystal silicon substrate is provided. The method includes the steps of: (a) forming an intrinsic amorphous silicon layer by coating a first liquid containing silicon atoms on one surface of the single crystal silicon substrate, and sintering the first liquid coated; and (b) forming an impure amorphous silicon layer on the intrinsic
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Solar Cell Module and Method of Producing Same

A solar cell module and method of producing the same. The solar cell module has a configuration in which busbars (21) are bonded by a conductive adhesive (18) onto the back surface electrode layer (14) of a solar cell (10) comprising a translucent insulation substrate (11) on which a transparent conductive layer (12), photoelectric conversion layer (13), and back surface electrode layer (14) are formed, said busbars (21) configured so that there are portions where a plurality of conductive wires
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Method for Manufacturing Thin Film Solar Cell

Disclosed is a thin film solar cell manufacturing method provided with an adhesion step wherein a bus bar is adhered to the backside electrode layer of a solar cell string comprised of a transparent electroconductive film, a photovoltaic conversion layer, and the backside electrode layer which are formed on a translucent insulation substrate. The adhesion step includes a first step wherein an electroconductive tape is adhered to the adhesion face of the bus bar which is to be adhered to the back
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Solar Panel, Manufacturing Method Therefor, Solar Cell Module, and Solar Panel Manufacturing Device

Disclosed are a solar panel having high reliability and productivity with improved insulation properties and moisture resistance at the peripheral edges, a solar cell module, a solar cell manufacturing method, and a solar cell manufacturing device. The solar panel (1) is equipped with a solar cell element (11), a surface protecting section (10) that is positioned on the surface of the solar cell element (11) and which protects the solar cell element (11), and an underside surface protecting sect
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Cheap Energy from the Sun

Isis Project No 3656 A novel inorganic thin film photovoltaic system has been developed which offers stable low cost solar generation without using rare-metal elements. Marketing Opportunity Cheap solar technologies which are easily mass produced are highly desirable and a key part of rising to the current energy challenge; the solar cell market is growing rapidly, both in traditional silicon technologies, and also with newer inorganic and organic photovoltaic materials. The high cost as
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Sun Thermodynamic Power Station

Sun Thermodynamic Power Station
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Extremely Efficient Small Molecule for Organic Solar Cells

BACKGROUND: Solar cells based on organic semiconductors are evolving into a promising cost-effective alternative to silicon-based solar cells due to low-cost and easy fabrication by solution processing, their light weight, and compatibility with flexible substrates. Devices based on these materials are predicted to have a theoretical efficiency approaching 10%. To date, solution processed small molecule based solar cell devices have power conversion efficiencies ranging from 0.3% to 1.3%. Higher
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Solar Power Mechanism - User Friendly, Highly Effecient, Economical & Proprietary

An improved solar power mechanism that absorbs and utilizes the light and heat energy it collects with little escaping back into the atmosphere. Current technologies are highly inefficient and serve to reflect useful heat and light energy wastefully back into the atmosphere. Current designs add to global warming and have adverse effects on Aviation and many bird and wildlife species. Our designs serve to correct these and other important flaws of the current technologies. Solar Power mechani
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Voltage-Matched, Monolithic, Multi-Band-Gap Devices

Monolithic, tandem, photonic cells include at least a first semiconductor layer and a second semiconductor layer, wherein each semiconductor layer includes an n-type region, a p-type region, and a given band-gap energy. Formed within each semiconductor layer is a sting of electrically connected photonic sub-cells. By carefully selecting the numbers of photonic sub-cells in the first and second layer photonic sub-cell string(s), and by carefully selecting the manner in which the sub-cells in a fi
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Wafer Characteristics via Reflectometry and Wafer Processing Apparatus and Method

This system includes a measuring device to acquire non-contact thickness measurements of a wafer and a laser beam to cut the wafer at a rate based at least in part on one or more thicknesses measurements. The method includes illuminating a substrate with radiation, measuring at least some radiation reflected from the substrate, determining one or more cutting parameters based at least in part on the measured radiation and cutting the substrate using the one or more cutting parameters. Various ot
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ZnO/Cu(InGa)Se, Solar Cells Prepared by Vapor Phase Zn Doping

A process for making a thin film ZnO/Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 solar cell without depositing a buffer layer and by Zn doping from a vapor phase, comprising: depositing Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 layer on a metal back contact deposited on a glass substrate; heating the Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 layer on the metal back contact on the glass substrate to a temperature range between about 100.degree. C. to about 250.degree. C.; subjecting the heated layer of Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 to an evaporant species from a Zn compound; and sputt
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Voltage-Matched, Monolithic, Multi-Band-Gap Devices

Monolithic, tandem, photonic cells include at least a first semiconductor layer and a second semiconductor layer, wherein each semiconductor layer includes an n-type region, a p-type region, and a given band-gap energy. Formed within each semiconductor layer is a sting of electrically connected photonic sub-cells. By carefully selecting the numbers of photonic sub-cells in the first and second layer photonic sub-cell string(s), and by carefully selecting the manner in which the sub-cells in a fi
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Vertical Two Chamber Reaction Furnace

A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has
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Variable Temperature Semiconductor Film Deposition

A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while c
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Uniform -Burning Matrix Burner

Technology Description Computer simulation was used in the development of an inward-burning, radial matrix gas burner and heat pipe heat exchanger. The burner and exchanger can be used to heat a Stirling engine on cloudy days when a solar dish, the normal source of heat, cannot be used. Geometrical requirements of the application forced the use of the inward burning approach, which presents difficulty in achieving a good flow distribution and air/fuel mixing. The present invention solved the pro
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Unglazed Transpired Solar Collector Having a Low Thermal Conductance Absorber

Technology Description An unglazed transpired solar collector using solar radiation to heat incoming air for distribution, comprising an unglazed absorber formed of low thermal-conductance material having a front surface for receiving the solar radiation and openings in the unglazed absorber for passage of the incoming air such that the incoming air is heated as it passes towards the front surface of the absorber and the heated air passes through the openings in the absorber for distribution.
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Ultra-Accelerated Natural Sunlight Exposure Testing Facilities

Technology Description A multi-faceted concentrator apparatus for providing ultra-accelerated natural sunlight exposure testing for sample materials under controlled weathering conditions comprising: facets that receive incident natural sunlight, transmits VIS/NIR and reflects UV/VIS to deliver a uniform flux of UV/VIS onto a sample exposure plane located near a center of a facet array in chamber means that provide concurrent levels of temperature and/or relative humidity at high levels of up to
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Ultra-Accelerated Natural Sunlight Exposure Testing

Technology Description Process and apparatus for providing ultra accelerated natural sunlight exposure testing of samples under controlled weathering without introducing unrealistic failure mechanisms in exposed materials and without breaking reciprocity relationships between flux exposure levels and cumulative dose that includes multiple concurrent levels of temperature and relative humidity at high levels of natural sunlight comprising:a) concentrating solar flux uniformly;b) directing the con
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Stand-Alone Photovoltaic (PV) Powered Electrochromic Window

Technology Description A variable transmittance double pane window includes an electrochromic material that has been deposited on one pane of the window in conjunction with an array of photovoltaic cells deposited along an edge of the pane to produce the required electric power necessary to vary the effective transmittance of the window. A battery is placed in a parallel fashion to the array of photovoltaic cells to allow the user the ability to manually override the system when a desired transm
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Production of Fullerenes Using Concentrated Solar Flux

Technology Description A method of producing soot containing high amounts of fullerenes comprising: providing a primary concentrator capable of impingement of a concentrated beam of sunlight onto a carbon source to cause vaporization of carbon and subsequent formation of fullerenes, or providing a solar furnace having a primary concentrator with a focal point that concentrates a solar beam of sunlight; providing a reflective secondary concentrator having an entrance aperture and an exit aperture
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Multi-Facet Concentrator of Solar Setup for Irradiating the Objects Placed in a Target Plane with Solar Light

Technology Description According to the proposed invention, this technical result is achieved so that many-facet concentrator of a solar setup for exposure of objects, placed in a target plane, to the action of solar radiation containing a supporting frame and facets differing by that the facets of the concentrator are chosen with spherical focusing reflective surfaces of equal focal lengths and with selective coatings reflecting a desired spectral fraction of solar radiation, and are arranged o
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Method and Apparatus for Uniformly Concentrating Solar Flux for Photovoltaic Applications

Technology Description A dish reflector and method for concentrating moderate solar flux uniformly on a target plane on a solar cell array, the dish having a stepped reflective surface that is characterized by a plurality of ring-like segments arranged about a common axis, and each segment having a concave spherical configuration.
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Hybrid Solar Central Receiver for Combined Cycle Power Plant

Technology Description A hybrid combined cycle power plant including a solar central receiver for receiving solar radiation and converting it to thermal energy. The power plant includes a molten salt heat transfer medium for transferring the thermal energy to an air heater. The air heater uses the thermal energy to preheat the air from the compressor of the gas cycle. The exhaust gases from the gas cycle are directed to a steam turbine for additional energy production.
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Dish/Stirling Hybrid-Receiver

Description A hybrid high-temperature solar receiver is provided which comprises a solar heat-pipe-receiver including a front dome having a solar absorber surface for receiving concentrated solar energy, a heat pipe wick, a rear dome, a sidewall joining the front and the rear dome, and a vapor and a return liquid tube connecting to an engine, and a fossil fuel fired combustion system in radial integration with the sidewall for simultaneous operation with the solar heat pipe receiver, the combust
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Combustion System for Hybrid Solar Fossil Fuel Receiver

Technology Description A combustion system for a hybrid solar receiver comprises a pre-mixer which combines air and fuel to form an air-fuel mixture. The mixture is introduced tangentially into a cooling jacket. A burner plenum is fluidically connected to the cooling jacket such that the burner plenum and the cooling jacket are arranged in thermal contact with one another. The air-fuel mixture flows through the cooling jacket cooling the burner plenum to reduce pre-ignition of the air-fuel mixtu
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Variable Temperature Semiconductor Film Deposition

U.S. Patent 5,712,187 Technology Description A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing t
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Use of Separate ZnTe Interface Layers to Form OHMIC Contacts to p-CdTe Films

U.S. Patent 5,909,632 Technology Description A method of improving electrical contact to a thin film of a p-type tellurium-containing II-VI semiconductor comprising:depositing a first undoped layer of ZnTe on a thin film of p-type tellurium containing II-VI semiconductor with material properties selected to limit the formation of potential barriers at the interface between the p-CdTe and the undoped layer, to a thickness sufficient to control diffusion of the metallic-doped ZnTe into the p-
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Ultra-Accelerated Natural Sunlight Exposure Testing Facilities

U.S. Patent 6,820,509 Technology Description A multi-faceted concentrator apparatus for providing ultra-accelerated natural sunlight exposure testing for sample materials under controlled weathering conditions comprising: facets that receive incident natural sunlight, transmits VIS/NIR and reflects UV/VIS onto a secondary reflector that delivers a uniform flux of UV/VIS onto a sample exposure plane located near a center of a facet array in a chamber that provide concurrent levels of tempera
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Two Chamber Reaction Furnace

U.S. Patent 5,747,099 Technology Description A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor pe
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Tunnel-Junction Multiple Wavelength Light-Emitting Diodes

U.S. Patent 5,166,761 Technology Description A multiple wavelength LED having a monolithic cascade cell structure comprising at least two p-n junctions, wherein each of said at least two p-n junctions have substantially different band gaps, and electrical connector means by which said at least two p-n junctions may be collectively energized; and wherein said diode comprises a tunnel junction or interconnect. Interested in this Technology? See the full U.S. Patent for this technology. NR
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Tunable Circuit for Tunable Capacitor Devices

U.S. Patent 7,109,818 Technology Description A tunable circuit (10) for a capacitively tunable capacitor device (12) is provided. The tunable circuit (10) comprises a tunable circuit element (14) and a non-tunable dielectric element (16) coupled to the tunable circuit element (16). A tunable capacitor device (12) and a method for increasing the figure of merit in a tunable capacitor device (12) are also provided. Interested in this Technology? See the full U.S. Patent for this technolog
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Thin-Film Solar Cell Fabricated on a Flexible Metallic Substrate

U.S. Patent 7,053,294 Technology Description A thin-film solar cell (10) is provided. The thin-film solar cell (10) comprises a flexible metallic substrate (12) having a first surface and a second surface. A back metal contact layer (16) is deposited on the first surface of the flexible metallic substrate (12). A semiconductor absorber layer (14) is deposited on the back metal contact. A photoactive film deposited on the semiconductor absorber layer (14) forms a heterojunction structure and
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Thin Transparent Conducting Films of Cadmium Stannate

U.S. Patent 6,221,495 Technology Description A process for preparing thin Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 films. The process comprises the steps of RF sputter coating a Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 layer onto a first substrate; coating a second substrate with a CdS layer; contacting the Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 layer with the CdS layer in a water- and oxygen-free environment and heating the first and second substrates and the Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 and CdS layers to a temperature sufficient to induce crystallization of the
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System for Monitoring the Growth of Crystalline Films on Stationary Substrates

U.S. Patent 5,588,995 Technology Description A system for monitoring the growth of crystalline films on stationary or rotating substrates includes a combination of some or all of the elements including a photodiode sensor for detecting the intensity of incoming light and converting it to a measurable current, a lens for focusing the RHEED pattern emanating from the phosphor screen onto the photodiode, an interference filter for filtering out light other than that which emanates from the pho
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System for Characterizing Semiconductor Materials and Photovoltaic Device

U.S. Patent 5,581,346 Technology Description Apparatus for detecting and mapping defects in the surfaces of polycrystalline material in a manner that distinguishes dislocation pits from grain boundaries includes a first laser of a first wavelength for illuminating a wide spot on the surface of the material, a second laser of a second relatively shorter wavelength for illuminating a relatively narrower spot on the surface of the material, a light integrating sphere with apertures for capturi
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Substrate for Thin Silicon Solar Cells

U.S. Patent 5,401,331 Technology Description A photovoltaic device for converting solar energy into electrical signals comprises a substrate, a layer of photoconductive semiconductor material grown on said substrate, wherein the substrate comprises an alloy of boron and silicon, the boron being present in a range of from 0.1 to 1.3 atomic percent, the alloy having a lattice constant substantially matched to that of the photoconductive semiconductor material and a resistivity of less than 1.
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Substrate for Thin Silicon Solar Cells

U.S. Patent 5,785,769 Technology Description A substrate for a photovoltaic device wherein the substrate is the base upon which photosensitive material is to be grown and the substrate comprises an alloy having boron in a range from 0.1 atomic % of the alloy to 1.3 atomic % of the alloy and the substrate has a resistivity less than 3.times.10.sup.-3 ohm-cm. Interested in this Technology? See the full U.S. Patent for this technology. NREL is looking for an organization to develop and com
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Substrate Structures for InP-Based Devices

U.S. Patent 4,963,949 Technology Description A substrate structure for an InP-based semiconductor device having an InP based film is disclosed. The substrate structure includes a substrate region having a lightweight bulk substrate and an upper GaAs layer. An interconnecting region is disposed between the substrate region and the InP-based device. The interconnecting region includes a compositionally graded intermediate layer substantially lattice-matched at one end to the GaAs layer and su
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Stand-Alone Photovoltaic (PV) Powered Electrochromic Window

Technology Description A variable transmittance double pane window includes an electrochromic material that has been deposited on one pane of the window in conjunction with an array of photovoltaic cells deposited along an edge of the pane to produce the required electric power necessary to vary the effective transmittance of the window. A battery is placed in a parallel fashion to the array of photovoltaic cells to allow the user the ability to manually override the system when a desired transm
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Stacked Switchable Element and Diode Combination

U.S. Patent 7,067,850 Technology Description A device (10) comprises a semiconductor diode (12) and a switchable element (14) positioned in stacked adjacent relationship so that the semiconductor diode (12) and the switchable element (14) are electrically connected in series with one another. The switchable element (14) is switchable from a low-conductance state to a high-conductance state in response to the application of a forming voltage to the switchable element (14). Interested in t
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Solution Synthesis of Mixed-Metal Chalcogenide Nanoparticles and Spray Deposition of Precursor Films

U.S. Patent 6,126,740 Technology Description A colloidal suspension comprising metal chalcogenide nanoparticles and a volatile capping agent. The colloidal suspension is made by reacting a metal salt with a chalcogenide salt in an organic solvent to precipitate a metal chalcogenide, recovering the metal chalcogenide, and admixing the metal chalcogenide with a volatile capping agent. The colloidal suspension is spray deposited onto a substrate to produce a semiconductor precursor film which
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Solar-Thermal Fluid-Wall Reaction Processing

U.S. Patent 7,033,570 Technology Description The present invention provides a method for carrying out high temperature thermal dissociation reactions requiring rapid-heating and short residence times using solar energy. In particular, the present invention provides a method for carrying out high temperature thermal reactions such as dissociation of hydrocarbon containing gases and hydrogen sulfide to produce hydrogen and dry reforming of hydrocarbon containing gases with carbon dioxide. In
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Single-Junction Solar Cells with the Optium Band Gap for Terrestrial Concentrator Applications

U.S. Patent 5,376,185 Technology Description A single-junction solar cell having the ideal band gap for terrestrial concentrator applications. Computer modeling studies of single-junction solar cells have shown that the presence of absorption bands in the direct spectrum has the effect of "pinning" the optimum band gap for a wide range of operating conditions at a value of 1.14.+-.0.02 eV. Efficiencies exceeding 30% may be possible at high concentration ratios for devices with the ideal ban
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Shallow Melt Apparatus for Semicontinuous Czochralski Crystal Growth

U.S. Patent 6,984,263 Technology Description The present invention relates to growing crystals without encountering the problems normally associated with conventional Czochralski crystal growth of: strong melt convection that causes deteriorated crystal quality, constantly changing thermal conditions; segregation causing non-uniformity in dopant concentrations; a slow growth rate and an uncontrollable interface shape; slow turn around between crystal ingots; and significant loss of feedstoc
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Recrystallization Method to Selenization of Thin-Film Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 for Semiconductor Device Applications

U.S. Patent 5,436,204 Technology Description A process for fabricating slightly Cu-poor thin-films of Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 on a substrate for semiconductor device applications includes the steps of forming initially a slightly Cu-rich, phase separated, mixture of Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 :Cu.sub.x Se on the substrate in solid form followed by exposure of the Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 :Cu.sub.x Se solid mixture to an overpressure of Se vapor and (In,Ga) vapor for deposition on the Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 :Cu.sub.x
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Reactive Codoping of GaAlInP Compound Semiconductors

U.S. Patent 7,329,554 Technology Description A GaAlInP compound semiconductor and a method of producing a GaAlInP compound semiconductor are provided. The apparatus and method comprises a GaAs crystal substrate in a metal organic vapor deposition reactor. Al, Ga, and In vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing organometallic compounds. P vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing phospine gas; group II vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing an organometallic group IIA or IIB com
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Rapid Low-Temperature Epitaxial Growth Using a Hot-Element Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition Process

U.S. Patent 6,251,183 Technology Description The invention provides a process for depositing an epitaxial layer on a crystalline substrate, comprising the steps of providing a chamber having an element capable of heating, introducing the substrate into the chamber, heating the element at a temperature sufficient to decompose a source gas, passing the source gas in contact with the element; and forming an epitaxial layer on the substrate. Interested in this Technology? See the full U.S.
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Radio Frequency Coupling Apparatus and Method for Measuring Minority Carrier Lifetimes in Semiconductor Materials

U.S. Patent 6,369,603 Technology Description An apparatus for measuring the minority carrier lifetime of a semiconductor sample using radio-frequency coupling. The measuring apparatus includes an antenna that is positioned a coupling distance from a semiconductor sample which is exposed to light pulses from a laser during sampling operations. A signal generator is included to generate high frequency, such as 900 MHz or higher, sinusoidal waveform signals that are split into a reference sign
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Production of Films and Powders for Semiconductor Device Applications

U.S. Patent 5,731,031 Technology Description A process for chemical bath deposition of selenide and sulfide salts as films and powders employable as precursors for the fabrication of solar cell devices. The films and powders include (1) Cu.sub.x Se.sub.n, wherein x=1-2 and n=1-3; (2) Cu.sub.x Ga.sub.y Se.sub.n, wherein x=1-2, y=0-1 and n=1-3; (3) Cu.sub.x In.sub.y Se.sub.n, wherein x=1-2.27, y=0.72-2 and n=1-3; (4) Cu.sub.x (InGa).sub.y Se.sub.n, wherein x=1-2.17, y=0.96-2 and n=1-3; (5) In
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Production of Films and Powders for Semiconductor Device Applications

U.S. Patent 5,731,031 Technology Description A process for chemical bath deposition of selenide and sulfide salts as films and powders employable as precursors for the fabrication of solar cell devices. The films and powders include (1) Cu.sub.x Se.sub.n, wherein x=1-2 and n=1-3; (2) Cu.sub.x Ga.sub.y Se.sub.n, wherein x=1-2, y=0-1 and n=1-3; (3) Cu.sub.x In.sub.y Se.sub.n, wherein x=1-2.27, y=0.72-2 and n=1-3; (4) Cu.sub.x (InGa).sub.y Se.sub.n, wherein x=1-2.17, y=0.96-2 and n=1-3; (5) In
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Processing Approach Towards the Formation of Thin-Film CU(IN,GA)SE2

U.S. Patent 6,518,086 Technology Description A two-stage method of producing thin-films of group IB-IIIA-VIA on a substrate for semiconductor device applications includes a first stage of depositing an amorphous group IB-IIIA-VIA precursor onto an unheated substrate, wherein the precursor contains all of the group IB and group IIIA constituents of the semiconductor thin-film to be produced in the stoichiometric amounts desired for the final product, and a second stage which involves subject
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Process for Producing Cadmium Sulfide on a Cadmium Telluride Surface

U.S. Patent 5,541,118 Technology Description A process for producing a layer of cadmium sulfide on a cadmium telluride surface to be employed in a photovoltaic device. The process comprises providing a cadmium telluride surface which is exposed to a hydrogen sulfide plasma at an exposure flow rate, an exposure time and an exposure temperature sufficient to permit reaction between the hydrogen sulfide and cadmium telluride to thereby form a cadmium sulfide layer on the cadmium telluride surf
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Process for Fabricating Polycrystalline Semiconductor Thin-Film Solar Cells, and Cells Produced Thereby

U.S. Patent 6,137,048 Technology Description A novel, simplified method for fabricating a thin-film semiconductor heterojunction photovoltaic device includes initial steps of depositing a layer of cadmium stannate and a layer of zinc stannate on a transparent substrate, both by radio frequency sputtering at ambient temperature, followed by the depositing of dissimilar layers of semiconductors such as cadmium sulfide and cadmium telluride, and heat treatment to convert the cadmium stannate t
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Preparation of a Semiconductor Thin Film

U.S. Patent 5,711,803 Technology Description A process for the preparation of a semiconductor film. The process comprises depositing nanoparticles of a semiconductor material onto a substrate whose surface temperature during nanoparticle deposition thereon is sufficient to cause substantially simultaneous fusion of the nanoparticles to thereby coalesce with each other and effectuate film growth. Interested in this Technology? See the full U.S. Patent for this technology. NREL is looking
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Preparation of Transparent Conductors, Ferroelectric Memory Materials and Ferrites

U.S. Patent 5,785,837 Technology Description A process for the preparation by electrodeposition of metal oxide film and powder compounds for ferroelectric memory materials and ferrites wherein the metal oxide includes a plurality of metals. The process comprises providing an electrodeposition bath, providing soluble salts of the metals to this bath, electrically energizing the bath to thereby cause formation of a recoverable film of metal on the electrode, recovering the resultant film as a
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Preparation of CuInSe.sub.2 Precursors Films and Powders by Electroless Deposition

U.S. Patent 5,976,614 Technology Description A method for electroless deposition of Cu.sub.x In.sub.y Ga.sub.z Se.sub.n (x=0-2, y=0-2, z=0-2, n=0-3) precursor films and powders onto a metallic substrate comprising:preparing an aqueous bath solution of compounds selected from the group consisting of:I) a copper compound, a selenium compound, an indium compound and gallium compound; II) a copper compound, a selenium compound and an indium compound; III) a selenium compound, and indium compoun
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Plasma and Reactive Ion Etchning to Prepare OHMIC Contacts

U.S. Patent 6,458,254 Technology Description A method of making a low-resistance electrical contact between a metal and a layer of p-type CdTe surface by plasma etching and reactive ion etching comprising:a) placing a CdS/CdTe layer into a chamber and evacuating said chamber;b) backfilling the chamber with Argon or a reactive gas to a pressure sufficient for plasma ignition; andc) generating plasma ignition by energizing a cathode which is connected to a power supply to enable the plasma to
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Photovoltaic Devices Comprising Zinc Stannate Buffer Layer and Method for Making

U.S. Patent 6,169,246 Technology Description A photovoltaic device has a buffer layer zinc stannate Zn.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 disposed between the semiconductor junction structure and the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layer to prevent formation of localized junctions with the TCO through a thin window semiconductor layer, to prevent shunting through etched grain boundaries of semiconductors, and to relieve stresses and improve adhesion between these layers. Interested in this Technology?
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Photovoltaic Devices Comprising Cadmium Stannate Transparent Conducting Films and Method for Making

U.S. Patent 5,922,142 Technology Description A photovoltaic device having a substrate, a layer of Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 disposed on said substrate as a front contact, a thin film comprising two or more layers of semiconductor materials disposed on said layer of Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4, and an electrically conductive film disposed on said thin film of semiconductor materials to form a rear electrical contact to said thin film. The device is formed by RF sputter coating a Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 layer ont
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Passivating Etchants for Metallic Particles

U.S. Patent 6,436,305 Technology Description The present invention provides a process for etching a corrosion layer, such as oxide or hydroxide, from and concomitantly forming a passivating layer on the surface of metallic nanoparticles. A reaction mixture is prepared by dispersing sodium hexafluoroacetylacetonate (Na(hfa)) and a metallic particle powder having oxide or hydroxide corrosion layers in hexane solvent. The mixture is allowed to react for a time sufficient to etch the oxide or h
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Optical System for Determining Physical Characteristics of a Solar Cell

Technology Description The invention provides an improved optical system for determining the physical characteristics of a solar cell. The system comprises a lamp means for projecting light in a wide solid-angle onto the surface of the cell; a chamber for receiving the light through an entrance port, the chamber having an interior light absorbing spherical surface, an exit port for receiving a beam of light reflected substantially normal to the cell, a cell support, and an lower aperture for rel
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Optical Processing Furnace with Quartz Muffle and Diffuser Plate

U.S. Patent 5,452,396 Technology Description An optical furnace for annealing a process wafer comprising a source of optical energy, a quartz muffle having a door to hold the wafer for processing, and a quartz diffuser plate to diffuse the light impinging on the quartz muffle; a feedback system with a light sensor located in the door or wall of the muffle is also provided for controlling the source of optical energy. The quartz for the diffuser plate is surface etched (to give the quartz di
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Optical Processing Furnace with Quartz Muffle and Diffuser Plate

U.S. Patent 5,577,157 Technology Description An optical furnace for annealing a process wafer comprising a source of optical energy, a quartz muffle having a door to hold the wafer for processing, and a quartz diffuser plate to diffuse the light impinging on the quartz muffle; a feedback system with a light sensor located in the wall of the muffle is also provided for controlling the source of optical energy. Interested in this Technology? See the full U.S. Patent for this technology. N
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Optical Method for Determining the Doping Depth Profile in Silicon

U.S. Patent 7,179,665 Technology Description A method of processing a sample, comprising the steps of: introducing dopant into a sample thereby producing a doped sample; producing a healed sampled including a doping density profile in response to introducing the dopant into the sample; and measuring the doping density profile of the healed sample by performing reflectometry using light generated within the visible wavelength spectrum. Interested in this Technology? See the full U.S. Pat
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Nanostructures Produced by Phase-Separation during Growth of (III-V).sub.1-x(IV.sub.2).sub.x Alloys

U.S. Patent 7,229,498 Technology Description Nanostructures (18) and methods for production thereof by phase separation during metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE). An embodiment of one of the methods may comprise providing a growth surface in a reaction chamber and introducing a first mixture of precursor materials into the reaction chamber to form a buffer layer (12) thereon. A second mixture of precursor materials may be provided into the reaction chamber to form an active region (1
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Multi-junction solar cell device

Trademark 7,309,832 Technology Description A multi-junction solar cell device (10) is provided. The multi-junction solar cell device (10) comprises either two or three active solar cells connected in series in a monolithic structure. The multi-junction device (10) comprises a bottom active cell (20) having a single-crystal silicon substrate base and an emitter layer (23). The multi-junction device (10) further comprises one or two subsequent active cells each having a base layer (32) and an
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Multi-Junction, Monolithic Solar Cell Using Low-Band-Gap Materials Lattice-Matched to GaAs or Ge

U.S. Patent 6,281,426 Technology Description A multi-junction, monolithic, photovoltaic solar cell device is provided for converting solar radiation to photocurrent and photovoltage with improved efficiency. The solar cell device comprises a plurality of semiconductor cells, i.e., active p/n junctions, connected in tandem and deposited on a substrate fabricated from GaAs or Ge. To increase efficiency, each semiconductor cell is fabricated from a crystalline material with a lattice constant
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Monolithic Tandem Solar Cells

U.S. Patent 5,019,177 Technology Description A single-crystal, monolithic, tandem, photovoltaic solar cell is described which includes (a) an InP substrate having upper and lower surfaces, (b) a first photoactive subcell on the upper surface of the InP substrate, and (c) a second photoactive subcell on the first subcell. The first photoactive subcell is GaInAsP of defined composition. The second subcell is InP. The two subcells are lattice matched. The solar cell can be provided as a two-te
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Monolithic Tandem Solar Cell

U.S. Patent 5,322,572 Technology Description A single-crystal, monolithic, tandem, photovoltaic solar cell is described which includes (a) an InP substrate having upper and lower surfaces, (b) a first photoactive subcell on the upper surface of the InP substrate, (c) a second photoactive subcell on the first subcell; and (d) an optically transparent prismatic cover layer over the second subcell. The first photoactive subcell is GaInAsP of defined composition. The second subcell is InP. The
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Monolithic Multi-Color Light Emission/Detection Device

U.S. Patent 5,391,896 Technology Description A single-crystal, monolithic, tandem, multi-color optical transceiver device is described, including (a) an InP substrate having upper and lower surfaces, (b) a first junction on the upper surface of the InP substrate, (c) a second junction on the first junction. The first junction is preferably GaInAsP of defined composition, and the second junction is preferably InP. The two junctions are lattice matched. The second junction has a larger energy
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Molecular Assemblies as Protective Barriers and Adhesion Promotion Interlayer

U.S. Patent 5,487,792 Technology Description A protective diffusion barrier having adhesive qualifies for metalized surfaces is provided by a passivating agent having the formula HS--(CH.sub.2).sub.11 --COOH Which forms a very dense, transparent organized molecular assembly or layer that is impervious to water, alkali, and other impurities and corrosive substances that typically attack metal surfaces. Interested in this Technology? See the full U.S. Patent for this technology. NREL is l
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Method of Preparing Nitrogen Containing Semiconductor Material

U.S. Patent 6,787,385 Technology Description A method of combining group III elements with group V elements that incorporates at least nitrogen from a nitrogen halide for use in semiconductors and in particular semiconductors in photovoltaic cells. Interested in this Technology? See the full U.S. Patent for this technology. NREL is looking for an organization to develop and commercialize this innovative technology. Interested organizations may consider developing/commercializing this te
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Method of Fabricating High-Efficiency Cu(In, Ga)Se.sub.2 Thin Films for Solar Cells

U.S. Patent 5,441,897 Technology Description A process for producing a slightly Cu-poor thin film of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S).sub.2 comprises depositing a first layer of (In,Ga).sub.x (Se,S).sub.y followed by depositing just enough Cu+(Se,S) or Cu.sub.x (Se,S) to produce the desired slightly Cu-poor material. In a variation, most, but not all, (about 90 to 99%) of the (In,Ga).sub.x (Se,S).sub.y is deposited first, followed by deposition of all the Cu+(Se,S) or Cu.sub.x (Se,S) to go near stoichiometr
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Method for Processing Silicon Solar Cells

U.S. Patent 5,627,081 Technology Description The instant invention teaches a novel method for fabricating silicon solar cells utilizing concentrated solar radiation. The solar radiation is concentrated by use of a solar furnace which is used to form a front surface junction and back-surface field in one processing step. The present invention also provides a method of making multicrystallline silicon from amorphous silicon. The invention also teaches a method of texturing the surface of a wa
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Method for Preparing Homogeneous Single Crystal Ternary III-V Alloys

U.S. Patent 5,047,112 Technology Description A method for producing homogeneous, single-crystal III-V ternary alloys of high crystal perfection using a floating crucible system in which the outer crucible holds a ternary alloy of the composition desired to be produced in the crystal and an inner floating crucible having a narrow, melt-passing channel in its bottom wall holds a small quantity of melt of a pseudo-binary liquidus composition that would freeze into the desired crystal compositi
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Method for Improving the Stability of Amorphous Silicon

U.S. Patent 6,713,400 Technology Description A method of producing a metastable degradation resistant amorphous hydrogenated silicon film is provided, which comprises the steps of growing a hydrogenated amorphous silicon film, the film having an exposed surface, illuminating the surface using an essentially blue or ultraviolet light to form high densities of a light induced defect near the surface, and etching the surface to remove the defect. Interested in this Technology? See the full
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Method and apparatus for forming conformal SiN.sub.x films

U.S. Patent 7,300,890 Technology Description A silicon nitride film formation method includes: heating a substrate to be subjected to film formation to a substrate temperature; heating a wire to a wire temperature; supplying silane, ammonia, and hydrogen gases to the heating member; and forming a silicon nitride film on the substrate. Interested in this Technology? See the full U.S. Patent for this technology. NREL is looking for an organization to develop and commercialize this innovat
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Method and Apparatus for Simulating Atmospheric Absorption of Solar Energy Due to Water Vapor and CO.sub.2

U.S. Patent 5,426,569 Technology Description A method and apparatus for improving the accuracy of the simulation of sunlight reaching the earth's surface includes a relatively small heated chamber having an optical inlet and an optical outlet, the chamber having a cavity that can be filled with a heated stream of CO.sub.2 and water vapor. A simulated beam comprising infrared and near infrared light can be directed through the chamber cavity containing the CO.sub.2 and water vapor, whereby t
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Method and Apparatus for Measuring Spatial Uniformity of Radiation

U.S. Patent 6,441,896 Technology Description A method and apparatus for measuring the spatial uniformity of the intensity of a radiation beam from a radiation source based on a single sampling time and/or a single pulse of radiation. The measuring apparatus includes a plurality of radiation detectors positioned on planar mounting plate to form a radiation receiving area that has a shape and size approximating the size and shape of the cross section of the radiation beam. The detectors concu
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Method and Apparatus for Forming High-Critical-Temperatures Superconducting Layers on Flat and/or Elongated Substrates

U.S. Patent 5,304,534 Technology Description An elongated, flexible superconductive wire or strip is fabricated by pulling it through and out of a melt of metal oxide material at a rate conducive to forming a crystalline coating of superconductive metal oxide material on an elongated, flexible substrate wire or strip. A coating of crystalline superconductive material, such as Bi.sub.2 Sr.sub.2 CaCu.sub.2 O.sub.8, is annealed to effect conductive contact between adjacent crystalline structur
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Method and Apparatus for Fabricating a Thin-Film Solar Cell Utilizing a Hot Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition Technique

U.S. Patent 7,122,736 Technology Description A thin-film solar cell is provided. The thin-film solar cell comprises an a-SiGe:H (1.6 eV) n-i-p solar cell having a deposition rate of at least ten (10) .ANG./second for the a-SiGe:H intrinsic layer by hot wire chemical vapor deposition. A method for fabricating a thin film solar cell is also provided. The method comprises depositing a n-i-p layer at a deposition rate of at least ten (10) .ANG./second for the a-SiGe:H intrinsic layer. Intere
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Method and Apparatus for Differential Spectroscopic Atomic Imaging Using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

Technology Description A Method and apparatus for differential spectroscopic atomic-imaging is disclosed for spatial resolution and imaging for display not only individual atoms on a sample surface, but also bonding and the specific atomic species in such bond. The apparatus includes a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) that is modified to include photon biasing, preferably a tuneable laser, modulating electronic surface biasing for the sample, and temperature biasing, preferably a vibration-fr
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Metal processing for impurity gettering in silicon

U.S. Patent 6,852,371 Technology Description A method is provided for gettering impurities from silicon wafers and devices to improve the quality of the material and the device performance. The wafer or the device is coated on the back-side with a layer of aluminum and is illuminated form the other side with light having a significant portion of energy in the IR region. This process leads to formation of a Si--Al melt on the backside, at temperature below 550.degree. C. Dissolved impurities
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Isoelectronic Co-doping

U.S. Patent 6,815,736 Technology Description Isoelectronic co-doping of semiconductor compounds and alloys with deep acceptors and deep donors is used to decrease bandgap, to increase concentration of the dopant constituents in the resulting alloys, and to increase carrier mobilities lifetimes. Group III-V compounds and alloys, such as GaAs and GaP, are isoelectronically co-doped with, for example, N and Bi, to customize solar cells, thermal voltaic cells, light emitting diodes, photodetect
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Ion-Beam Treatment to Prepare Surfaces of p-CdTe Films

U.S. Patent 6,281,035 Technology Description A method of making a low-resistance electrical contact between a p-CdTe layer and outer contact layers by ion beam processing comprising:a) placing a CdS/CdTe device into a chamber and evacuating the chamber;b) orienting the p-CdTe side of the CdS/CdTe layer so that it faces apparatus capable of generating Ar atoms and ions of preferred energy and directionality;c) introducing Ar and igniting the area of apparatus capable of generating Ar atoms a
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Interdigitalized Photovoltaic Power Conversion Device

Technology Description A photovoltaic power conversion device has a top surface adapted to receive impinging radiation. The device includes at least two adjacent, serially connected cells. Each cell includes a semi-insulating substrate and a lateral conductivity layer of a first doped electrical conductivity disposed on the substrate. A base layer is disposed on the lateral conductivity layer and has the same electrical charge conductivity thereof. An emitter layer of a second doped electrical c
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Impurity Gettering in Semiconductors

U.S. Patent 5,426,061 Technology Description A process for impurity gettering in a semiconductor substrate or device such as a silicon substrate or device. The process comprises hydrogenating the substrate or device at the back side thereof with sufficient intensity and for a time period sufficient to produce a damaged back side. Thereafter, the substrate or device is illuminated with electromagnetic radiation at an intensity and for a time period sufficient to cause the impurities to diffu
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High Efficiency, Low Cost, Thin Film Silicon Solar Cell Design and Method for Making

U.S. Patent 6,201,261 Technology Description A semiconductor device having a substrate, a conductive intermediate layer deposited onto said substrate, wherein the intermediate layer serves as a back electrode, an optical reflector, and an interface for impurity gettering, and a semiconductor layer deposited onto said intermediate layer, wherein the semiconductor layer has a grain size at least as large as the layer thickness, and preferably about ten times the layer thickness. The device is
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High Efficiency Low Cost Thin Film Silicon Solar Cell Design and Method for Making

U.S. Patent 5,897,331 Technology Description A semiconductor device having a substrate, a conductive intermediate layer deposited onto said substrate, wherein the intermediate layer serves as a back electrode, an optical reflector, and an interface for impurity gettering, and a semiconductor layer deposited onto said intermediate layer, wherein the semiconductor layer has a grain size at least as large as the layer thickness, and preferably about ten times the layer thickness. The device is
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High Carrier Concentration P-Type Transparent Conducting Oxide Films

U.S. Patent 6,908,782 Technology Description A p-type transparent conducting oxide film is provided which is consisting essentially of, the transparent conducting oxide and a molecular doping source, the oxide and doping source grown under conditions sufficient to deliver the doping source intact onto the oxide. Interested in this Technology? See the full U.S. Patent for this technology. NREL is looking for an organization to develop and commercialize this innovative technology. Interes
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Heterojunction Solar Cell with Passivated Emitter Surface

U.S. Patent 5,316,593 Technology Description A high-efficiency heterojunction solar cell wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga.sub.0.52 In.sub.0.48 P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. A passivating window layer of defined composition is disposed over the emitter layer. The conversion efficiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is prefera
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Heterojunction Solar Cell

U.S. Patent 5,342,453 Technology Description A high-efficiency single heterojunction solar cell wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga.sub.0.52 In.sub.0.48 P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. The conversion effiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the emitter layer. Interested in this Technology? See the f
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Fabrication of Optically Reflecting Ohmic Contacts for Semiconductor Devices

U.S. Patent 5,429,985 Technology Description A method is provided to produce a low-resistivity ohmic contact having high optical reflectivity on one side of a semiconductor device. The contact is formed by coating the semiconductor substrate with a thin metal film on the back reflecting side and then optically processing the wafer by illuminating it with electromagnetic radiation of a predetermined wavelength and energy level through the front side of the wafer for a predetermined period of
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Enhanced Quality Thin Film Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 for Semiconductor Device Applications by Vapor-Phase Recrystallization

U.S. Patent 5,356,839 Technology Description Enhanced quality thin films of Cu.sub.w (In,Ga.sub.y)Se.sub.z for semiconductor device applications are fabricated by initially forming a Cu-rich, phase-separated compound mixture comprising Cu(In,Ga):Cu.sub.x Se on a substrate to form a large-grain precursor and then converting the excess Cu.sub.x Se to Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 by exposing it to an activity of In and/or Ga, either in vapor In and/or Ga form or in solid (In,Ga).sub.y Se.sub.z. Alternati
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Electrochromic-Photovoltaic Film for Light-Sensitive Control of Optical Transmittance

U.S. Patent 5,377,037 Technology Description A variable transmittance optical component includes an electrochromic material and a photovoltaic device-type thin film solar cell deposited in a tandem type, monolithic single coating over the component. A bleed resistor of a predetermined value is connected in series across the electrochromic material and photovoltaic device controlling the activation and deactivation of the electrochromic material. The electrical conductivity between the elect
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Electrochromic Projection and Writing Device

U.S. Patent 6,441,942 Technology Description A display and projection apparatus includes an electrochromic material and a photoconductive material deposited in tandem used in conjunction with a light filtering means for filtering light transmitted through the electrochromic material. When an electric field is applied across the electrochromic material and the photoconductive material, light that is incident onto the photoconductive material through the surface of the projection apparatus ca
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Electrochromic Counter Electrode

U.S. Patent 6,859,297 Technology Description The present invention discloses an amorphous material comprising nickel oxide doped with tantalum that is an anodically coloring electrochromic material. The material of the present invention is prepared in the form of an electrode (200) having a thin film (202) of an electrochromic material of the present invention residing on a transparent conductive film (203). The material of the present invention is also incorporated into an electrochromic d
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Electro-deposition of Superconductor Oxide Films

U.S. Patent 6,332,967 Technology Description Methods for preparing high quality superconducting oxide precursors which are well suited for further oxidation and annealing to form superconducting oxide films. The method comprises forming a multilayered superconducting precursor on a substrate by providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a substrate electrode, and providing to the bath a plurality of precursor metal salts which are capable of exhibiting supercon
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Electrical Isolation of Component Cells in Monolithically Interconnected Modules

U.S. Patent 6,239,354 Technology Description A monolithically interconnected photovoltaic module having cells which are electrically connected which comprises a substrate, a plurality of cells formed over the substrate, each cell including a primary absorber layer having a light receiving surface and a p-region, formed with a p-type dopant, and an n-region formed with an n-type dopant adjacent the p-region to form a single pn-junction, and a cell isolation diode layer having a p-region, for
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Durable Metallized Polymer Mirror

U.S. Patent 5,361,172 Technology Description A metallized polymer mirror construction having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate. Interested in this Technology? See the full U.S. Patent for this technology. NREL is looking fo
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Durable Corrosion and Ultraviolet-Resistant Silver Mirror

U.S. Patent 6,989,924 Technology Description This invention relates to specular silver mirrors. More particularly, it relates to a durable corrosion and ultraviolet-resistant silver mirror for use in solar reflectors. Specifically, a corrosion and ultra violet-resistant silver mirror for use in solar reflectors; the silver layer having a film-forming protective polymer bonded thereto, and a protective shield overlay comprising a transparent multipolymer film that incorporates a UV absorber.
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Dry Texturing of Solar Cells

U.S. Patent 5,358,574 Technology Description A textured backside of a semiconductor device for increasing light scattering and absorption in a semiconductor substrate is accomplished by applying infrared radiation to the front side of a semiconductor substrate that has a metal layer deposited on its backside in a time-energy profile that first produces pits in the backside surface and then produces a thin, highly reflective, low resistivity, epitaxial alloy layer over the entire area of the
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Deposition of Device Quality, Low Hydrogen Content, Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon at High Deposition Rates with Increased Stability Using the Hot Wire Filament Technique

U.S. Patent 6,124,186 Technology Description A method or producing hydrogenated amorphous silicon on a substrate, comprising the steps of: positioning the substrate in a deposition chamber at a distance of about 0.5 to 3.0 cm from a heatable filament in the deposition chamber; maintaining a pressure in said deposition chamber in the range of about 10 to 100 millitorr and pressure times substrate-filament spacing in the range of about 10 to 100 millitorr-cm, heating the filament to a tempera
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Deposition of Device Quality, Low Hydrogen Content, Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon at High Deposition Rates

U.S. Patent 6,468,885 Technology Description A method of fabricating device quality, thin-film a-Si:H for use as semiconductor material in photovoltaic and other devices, comprising in any order; positioning a substrate in a vacuum chamber adjacent a plurality of heatable filaments with a spacing distance L between the substrate and the filaments; heating the filaments to a temperature that is high enough to obtain complete decomposition of silicohydride molecules that impinge said filament
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Deposition of Device Quality Low H Content, Amorphous Silicon Films

U.S. Patent 5,397,737 Technology Description A high quality, low hydrogen content, hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film is deposited by passing a stream of silane gas (SiH.sub.4) over a high temperature, 2000.degree. C., tungsten (W) filament in the proximity of a high temperature, 400.degree. C., substrate within a low pressure, 8 mTorr, deposition chamber. The silane gas is decomposed into atomic hydrogen and silicon, which in turn collides preferably not more than 20-30 times bef
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Deposition of Device Quality Low H Content, Amorphous Silicon Films

U.S. Patent 5,397,737 Technology Description A high quality, low hydrogen content, hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film is deposited by passing a stream of silane gas (SiH.sub.4) over a high temperature, 2000.degree. C., tungsten (W) filament in the proximity of a high temperature, 400.degree. C., substrate within a low pressure, 8 mTorr, deposition chamber. The silane gas is decomposed into atomic hydrogen and silicon, which in turn collides preferably not more than 20-30 times bef
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Defect Mapping System

U.S. Patent 5,406,367 Technology Description Apparatus for detecting and mapping defects in the surfaces of polycrystalline materials in a manner that distinguishes dislocation pits from grain boundaries includes a laser for illuminating a wide spot on the surface of the material, a light integrating sphere with apertures for capturing light scattered by etched dislocation pits in an intermediate range away from specular reflection while allowing light scattered by etched grain boundaries i
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Current-Matched High-Efficiency, Multijunction Monolithic Solar Cells

U.S. Patent 5,223,043 Technology Description The efficiency of a two-junction (cascade) tandem photovoltaic device is improved by adjusting (decreasing) the top cell thickness to achieve current matching. An example of the invention was fabricated out of Ga.sub.0.52 In.sub.0.48 P and GaAs. Additional lattice-matched systems to which the invention pertains include Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x /GaAS (x= 0.3-0.4), GaAs/Ge and Ga.sub.y In.sub.l-y P/Ga.sub.y+0.5 In.sub.0.5-y As (0 Interested in this
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Current- and Lattice-Matched Tandem Solar Cell

U.S. Patent 4,667,059 Technology Description A multijunction (cascade) tandem photovoltaic solar cell device is fabricated of a Ga.sub.x In.sub.1-x P (0.505.ltoreq.X.ltoreq.0.515) top cell semiconductor lattice matched to a GaAs bottom cell semiconductor at a low-resistance heterojunction, preferably a p+/n+ heterojunction between the cells. The top and bottom cells are both lattice matched and current matched for high efficiency solar radiation conversion to electrical energy. Intereste
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Crystallization from High-Temperature Solutions of Si in Copper

U.S. Patent 5,314,571 Technology Description A liquid phase epitaxy method for forming thin crystalline layers of device quality silicon having less than 5X10.sup.16 Cu atoms/cc impurity, comprising: preparing a saturated liquid solution melt of Si in Cu at about 16% to about 90% wt. Si at a temperature range of about 800.degree. C. to about 1400.degree. C. in an inert gas; immersing a substrate in the saturated solution melt; supersaturating the solution by lowering the temperature of the
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Crystallization from High Temperture Solutions of Si in Cu/Al Solvent

U.S. Patent 5,544,616 Technology Description A liquid phase epitaxy method for forming thin crystalline layers of device quality silicon having less than 3.times.10.sup.16 Cu atoms/cc impurity, comprising: preparing a saturated liquid solution of Si in a Cu/Al solvent at about 20 to about 40 at. % Si at a temperature range of about 850.degree. to about 1100.degree. C. in an inert gas; immersing or partially immersing a substrate in the saturated liquid solution; super saturating the solutio
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Controlled Metal-Semiconductor Sintering/Alloying by One-directional Reverse Illumination

U.S. Patent 5,223,453 Technology Description Metal strips deposited on a top surface of a semiconductor substrate are sintered at one temperature simultaneously with alloying a metal layer on the bottom surface at a second, higher temperature. This simultaneous sintering of metal strips and alloying a metal layer on opposite surfaces of the substrate at different temperatures is accomplished by directing infrared radiation through the top surface to the interface of the bottom surface with
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Composition and Method for Encapsulating Photovoltaic Devices

U.S. Patent 6,093,757 Technology Description A composition and method for encapsulating a photovoltaic device which minimizes discoloration of the encapsulant. The composition includes an ethylene-vinyl acetate encapsulant, a curing agent, an optional ultraviolet light stabilizer, and/or an optional antioxidant. The curing agent is preferably 1,1-di-(t-butylperoxy)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane; the ultraviolet light stabilizer is bis-(N-octyloxy-tetramethyl) piperidinyl sebacate and the antio
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Cadmium-Free Junction Fabrication Process for CuInSe2 Thin Film Solar Cells

U.S. Patent 5,948,176 Technology Description The present invention provides an economical, simple, dry and controllable semiconductor layer junction forming process to make cadmium free high efficiency photovoltaic cells having a first layer comprised primarily of copper indium diselenide having a thin doped copper indium diselenide n-type region, generated by thermal diffusion with a group II(b) element such as zinc, and a halide, such as chlorine, and a second layer comprised of a convent
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Atmospheric Optical Calibration System (AOCS)

U.S. Patent 4,779,980 Technology Description An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to gl
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Application of Optical Processing for Growth of Silicon Dioxide

U.S. Patent 5,639,520 Technology Description A process for producing a silicon dioxide film on a surface of a silicon substrate. The process comprises illuminating a silicon substrate in a substantially pure oxygen atmosphere with a broad spectrum of visible and infrared light at an optical power density of from about 3 watts/cm.sup.2 to about 6 watts/cm.sup.2 for a time period sufficient to produce a silicon dioxide film on the surface of the silicon substrate. An optimum optical power den
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Apparatus for Synthesis of a Solar Spectrum

U.S. Patent 5,217,285 Technology Description A xenon arc lamp and a tungsten filament lamp provide light beams that together contain all the wavelengths required to accurately simulate a solar spectrum. Suitable filter apparatus selectively direct visible and ultraviolet light from the xenon arc lamp into two legs of a trifurcated randomized fiber optic cable. Infrared light selectively filtered from the tungsten filament lamp is directed into the third leg of the fiber optic cable. The ind
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Apparatus and Method for Maximizing Power Delivered by a Photovoltaic Array

U.S. Patent 5,747,967 Technology Description A method and apparatus for maximizing the electric power output of a photovoltaic array connected to a battery where the voltage across the photovoltaic array is adjusted through a range of voltages to find the voltage across the photovoltaic array that maximizes the electric power generated by the photovoltaic array and then is held constant for a period of time. After the period of time has elapsed, the electric voltage across the photovoltaic
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Apparatus for Measuring Minority Carrier Lifetimes in Semiconductor Materials

Technology Description An apparatus for determining the minority carrier lifetime of a semiconductor sample includes a positioner for moving the sample relative to a coil. The coil is connected to a bridge circuit such that the impedance of one arm of the bridge circuit is varied as sample is positioned relative to the coil. The sample is positioned relative to the coil such that any change in the photoconductance of the sample created by illumination of the sample creates a linearly related cha
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Apparatus and Method for Measuring the Thickness of a Semiconductor Wafer

U.S. Patent 5,396,332 Technology Description Apparatus for measuring thicknesses of semiconductor wafers, comprising: housing means for supporting a wafer in a light-tight environment; a light source mounted to the housing at one side of the wafer to emit light of a predetermined wavelength to normally impinge the wafer; a light detector supported at a predetermined distance from a side of the wafer opposite the side on which a light source impinges and adapted to receive light transmitted
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Apparatus and Method for Measuring Minority Carrier Lifetimes in Semiconductor Materials

U.S. Patent 6,275,060 Technology Description An apparatus for determining the minority carrier lifetime of a semiconductor sample includes a positioner for moving the sample relative to a coil. The coil is connected to a bridge circuit such that the impedance of one arm of the bridge circuit is varied as sample is positioned relative to the coil. The sample is positioned relative to the coil such that any change in the photoconductance of the sample created by illumination of the sample creates
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Formation of a Nano-Scale Catalyst Phase in SOFC Anodes via Controlled Precipitation

INVENTION: A new method for introducing Ni or another electrocatalyst phase (e.g. Ru) only in the anode active layer, after high temperature firing. The process provides well dispersed nano-scale catalyst microstructure without additional processing relative to conventional anode-supported SOFC methods. ADVANTAGES: The metal enriched anode materials generated sustain a fine catalyst phase during operation with catalytic enhancement and improved SOFC performance over time. SUMMARY: Alterna
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Electron-Blocking Layer / Hole-Transport Layer for Organic Photovoltaics

INVENTION: An electron-blocking / hole transport layer has been developed for organic photovoltaics. The overall power conversion efficiency of MDMO-PPV:PCBM and P3HT:PCBM active layer devices exhibited significantly greater open circuit voltage with electron blocking layer incorporation versus controls. ADVANTAGES: Increased organic photovoltaics efficiency promises performance suitable for special market commercial applications of these devices. SUMMARY: Organic photovoltaics (OPV) offer
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Mixed-phase nano-structured TiO2 composite photocatalyst for energy and energy efficiency applications

INVENTION: Northwestern scientists chemists have designed, synthesized and tested a highly active mixed-phase nano-structured titanium dioxide (TiO2) composite, which shows significantly enhanced photoactivity ADVANTAGES: The mixed-phase TiO2 nanocomposite showed higher photoactivity than its individual components (commercial anatase and sol-gel rutile), and is also more active than Degussa P25, in both oxidation and reduction chemistry. SUMMARY: Mixed-phase titanium dioxide (TiO2)
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Atomic Force Photovoltaic Microscopy (27148)

INVENTOR: Mark Hersam and Benjamin Leever INVENTION: An atomic force photovoltaic microscope (AFPM) has been developed to characterize spatially localized inhomogeneities in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. A biased conductive atomic force microscopy (cAFM) probe is raster-scanned over an array of illuminated solar cells enabling the determination of short-circuit current Isc, open-circuit voltage Voc, fill factor and power conversion efficiency ηp of functioning photovoltaic devices.
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Nano-patterning with Nanospheres (28079)

INVENTION: The invention is a low-cost, "maskless" photolithography method to produce highly uniform arrays of nanopillars and nanoholes over a large area. The invention has the following advantages over existing methods by which to form nanoholes and nanopillars: Single Stage: The process is maskless High throughput: Very large area (square meters, in principle) of nano-holes in a single shot Highly Uniform: Hole size is highly uniform Very Small: Hole diameter is much smaller than the w
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Solar Cells Incorporating Light Harvesting Arrays

A solar cell incorporates a light harvesting array that comprises: (a) a first substrate comprising a first electrode; and (b) a layer of light harvesting rods electrically coupled to the first electrode, each of the light harvesting rods comprising a polymer of Formula I: wherein m is at least 1, and may be from two, three or four to 20 or more; X.sup.1 is a charge separation group (and preferably a porphyrinic macrocycle, which may be one ligand of a double-decker sandwich compound) having an
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Nanocomposite Photovoltaic Cell

Introduction Photovoltaic cells based on polymer semiconductors are of great interest as a low cost approach to solar energy conversion into electricity. The most efficient polymer solar cells are based on binary blends, in which polymers function as electrondonors and fullerenes as electron-acceptors. Heating or annealing induces phase separation of the polymer/fullerene blends, resulting in a two-phase morphology, a process that is difficult to control. Technology description To circumvent the
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Polymer Solar Cells using Self-Assembled Monolayer modified Zinc Oxide/Metal as Cathodes

Introduction Conjugated polymer-based organic solar cells are considered an essential source of inexpensive renewable energy due to their advantages of being fabricated by low-cost and large-area printing and coating techniques on light-weight flexible substrates. Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells composed of a polymer:fullerene composite layer sandwiched between a transparent metal-oxide anode and a metallic cathode are one of the most successful types of polymer solar cells. However, the p
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Chemical Vapor Deposition of Fluorine-Doped Zinc Oxide

Summary Films of fluorine-doped zinc oxide are deposited from vaporized precursor compounds comprising a chelate of a dialkylzinc, an oxygen source, and a fluorine source. For example, a vapor mixture of the N,N,N’,N’-tetraethylethylenediamine chelate of diethylzinc, ethanol, hexafluoropropene and nitrogen deposits fluorine-doped zinc oxide films on substrates heated to temperatures around 450 degrees C. These coatings are highly electrically conductive, transparent to visible ligh
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Advanced Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC): Flexible Film and Glass

Introduction Solar power is becoming more and more important with the increasing global effort to reduce petroleum consumption and is already vitally important as the planet’s primary source of energy since plants convert it into biomass on a daily basis. There is more solar energy bombarding the earth every hour than all of its people consume in a year, and if a fraction of that power could be effectively and efficiently harnessed, many of our energy problems would be solved. Unfortunately, t
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Highly Efficient Fuel Cell

The Invention The new type of fuel cell utilizes a unique nano-porous proton conducting membrane and improved fuel cell components including improved anodic and cathodic catalysts, membrane electrode assembly and bipolar plates with flow fields for both solution and gas. A hydrogen/bromine cell was built with a record high power density of 1.3 W/cm2 (vs less than 0.25 W/cm2 for conventional H/Br fuel cells. These fuel cells are an enabling technology for efficient storage of inconstant engery
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Highly Efficient Hybrid Bio-Seminconductor Photovoltaic Device

The Invention A novel device for photovoltaic conversion which consists of an oriented photoactive monolayer bound to a bottom metal electrode and a top transparent electrode. The photoactive components are oriented dry layers of a photosynthetic reaction center protein which were isolated from photosynthetic cyanobacteria and encapsulated in solid state substrate. The generated photocurrent at an absorbed light energy conversion efficiency of 34% (out of the theoretical 47%) and was found
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Monolithic Multi-Color Light Emission/Detection Device

A single-crystal, monolithic, tandem, multi-color optical transceiver device is described, including (a) an InP substrate having upper and lower surfaces, (b) a first junction on the upper surface of the InP substrate, (c) a second junction on the first junction. The first junction is preferably GaInAsP of defined composition, and the second junction is preferably InP. The two junctions are lattice matched. The second junction has a larger energy band gap than the first junction. Additional junc
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Monolithic Tandem Solar Cells

A single-crystal, monolithic, tandem, photovoltaic solar cell is described which includes (a) an InP substrate having upper and lower surfaces, (b) a first photoactive subcell on the upper surface of the InP substrate, and (c) a second photoactive subcell on the first subcell. The first photoactive subcell is GaInAsP of defined composition. The second subcell is InP. The two subcells are lattice matched. The solar cell can be provided as a two-terminal device or a three-terminal device.
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Multi-Junction, Monolithic Solar Cell Using Low-Band-Gap Materials Lattice-Matched to GaAs or Ge

A multi-junction, monolithic, photovoltaic solar cell device is provided for converting solar radiation to photocurrent and photovoltage with improved efficiency. The solar cell device comprises a plurality of semiconductor cells, i.e., active p/n junctions, connected in tandem and deposited on a substrate fabricated from GaAs or Ge. To increase efficiency, each semiconductor cell is fabricated from a crystalline material with a lattice constant substantially equivalent to the lattice constant o
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Multi-junction solar cell device

A multi-junction solar cell device (10) is provided. The multi-junction solar cell device (10) comprises either two or three active solar cells connected in series in a monolithic structure. The multi-junction device (10) comprises a bottom active cell (20) having a single-crystal silicon substrate base and an emitter layer (23). The multi-junction device (10) further comprises one or two subsequent active cells each having a base layer (32) and an emitter layer (23) with interconnecting tunnel
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Nanostructures Produced by Phase-Separation during Growth of (III-V).sub.1-x(IV.sub.2).sub.x Alloys

Nanostructures (18) and methods for production thereof by phase separation during metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE). An embodiment of one of the methods may comprise providing a growth surface in a reaction chamber and introducing a first mixture of precursor materials into the reaction chamber to form a buffer layer (12) thereon. A second mixture of precursor materials may be provided into the reaction chamber to form an active region (14) on the buffer layer (12), wherein the nanostruc
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Optical Method for Determining the Doping Depth Profile in Silicon U.S. Patent 7,179,665

A method of processing a sample, comprising the steps of: introducing dopant into a sample thereby producing a doped sample; producing a healed sampled including a doping density profile in response to introducing the dopant into the sample; and measuring the doping density profile of the healed sample by performing reflectometry using light generated within the visible wavelength spectrum.
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Optical Processing Furnace with Quartz Muffle and Diffuser Plate

An optical furnace for annealing a process wafer comprising a source of optical energy, a quartz muffle having a door to hold the wafer for processing, and a quartz diffuser plate to diffuse the light impinging on the quartz muffle; a feedback system with a light sensor located in the door or wall of the muffle is also provided for controlling the source of optical energy. The quartz for the diffuser plate is surface etched (to give the quartz diffusive qualities) in the furnace during a high in
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Optical System for Determining Physical Characteristics of a Solar Cell

The invention provides an improved optical system for determining the physical characteristics of a solar cell. The system comprises a lamp means for projecting light in a wide solid-angle onto the surface of the cell; a chamber for receiving the light through an entrance port, the chamber having an interior light absorbing spherical surface, an exit port for receiving a beam of light reflected substantially normal to the cell, a cell support, and an lower aperture for releasing light into a lig
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Passivating Etchants for Metallic Particles

The present invention provides a process for etching a corrosion layer, such as oxide or hydroxide, from and concomitantly forming a passivating layer on the surface of metallic nanoparticles. A reaction mixture is prepared by dispersing sodium hexafluoroacetylacetonate (Na(hfa)) and a metallic particle powder having oxide or hydroxide corrosion layers in hexane solvent. The mixture is allowed to react for a time sufficient to etch the oxide or hydroxide groups from the particulate surface and p
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Photovoltaic Devices Comprising Cadmium Stannate Transparent Conducting Films and Method for Making

A photovoltaic device having a substrate, a layer of Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 disposed on said substrate as a front contact, a thin film comprising two or more layers of semiconductor materials disposed on said layer of Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4, and an electrically conductive film disposed on said thin film of semiconductor materials to form a rear electrical contact to said thin film. The device is formed by RF sputter coating a Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 layer onto a substrate, depositing a thin film of semicondu
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Photovoltaic Devices Comprising Zinc Stannate Buffer Layer and Method for Making

A photovoltaic device has a buffer layer zinc stannate Zn.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 disposed between the semiconductor junction structure and the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layer to prevent formation of localized junctions with the TCO through a thin window semiconductor layer, to prevent shunting through etched grain boundaries of semiconductors, and to relieve stresses and improve adhesion between these layers.
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Plasma and Reactive Ion Etchning to Prepare OHMIC Contacts

A method of making a low-resistance electrical contact between a metal and a layer of p-type CdTe surface by plasma etching and reactive ion etching comprising:a) placing a CdS/CdTe layer into a chamber and evacuating said chamber;b) backfilling the chamber with Argon or a reactive gas to a pressure sufficient for plasma ignition; andc) generating plasma ignition by energizing a cathode which is connected to a power supply to enable the plasma to interact argon ions alone or in the presence of a
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Preparation of a Semiconductor Thin Film

A process for the preparation of a semiconductor film. The process comprises depositing nanoparticles of a semiconductor material onto a substrate whose surface temperature during nanoparticle deposition thereon is sufficient to cause substantially simultaneous fusion of the nanoparticles to thereby coalesce with each other and effectuate film growth.
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Preparation of CuInSe.sub.2 Precursors Films and Powders by Electroless Deposition

A method for electroless deposition of Cu.sub.x In.sub.y Ga.sub.z Se.sub.n (x=0-2, y=0-2, z=0-2, n=0-3) precursor films and powders onto a metallic substrate comprising:preparing an aqueous bath solution of compounds selected from the group consisting of:I) a copper compound, a selenium compound, an indium compound and gallium compound; II) a copper compound, a selenium compound and an indium compound; III) a selenium compound, and indium compound and a gallium compound; IV) a selenium compound
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Preparation of Transparent Conductors, Ferroelectric Memory Materials and Ferrites

A process for the preparation by electrodeposition of metal oxide film and powder compounds for ferroelectric memory materials and ferrites wherein the metal oxide includes a plurality of metals. The process comprises providing an electrodeposition bath, providing soluble salts of the metals to this bath, electrically energizing the bath to thereby cause formation of a recoverable film of metal on the electrode, recovering the resultant film as a film or a powder, and recovering powder formed on
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Process for Fabricating Polycrystalline Semiconductor Thin-Film Solar Cells, and Cells Produced Thereby

A novel, simplified method for fabricating a thin-film semiconductor heterojunction photovoltaic device includes initial steps of depositing a layer of cadmium stannate and a layer of zinc stannate on a transparent substrate, both by radio frequency sputtering at ambient temperature, followed by the depositing of dissimilar layers of semiconductors such as cadmium sulfide and cadmium telluride, and heat treatment to convert the cadmium stannate to a substantially single-phase material of a spine
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Process for Polycrystalline Film Silicon Growth

A process for depositing polycrystalline silicon on substrates, including foreign substrates, occurs in a chamber at about atmospheric pressure, wherein a temperature gradient is formed, and both the atmospheric pressure and the temperature gradient are maintained throughout the process. Formation of a vapor barrier within the chamber that precludes exit of the constituent chemicals, which include silicon, iodine, silicon diiodide, and silicon tetraiodide. The deposition occurs beneath the vapor
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Process for Producing Cadmium Sulfide on a Cadmium Telluride Surface

A process for producing a layer of cadmium sulfide on a cadmium telluride surface to be employed in a photovoltaic device. The process comprises providing a cadmium telluride surface which is exposed to a hydrogen sulfide plasma at an exposure flow rate, an exposure time and an exposure temperature sufficient to permit reaction between the hydrogen sulfide and cadmium telluride to thereby form a cadmium sulfide layer on the cadmium telluride surface and accomplish passivation. In addition to pas
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Processing Approach Towards the Formation of Thin-Film CU(IN,GA)SE2

A two-stage method of producing thin-films of group IB-IIIA-VIA on a substrate for semiconductor device applications includes a first stage of depositing an amorphous group IB-IIIA-VIA precursor onto an unheated substrate, wherein the precursor contains all of the group IB and group IIIA constituents of the semiconductor thin-film to be produced in the stoichiometric amounts desired for the final product, and a second stage which involves subjecting the precursor to a short thermal treatment at
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Production of Films and Powders for Semiconductor Device Applications

A process for chemical bath deposition of selenide and sulfide salts as films and powders employable as precursors for the fabrication of solar cell devices. The films and powders include (1) Cu.sub.x Se.sub.n, wherein x=1-2 and n=1-3; (2) Cu.sub.x Ga.sub.y Se.sub.n, wherein x=1-2, y=0-1 and n=1-3; (3) Cu.sub.x In.sub.y Se.sub.n, wherein x=1-2.27, y=0.72-2 and n=1-3; (4) Cu.sub.x (InGa).sub.y Se.sub.n, wherein x=1-2.17, y=0.96-2 and n=1-3; (5) In.sub.y Se.sub.n, wherein y=1-2.3 and n=1-3; (6) Cu
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Radio Frequency Coupling Apparatus and Method for Measuring Minority Carrier Lifetimes in Semiconductor Materials

An apparatus for measuring the minority carrier lifetime of a semiconductor sample using radio-frequency coupling. The measuring apparatus includes an antenna that is positioned a coupling distance from a semiconductor sample which is exposed to light pulses from a laser during sampling operations. A signal generator is included to generate high frequency, such as 900 MHz or higher, sinusoidal waveform signals that are split into a reference signal and a sample signal. The sample signal is trans
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Rapid Low-Temperature Epitaxial Growth Using a Hot-Element Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition Process

The invention provides a process for depositing an epitaxial layer on a crystalline substrate, comprising the steps of providing a chamber having an element capable of heating, introducing the substrate into the chamber, heating the element at a temperature sufficient to decompose a source gas, passing the source gas in contact with the element; and forming an epitaxial layer on the substrate.
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Reactive Codoping of GaAlInP Compound Semiconductors

A GaAlInP compound semiconductor and a method of producing a GaAlInP compound semiconductor are provided. The apparatus and method comprises a GaAs crystal substrate in a metal organic vapor deposition reactor. Al, Ga, and In vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing organometallic compounds. P vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing phospine gas; group II vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing an organometallic group IIA or IIB compound. Group VIB vapors are prepared by thermally
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Recrystallization Method to Selenization of Thin-Film Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 for Semiconductor Device Applications

A process for fabricating slightly Cu-poor thin-films of Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 on a substrate for semiconductor device applications includes the steps of forming initially a slightly Cu-rich, phase separated, mixture of Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 :Cu.sub.x Se on the substrate in solid form followed by exposure of the Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 :Cu.sub.x Se solid mixture to an overpressure of Se vapor and (In,Ga) vapor for deposition on the Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 :Cu.sub.x Se solid mixture while simultaneously increasing t
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Molecular Assemblies as Protective Barriers and Adhesion Promotion Interlayer

A protective diffusion barrier having adhesive qualifies for metalized surfaces is provided by a passivating agent having the formula HS--(CH.sub.2).sub.11 --COOH Which forms a very dense, transparent organized molecular assembly or layer that is impervious to water, alkali, and other impurities and corrosive substances that typically attack metal surfaces.
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Method of Preparing Nitrogen Containing Semiconductor Material

A method of combining group III elements with group V elements that incorporates at least nitrogen from a nitrogen halide for use in semiconductors and in particular semiconductors in photovoltaic cells.
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Method of Fabricating High-Efficiency Cu(In, Ga)Se.sub.2 Thin Films for Solar Cells

A process for producing a slightly Cu-poor thin film of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S).sub.2 comprises depositing a first layer of (In,Ga).sub.x (Se,S).sub.y followed by depositing just enough Cu+(Se,S) or Cu.sub.x (Se,S) to produce the desired slightly Cu-poor material. In a variation, most, but not all, (about 90 to 99%) of the (In,Ga).sub.x (Se,S).sub.y is deposited first, followed by deposition of all the Cu+(Se,S) or Cu.sub.x (Se,S) to go near stoichiometric, possibly or even preferably slightly Cu-rich,
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Method for Processing Silicon Solar Cells

The instant invention teaches a novel method for fabricating silicon solar cells utilizing concentrated solar radiation. The solar radiation is concentrated by use of a solar furnace which is used to form a front surface junction and back-surface field in one processing step. The present invention also provides a method of making multicrystallline silicon from amorphous silicon. The invention also teaches a method of texturing the surface of a wafer by forming a porous silicon layer on the surfa
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Method for Preparing Homogeneous Single Crystal Ternary III-V Alloys

A method for producing homogeneous, single-crystal III-V ternary alloys of high crystal perfection using a floating crucible system in which the outer crucible holds a ternary alloy of the composition desired to be produced in the crystal and an inner floating crucible having a narrow, melt-passing channel in its bottom wall holds a small quantity of melt of a pseudo-binary liquidus composition that would freeze into the desired crystal composition. The alloy of the floating crucilbe is maintain
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Method for Improving the Stability of Amorphous Silicon

A method of producing a metastable degradation resistant amorphous hydrogenated silicon film is provided, which comprises the steps of growing a hydrogenated amorphous silicon film, the film having an exposed surface, illuminating the surface using an essentially blue or ultraviolet light to form high densities of a light induced defect near the surface, and etching the surface to remove the defect.
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Method and Apparatus for Simulating Atmospheric Absorption of Solar Energy Due to Water Vapor and CO.sub.2

A method and apparatus for improving the accuracy of the simulation of sunlight reaching the earth's surface includes a relatively small heated chamber having an optical inlet and an optical outlet, the chamber having a cavity that can be filled with a heated stream of CO.sub.2 and water vapor. A simulated beam comprising infrared and near infrared light can be directed through the chamber cavity containing the CO.sub.2 and water vapor, whereby the spectral characteristics of the beam are altere
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Method and Apparatus for Measuring Spatial Uniformity of Radiation

A method and apparatus for measuring the spatial uniformity of the intensity of a radiation beam from a radiation source based on a single sampling time and/or a single pulse of radiation. The measuring apparatus includes a plurality of radiation detectors positioned on planar mounting plate to form a radiation receiving area that has a shape and size approximating the size and shape of the cross section of the radiation beam. The detectors concurrently receive portions of the radiation beam and
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Method and Apparatus for Forming High-Critical-Temperatures Superconducting Layers on Flat and/or Elongated Substrates

An elongated, flexible superconductive wire or strip is fabricated by pulling it through and out of a melt of metal oxide material at a rate conducive to forming a crystalline coating of superconductive metal oxide material on an elongated, flexible substrate wire or strip. A coating of crystalline superconductive material, such as Bi.sub.2 Sr.sub.2 CaCu.sub.2 O.sub.8, is annealed to effect conductive contact between adjacent crystalline structures in the coating material, which is then cooled t
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Method and apparatus for forming conformal SiN.sub.x films

A silicon nitride film formation method includes: heating a substrate to be subjected to film formation to a substrate temperature; heating a wire to a wire temperature; supplying silane, ammonia, and hydrogen gases to the heating member; and forming a silicon nitride film on the substrate.
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Method and Apparatus for Fabricating a Thin-Film Solar Cell Utilizing a Hot Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition Technique

A thin-film solar cell is provided. The thin-film solar cell comprises an a-SiGe:H (1.6 eV) n-i-p solar cell having a deposition rate of at least ten (10) .ANG./second for the a-SiGe:H intrinsic layer by hot wire chemical vapor deposition. A method for fabricating a thin film solar cell is also provided. The method comprises depositing a n-i-p layer at a deposition rate of at least ten (10) .ANG./second for the a-SiGe:H intrinsic layer.
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Method and Apparatus for Differential Spectroscopic Atomic Imaging Using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

A Method and apparatus for differential spectroscopic atomic-imaging is disclosed for spatial resolution and imaging for display not only individual atoms on a sample surface, but also bonding and the specific atomic species in such bond. The apparatus includes a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) that is modified to include photon biasing, preferably a tuneable laser, modulating electronic surface biasing for the sample, and temperature biasing, preferably a vibration-free refrigerated sample
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Metal processing for impurity gettering in silicon

A method is provided for gettering impurities from silicon wafers and devices to improve the quality of the material and the device performance. The wafer or the device is coated on the back-side with a layer of aluminum and is illuminated form the other side with light having a significant portion of energy in the IR region. This process leads to formation of a Si--Al melt on the backside, at temperature below 550.degree. C. Dissolved impurities in the Si diffuse toward the Al melt and are trap
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Low-Band Gap Double-Heterostructure InAsP/GaInAs Photovoltaic Converters

A low-bandgap, double-heterostructure PV device is provided, including in optical alignment a first InP.sub.1-y As.sub.y n-layer formed with an n-type dopant, an Ga.sub.x In.sub.1-x As absorber layer, the absorber layer having an n-region formed with an n-type dopant and an p-region formed with a p-type dopant to form a single pn-junction, and a second InP.sub.1-y As.sub.y p-layer formed with a p-type dopant, wherein the first and second layers are used for passivation and minority carrier confi
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Isoelectronic Co-doping

Isoelectronic co-doping of semiconductor compounds and alloys with deep acceptors and deep donors is used to decrease bandgap, to increase concentration of the dopant constituents in the resulting alloys, and to increase carrier mobilities lifetimes. Group III-V compounds and alloys, such as GaAs and GaP, are isoelectronically co-doped with, for example, N and Bi, to customize solar cells, thermal voltaic cells, light emitting diodes, photodetectors, and lasers on GaP, InP, GaAs, Ge, and Si subs
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Ion-Beam Treatment to Prepare Surfaces of p-CdTe Films

A method of making a low-resistance electrical contact between a p-CdTe layer and outer contact layers by ion beam processing comprising:a) placing a CdS/CdTe device into a chamber and evacuating the chamber;b) orienting the p-CdTe side of the CdS/CdTe layer so that it faces apparatus capable of generating Ar atoms and ions of preferred energy and directionality;c) introducing Ar and igniting the area of apparatus capable of generating Ar atoms and ions of preferred energy and directionality in
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Shallow Melt Apparatus for Semicontinuous Czochralski Crystal Growth

The present invention relates to growing crystals without encountering the problems normally associated with conventional Czochralski crystal growth of: strong melt convection that causes deteriorated crystal quality, constantly changing thermal conditions; segregation causing non-uniformity in dopant concentrations; a slow growth rate and an uncontrollable interface shape; slow turn around between crystal ingots; and significant loss of feedstock materials if a growth run fails. The invention e
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Single-Junction Solar Cells with the Optium Band Gap for Terrestrial Concentrator Applications

A single-junction solar cell having the ideal band gap for terrestrial concentrator applications. Computer modeling studies of single-junction solar cells have shown that the presence of absorption bands in the direct spectrum has the effect of "pinning" the optimum band gap for a wide range of operating conditions at a value of 1.14.+-.0.02 eV. Efficiencies exceeding 30% may be possible at high concentration ratios for devices with the ideal band gap.
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Solar-Thermal Fluid-Wall Reaction Processing

The present invention provides a method for carrying out high temperature thermal dissociation reactions requiring rapid-heating and short residence times using solar energy. In particular, the present invention provides a method for carrying out high temperature thermal reactions such as dissociation of hydrocarbon containing gases and hydrogen sulfide to produce hydrogen and dry reforming of hydrocarbon containing gases with carbon dioxide. In the methods of the invention where hydrocarbon con
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Solar Thermal Aerosol Flow Reaction Process

Solar Thermal Aerosol Flow Reaction Process
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Solution Synthesis of Mixed-Metal Chalcogenide Nanoparticles and Spray Deposition of Precursor Films

A colloidal suspension comprising metal chalcogenide nanoparticles and a volatile capping agent. The colloidal suspension is made by reacting a metal salt with a chalcogenide salt in an organic solvent to precipitate a metal chalcogenide, recovering the metal chalcogenide, and admixing the metal chalcogenide with a volatile capping agent. The colloidal suspension is spray deposited onto a substrate to produce a semiconductor precursor film which is substantially free of impurities.
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Stacked Switchable Element and Diode Combination

A device (10) comprises a semiconductor diode (12) and a switchable element (14) positioned in stacked adjacent relationship so that the semiconductor diode (12) and the switchable element (14) are electrically connected in series with one another. The switchable element (14) is switchable from a low-conductance state to a high-conductance state in response to the application of a forming voltage to the switchable element (14).
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Substrate for Thin Silicon Solar Cells

A photovoltaic device for converting solar energy into electrical signals comprises a substrate, a layer of photoconductive semiconductor material grown on said substrate, wherein the substrate comprises an alloy of boron and silicon, the boron being present in a range of from 0.1 to 1.3 atomic percent, the alloy having a lattice constant substantially matched to that of the photoconductive semiconductor material and a resistivity of less than 1.times.10.sup.-3 ohm-cm.
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System for Characterizing Semiconductor Materials and Photovoltaic Device

Apparatus for detecting and mapping defects in the surfaces of polycrystalline material in a manner that distinguishes dislocation pits from grain boundaries includes a first laser of a first wavelength for illuminating a wide spot on the surface of the material, a second laser of a second relatively shorter wavelength for illuminating a relatively narrower spot on the surface of the material, a light integrating sphere with apertures for capturing light scattered by etched dislocation pits in a
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Substrate Structures for InP-Based Devices

A substrate structure for an InP-based semiconductor device having an InP based film is disclosed. The substrate structure includes a substrate region having a lightweight bulk substrate and an upper GaAs layer. An interconnecting region is disposed between the substrate region and the InP-based device. The interconnecting region includes a compositionally graded intermediate layer substantially lattice-matched at one end to the GaAs layer and substantially lattice-matched at the opposite end to
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System for Charactrizing Semiconductor Materials and Photovoltaic Devices Through Calibration

A method and apparatus for measuring characteristics of a piece of material, typically semiconductor materials including photovoltaic devices. The characteristics may include dislocation defect density, grain boundaries, reflectance, external LBIC, internal LBIC, and minority carrier diffusion length. The apparatus includes a light source, an integrating sphere, and a detector communicating with a computer. The measurement or calculation of the characteristics is calibrated to provide accurate,
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System for Monitoring the Growth of Crystalline Films on Stationary Substrates

A system for monitoring the growth of crystalline films on stationary or rotating substrates includes a combination of some or all of the elements including a photodiode sensor for detecting the intensity of incoming light and converting it to a measurable current, a lens for focusing the RHEED pattern emanating from the phosphor screen onto the photodiode, an interference filter for filtering out light other than that which emanates from the phosphor screen, a current amplifier for amplifying a
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Thin-Film Solar Cell Fabricated on a Flexible Metallic Substrate

A thin-film solar cell (10) is provided. The thin-film solar cell (10) comprises a flexible metallic substrate (12) having a first surface and a second surface. A back metal contact layer (16) is deposited on the first surface of the flexible metallic substrate (12). A semiconductor absorber layer (14) is deposited on the back metal contact. A photoactive film deposited on the semiconductor absorber layer (14) forms a heterojunction structure and a grid contact (24) deposited on the heterjunctio
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Interdigitalized Photovoltaic Power Conversion Device

A photovoltaic power conversion device has a top surface adapted to receive impinging radiation. The device includes at least two adjacent, serially connected cells. Each cell includes a semi-insulating substrate and a lateral conductivity layer of a first doped electrical conductivity disposed on the substrate. A base layer is disposed on the lateral conductivity layer and has the same electrical charge conductivity thereof. An emitter layer of a second doped electrical conductivity of opposite
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Impurity Gettering in Semiconductors

A process for impurity gettering in a semiconductor substrate or device such as a silicon substrate or device. The process comprises hydrogenating the substrate or device at the back side thereof with sufficient intensity and for a time period sufficient to produce a damaged back side. Thereafter, the substrate or device is illuminated with electromagnetic radiation at an intensity and for a time period sufficient to cause the impurities to diffuse to the back side and alloy with a metal there p
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High Efficiency Low Cost Thin Film Silicon Solar Cell Design and Method for Making

A semiconductor device having a substrate, a conductive intermediate layer deposited onto said substrate, wherein the intermediate layer serves as a back electrode, an optical reflector, and an interface for impurity gettering, and a semiconductor layer deposited onto said intermediate layer, wherein the semiconductor layer has a grain size at least as large as the layer thickness, and preferably about ten times the layer thickness. The device is formed by depositing a metal layer on a substrate
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High Carrier Concentration P-Type Transparent Conducting Oxide Films

A p-type transparent conducting oxide film is provided which is consisting essentially of, the transparent conducting oxide and a molecular doping source, the oxide and doping source grown under conditions sufficient to deliver the doping source intact onto the oxide.
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Heterojunction Solar Cell with Passivated Emitter Surface

A high-efficiency heterojunction solar cell wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga.sub.0.52 In.sub.0.48 P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. A passivating window layer of defined composition is disposed over the emitter layer. The conversion efficiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the window layer.
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Heterojunction Solar Cell

A high-efficiency single heterojunction solar cell wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga.sub.0.52 In.sub.0.48 P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. The conversion effiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the emitter layer.
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Fabrication of Optically Reflecting Ohmic Contacts for Semiconductor Devices

A method is provided to produce a low-resistivity ohmic contact having high optical reflectivity on one side of a semiconductor device. The contact is formed by coating the semiconductor substrate with a thin metal film on the back reflecting side and then optically processing the wafer by illuminating it with electromagnetic radiation of a predetermined wavelength and energy level through the front side of the wafer for a predetermined period of time. This method produces a thin epitaxial alloy
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Enhanced Quality Thin Film Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 for Semiconductor Device Applications by Vapor-Phase Recrystallization

Enhanced quality thin films of Cu.sub.w (In,Ga.sub.y)Se.sub.z for semiconductor device applications are fabricated by initially forming a Cu-rich, phase-separated compound mixture comprising Cu(In,Ga):Cu.sub.x Se on a substrate to form a large-grain precursor and then converting the excess Cu.sub.x Se to Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 by exposing it to an activity of In and/or Ga, either in vapor In and/or Ga form or in solid (In,Ga).sub.y Se.sub.z. Alternatively, the conversion can be made by sequential dep
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Electro-deposition of Superconductor Oxide Films

Methods for preparing high quality superconducting oxide precursors which are well suited for further oxidation and annealing to form superconducting oxide films. The method comprises forming a multilayered superconducting precursor on a substrate by providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a substrate electrode, and providing to the bath a plurality of precursor metal salts which are capable of exhibiting superconducting properties upon subsequent treatment. The
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Electrochromic Counter Electrode

The present invention discloses an amorphous material comprising nickel oxide doped with tantalum that is an anodically coloring electrochromic material. The material of the present invention is prepared in the form of an electrode (200) having a thin film (202) of an electrochromic material of the present invention residing on a transparent conductive film (203). The material of the present invention is also incorporated into an electrochromic device (100) as a thin film (102) in conjunction wi
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Electrical Isolation of Component Cells in Monolithically Interconnected Modules

A monolithically interconnected photovoltaic module having cells which are electrically connected which comprises a substrate, a plurality of cells formed over the substrate, each cell including a primary absorber layer having a light receiving surface and a p-region, formed with a p-type dopant, and an n-region formed with an n-type dopant adjacent the p-region to form a single pn-junction, and a cell isolation diode layer having a p-region, formed with a p-type dopant, and an n-region formed w
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Durable Metallized Polymer Mirror

A metallized polymer mirror construction having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate.
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Durable Corrosion and Ultraviolet-Resistant Silver Mirror

This invention relates to specular silver mirrors. More particularly, it relates to a durable corrosion and ultraviolet-resistant silver mirror for use in solar reflectors. Specifically, a corrosion and ultra violet-resistant silver mirror for use in solar reflectors; the silver layer having a film-forming protective polymer bonded thereto, and a protective shield overlay comprising a transparent multipolymer film that incorporates a UV absorber. The corrosion and ultraviolet resistant silver mi
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Dry Texturing of Solar Cells

A textured backside of a semiconductor device for increasing light scattering and absorption in a semiconductor substrate is accomplished by applying infrared radiation to the front side of a semiconductor substrate that has a metal layer deposited on its backside in a time-energy profile that first produces pits in the backside surface and then produces a thin, highly reflective, low resistivity, epitaxial alloy layer over the entire area of the interface between the semiconductor substrate and
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Deposition of Device Quality, Low Hydrogen Content, Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon at High Deposition Rates with Increased Stability Using the Hot Wire Filament Technique

A method or producing hydrogenated amorphous silicon on a substrate, comprising the steps of: positioning the substrate in a deposition chamber at a distance of about 0.5 to 3.0 cm from a heatable filament in the deposition chamber; maintaining a pressure in said deposition chamber in the range of about 10 to 100 millitorr and pressure times substrate-filament spacing in the range of about 10 to 100 millitorr-cm, heating the filament to a temperature in the range of about 1,500 to 2,000.degree.
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Deposition of Device Quality, Low Hydrogen Content, Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon at High Deposition Rates

A method of fabricating device quality, thin-film a-Si:H for use as semiconductor material in photovoltaic and other devices, comprising in any order; positioning a substrate in a vacuum chamber adjacent a plurality of heatable filaments with a spacing distance L between the substrate and the filaments; heating the filaments to a temperature that is high enough to obtain complete decomposition of silicohydride molecules that impinge said filaments into Si and H atomic species; providing a flow o
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Deposition of Device Quality, Low Hydrogen Content, Amorphous Silicon Films by Hot Filament Technique Using (SAFE) Silicon Source Gas

A method of producing hydrogenated amorphous silicon on a substrate by flowing a stream of safe (diluted to less than 1%) silane gas past a heated filament.
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Deposition of Device Quality Low H Content, Amorphous Silicon Films

A high quality, low hydrogen content, hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film is deposited by passing a stream of silane gas (SiH.sub.4) over a high temperature, 2000.degree. C., tungsten (W) filament in the proximity of a high temperature, 400.degree. C., substrate within a low pressure, 8 mTorr, deposition chamber. The silane gas is decomposed into atomic hydrogen and silicon, which in turn collides preferably not more than 20-30 times before being deposited on the hot substrate. The hydr
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Defect Mapping System

Apparatus for detecting and mapping defects in the surfaces of polycrystalline materials in a manner that distinguishes dislocation pits from grain boundaries includes a laser for illuminating a wide spot on the surface of the material, a light integrating sphere with apertures for capturing light scattered by etched dislocation pits in an intermediate range away from specular reflection while allowing light scattered by etched grain boundaries in a near range from specular reflection to pass th
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Current-Matched High-Efficiency, Multijunction Monolithic Solar Cells

The efficiency of a two-junction (cascade) tandem photovoltaic device is improved by adjusting (decreasing) the top cell thickness to achieve current matching. An example of the invention was fabricated out of Ga.sub.0.52 In.sub.0.48 P and GaAs. Additional lattice-matched systems to which the invention pertains include Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x /GaAS (x= 0.3-0.4), GaAs/Ge and Ga.sub.y In.sub.l-y P/Ga.sub.y+0.5 In.sub.0.5-y As (0<5).
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Current- and Lattice-Matched Tandem Solar Cell

A multijunction (cascade) tandem photovoltaic solar cell device is fabricated of a Ga.sub.x In.sub.1-x P (0.505.ltoreq.X.ltoreq.0.515) top cell semiconductor lattice matched to a GaAs bottom cell semiconductor at a low-resistance heterojunction, preferably a p+/n+ heterojunction between the cells. The top and bottom cells are both lattice matched and current matched for high efficiency solar radiation conversion to electrical energy.
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Crystallization from High Temperture Solutions of Si in Cu/Al Solvent

A liquid phase epitaxy method for forming thin crystalline layers of device quality silicon having less than 3.times.10.sup.16 Cu atoms/cc impurity, comprising: preparing a saturated liquid solution of Si in a Cu/Al solvent at about 20 to about 40 at. % Si at a temperature range of about 850.degree. to about 1100.degree. C. in an inert gas; immersing or partially immersing a substrate in the saturated liquid solution; super saturating the solution by lowering the temperature of the saturated sol
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Crystallization from High-Temperature Solutions of Si in Copper

A liquid phase epitaxy method for forming thin crystalline layers of device quality silicon having less than 5X10.sup.16 Cu atoms/cc impurity, comprising: preparing a saturated liquid solution melt of Si in Cu at about 16% to about 90% wt. Si at a temperature range of about 800.degree. C. to about 1400.degree. C. in an inert gas; immersing a substrate in the saturated solution melt; supersaturating the solution by lowering the temperature of the saturated solution melt and holding the substrate
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Controlled Metal-Semiconductor Sintering/Alloying by One-directional Reverse Illumination

Metal strips deposited on a top surface of a semiconductor substrate are sintered at one temperature simultaneously with alloying a metal layer on the bottom surface at a second, higher temperature. This simultaneous sintering of metal strips and alloying a metal layer on opposite surfaces of the substrate at different temperatures is accomplished by directing infrared radiation through the top surface to the interface of the bottom surface with the metal layer where the radiation is absorbed to
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Thin Transparent Conducting Films of Cadmium Stannate

A process for preparing thin Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 films. The process comprises the steps of RF sputter coating a Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 layer onto a first substrate; coating a second substrate with a CdS layer; contacting the Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 layer with the CdS layer in a water- and oxygen-free environment and heating the first and second substrates and the Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 and CdS layers to a temperature sufficient to induce crystallization of the Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 layer into a uniform single-ph
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Tunable Circuit for Tunable Capacitor Devices

A tunable circuit (10) for a capacitively tunable capacitor device (12) is provided. The tunable circuit (10) comprises a tunable circuit element (14) and a non-tunable dielectric element (16) coupled to the tunable circuit element (16). A tunable capacitor device (12) and a method for increasing the figure of merit in a tunable capacitor device (12) are also provided.
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Tunnel-Junction Multiple Wavelength Light-Emitting Diodes

A multiple wavelength LED having a monolithic cascade cell structure comprising at least two p-n junctions, wherein each of said at least two p-n junctions have substantially different band gaps, and electrical connector means by which said at least two p-n junctions may be collectively energized; and wherein said diode comprises a tunnel junction or interconnect.
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Two Chamber Reaction Furnace

A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has
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Ultra-Accelerated Natural Sunlight Exposure Testing Facilities

A multi-faceted concentrator apparatus for providing ultra-accelerated natural sunlight exposure testing for sample materials under controlled weathering conditions comprising: facets that receive incident natural sunlight, transmits VIS/NIR and reflects UV/VIS onto a secondary reflector that delivers a uniform flux of UV/VIS onto a sample exposure plane located near a center of a facet array in a chamber that provide concurrent levels of temperature and/or relative humidity at high levels of up
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Use of Separate ZnTe Interface Layers to Form OHMIC Contacts to p-CdTe Films

A method of improving electrical contact to a thin film of a p-type tellurium-containing II-VI semiconductor comprising:depositing a first undoped layer of ZnTe on a thin film of p-type tellurium containing II-VI semiconductor with material properties selected to limit the formation of potential barriers at the interface between the p-CdTe and the undoped layer, to a thickness sufficient to control diffusion of the metallic-doped ZnTe into the p-type tellurim-containing II-VI semiconductor, but
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Variable Temperature Semiconductor Film Deposition

A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while c
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Vertical Two Chamber Reaction Furnace

A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has
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Voltage-Matched, Monolithic, Multi-Band-Gap Devices

Monolithic, tandem, photonic cells include at least a first semiconductor layer and a second semiconductor layer, wherein each semiconductor layer includes an n-type region, a p-type region, and a given band-gap energy. Formed within each semiconductor layer is a sting of electrically connected photonic sub-cells. By carefully selecting the numbers of photonic sub-cells in the first and second layer photonic sub-cell string(s), and by carefully selecting the manner in which the sub-cells in a fi
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Wafer Characteristics via Reflectometry and Wafer Processing Apparatus and Method

This system includes a measuring device to acquire non-contact thickness measurements of a wafer and a laser beam to cut the wafer at a rate based at least in part on one or more thicknesses measurements. The method includes illuminating a substrate with radiation, measuring at least some radiation reflected from the substrate, determining one or more cutting parameters based at least in part on the measured radiation and cutting the substrate using the one or more cutting parameters. Various ot
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ZnO/Cu(InGa)Se, Solar Cells Prepared by Vapor Phase Zn Doping

A process for making a thin film ZnO/Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 solar cell without depositing a buffer layer and by Zn doping from a vapor phase, comprising: depositing Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 layer on a metal back contact deposited on a glass substrate; heating the Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 layer on the metal back contact on the glass substrate to a temperature range between about 100.degree. C. to about 250.degree. C.; subjecting the heated layer of Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 to an evaporant species from a Zn compound; and sputt
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Air-stable Nanomaterials for Efficient OLEDs and Solar Cells

Berkeley Lab researchers have developed two approaches for increasing the charge efficiencies of electrodes used to produce flexible organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and solar cells. Both approaches will reduce manufacturing and packaging costs. ________________________________________________________ ADVANTAGES: - Solvent processed, ink jet printable - More efficient charge injection and higher conductivity than conventional conducting polymers - Transparent (= ITO film) - Reduced dr
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Low Cost, High Efficiency Tandem Silicon Solar Cells

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Berkeley Lab's solar cell design incorporating the low-resistance tunnel junction. The tunnel junction is between the middle two materials. Inexpensive tandem silicon solar cells ADVANTAGES: - Boosts silicon solar cell efficiency without significant cost increases - Simplifies current methods to design and manufacture tandem solar cells - Leverages well-known and inexpensive silicon technology and materials – can be used with multi or single crystalli
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Composition and Method for Encapsulating Photovoltaic Devices

A composition and method for encapsulating a photovoltaic device which minimizes discoloration of the encapsulant. The composition includes an ethylene-vinyl acetate encapsulant, a curing agent, an optional ultraviolet light stabilizer, and/or an optional antioxidant. The curing agent is preferably 1,1-di-(t-butylperoxy)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane; the ultraviolet light stabilizer is bis-(N-octyloxy-tetramethyl) piperidinyl sebacate and the antioxidant is selected from the group consisting of tr
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Cadmium-Free Junction Fabrication Process for CuInSe2 Thin Film Solar Cells

The present invention provides an economical, simple, dry and controllable semiconductor layer junction forming process to make cadmium free high efficiency photovoltaic cells having a first layer comprised primarily of copper indium diselenide having a thin doped copper indium diselenide n-type region, generated by thermal diffusion with a group II(b) element such as zinc, and a halide, such as chlorine, and a second layer comprised of a conventional zinc oxide bilayer. A photovoltaic device ac
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Back-side Hydrogenation Technique for Defect Passivation in Silicon Solar Cells

A two-step back-side hydrogenation process includes the steps of first bombarding the back side of the silicon substrate with hydrogen ions with intensities and for a time sufficient to implant enough hydrogen atoms into the silicon substrate to potentially passivate substantially all of the defects and impurities in the silicon substrate, and then illuminating the silicon substrate with electromagnetic radiation to activate the implanted hydrogen, so that it can passivate the defects and impuri
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Atmospheric Optical Calibration System (AOCS)

An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitabl
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Application of Optical Processing for Growth of Silicon Dioxide

A process for producing a silicon dioxide film on a surface of a silicon substrate. The process comprises illuminating a silicon substrate in a substantially pure oxygen atmosphere with a broad spectrum of visible and infrared light at an optical power density of from about 3 watts/cm.sup.2 to about 6 watts/cm.sup.2 for a time period sufficient to produce a silicon dioxide film on the surface of the silicon substrate. An optimum optical power density is about 4 watts/cm.sup.2 for growth of a 100
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Apparatus for Synthesis of a Solar Spectrum

A xenon arc lamp and a tungsten filament lamp provide light beams that together contain all the wavelengths required to accurately simulate a solar spectrum. Suitable filter apparatus selectively direct visible and ultraviolet light from the xenon arc lamp into two legs of a trifurcated randomized fiber optic cable. Infrared light selectively filtered from the tungsten filament lamp is directed into the third leg of the fiber optic cable. The individual optic fibers from the three legs are broug
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Apparatus for Measuring Minority Carrier Lifetimes in Semiconductor Materials

An apparatus for determining the minority carrier lifetime of a semiconductor sample includes a positioner for moving the sample relative to a coil. The coil is connected to a bridge circuit such that the impedance of one arm of the bridge circuit is varied as sample is positioned relative to the coil. The sample is positioned relative to the coil such that any change in the photoconductance of the sample created by illumination of the sample creates a linearly related change in the input impeda
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Apparatus and Method for Measuring the Thickness of a Semiconductor Wafer

Apparatus for measuring thicknesses of semiconductor wafers, comprising: housing means for supporting a wafer in a light-tight environment; a light source mounted to the housing at one side of the wafer to emit light of a predetermined wavelength to normally impinge the wafer; a light detector supported at a predetermined distance from a side of the wafer opposite the side on which a light source impinges and adapted to receive light transmitted through the wafer; and means for measuring the tra
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Apparatus and Method for Measuring Minority Carrier Lifetimes in Semiconductor Materials

An apparatus for determining the minority carrier lifetime of a semiconductor sample includes a positioner for moving the sample relative to a coil. The coil is connected to a bridge circuit such that the impedance of one arm of the bridge circuit is varied as sample is positioned relative to the coil. The sample is positioned relative to the coil such that any change in the photoconductance of the sample created by illumination of the sample creates a linearly related change in the input impeda
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Apparatus and Method for Maximizing Power Delivered by a Photovoltaic Array

A method and apparatus for maximizing the electric power output of a photovoltaic array connected to a battery where the voltage across the photovoltaic array is adjusted through a range of voltages to find the voltage across the photovoltaic array that maximizes the electric power generated by the photovoltaic array and then is held constant for a period of time. After the period of time has elapsed, the electric voltage across the photovoltaic array is again adjusted through a range of voltage
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Enhanced Tunnel Junction for Improved Performance in Cascaded Solar Cells

BACKGROUND: Solar energy created through photovoltaics is finding increasing interest as an alternative power source for domestic and industrial use. The amount of power generated by a solar cell array is limited to the amount of solar cell area. In order to increase power delivery, the efficiency of the solar cells has to be increased. Many techniques, like the multi quantum-well (MQW) approach increases the efficiency of the cells but also increase the costs exponentially. Hence to make solar
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