Life Sciences Patents for Sale or License

Genotypic tumor progression classifier and predictor

Actively dividing tumors appear to progress to a life threatening condition more rapidly than slowly dividing tumors. Assessing actively dividing tumors currently involves a manual assessment of the number of mitotic cells in a histological slide prepared from the tumor and assessed by a trained pathologist. Disclosed is a method for using cumulative information from a series of expressed genes to determine tumor prognosis. This cumulative information can be used to categorize tumor samples into
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Method of producing recombinant biological products

A method of producing a recombinant biological product, which method employs a mammalian producer cell culture, comprises the steps of generating a biomass of mammalian producer during an initial phase of cell culture, and causing an increase in a level of one or more of the miRNA molecules of Table 1 within the mammalian producer cells once a desired concentration of mammalian producer cells has been achieved. The method may also comprise the step of increasing a level of an inhibitor of one or
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Nanoparticle clusters and methods for forming same

A method for providing nanoparticle clusters of controlled dimensions is described. The method involves an activation of individual nanoparticles and the subsequent interaction between activated particles to form a cluster.
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Specimen Gathering Device and Method of Use

This is the only DNA gathering device of its kind. It allows the user to simply and effectively gather forensic evidence, without waiting for the sample to dry, or any extra steps to ensure the DNA sample does not become contaminated or degrade. It also can be stored at room temperature, without the worry of degradation, as the SIM Buffer solution preserves the DNA, as well as acting as an anti-microbial and anti-bacterial. Has been used in the market by both police and prison officials. Can
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Tobacco-based Nicotine Aerosol Generation System

The invention relates to devices and methods for delivering nicotine and/or other alkaloids from tobacco, other plants and other natural sources. More particularly, the invention relates to devices and methods for delivering an aerosol of nicotine to a user's lungs without combustion of the nicotine source materials.
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Neuroactive Steroid Compositions and Methods of Use for Lowering Cholesterol

Methods for ameliorating a symptom associated with hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia, or both in a subject. In some embodiments, the methods include administering to a subject in need thereof an effective amount of a composition comprising pregnenolone (PG), allopregnanolone (ALLO), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), progesterone (PROG), precursors thereof, metabolites thereof, pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, derivatives thereof, or combinations thereof. Also provided are methods for a
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Compositions and Methods for the Treatment of Drug-induced Hand-foot Syndrome

The present invention provides methods of treating, ameliorating or preventing hand-foot syndrome in a subject in need thereof comprising administering to the subject a therapeutically effective amount of a phosphodiesterase inhibitor.
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Use of SH2 STAT3/STAT1 Peptidomimetics as Anticancer Drugs

The subject invention concerns compositions and methods for blocking cancer cell growth or proliferation and/or inducing cancer cell death. Compositions of the present invention are peptidomimetics that inhibit STAT function. Peptidomimetics of the invention display selective inhibition of specific STAT isoform homo-dimerization. The peptidomimetic probes of STAT1 function, described herein, provide the means to preferentially inhibit STAT1 over STAT3 through the exploration of the C-terminus.
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Niosome-hydrogel Drug Delivery System

Localized drug delivery systems are effective means to administer therapeutic concentrations and controlled release of drugs. A delivery system consisting of non-ionic surfactant vesicles (niosomes) packaged within a biodegradable, temperature and pH sensitive hydrogel network was developed. Drug behaviors were modeled using a fluorescent dye with similar physical properties as therapeutic drugs for cancer. The niosomes were embedded into a biodegradable hydrogel providing a stable niosome envir
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Drug Delivery Device for Ovarian Cancer

A drug delivery device has been designed to directly deliver an agent to the ovaries through direct contact with the fallopian tubes. The device consists of three main components: a tubular inserter, a cylindrical chamber and a plunger. The device is a single-use applicator designed in a shape similar to a tampon to facilitate its insertion through the vagina and into the uterus. Positioning of the device centrally in the uterus is accomplished through the use of ultrasound. The chamber is inser
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Prognostic Tools to Predict the Efficacy of Drug Treatment Targeting Chromatin DNA Or Enzymes Acting on DNA

Disclosed are methods of predicting cell response to drug-based therapy using both PCR-Stop assays and real time PCR assays. Methods herein may be used for assessment of drug effect, evaluation of regimen suitability for a given patient, and/or for determination of an optimal drug dose. Also provided are isolated oligonucleotide primers such as primers capable of annealing under PCR conditions to a segment of a c-myc locus, where the primers may be used in the disclosed methods. Further disclose
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Aqueous sustained-release drug delivery system for highly water-soluble electrolytic drugs

The present invention relates to liquid sustained release suspension dosage forms comprising ionized forms of water-soluble drugs. In particular, the invention encompasses a liquid form controlled release drug composition comprising a dispersed phase comprising an ion-exchange matrix drug complex comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable ion-exchange matrix and a water-soluble electrolytic drug associated with the ion-exchange matrix, wherein the surface charge of the ion-exchange matrix is oppos
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Carbohydrate Functionalized Catanionic Surfactant Vesicles for Drug Delivery

Carbohydrate functionalized catanionic vesicles that include a glycoconjugate and/or peptidoconjugate for vaccination or drug delivery, methods for forming these, and methods of using these.
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Delivery of Therapeutic Agents Using Oligonucleotide-modified Nanoparticles As Carriers

Disclosed are drug delivery compositions comprising an oligonucleotide-modified nanoparticle and a therapeutic agent. Specifically, disclosed are compositions comprising a number of oligonucleotide molecules in a ratio to therapeutic agent molecules to allow a sufficient transportation of the therapeutic agent molecules into a cell. The therapeutic agents include both hydrophobic and hydrophilic. Different attachments of therapeutic agents in a composition are also described.
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Potent Combinations of Zidovudine and Drugs That Select for the K65R Mutation in the Hiv Polymerase.

Combinations of antiretroviral nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and methods for their use in treating retroviral infections, are provided. In one embodiment, the combinations include non-thymidine nucleoside antiretroviral agents, such as tenofovir-DF, abacavir, APD and DAPD, that select for the K65R mutation and relatively low doses of zidovudine (AZT) or other thymidine nucleoside antiretroviral agents. The thymidine nucleoside antiretroviral agents retard development of the K65R m
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Drug Conjugates

Conjugated compounds comprising a therapeutic or diagnostic agent linked to a substrate for a cell membrane transporter or receptor by lipophilic linker are provided.
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Aptamer-mediated Drug Release

The present invention relates to aptamer/drug conjugate complexes and the use of such complexes, together with a trigger compound, to inducibly release a drug. Through these complexes, the present invention provides a means for establishing a drug reservoir in a subject, whereby drug may be released as needed. One specific embodiment of the invention provides an aptamer/insulin conjugate complex from which insulin may be released by an inoocuous, orally administrable trigger, such as quinine.
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Modulation of Phospholipase D for the Treatment of the Acute and Chronic Effects of Ethanol

The present invention relates to methods of decreasing the negative effects of alcohol on behavior as well as inhibiting the toxic effects of alcohol, comprising administering, to a subject, an effective amount of an inhibitor of phospholipase D.
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Anti-drug Vaccines

The present invention relates to anti-drug vaccines based on conjugates between the drug and a non-immunogenic carrier protein. In preferred embodiments, it provides for anti-cocaine vaccines and their use to diminish the effects and/or use of cocaine in a subject.
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Methods, Devices, and Systems for On-demand Ultrasound-triggered Drug Delivery

Injectable or implantable drug delivery systems providing on-demand ultrasound- triggered drug release and methods for controlling the release of drug in a patient are provided herein. The on-demand drug delivery systems contain a drug depot and a drug encapsulated in an encapsulating material, where the encapsulating material is different from the depot. In the preferred embodiment, the depot also contains microbubbles that encapsulate one or more gases. The microbubbles enhance the drug releas
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Novel anti-arrhythmic and heart failure drugs that target the leak in the ryanodine receptor (RyR2) and uses thereof

The present invention provides methods for limiting or preventing a decrease in the level of RyR2-bound FKBP12.6 in a subject. The present invention further provides methods for treating and preventing atrial and ventricular cardiac arrhythmias, heart failure, and exercise-induced sudden cardiac death in a subject. Additionally, the present invention provides use of JTV-519 in a method for limiting or preventing a decrease in the level of RyR2-bound FKBP12.6 in a subject who has, or is a candida
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Novel Anti-arrythmic and Heart Failure Drugs That Target the Leak in the Ryanodine Receptor (ryr2)

The present invention provides novel 1,4-benzothiazepine intermediates and derivatives, methods for synthesizing same, and methods for assaying same. The present invention also provides methods for using these novel compounds to limit or prevent a decrease in the level of RyR2-bound FKBP12.6 in a subject; to prevent exercise-induced sudden cardiac death in a subject; and to treat or prevent heart failure, atrial fibrillation, or exercise-induced cardiac arrhythmia in a subject. The present inven
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Improved Cancer Drug Delivery Using Modified Transferrin

The invention provides modified Transferrin (Tf) molecules and conjugates of the Tf molecules with a therapeutic agent. The invention also provides methods of treating cancer wherein the therapeutic agents are chemotherapeutic agents. The modified Tf molecules improve the delivery of the conjugated agent to a target tissue. In some embodiments, the modified Tf molecule has a mutation which decreases the release of bound iron from a Tf complex. The complex can also contain, for instance, a carbon
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Method of Engineering Polar Drug Particles with Surface-trapped Hydrofluoroalkane-philes

The invention relates to a method of engineering polar drug particles with surface-trapped hydrofluoroalkane-philes.
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Process for Identifying Drugs for Treating Gastroesophageal Reflux

Methods for identifying modulators of gastroesophageal smooth muscle relaxation include isolating various types of smooth muscle fibers from the stomach or esophagus and inducing the fibers to contract. The isolated and contracted fibers are used to screen test compounds for the compound's capacity to modulate relaxation of the smooth muscle fibers. In addition, newly identified unique nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are expressed in a cell, and used to screen test compounds for the compound's
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Reservoir device for intraocular drug delivery

A delivery device that allows for the sustained release of an agent, particularly useful for the sustained release of a therapeutic agent to limited access regions, such as the posterior chamber of the eye and inner ear. The delivery device is minimally invasive, refillable and may be easily fixed to the treatment area. The delivery device includes a hollow body with an inlet port at its proximal end for insertion of the agent, a reservoir for holding the agent and a delivery mechanism for the s
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Use of High-dose Oxazaphosphorine Drugs for Treating Immune Disorders

This disclosure relates, at least in part, to methods of eliminating adverse immune reactions in a subject in need thereof including those associated with autoimmune diseases, allergic reactions and transplant rejection, including administration of a lymphocytotoxic non-myeloablative amount of a oxazaphosphorine drug to the subject.
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Cullen 5 As a Regulator of Hsp90 Clients: a New Target for Drug Development

Cullin5 (Cul5) E3 ubiquitin ligase is shown to be linked with the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) chaperone complex. Hsp90 participates in the folding of its client proteins into their functional conformation. Many Hsp90 clients have been reported to be aberrantly expressed in a number of cancers. Cul5 is shown to interact with members of the Hsp90 chaperone complex as well as the Hsp90 client, ErbB2. Cul5 is recruited to the site of ErbB2 at the plasma membrane and subsequent induction of polyubi
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Degradable Hydrogel Compositions and Methods

This invention concerns an in situ biodegradable hydrogel drug delivery system in which the components are assembled in a manner that provides a mechanism for the timed cleavage of a particular amide bond in a covalently linked active agent or of the hydrogel structure.
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Polyarylates for Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering

Biocompatible polyarylates of diphenol compounds and poly(alkylene oxide) dicarboxylic acids, articles formed therefrom and therapeutic uses are disclosed.
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Compositions and Methods for Treating Ophthalmic Diseases.

Degradable polymeric compositions containing water-insoluble drugs blended with copolymers of biocompatible diphenol compound monomer units with pendant carboxylic acid groups polymerized with biocompatible diphenol corn-pound monomer units with pendant carboxylic acid ester groups and poly(alkylene oxide) blocks, wherein the molar fraction in the copolymer of biocompatible diphenol compound monomer units with pendant carboxylic acid groups and poly(alkylene oxide) blocks relative to the weight
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Reconstituted Tumor Microenvironment for Anticancer Drug Development

Extracellular matrix bioscaffolds capable of supporting the formation and growth of tumors from tumor cells introduced thereto containing tumor associated macrophages and carcinoma-associated fibroblast-like cells cultured under conditions effective to provide a cellular matrix capable of supporting the formation and growth of tumors from tumor cells introduced to the matrix. Bioscaffold kits and methods for using the bioscaffolds for testing, identifying and development of known or novel antica
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Method for Treating And/or Preventing Drug Seeking Behavior

A dynorphin-A analog can be used for treatment, inhibition, and/or prevention of cocaine seeking behavior, and or the drug seeking behavior for a cocaine derivative or other structurally related substance. The dynorphin-A analog can be a cyclic dynorphin-A analog having sufficient systemic stability that crosses the blood-brain barrier so as to be active in the brain at kappa-opioid receptors (KOR) as an antagonist. Such activity at a KOR as an antagonist can be useful for cocaine management and
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Methods for Screening for Antibiotic Compounds

The present invention is a method for screening drugs for antibiotic activity by screening a drug for activity to disrupt a toxin-antitoxin complex in a bacterial cell.
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Compliant Composites for Application of Drug-eluting Coatings to Tissue Surfaces

A compliant composite for delivering a bioactive agent including a scaffolding material and a polymer coating that together can be attached to compliant tissue surfaces is disclosed, along with methods for constructing and applying these composites. In some embodiments, the composite further comprises a barrier layer for localized delivery of the bioactive agent.
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Polyesters with Grafted Zwitterions

The invention relates to polymers, such as aliphatic polyesters, with grafted zwitterions More particularly, the invention relates to polyester-graft-phosphorylcholine polymers prepared by ring-opening polymerisation and click chemistry, compositions and products comprising same, and related methods and uses, for example, in drug delivery.
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Drug delivery product and methods

The present invention provides a particulate delivery system comprising an extracted yeast cell wall comprising beta-glucan, a payload molecule and a payload trapping molecule. The invention further provides methods of making and methods of using the particulate delivery system.
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Method for Determining the Susceptibility of a Cell Strain to Drugs

The present invention relates to a method for determining the susceptibility of a cell strain to a compound intended for controlling the growth of said cell strain, comprising: - growing the cell strain in a first compound-free culture medium and in at least a second culture medium comprising the compound at a test concentration; - obtaining mass-spectrometry spectra for a protein extract of the cell strain grown in the first culture medium and for a protein extract of the cell strain grown in t
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IGF1 for Myocardial Repair

Provided herein are methods for treating an individual having (suffering from) an acute myocardial infarction and drug eluting stents useful for treating such individuals. These methods include treating an individual by introducing, such as by surgically inserting, at a site of an acute coronary artery occlusion upstream of the site of acute myocardial infarction, a drug eluting stent (DES) that is capable of eluting from 25pg to 950pg of IGF-1 directly into the coronary circulation. The treatme
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Method of Identifying Individuals At Risk of Thiopurine Drug Resistance and Intolerance

The invention relates to methods and kits for identifying individuals at risk of thiopurine drug intolerance based on detecting the presence of mutations in the TPMT gene promoter associated with thiopurine drug resistance or intolerance.
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A1 Adenosine Receptor Allosteric Enhancers

The present invention relates generally to chemical compounds and methods for their use and preparation. In particular, the invention relates to chemical compounds which may possess useful therapeutic activity for treating conditions where the promotion of angiogensis (blood vessel formation) is beneficial, use of these compounds in therapy and the manufacture of medicaments as well as compositions containing these compounds.
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Therapy and Prevention of Problem Drinking

The present invention provides methods for the therapy and prevention of problem drinking in alcohol-dependent and non-dependent subjects and those at risk of developing problem drinking behavior, and compositions of matter comprising oxytocin or an analog or derivative thereof or an agonist or partial agonist of an oxytocin receptor that are useful in preventing or treating problem drinking.
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Synthetic, Self Adjuvanting Vaccines

The present invention relates generally to the field of immunotherapy, and more particularly to immunomedicaments in the form of lipopeptides which induce an antibody response to drugs of dependence, and uses thereof in the treatment and prevention of drug addiction.
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Method of Eliciting Or Inducing an Immune Response

A method for eliciting or inducing an immune response in a human or animal subject, comprises administering to said subject a composition comprising an antigen and an adjuvant, wherein the composition is administered to the subject by the intra-lung route.
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Therapeutic Applications

The specification relates to methods for treating a neurodegenerative disease such as multiple sclerosis by administering to a subject in need an EphA4 antagonist or an EphA4 ligand antagonist. The antagonist may be a soluble EphA4 or EphA4-binding ephrin or a functional variant thereof such as an EphA4-Fc or an ephrin A5-Fc. The antagonist may be an antibody or an antigen binding antibody fragment, a nucleic acid, polypeptide, peptide, or organic molecule that binds to EphA4 or an EphA4-ligand
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Therapeutic Use

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a method for treating neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis by administering an EphA4 antagonist or an EphA4 ligand antagonist to a subject in need. ; SOLUTION: The antagonist may be a soluble EphA4 or EphA4-binding ephrin or their functional variants such as an EphA4-Fc or an ephrin A5-Fc. The antagonist may be a nucleic acid, polypeptide, peptide or organic molecule that binds to EphA4 or an EphA4-ligand or a nuclei acid encoding EphA4 or the Ep
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Method for Controlling the Alertness of a Human Subject and a Light Source for Use in This Method

The invention relates to a method for controlling the alertness of a human subject and a light source for use in this method and use of a light source for this method. The method comprises exposure of a human subject during an exposure period to suitable light radiation without substantially influencing the phase of a melatonin cycle. Melatonin is a sleep-hormone that can be used to control the alertness of a human subject. The suitable light radiation being specified by an output fraction of me
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Therapeutic Peptides, Polypeptides Ans Nucleic Acid Sequences

Described are isolated peptides (GLGGGDLSV, SLNESQIKI, LMLPAVLQA and FTAEQLQRL) derived from portions of the Engrailed-2 (EN2) protein. Also described is their use in therapy, in particular in relation to the prevention and treatment of cancer.
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Therapeutic Aryl-am I Do-aryl Compounds and their Use

The present invention pertains generally to the field of therapeutic compounds, and more specifically to certain aryl-amido-aryl compounds of the following formula (for convenience, collectively referred to herein as "AAA compounds"), which, inter alia, are (selective) retinoic acid receptor a (RARa) agonists. The present invention also pertains to pharmaceutical compositions comprising such compounds, and the use of such compounds and compositions, both in vitro and in vivo, to (selectively) ac
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Apparatus and Method for Influencing Fish Swimming Behaviour

An enclosure, method and apparatus for influencing the swimming behaviour of fish is disclosed. The enclosure defining a space within which the fish can swim, said enclosure having a series of light output members disposed along a path, said light output members being operable to provide a moving visual stimulus along the path by output of light in sequence from the series of light output members thereby to influence the swimming behaviour of the fish.
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Probe for Detecting a Particular Nucleic Acid Sequence

The invention relates to a detection molecule (triplex Molecular Beacon, tMB) for detecting a particular nucleic acid sequence, in particular for detecting a single nucleotide mismatch in a target nucleic acid. Such a detection molecule comprises a) an oligonucleotide, and b) a probe comprising a first stem forming portion with a fluorophore for generating a detection signal, a second stem forming portion with a quencher for quenching the detection signal from the fluorophore when the quencher i
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Method and Technology of Production of Echogenic Microbubbles Combining Properties of Drug Carriers and Ultrasound Contrast Agents

In the present invention, echogenic drug-loaded microbubbles are generated from stable micro- or nanoemulsions of perfluorocarbon upon injection into the body. This invention enables users to control the size of the emulsion droplets and bubbles by changing the concentration of a perfluorocarbon and a type and composition of the diblock copolymer, and allows drug loading and microemulsion formation to proceed in the same step. Upon injection of a mixture of drug-loaded micelles and microemulsion
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Covalent Tethers for Isolating Homogeneous Proteins

Recent advances in technology have led to methods for generating large sets of genomic and proteomic samples. This has created a need for tools that facilitate rapid screening and analysis of these large sets of samples. Immobilization of proteins and nucleic acids on a solid phase is a useful way to perform separation of biomolecules, screen for enzymatic activity, or interrogate for binding events. However, immobilization of macromolecules on a membrane surface with maximum retention of thei
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Generation of Ribozyme Libraries

Antisense technology provides a platform for drug discovery as well as clinical therapeutic applications. Antisense agents (such as DNA, RNA, and ribozymes) bind to complementary regions on host nucleotides and thereby silence the expression of target genes. Given that target genes and their RNA transcripts can be comprised of thousands of nucleotide bases, and given that not all those nucleotides are equally accessible to antisense inhibition, it remains a challenge to design optimal molecule
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Diagnostic Test for Equine Hyperelastosis Cutis

The present invention provides a method of diagnosing equine hyperelastosis cutis (HC), an inherited connective tissue disorder of increasing prevalence in Quarter Horses. The diagnostic test includes determining the ratio of urine deoxypyridinoline (DPD) to pyridinoline (PYD) of a subject horse by high performance liquid chromatography, and comparing the ratio of DPD to PYD of the subject horse to a ratio of DPD to PYD of a hyperelastosis cutis-free horse. <i>Benefits</i> Horses affected
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Treatment of Mucocillary Clearance in Cystic Fibrosis Patients and Respiratory Inflammation by Using Alkylaryl Polyether Alcohol Polymers

The present invention provides a novel method to use alkylaryl polyether alcohol polymers as antioxidants to block oxidant reactions and prevent tissue injury and disease that are related to overproduction of partially reduced dioxygen (O2) species, such as chronic pulmonary inflammation, myocardial infarction and stroke, adult respiratory distress syndrome, and oxygen toxicity of the lung. This invention shows that by inhibiting the activation of nuclear transcription factor NF-?B, alkylaryl po
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Method of Treating Cancer, Particularly Malignant Melanoma, Using Dithiocarbamate Derivatives

Dithiocarbarmate, particularly tetraethylthiuram disulfide, strongly inhibits the growth of a variety of cancer cells. The present invention provides a novel strategy for treating cancer, particularly metastatic melanoma, by using disulfiram to reduce tumor growth and to potentiate the effect of other anticancer agents. This invention showed that disulfiram inhibited the DNA binding of transcription factor ATF/CREB, cyclin A expression, cell cycle progression, and melanoma proliferation in vitro
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Activating c-kit mutation in melanoma and other cancers - therapeutic and prognostic significance

In cancer treatment, a better understanding of the specific genetic and molecular changes that contribute to tumor growth is leading to the development of targeted therapies, which are predicted to be less toxic and more effective than current treatments. The efficient prescription of these therapies relies on accurate molecular diagnosis of specific genetic changes in individual tumors. This invention describes the identification of an activating mutation in the c-kit tyrosine kinase in
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Methods for Identifying Chromosomal Aneuploidy

Proper DNA dosage is essential for normal and cellular development and function. Molecular approaches for the detection of chromosomal abnormalities will allow the development of rapid, cost-effective screening strategies. This invention describes a novel, rapid and highly accurate molecular technique for the detection of chromosomal aneuploidy using quantitative PCR and melting curve analysis. This method can be applied for detection of a number of aneuploidies, including trisomy 21 (Down
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Graded Regulation of Protein Activity

Much of biological activity is regulated through posttranslational protein modification in response to various stimuli. Proteins involved in cell proliferation, survival, migration, and shape can be controlled by reversible as well as irreversible modifications (i.e. phosphorylation, acetylation, glycosylation and proteolysis). Misregulation of protein modifying enzymes is implicated in human disease in a variety of contexts; such as, cancer, heart disease, and infectious disease. Previously,
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Novel Compound to Specifically Stimulate Erythropoietin (EPO) Production for Improved Red Blood Cell Count

This invention discloses an approach whereby the administration of a synthetic organic compound specifically induces proliferation of erythropoietin-producing peritubular interstitial cells in the kidney, which results in increased synthesis of erythropoietin. After cessation of treatment with the synthetic compound, there is persistence of EPO-producing peritubular interstitial cells in the kidney. Preliminary studies revealed that this approach had no adverse effect on kidney function. To t
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Method of Analyzing Dicarboxylic Acids

This invention describes a method for the high throughput qualitative and quantitative analysis of dicarboxylic acids, and in particular methylmalonic acid (MMA), which exploits the high specificity of tandem mass spectrometry and selective ionization of dicarboxylic acids. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) plays an important role in formation of red blood cells and in the maintenance of the central nervous system. Its deficiency can lead to a wide spectrum of hematologic and neuropsychiatric disorders
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Novel Bioassay and Cell Lines for Direct Bioassay of Androgenic Activity and Steroid Hormone Levels

The present technology provides novel engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) cell lines which are useful in bioassays for the identification and measurement of steroid hormone bioactivity in human serum. The yeast bioassay system has three functional units: a DNA-binding domain, a ligand-binding domain from a nuclear hormone receptor, and a VP16-activation domain. The tripartite fusion protein confers steroid-responsive transcription of a reporter gene that encodes an easily measured enzym
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Conantokins: peptides with antiseizure and analgesic activity

This invention pertains to conantokins, a subset of peptides isolated from cone snail venom. Conantokins are selective NMDA receptor antagonists that hold promise as antiseizure and analgesic therapies with fewer side effects than currently available treatments. <i>Benefits</i> � Epilepsy, characterized by chronic recurrent seizure activity, affects 1 to 3% of the population in the United States. � Currently available therapies antagonize the NMDA receptor, which is expressed as variou
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The APC Gene, for Detection and Diagnosis of Inherited and Sporadic Colorectal Cancers

The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene is a tumor suppressor gene which is altered in many colon cancers. Germline mutations of APC are the cause of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), an inherited syndrome which leads to the growth of hundreds of colon polyps and a 100% lifetime risk of developing colon cancer. In addition to its importance in familial colon cancer, the APC gene has been found to be mutated or inactivated in 85% of sporadically arising colon cancers, and loss of normal AP
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MCC Gene - Mutated in Colorectal Cancer

The MCC gene is in close linkage with the adematotous polyposis coli (APC) gene on chromosome 5q21, a region of frequent loss of heterozygosity in colon cancer. MCC is found to be mutated in some colorectal tumors. Functional studies implicate MCC as a candidate tumor suppressor gene which plays a role in cell cycle regulation. More recent studies show that MCC methylation and gene inactivation are frequent occurrences in colorectal carcinogenesis. The present invention provides methods, p
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Suppressing Proliferation of Melanoma Cells by Inhibiting NAD(P)H Oxidase from Producing Reactive Oxygen Species

The present invention provides a method for suppressing malignant melanoma proliferation by inhibiting NAD(P)H oxidase enzymes from generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). Malignant melanoma cells spontaneously generate ROS that promote constitutive activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB), which in turn activates cell proliferation. This invention showed that melanoma proliferation was reduced by inhibiting the function of NAD(P)H oxidase and production of its ROS si
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Methods for Improved Selection of Oligo-Probes for Array Design

Uses of high throughput genomic technologies, including microarray technologies, are growing exponentially. One major limitation of current array technology is the poor predictability of hybridization signal intensity in relation to target concentration. Hybridization signal intensity change in response to changes in target concentration is highly variable, making accurate determination of changes in gene expression and copy number difficult. Currently used methods for microarray design and o
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Therapeutic Target and Screening Method for Inhibitors of Platelet Activation and Coagulation

Platelets are specialized blood cells that function in the formation of blood clots, and these cells act as the key cellular effectors of thrombosis. Tissue Factor (TF) is an essential cofactor for the activation of coagulation and clot formation. This work demonstrates that platelets express TF, and that Cdc2-like kinase 1 (Clk1) mediated pre-mRNA splicing is an early control point in platelet activation. Clk1-dependent splicing is required for generation of TF protein and triggering plat
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Molecular Diagnostic Method for Detection of Platelet Activation- Prognostic Significance for Sepsis and Venous Thromboembolism

Platelets are specialized blood cells that function in the formation of blood clots, and these cells act as the key cellular effectors of thrombosis. This work demonstrates that Cdc2-like kinase 1 (Clk1) mediated pre-mRNA splicing is an early control point in platelet activation, and is required for generation of TF protein, an essential cofactor for activation of coagulation and clot formation. Early studies indicate that the presence and amount of spliced mRNA in platelets has prognostic s
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DNA Methylation As a Target for Prognosis and Treatment of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), has the greatest prevalence rate among all leukemias. A significant limitation of both the existing staging systems for CLL is that they do not allow for reliable prediction of the rate of disease progression, or which patients are likely to respond to specific treatment. This work shows that the global DNA methylation index is a prognostic market for CLL, which can predict disease progression and response to specific therapies. Hypermethylation contribute
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A Mouse Model of Synovial Sarcoma

The present invention provides the first and only genetic mouse model of synovial sarcoma, a highly aggressive, malignant childhood/young adult soft tissue cancer. This mouse model was generated by conditionally expressing the human SYT-SSX2 fusion protein with myoblasts. It faithfully recapitulates human synovial sarcoma in presentation, histopathology, molecular markers, immunohistochemistry and transcriptional profile. <i>Benefits</i> Currently, the origin and pathogenesis of synovial s
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Novel Anti-Reductive Strategies for the Treatment of Heart Failure, Diabetes Mellitus and Degenerative Diseases

Though oxidative stress is widely implicated in pathogenic states including aging and heart failure, the role of reductive stress, which is defined as the abnormal increase of reducing equivalents (e.g., glutathione, NADPH), remains controversial. The present invention provides genetic, molecular, and biochemical evidence for showing the role of reductive stress in mammals, and proposes novel and, potentially personalized, therapeutic strategies to use anti-reductants for the treatment of human
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Predicting Prostate Cancer Resistance to Hormonal Treatment by Measuring Serum Concentrations of Chromogranin A

Continued progression of prostate cancer during endocrine therapy is a major clinical problem. Hormonal treatment resistance and development of metastasis during the treatment have been linked to neuroendocrine cell differentiation within the prostate tumor. Prostatic neuroendocrine cells lack androgen receptors and are therefore unaffected by ablation therapy; they not only proliferate after this therapy, but also have a tendency to become malignant. Pure neuroendocrine malignancies of the pros
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Nematode Neuromuscular Junction GABA Receptors and Related Methods

The major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain is ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which primarily acts through GABAA receptors. Defective GABA neurotransmission causes neurological diseases such as anxiety disorders and epilepsy. GABAA receptor (ca 250 kD) is a ligand-gated chloride channel formed by five homologous subunits. Binding of GABA to the receptor opens the channel, causing an increase in the chloride permeability of the plasma membrane, which in turn reduces cellular excitability.
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Method for Obtaining an Enriched Population of siRNA-Expressing Cells Useful in Gene Therapy

The invention relates to a method of enriching a population of mammalian cells having an RNA interference (RNAi) sequence by providing eukaryotic (e.g., mammalian) cells containing a target gene. The invention defines a unique plasmid vector able to enrich siRNA-expressing cells to a high level of purity using magnetic bead sorting. This invention brings an immediate improvement in the efficiency of delivery of any siRNA. This invention circumvents the limitations of transfection efficien
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Convenient, Accurate Methods of Molecular Haplotyping Using Hybridization Probes and Long-Range PCR

Genetic research has shown that variation or polymorphism in a gene may cause disease, increase risk of disease or affect response to therapeutic treatment of the disease. The particular combination of genetic polymorphisms at multiple loci is referred to as the �haplotype�. If an individual is heterozygous for particular variants, it can be necessary to establish whether the two mutations are in cis or trans to correctly analyze the individual�s disease risk status. Advances in the field
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Prodrugs and Conjugates of Thiol- and Selenol-Containing Compounds to Treat Cancer and Radiation Exposure

Providing selenium in a nontoxic form is a distinct challenge. Organic forms appear to be superior to inorganic ones. This technology discloses a method for the design, synthesis and evaluation of prodrugs of selenocysteine. The prodrugs of selenocysteine may find wide utility in protection/prevention strategies, such as chemoprotection and anti-radiation, by providing selenium, which is a critical component of an enzyme involved in the body�s natural defensive mechanisms. <i>Benefits</i
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Pestalotiopsis Microspora Isolates and Compounds Derived Therefrom

Endophytic fungi and bacteria are those organisms living within the tissues of host plants. Typically, endophytes coexist with their hosts without any pathogenic symptoms. These organisms have proven to be an unusually rich source of novel bioactive natural products. One of the most ubiquitous endophytic fungi is Pestalotiopsis microspora. This microorganism produces a plethora of bioactive organic substances including the anticancer drug taxol. This technology relates to the novel isolated 12-
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A Rapid and Sensitive Assay to Measure Hepcidin Levels in Biological Fluids

Hepcidin is a liver-produced peptide hormone which controls iron absorption by regulating the amount of the cell surface iron transporter ferroportin, which exports iron from cells to blood. Altered hepcidin levels are associated with disorders of iron metabolism and absorption, and disease-associated anemia. Hepcidin also plays an important role in regulation of innate immunity and inflammation. Therapeutic modulation of hepcidin levels could also provide a new approach for the treatment of ir
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O-glycosylated peptides, including Contulakin G, with therapeutic potential for treatment of pain and seizure

This technology comprises O-glycosylated cyclic peptides, including contulakin- G and derivatives isolated from cone snail venom. These show promise as therapeutics for pain, seizures, and other indications, and have an attractive safety profile. <i>Benefits</i> Potential therapeutic applications include treatment of pain, seizure, and use as an antipsychotic. � Estimates suggest that pain costs the American public $100 billion/year in health care, compensation, and litigation. � Cu
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Potent Protease-Resistant Inhibitors of HIV Entry, a Novel Compound for Treatment of AIDS

The present invention provides a new family of potent D-peptide inhibitors of HIV entry. These inhibitors have several advantages over Fuzeon, the only FDA-approved HIV entry inhibitor that is currently available. First, these inhibitors are resistant to proteases (potentially allowing oral bioavailability, long serum half-life, long shelf-life, infrequent dosing, and use as a microbicide); secondly, they target a highly conserved region of HIV that has been shown to be critical for viral infect
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Unc-74 Gene Encodes a Novel Transmembrane Thioredoxin Domain Containing Protein, which Is Required for Acetylcholine Receptor Formation

Ligand-gated ion channels are multimeric protein complexes, whose function depends on precise and correct ordered assembly of individual subunits. Using the nematode C. elegans as a model system for acetylcholine (ACh) gated ion channel formation, Dr. Jorgensen and colleague have identified a gene (unc-74), which protein product (a homologue of TMX3, a transmembrane thioredoxin domain containing protein) is required for trafficking the ACh-gated ion channel subunits to the synapses. Homologues
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In-vitro Production of Natural Killer (NK) Cells and Creation of Immortalized NK Cell Lines

Natural Killer (NK) cells provide early defense against pathogens several days before the adaptive immune responses become operational. They are a type of lymphocyte responsible for destroying viruses and tumor cells. An NK cell kills a target cell by releasing perforin (and other molecules) which damages the target cell membrane leading to death. These cells do not need to recognize a specific antigen and can destroy hostile cells on contact. NK cells also cause death by inducing apoptosis
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Designed Antigens to Elicit Neutralizing Antibodies against the HIV-1 gp41 N-Trimer Region to Prevent HIV Entry into the Host Cell

HIV protects its conserved entry machinery with a steric block, preventing the binding of most antibodies. The present invention provides the methods of producing and identifying sterically restricted antigens that mimic this steric block for use as an antigen to select for antibodies that circumvent this protection. An exemplary sterically restricted N-trimer mimic of the HIV Env protein was designed and used to elicit antibodies that have the ability to bind to the N-trimer region of HIV gp4
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New Model for Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

Signal transduction within and between cells mean that they can communicate important information and act upon it. Aberrant signal transduction is the cause of many of the most personally and financially devastating diseases including cancer, inflammatory diseases, cardiovascular disease and neuropsychiatric disease. Ligand-Gated Ion Channels are a major player in intercellular signal transduction. They are composed of transmembrane proteins that can exist under different conformations, at le
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New Methods and Targets for Modulating Odor Sensitivity in Olfactory Epithelium

This invention demonstrates that purine nucleotides and dopamine modulate the odor sensitivity of peripheral olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). Located in the dorsal recesses of the nasal cavity, these ORNs can be upward or downward modulated in sensitivity, by agonists and antagonists, respectively. This invention outlines the most effective agonists and antagonists to achieve the desired change in olfactory sensitivity. <i>Benefits</i> Historically, it was generally accepted that odor se
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Induction of Apoptosis by HIV Viral Protein, a New Target for Treatment of AIDS and Cancer

Since its discovery in the early 1980s, infection with HIV has reached epidemic proportions, especially in developing countries. Estimates suggest that 42 million people are living with HIV/AIDS worldwide, of whom around 3 million die each year. Current treatments involve a cocktail of drugs that effectively target two main HIV proteins. But these drugs can lose effectiveness when the virus mutates and becoming resistant. New drug targets within the HIV infection pathway would allow for a mo
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A Rapid Method for in vivo Synthesis of Large Libraries of Cyclic Peptides

Dr. Eric Schmidt and colleagues at the University of Utah have found a novel method to synthesize large libraries of amide-linked, modified cyclic peptides by expression of constructs in Escherichia coli. <i>Benefits</i> *Currently, technology to synthesize amide-linked cyclic peptide libraries is limited. *Modified peptide libraries have not yet been synthesized in large scale. *Cyclic peptides in general have advantages over their linear relatives in that they sample a more constricted c
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Novel Continuous Solvent Extraction Without Moving Parts

Solvent extraction is an efficient method for selectively removing, purifying and concentrating certain elements or compounds from a solution because the solutes can be selectively removed and they can be concentrated from a very dilute stream. Two types of solvent extraction systems are commonly used: the mixer settler and the pulse or spray column. *The mixer-settler units can be operated with a very high degree of contact between the two phases, but the equipment and operations are quite
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PCR System for Real-time Quantification of Samples

This invention comprises a nucleic acid quantification kit and method for determining the initial concentration or mass fraction of a target nucleic acid present in a sample. More particularly, the invention relates to the use of real-time competitive quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide probes to monitor the PCR reaction in real time. Also, an oligonucleotide probe can be used to obtain data through melting curve analysis. This system, theref
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Dual-Sided Microchannel Plate Detector Mount for Coaxial Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometers

Small devices that can rapidly and accurately analyze chemical and biological molecules are required by many industries. Homeland Security and the medical community lead the list. Current instruments are either too large to be used as a first responder in the field, too slow in giving results to analyze large amounts of protein data, or too costly for widespread use. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory has invented and is patenting a double-sided microchannel plate detecto
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Method for Synthesizing Novel Furanosteroids

The furanosteroids are a class of pentacyclic fungal metabolites that share in common a furan ring bridging positions 4 and 6 of the steroid skeleton. Members of this class are known for their powerful anti-inflammatory and antibiotic properties as well as their ability to selectively block certain intracellular signaling pathways, in particular those associated with cell growth and development. Accordingly, furanosteroids such as viridin and wortmannin have potential as therapeutic agents for d
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Identification and Uses of Iron and Other Divalent Cations Transporters

Iron deficiency afflicts over 3 billion people worldwide, and plants are the principal source of iron in most diets. In response to iron deficiency, all plants except the grasses induce Fe(III) chelate reductase activity, Fe(II) transport activity and proton release into the rhizosphere. Dartmouth researchers have identified an Arabidopsis mutant, frd3, that constitutively expresses all three of these iron deficiency responses. Therefore, it is tempting to speculate that FRD3 encodes a regul
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Identification and Uses of a Novel Iron Transporter

Iron is an essential nutrient for all higher plants, with iron-containing compounds figuring prominently in the electron transport systems of photosynthesis and respiration. Although iron is abundant in the soil, the acquisition of iron is problematic due to its low solubility at biological pH under aerobic conditions. Understanding how plants carry this important nutrient from soil into cells is critical for production of crops that would be richer sources of iron in foods. Since more than a
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Identification and Discovery of a New Family of Metal Transport Genes which Can Be Used for Toxic Metals Removal

Pollution of the environment is one of the major problems facing the modern world. Removal of toxic metals poses particularly difficult problems, as unlike organic pollutants they cannot be biodegraded. Currently the standard way of removal of toxic metals from contaminated areas is by excavation and subsequent burial of the soil at a hazardous waste site. Phytoremediation -- the rapidly developing technique of using plants to extract metals from soil - presents a much preferred alternative.
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Inexpensive Process for Separation and Mass Production of Cellodextrins

Cellodextrins (-1,4-glucose oligomers) are of interest for investigating cellulase hydrolysis mechanisms and kinetics. In addition, cellodextrins have been used to investigate aspects of microbial cellulose utilization including regulation of cellulase synthesis, cell growth, and bioenergetics. Non-digested oligosaccharides including cellodextrins have been found to have health-improvement functions such as lowing cholesterol levels and prevention of diabetes and obesity. Currently, cellodext
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Novel Method for Preventing Or Treating Motion Sickness

Motion sickness has been a long-standing problem for travelers, aviators and sailors. For some people, motion sickness symptoms can ruin a trip or even be disabling. Common remedies taken to prevent symptoms often have undesirable side effects. Researchers at Dartmouth have discovered that the anti-histamine chlorpheniramine is effective in the prevention of motion sickness. Our studies demonstrated that chlorpheniramine increased the amount of stressful motion that subjects could toler
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Novel Method for Producing Thiono Derivatives Useful in Drug Synthesis

Thionation, the conversion of a carbonyl group to the corresponding thiocarbonyl group, is a standard method for the preparation of a variety of useful organosulfur derivatives, including thionoesters, thionolactones, thioamides, etc. To date, the best reagent for bringing about this transformation has been Lawesson’s reagent (LR). However, LR has two drawbacks which limit its usefulness: it is expensive, and the large amount of reagent-derived byproducts which accompany its reactions can on
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Thermostable Purified Endoglucanases from Thermophilic Bacterium Acidothermus Cellulyticius

Technology Description A substantially purified high molecular weight cellulase enzyme having a molecular weight of between about 156,000 to about 203,400 daltons isolated from the bacterium Acidothermus cellulolyticus (ATCC 43068) and a method of producing it are disclosed. The enzyme is water soluble, possesses both C.sub.1 and C.sub.x types of enzymatic activity, has a high degree of stability toward heat and exhibits both a high optimum temperature activity and high inactivation characte
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Targeted Nanoscale System for Combined Therapy and Imaging of Cancer

Background Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. As the number of diagnosed cancer patients increases, there is growing need for improved treatment strategies and imaging techniques for accurate cancer staging and detection. Platform technologies with the ability to both enhance imaging and deliver drugs to various cancer types represents a significant advancement in cancer research and development. The following statistics from the American Cancer Society 2008 fa
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Surface Functionalization of Polymers for Drug Delivery

Background Currently, wet chemical conjugation and simple adhesion are used to achieve surface functionalization of biodegradable polymer particles. Unfortunately, both of these methods have poor reproducibility, they are inefficient, and they have complex processing requirements and toxicity issues associated with the chemicals used to modify the polymers. Invention Description This technology represents a biodegradable polymer for the controlled delivery of drugs and vaccines that makes us
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Silver Nanoparticles for Antibacterial and Antiviral Applications

Background The use of antibacterial agents is widespread and can be seen in many products ranging from cosmetics to household cleaners. All tend to rely on alcohol- or triclosan-based ingredients to eliminate pathogens; however, the use of triclosan in antibacterial products has been suspected of causing new antibiotic-resistant bacteria. There is a need for a new agent that can be used in antibacterial applications that will be effective against antibiotic-resistant bacteria. There is also a pr
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Rose-Shaped Gold and Iron Oxide Nano Structures and their Applications: Tissue Imaging Contrast Enhancement, Medical Diagnostics, and Photothermal Therapy

Background The identification and treatment of many life-threatening diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and atherosclerosis depends on the outputs provided by innovative medical imaging technologies such as optical coherence tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, photoacoustic imaging, ultrasonic imaging, and fluorescence imaging. Imaging technologies, in turn, depend on the optical capabilities of nano structure contrast agents to produce accurate, meaningful results Current nanostruct
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Molecular Specific Photoacoustic Imaging and Photothermal Therapy

Background Despite enhanced understanding and the development of new therapeutic options, cancer remains a major cause of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Early diagnosis of malignant events is the single most important factor determining survivability and long-term outcomes. Much effort has been focused on the identification of cancer biomarkers that can be easily monitored in body fluids. However, it has been very difficult to identify soluble biomarker(s) with a high degree of spec
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Method for Fabricating Arrayed Light Emitting Probes for a Scanning Optical Microscope

The resolution of conventional (far-field) optical microscopes is limited by diffraction to the wavelength of light. The near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM), a recent advancement, obtains high-resolution images (typically 80-200 nm) by using probe light source, whose size and probe-to-sample distance is shorter than the wavelength of light. NSOM has the ability to perform fluorescence and polarized imaging and ultraviolet, infrared, and Raman spectroscopy. Commercially available NSO
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Metallic Nanoparticles Directly Functionalized with Protein, Synthesized by Chemical Reduction in Aqueous Solution

Background While there are many ways to synthesize nanoparticles, most have proven hard to solvate. Minor temperature flux can cause nanoparticles to drop out of solution, and current methods yield solutions that last only for a week and must be kept at low temperatures. This makes working with nanoparticles in solution a hassle since the solution will have to be made as close to the time of use as possible. It also leads to reductions in effectiveness of the particle solution. In addition, part
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Injectable, Disease-Responsive Nanocontainers

Background Current drug delivery technologies rely on diffusion/degradation and are neither targeted nor stimuli-responsive. Further, several MEMS-based drug delivery devices have been formulated, but the efficacy of introducing these drugs to the patient has been compromised. Current technologies require direct injection of a contrast agent, which can result in poor targeting of tissues and interfering noise in the subsequent image. Additionally, most MEMS-based drug delivery devices must be su
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Improved Nanosurgical Efficacy Through Plasmonic Laser Ablation

Background There is widespread optimism that nanosurgery will allow the improved resection of diseased tissues with minimal invasiveness and lessened collateral damage to adjacent healthy tissues. Initial methodologies involve localization of nanoparticles (generally gold nanoshells) to diseased tissues and thermal laser treatment to selectively ablate associated tissues. However, thermal ablation leads to substantial collateral damage, including denatured self antigens, apoptosed cells, and loc
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Improved Method for Production of Highly Uniform Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery

Background Nanoparticles have multiple applications in tissue targeted drug delivery, non-invasive monitoring of therapeutics, and as delivery devices. They also can be used by the cosmetics, agricultural and pharmaceutical industries to synthesize controlled release particles. Current methods used to synthesize nanoparticles involve self assembly of polymers or macromolecules resulting in particles with a large distribution of size and shape. Indeed, the batch to batch variation in preparation
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Improved Method for Production of Highly Uniform Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery

Background Nanoparticles have multiple applications in tissue targeted drug delivery, non-invasive monitoring of therapeutics, and as delivery devices. They also can be used by the cosmetics, agricultural and pharmaceutical industries to synthesize controlled release particles. Current methods used to synthesize nanoparticles involve self assembly of polymers or macromolecules resulting in particles with a large distribution of size and shape. Indeed, the batch to batch variation in preparation
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Glycerin Based Synthesis of Nanoparticles and Nanowires

Background Currently, there is a rising problem of antibiotic resistance due to certain bacteria exhibiting immunity. Also, there are no completely efficient treatments or vaccines to prevent or treat viral diseases such as HIV, hepatitis C, and human papillomavirus. Invention Description This technology employs silver nanoparticles and nanowires as biocides to replace some current antibiotics. Glycerin is used to produce these nanoparticles, and provides the medium into which the silver can
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Biodegradable MicroSpheres for Drug and Vaccine Delivery

Background Immunizations are an essential tool in the prevention of many infectious diseases. DNA vaccines offer great promise for safer and more effective vaccines when compared to traditional protein immunizations. Current technologies for the delivery of DNA vaccines involve the simple injection of DNA in solutions, use of cationic polymers or lipids, or use of gene guns. Efficient, targeted delivery of nucleic acids to antigen processing cells could significantly enhance the efficacy of nucl
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Antiviral Properties of Silver Nanoparticles

Background Current bioconjugates seem to be very unstable in the resulting product, which is a problem in creating a well-rounded nanoparticle. There is currently a need for a better process to inhibit the transmission of the AIDS virus in humans. Current bioconjugate techniques create dense nanoparticles, which also makes them unstable. Current bioconjugate techniques also involve incubation of nanoparticles in the presence of biomolecules at a certain pH, which this technology does not need. S
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Prevention of Anthrax Infection with Anthrax Antibody Fragments

Background Current treatments for persons exposed to anthrax spores rely heavily on antibiotics to prevent the growth and ensuing toxicity of the anthrax bacteria; however, these treatments could be compromised through genetic engineering or the natural evolution of anthrax. There is a pressing need for a more robust method for preventing anthrax infection in those exposed to anthrax spores. Invention Description High affinity binding antibodies to the anthrax Protective Antigen have been sh
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Targeted Modification of Genomes with Lactococcus Lactis Ll.LtrB Group II Intron (TARGETRON)

Background Functional genomic disciplines seek to understand the contributions of genes and their protein products in healthy and disease conditions. Due to evolutionary conservation, model organisms provide simplified systems for analysis, while still producing relevant results. Gene function can be assessed by two principal methods: gain of function and loss of function methodologies. Gain of function approaches seek to express novel genes in organisms or overexpress the corresponding gene in
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Robert M. Krug

Background Current treatments for persons exposed to anthrax spores rely heavily on antibiotics to prevent the growth and ensuing toxicity of the anthrax bacteria; however, these treatments could be compromised through genetic engineering or the natural evolution of anthrax. There is a pressing need for a more robust method for preventing anthrax infection in those exposed to anthrax spores. Invention Description High affinity binding antibodies to the anthrax Protective Antigen have been sh
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Novel Molecular Target for Influenza Virus Antiviral Development

Background Influenza A viruses cause a highly contagious respiratory disease in humans that causes a significant loss of life each year, and dramatic mortality rates during human pandemics. H5N1 avian influenza A viruses, so-called bird flus, which have a human mortality rate of approximately 50% since 1997, are prime candidates for the next pandemic influenza A virus. At present H5N1 viruses are not readily transmissible between humans, but it is quite possible that they can acquire such transm
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Methods for the Production of Recombinant Proteins with Multiple Disulfide Bonds in E. Coli

Background Currently, there is no way to produce complex eukaryotic proteins with multiple disulfide bonds in bacteria. This is because the bacteria cannot normally form the correct disulfide bonds in proteins, since they lack the appropriate enzymatic machinery for this purpose. Such proteins must therefore be produced in mammalian cells at a significant cost. Invention Description This technology embodies a gram-negative bacterium that has the ability to catalyze the formation and isomeriz
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Method for Pre-Determining and Reversing Toxicity of Drugs

Background Side effects and toxicity are a significant issue with many promising drugs. While a drug may remedy the targeted illness, serious side effects can, in some cases, be worse than the initial malady. In general, the side effects of a given drug are known, but may often be limited to a small subset of individuals. In such a subset, side effects may often be so severe that alternate therapies are required. In some instances, FDA approval can even be denied for an otherwise promising drug,
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Method for biological removal of sulfites from alcoholic beverages and food

Background Sulfite hypersensitivity is an important problem for millions of people. Furthermore, a number of disorders in humans have been proven to be associated with allergic responses to sulfite. Sulfite forms naturally in the body during the oxidative degradation of sulfur-containing amino acids, such as cysteine and methionine. Accumulation of sulfite is toxic, so it must be further oxidized to sulfate to prevent adverse effects. Sulfite accumulations can also arise from environmental pollu
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Membrane for the production of oxygen enriched air

Background Many elderly and sick people require oxygen-enriched air to facilitate breathing. Unfortunately, oxygen tanks are heavy and need to be refilled, limiting their convenience. Further, portable oxygen generators/concentrators (which generate oxygen from the surrounding air) are prohibitively expensive, large and cumbersome, and inefficient in terms of power. Invention Description Medical applications do not require oxygen concentrations above 28%; thus, a membrane for enriching the o
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Laser Treatment of Cutaneous Vascular Lesions

Background Coagulate vessels often need multiple treatments before they can be destroyed. Current technologies are limited by the finite penetration depth of light and by the natural flow characteristics of blood vessels in tissue. As a result, clinical procedures are often unsuccessful at treating hypervascular lesions. Invention Description This invention is based on a parent patent and considered an extension. The laser doses required are dramatically reduced over other hypervascular lesi
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Influenza Inhibitors

Background The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that up to 20% of Americans contract influenza each year during flu season. Although most recover, it is estimated that 100,000 of those afflicted, have to be hospitalized, and about 36,000 people die from the virus each year in the United States alone. Furthermore, influenza has recently emerged as a bioterrorist weapon. Currently, vaccines are employed to treat influenza, but they are of little use against a fast moving pandem
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G-Quadruplex-Interactive Compounds as Possible Anticancer Agents

Background There have been few dramatic therapeutic breakthroughs in cancer research. Many more anticancer drugs are in use today than ever before, but nearly all of these drugs are severely limited in their use due to the dual problems of drug resistance and lack of selectivity. With cancer becoming more and more common, the need for cancer detection has become more important. Few techniques are available, and very few detect it early. Invention Description This technology has a variety of
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Chemical Modification of Polysaccharides for Efficient Delivery of RNA and DNA Therapeutics

Background Nucleic acid-based therapeutics are rapidly becoming the next generation of drugs, offering promising potential for a variety of diseases. Antisense and small interfering RNAs (siRNA) "knock down" (dampen or decrease) the expression of specific, disease-related gene targets and have applications in cancer, cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurological diseases. On the other hand, DNA is used for gene therapy or as vaccines against infectious diseases and cancers. The challenges of using
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A G-Quadruplex DNA Cleaving Compound and Novel DNA-Cleaving Antitumor Agents

Background There have been few dramatic therapeutic breakthroughs in cancer research. More anticancer drugs are in use today than ever before, but nearly all of these drugs are severely limited in their use, due to the dual problems of drug resistance and lack of selectivity. The guanine-rich ends of chromosomes, the telomeres, are prime targets for anticancer agents. The DNA in these regions of the genome are believed to be capable of forming G-quadruplex structures, yet no known compound exist
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Software to Record Auditory Event-Related Potentials

Background Existing software that acquires event-related potentials from human subjects is mostly custom written by the user and not commercially available. Those that are commercially available only operate on specific hardware and only offer a single method for data evaluation. Invention Description This software application measures acoustic signals presented in neuroelectric responses and records them from the scalp using the oddball paradigm. The physiological responses are averaged ove
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Micro-electro-mechanically Tunable Nano-photonic Grating Displacement Sensor

Background Sensors represent a billion-dollar market characterized by eleven product segments. Two of the sensor product segments are: 1. Proximity and displacement sensors and 2. Force and load sensors. (Global Industry Analysts, 2007) Types of proximity and displacement sensors include: inductive and photoelectric sensors; capacitive proximity sensors; photoelectric sensors; ultrasonic proximity sensors. Types of force and load sensors include force sensors and accelerometers. From an end-
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Methods for Expressing RNP Particles in Eukaryotic Cells

Background Functional genomic disciplines seek to understand the contributions of genes and their protein products in healthy and disease conditions. Due to evolutionary conservation, model organisms provide simplified systems for analysis, while still producing relevant results. Gene function can be accessed by two principle methods ? gain of function and loss of function methodologies. Gain of function approaches seek to express novel genes in organisms or overexpress the corresponding gene in
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Gene Targeting in Eukaryotic Cells by Purified Group II Introns

Background Functional genomic disciplines seek to understand the contributions of genes and their protein products in both healthy and disease conditions. Due to evolutionary conservation, model organisms provide simplified systems for analysis, while still producing relevant results. Gene function can be accessed by two principal methods: gain of function and loss of function methodologies. Gain of function approaches seek to express novel genes in organisms or overexpress the corresponding gen
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Enhancing the Production of Complex Proteins in Bacteria

Background Numerous therapeutic proteins contain disulfide bonds. However, the production of proteins containing multiple disulfide linkages in genetically engineered bacteria is very inefficient. Bacteria are often not able to produce complex eukaryotic proteins in an active form and in high amounts because the bacterial machinery that catalyzes the isomerization of disulfide bonds is inefficient. As a result, such proteins have to be produced in mammalian cells at a considerably higher expense
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Assays for Identifying Functional Alterations in the p53 Tumor Suppressor

Background The p53 gene is mutated in over half of all tumors, indicating its importance in the process of carcinogenesis. The gene encodes a tumor suppressing transcription factor that binds to certain DNA sequences, thereby activating a number of growth suppressing genes. There is a need to screen for mutant p53 genes that encode for certain proteins. The development of a drug that can activate p53 would be extremely useful in that it would enable physicians to acquire some control over the ce
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Anchored Periplasmic Expression (APEx): a Powerful Technology for Antibody Discovery and Combinatorial Protein Library Screening

Invention Description APEx is a validated method to isolate binding polypeptides, including antibodies or antibody fragments, that recognize specific molecular targets. A library of polypeptide (e.g., antibody) mutants is constructed and expressed in E. coli bacteria. The mutant polypetides are expressed as fusion proteins that are anchored on the cytoplasmic (inner) membrane of the bacterium facing the periplasm. Subsequently, the outer membrane of the bacterium is made permeable by chemical tr
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A Rapid Colorimetric Assay for Drug Discovery

Background The FDA currently requires pharmaceutical firms to create enantiomerically pure substances, or that the enantiomer of the drug be thoroughly studied and found to have no adverse side effects. The synthesis of enantiomerically pure substances requires the use of reagents that give enantiomeric excesses (ee) to the various synthetic steps involved in the synthetic procedure. Currently, the ee of a reaction is typically determined using polarography or chiral HPLC analysis. The ability t
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A Portable Vector Maximizing Protein Expression in High-Density Bacterial Cultures Using Either Temperature or Chemical Induction

Background Bacterial fermentation remains a popular and reliable form of protein production for both research and commercial applications. Current systems require complementary functional elements present in both engineered bacterial strains and plasmid expression vectors to insure tight control on gene expression. Expression control is important to obtain the best yield and highest functional activity of protein products. However, commercially available, or stock, bacterial strains and plasm
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Real-Time Imaging and Monitoring of Laser-Tissue Interaction

Background In laser dermatological and oncology treatments, absorbed radiant energy generates an increase in temperature to heat targeted structures. However, before performing laser therapy, it is important to identify the appropriate laser dosimetry required to heat targeted structures and protect surrounding tissue structures while ensuring target tissue damage. Invention Description This invention is a method and apparatus to guide and non-invasively monitor laser photothermal therapies.
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Photoacoustic Imaging for Early Detection of Cardiovascular Plaque

Background Almost 81 million individuals in the United States suffer from a form of cardiovascular disease that cost over $400 billion yearly in the United States alone. Coronary heart disease is the number one cause of death in America. Market priorities are to obtain accurate representations of the cardiovascular and circulatory systems to facilitate earlier diagnosis and treatment. Earlier detection and better diagnosis is key to decreasing the number of deaths and also to saving our natio
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Improved Nanosurgical Efficacy Through Plasmonic Laser Ablation

Background There is widespread optimism that nanosurgery will allow the improved resection of diseased tissues with minimal invasiveness and lessened collateral damage to adjacent healthy tissues. Initial methodologies involve localization of nanoparticles (generally gold nanoshells) to diseased tissues and thermal laser treatment to selectively ablate associated tissues. However, thermal ablation leads to substantial collateral damage, including denatured self antigens, apoptosed cells, and loc
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Cell Arrays for Measuring Gene Function on a Genomic Scale

Background Even with the completion of the human genome sequence, the functions and interactions of most encoded genes have yet to be uncovered. Understanding the role of genes and gene networks underlying human development, the onset and progression of disease, and our responses to environmental stimuli is critical for the development of new and more effective drugs and healthcare interventions. Most current high-throughput genetic discovery approaches offer only indirect measurements of the co
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A Solid Biodegradable Device for Use in Tissue Repair

Background Conventional methods for tissue repair involve sutures, staples, or clips. By their very nature, they result in a "foreign body" being left in the tissue. Tissue injury and foreign body reaction can give rise to such problems as inflammation, granuloma formation, scarring, and stenosis. In addition, none of these fasteners produce a watertight tissue seal. Laser welding is an emerging technique used to bond the adjoining tissue. Compared with conventional tissue repair techniques,
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A Miniaturized Optical System for Combined Multiphoton Endoscopy and Ultrashort-Pulse Laser Micro-Nanosurgery

Background According to the American Cancer Society, approximately 2.5 million cases of cancer were diagnosed in the US in 2007 (including basal and squamous cell epithelial cancers), of which 85% originated in the epithelial tissue layer. Diagnosis, early detection, and treatment of diseases at an early stage, where disease is still localized in the epithelial tissue layer, significantly reduce more serious health risks for patents. To diagnose and treat these small precancerous lesions, ph
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Three-Dimensional Fabrication of Bioelectronic Interfaces

Background Bioelectronic interfaces hold great promise for medicine and research; however, current fabrication methods for electronic or electroactive materials typically involve expensive lithographic masks, complicated stamping, and chemical etching. The assemblies produced via this route are inherently 2-D and have not proven useful for creating complex 3-D assemblies. Additionally, current manufacturing methods for electroactive materials often used as interfaces with biological cells and ti
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Secretion of Folded Recombinant Proteins for Enhancing the Production of Complex Proteins in Bacteria

Background Bacteria are a common source of recombinant proteins for a variety of research, therapeutic, and vaccine applications. Recombinant proteins accumulating intracellularly often form insoluble inclusion bodies. Extraction of properly folded recombinant proteins from inclusion bodies is a complicated, cumbersome, and expensive process. The formation of unwanted disulfide couplings in refolded proteins greatly complicates the process of necessary disulfide bond formation in recombinant pro
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Porous biopolymer hydrogels prepared by in situ crystallization

Background Organ failure and tissue loss account for half the medical spending in the United States. In theory, transplantation is the last therapeutic option available to people in the final stage of an organ or tissue failure. The supply of organs or tissues is so limited that for the vast majority of people, transplantation is not an option. At the same time, transplantation outcomes are under renewed scrutiny as insurers try to control healthcare costs. Exciting research undertaken at The
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Patterned Dual Crosslinked Biopolymer Hydrogels

Background Approximately eight million surgical procedures are performed annually in the United States to treat tissue damage resulting from accidents, birth defects, hereditary disorders, and other diseases. Because traditional tissue repair procedures are inefficient, potentially painful to the patient, and costly to perform, healthcare providers are increasingly interested in finding alternative methods (Frost & Sullivan). Tissue engineering aims to create materials that can replace damaged t
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Novel Membrane Materials and Methods for Gas Separation

Background Current methods for CO2 removal are not only very expensive but also cause large losses of gas and the use toxic chemicals. Furthermore, most polymer membranes used for purification are more permeable to small molecules (e.g. H2) than to larger molecules (e.g. CO2). Less permeability then requires costly repressurization of the valuable small molecule streams. Invention Description This invention relates to the discovery of a new series of polymeric materials, cross-linked polyeth
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Method for Identifying Novel Telomerase Inhibitors with Utility in Cancer Treatment

Background Certain sequences of DNA are able to form unique, G-quadruplex structures. These structures are implicated in a variety of biological processes. One example of such a process is the cancer-cell specific elongation of chromosome telomeres by the enzyme telomerase. G-quadruplex structures have also been implicated in the transcriptional control of specific genes, and in inherited diseases such as fragile X syndrome. Invention Description These compounds are inhibitors of the cancer-
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Improved Production of S-Adenosyl Methionine for Nutraceutical Applications

Background A major drawback to the use of SAM as a medicament is its expense: present methods of production rely on the chemical transformation of methionine, which is an expensive starting material. If a more cost effective method of production were realized, this valuable amino acid could be more widely utilized and commercialized. Invention Description A new process has been developed which utilizes an engineered strain of yeast that eliminates the need to provide a source of methionine,
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Method for Improved Synthesis of Steroid Hormone Precursors

Background The current method used to convert a,ß unsaturated ketones into a hydroxy ketones or a hydroxy esters results in only moderate selectivity with a low yield. Also, the effectiveness of some contraceptives and hormonal treatments can stand to be improved. Invention Description The process operates under neutral reaction conditions that present the formation of unwanted side reactions. It is also concerted (single-step) and proceeds with complete selectivity, which gives a yield tha
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A Novel Preparation of Pyrroles from Nitriles and Cyclopropanes

Background The new use of known materials to prepare pyrroles in a highly efficient and selective manner is the nature of the discovery. Invention Description A new method for the synthesis of pyrroles from nitriles and cyclopropanes is described. Pyrroles have found applications as pharmaceuticals, biological probes, molecular receptors for anions and cations, as dyes (including fluorescent dyes), charge transfer agents, conductive materials, polymers and polymer additives, non-linear optic
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3-Dimensional Bioconstruction Techniques to Connect Electronic and Biological Systems

Background Bioelectronic interfaces hold great promise for medicine and research; however, current fabrication methods of electronic or electroactive materials involve expensive lithographic masks, complicated stamping, and chemical etching. The assemblies produced are inherently 2-D and have not proven useful for creating complex 3-D assemblies. The current manufacturing methods for electroactive materials often used as interfaces with biological cells and tissue are limited by the fact that th
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System for Site-Specific, Controlled, On-Demand Drug Delivery

Background Current controlled-release drug delivery technologies rely on diffusion/degradation, and are not physiologically responsive. Several MEMS-based drug delivery devices have been formulated, but the efficacy of introducing these drugs to the patient has been compromised. Also, current technologies do not allow simultaneous delivery of imaging agents and therapeutics and thus cellular-level monitoring of therapeutics is not possible. Current concepts in nanofabricated drug delivery device
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Surface Functionalization of Polymers for Drug Delivery

Background Currently, wet chemical conjugation and simple adhesion are used to achieve surface functionalization of biodegradable polymer particles. Unfortunately, both of these methods have poor reproducibility, they are inefficient, and they have complex processing requirements and toxicity issues associated with the chemicals used to modify the polymers. Invention Description This technology represents a biodegradable polymer for the controlled delivery of drugs and vaccines that makes us
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Ricin Inhibitors and Methods for Use Thereof

Background Ricin is a potent heterodimeric cytotoxin easily isolated from the seeds of the castor plant, Ricinus communis. The protein consists of a lectin B chain, which can bind cell surfaces and is linked by disulfide bonds to an A chain (RTA), which enzymatically depurinates a key adenine residue in 28 S rRNA. This modification results in devastating cytotoxic effects, rendering Ricin a potent poison agent. Indeed, it has been used as an assassination tool in several well-publicized events.
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Novel Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery

Background Nanoparticles have multiple applications in targeted drug delivery and non-invasive monitoring of therapeutics. The benefits of nano-based drug delivery extend to treatments for infectious diseases as well as cancer, cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurological diseases. Market-driven priorities are to synthesize controlled release particles to improve drug treatment methods through reduced cost of treatments, decreased drug toxicity, and improved bioavailability. While currently avail
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Improved Method for Production of Highly Uniform Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery

Background Nanoparticles have multiple applications in tissue targeted drug delivery, non-invasive monitoring of therapeutics, and as delivery devices. They also can be used by the cosmetics, agricultural and pharmaceutical industries to synthesize controlled release particles. Current methods used to synthesize nanoparticles involve self assembly of polymers or macromolecules resulting in particles with a large distribution of size and shape. Indeed, the batch to batch variation in preparation
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Formation of Stable Submicron Protein Particles by Thin Film Freezing

Background Therapeutic peptides and proteins such as insulin are difficult to deliver through the digestive tract, so they are usually delivered by injection. Inhalation offers a much simpler, painless and effective alternative. Highly porous micron-sized aggregates of protein nanoparticles have the optimal aerodynamic diameter for delivery deep into the lung where they rapidly dissolve. The ability to produce high-surface-area stable submicron and micron-sized protein particles creates new o
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Biodegradable MicroSpheres for Drug and Vaccine Delivery

Background Immunizations are an essential tool in the prevention of many infectious diseases. DNA vaccines offer great promise for safer and more effective vaccines when compared to traditional protein immunizations. Current technologies for the delivery of DNA vaccines involve the simple injection of DNA in solutions, use of cationic polymers or lipids, or use of gene guns. Efficient, targeted delivery of nucleic acids to antigen processing cells could significantly enhance the efficacy of nucl
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Very Large Array of Bipolar Electrodes for Sensing of Chemical or Biological Species

Background The development of microarrays is of crucial importance in genomics for genome sequencing or for the determination of gene expression, in proteomics for the identification of pathologic markers, and in biomedical analysis for the realization of point-of-care diagnostics. There is a need for alternative detection systems that can replace fluorescence-based detection, which requires heavy, complex and expensive equipment. Electrochemical methods can solve these problems, but individu
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Ultra Compact Fiber-Optic Endoscope for Optical Interrogation of Targeted Depths Within Tissue for the Early Cancer Detection and Surveillance

Background Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States; early detection is the key to treatment. In humans, 85% of all cancer originates in the epithelial tissue, including the esophagus, colon, lung, bladder, and cervix. There is currently no way to detect and locate these cancers in vivo until they have developed into a visible lesion, at which time they may have already metastasized and spread. The rise in cancer in the industrialized world has resulted in an increasing a
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Novel Membrane Receptor for Early Treatment of Breast Cancer

Background An orphan G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) has previously been shown to be involved in estrogen signaling in breast cancer cells. Also, this GPCR has been suggested to be the membrane estrogen receptor (mER) mediating these estrogen effects. However, no reports were available demonstrating that the GPCR has the binding characteristics of an estrogen membrane receptor. Such reports would provide a means to develop new drugs and screen them for binding to a membrane estrogen receptor o
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Monolithic Integration of Fresnel Lens with Silicon Microscanner for Endoscopic Imaging

Background The U.S. market for medical imaging equipment increased from $6.7 billion in 2005 to an estimated $7.8 billion in 2007. It should reach $11.6 billion in 2012, a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 8.1%. Medical imaging has brought about great improvements in the quality of health care. New medical technologies, such as advances in diagnostic imaging, are widely considered a major driver of the rise in healthcare spending in the United States. One reason is that innovations in medica
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Model-based Framework for the Detection of Spiculated Masses on Mammography

Background The detection of lesions on mammography is a repetitive and fatiguing task. Only three or four out of a thousand examined cases are malignant, and thus an abnormality may be overlooked. As a result, radiologists fail to detect 10% to 30% of cancers. Computer-Aided Detection (CADe) systems have been developed to aid radiologists. These systems act as a second reader, thus eliminating the need for a second radiologist. However, the detection accuracy of current systems is much higher
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Method for Ultra-Sensitive Detection of Infectious Agents

Background The sensitive and accurate detection of spores and other infectious agents is essential in clinical environments and biodefense applications. Because of the excellent sensitivities obtained, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods are widely used for detection purposes. However, many difficulties are observed with present PCR methods, including poor specificity, high percentage of false positives due to poor specificity, and the requirement of multiple gene probes to confirm identific
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Laboratory Assay for Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer's DiseaseBackground

Background Current Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnostic tools which utilize biological markers have low rates of success or involve invasive techniques that are at best uncomfortable and unreliable. Other tools incorporate bulky and expensive machinery. Moreover, many of the latter tests rely on the detection of proteins which are synthesized after the body has already suffered irreversible damage. Invention Description In recent years, it has been reported that defects in cytochrome oxidase
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Hand-Held Silicon Scanner Enabled Single-Fiber Confocal Microscopy for Cancer Detection

Background The American Cancer Society shows 15 million people were diagnosed with oral cancer in 2004. Cancer cure and survival rates are tied directly to the stage of the cancer at the time of diagnosis. Early detection in many cases can permit minimally invasive treatment and greatly improves long-term survival. Within the oral cavity, early recognition of malignancy is problematic due to the frequent lack of gross signs or obvious symptoms. Current diagnostic methods require recurring su
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Monoclonal Antibody 3D8 - a CD 13 Antibody ( 89008)

A murine monoclonal antibody (mAb) directed against the human CD13 antigen has been developed at Northwestern University. MAb 3D8 appears to be myeloid restricted, reacting with myeloid cell lines, peripheral blood monocytes, and macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system and lung. However, this antibody also reacts with Langerhans’ cells of the skin and thymus. Potential uses for mAb 3D8 include phenotyping of normal and leukemic myeloid cells by immunocytochemistry and/or flow cytometry.
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Transgenic Mice Expressing Superoxide Dismutase ( 94011)

Researchers at Northwestern University have created a unique transgenic mouse model that expressed superoxide dismutase (SOD). This is an excellent animal model for the analysis of Cu- or Zn-superoxide dismutase in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also called Lou Gehrig's disease, which is a progressive, fatal neurological disease that results from mutations in the Cu, Zn- superoxide dismutase . ALS affects as many as 20,000 Americans with 5,000 new cases occurring in the United States each
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Heat Shock Factors HSF1 & HSF2 Rat Monoclonal Antibodies ( 96097)

This invention describes antibodies directed against heat shock factors, HSF1 and HSF2. HSFs (also designated heat shock transcription factors) are involved in the transcriptional regulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs) which are rapidly induced in organisms in response to various environmental and physiological stresses. These antibodies are rat monoclonal IgGs and have been utilized for the detection of HSF1 and HSF2 by immunohistochemistry, DNA gel shift assays, Western blotting and immunopr
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KPL1, a Monoclonal Antibody (mAb) Directed Against a Leukocyte Glycoprotein Named P-selectin Glycoprotein Ligand-1 (PSGL-1) ( 97026)

This invention describes a novel mAb, KPL1, that completely blocks the interaction of PSGL-1 with either L-selectin or P-selectin leukocyte adhesion molecules. KPL-1 is therefore useful in studying interactions between leukocytes and either platelets, endothelium or other leukocytes. KPL-1 has proven to be an excellent reagent for FACS staining, Western blotting, immunoprecipitation, and appears to be a reporter epitope for tyrosine sulfated PSGL-1. SCIENTIFIC BACKGROUND and SIGNIFICANCE: Int
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A Function Blocking Monoclonal Antibody Against alpha4 Laminin ( 99053CIP

Recently researchers at Northwestern University have developed a function blocking monoclonal antibody (mAb) to the a4 subunit of laminins. This antibody, mAb 2A3, inhibits angiogenesis and endothelialization in vitro and in vivo. SCIENTIFIC BACKGROUND: Integrins are cellular receptors that mediate cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions, and integrin avß3 is postulated to play a major role in angiogenesis by acting as a receptor for a subunits and modulating a variety of cell-
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Analysis of Muscular Activity in Neonatal Animals to Screen for Mutations and/or Drugs that Alter Sleep and Wake States ( 99072)

Northwestern investigators have developed a high-throughput screening method for novel genes and/or drug compounds associated with the sleep and wake state. Previously it has not been possible to screen a large number of sleep-related drugs and/or genes in rodents because of the time, cost and invasive nature of recording sleep via brain electrical activity (electroencephalography (EEG) in adult animals. The novelty of this method is two-fold: 1) the sleep-wake state in the neonatal animal has b
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Surface-Associated Delivery of Genes and Oligonucleotides for High Throughput Functionality Analysis (20071ht)

Investigators at Northwestern University have invented a novel system appropriate for the high-throughput analysis of gene function and an approach for the controlled, efficient delivery of DNA or oligonucleotide (ON) complexes from a surface, from which multiple genes or ONs can be delivered in parallel. In this approach, non-covalent bonds are formed between the nucleic acid and accessory molecules. Some of these accessory molecules are then tethered covalently to a solid support, which can be
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A Protocol to Experimentally Identify Non-specific, Non Drug-Like Ligand “Hits” from Drug Discovery Screening Assays (20096)

<!--startindex-->To discover new lead compounds for drug design, large libraries of chemical compounds are screened for their ability to modulate receptor and enzyme protein activity and function. The screens for such compounds are performed experimentally (high throughput screening) or computationally (virtual screening). Hits are identified or verified in vitro using a defined activity assay. However, during these large screens, a number of compounds that have effects on a number of different
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A Protocol to Experimentally Identify Non-specific, Non Drug-Like Ligand “Hits” from Drug Discovery Screening Assays (20096)

<!--startindex-->To discover new lead compounds for drug design, large libraries of chemical compounds are screened for their ability to modulate receptor and enzyme protein activity and function. The screens for such compounds are performed experimentally (high throughput screening) or computationally (virtual screening). Hits are identified or verified in vitro using a defined activity assay. However, during these large screens, a number of compounds that have effects on a number of different
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Tau-13 Monoclonal Antibody (20081)

Tau-13 is a mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb) that binds to human tau as demonstrated by ELISA and immunoblot assays and is able to stain brain tissue early in Alzheimer’s disease. The Tau-13 mAb would be useful to researchers who wish to detect human tau in solid phase assays as it has a remarkably high affinity for the immunogen. This antibody is useful in tissue staining and may be used for pull-down assays. ADVANTAGES: The Tau-13 mAb was derived from a hybridoma cell line created throu
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Monoclonal Antibodies for Laminin-5 and Hemidesmosomes (21015)

This invention describes a number of monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) specific to the different subunits of laminin-5 and hemidesmosomes (HDs). These monoclonal antibodies may be used to study epithelial cell motility, cell proliferation, cytoskeleton formation, cell adhesion, and the process of wound healing. Experimental assays such as Western blotting, immunofluorescence microscopy, immunocytochemistry and in vitro motility assays have demonstrated the utility of these mAbs. MAb Specificity
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OSR-1 Nucleic Acids and Proteins (22064)

Investigators at Northwestern University have identified several novel genes that effect dehydration resistance in nematodes: when expression of these genes is modulated, parasitic and beneficial nematodes have altered sensitivity to dry, high salinity environments. In particular, knocking out these genes in beneficial nematodes will enhance their survival, while down-regulation of these genes in parasitic nematodes will decrease their ability to withstand dehydration. Enhancing the survival of
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Dual Function Lipid-Based Transfection Agents: Combination of Drug and DNA Produces Large Increase in Efficiency (22094)

INVENTION: Novel liposomes have been developed that are useful as non-viral vectors to deliver DNA to cells. The invention described herein focuses on the use of lipoplexes with incorporated microtubule disrupting agents as non-viral gene delivery vectors that can efficiently and non-toxically deliver genes to cells in vitro. Thus, these lipoplexes are useful as gene therapy and cellular transfection reagents with applications that include use as gene delivery vectors for gene therapy to treat a
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G Protein Mediated Function as a Target for Malaria Chemotherapy (22096)

Investigators at Northwestern University have identified that beta-blocker drugs are effective inhibitors of malarial infection in vitro and in vivo. Beta blockers are inexpensive, approved to treat cardiac indications, non-toxic, and otherwise well-tolerated in patients. Research and development efforts have yielded a variety of beta blocker compounds, clinical trial data, and extensive data on pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of these drugs. This technology offers the opportunit
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Improved Transfection Efficiency Using Combination Lipoids (22112)

Robert C. MacDonald et al., developed novel liposomes useful as transfection agents to deliver nucleic acids to cells for which efficient transfection with conventional agents is difficult. The novel transfection agent, MLS, is a mixture of two cationic components (L and S) that are combined in different proportions to optimize the efficiency of DNA delivery. The significance of this agent is its markedly enhanced transfection efficiency when "tuned" to a given cell type and conditions. Transfec
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Zinc-Chelating Ratiometric Fluorescent Probes and Related Methods

INVENTION: Investigators at Northwestern University have synthesized a new class of zinc-chelating probes that are useful as ratiometric probes for zinc (Zn(II)). The development of this probe allows the use of a new research reagent to be utilized in the investigation of the functions of zinc in biological systems. The inorganic physiology of intracellular zinc is poorly understood but of emerging importance in understanding a variety of disorders in humans. Histochemical studies of mammalian t
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Tau C3 Monoclonal Antibody (23065)

Recently, a new antibody specific for caspase cleaved Tau was developed at Northwestern University. This antibody Tau C3, is a mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb) that binds to human tau truncated at aspartic acid 421 as demonstrated by ELISA and immunoblot assays. The antibody stains amyloid beta treated neurons and brain tissue in Alzheimer’s disease, more specifically it stains a subset of neurofibrillary tangles, tau-containing neuritic plaques and neuropil threads. ADVANTAGES:The Tau C3 m
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A Novel Thermo-Gelling Matrix for Microchannel DNA Sequencing (23110

Northwestern investigators have created novel "thermo-gelling" polymer networks for use as DNA sequencing matrices for high-throughput microchannel electrophoresis in capillary arrays. Capillary array electrophoresis with these networks provides efficient resolution of both small and large DNA sequencing fragments and longer sequence read lengths with high accuracy. ADVANTAGE: The matrices are easily loaded into electrophoresis capillary arrays at room temperature but thermogel above 35ºC to
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Tau-12: Monoclonal Antibody Specific for the N-terminus of Tau (25105)

A mouse monoclonal antibody specific for residues 9-18 in the amino terminus of tau. The antibody is of the IgG1 isotype and is phosphorylation independent. This epitope is lost after cleavage at Asp13 by caspase-6. SIGNIFICANCE: Previous work has shown that loss of Tau-12 immunoreactivity in tangles indicates progression to more mature tau pathology. Additionally, the N terminus of tau is lost from tangles in Alzheimer’s disease brains at approximately the same time as caspase cleavage o
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A Rabbit Animal Model for Uterine Fibroid Embolization (26021)

Although uterine artery embolization (UAE) is widely used clinically, an animal model containing actual uterine fibroids does not exist. Development of such an animal model would be desirable as a platform for interventional radiologists to a) test embolic therapies; b) determine the most appropriate endpoint for UAE; and c) develop innovative imaging techniques. The rabbit VX2 carcinoma model has been used in the liver, lung, and kidneys. Northwestern investigators tested the hypothesis that VX
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Tau-nY29: Monoclonal Antibody Specific for Tau Nitrated At Tyrosine 29 (27006

A mouse monoclonal antibody (IgG1) to detect nitration in a protein-specific and site-selective manner. This antibody recognizes tau only when nitrated on residue Tyr29. It does not cross react with wild type tau, tau mutants singly nitrated on Tyr18, Tyr197, and Tyr394, or other proteins known to be nitrated in neurodegenerative diseases. SIGNIFICANCE: Tau-nY29 is a biologically selective, site-directed antibody that detects tau nitration exclusively at the Tyr29 position. Using this reagen
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Self-Assembling Membranes and Related Methods Thereof (27009)

A self-assembling liquid polymeric system for the synthesis of robust sacs and string membrane structures having properties suitable for cell and therapeutic delivery, diagnostic and tissue repair applications. ADVANTAGES: Facile generation of biocompatible membrane structures with excellent mechanical, diffusion and stability properties to encapsulate and deliver a wide range of medicinal and biological materials. SUMMARY: The organization of molecules at interfaces is of great importanc
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Immortalized Retinal Müller Cell Line rMC-1

INVENTION: Müller cells are the most abundant non-neuronal cells in the vertebrate retina. It is known that they perform a variety of functions that support the activities of retinal neurons, but there has been little progress in elucidating the mechanisms underlying these functions. Primary cultures have provided useful insight into Müller cell biology, biochemistry, development, and electrophysiology, but their utility is somewhat limited because the culture size is quite small unless a very
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Prestin, the Motor Protein of Cochlear Outer Hair Cells, and its Gene, Pres

INVENTION: Researchers at Northwestern University have isolated a novel molecular motor molecule, Prestin, from outer hair cells (OHCs) of the mammalian cochlea. This unique biological motor is capable of direct, rapid, electro-mechanical conversion without dependence on ATP. The ability of this molecular motor to act as a transducer of electrical energy into mechanical activity at microsecond rates, suggests that this may be an ideal motor as part of nanomolecular assemblies or MEMS. Furthermor
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INVENTION: the “BioChip” invention electronically detects biomolecules and toxic agents. When a target species chemically binds to the surface of a tiny cantilever probe, the probe deflects and the Bi

INVENTION: The “BioChip” invention electronically detects biomolecules and toxic agents. When a target species chemically binds to the surface of a tiny cantilever probe, the probe deflects and the BioChip electronically measures and reports that deflection. The BioChip presents the following advantages over current detection methods: · It can continuously monitor bio-affinity interactions. It is label free. · It is highly sensitive – able to detect 5 nm of cantilever deflection.
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Micro/Nano-Fabricated Glucose Sensors

INVENTION: This invention is a novel glucose sensor that uses the hydrogen-specific gas sensing capability of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT’s) assembled on a microelectrode. The conductivity of SWCNT’s changes due to adsorption of hydrogen that causes the energy band structure of SWCNT’s to shift. The invented glucose sensor exploits this phenomenon and demonstrates the following advantages over currently employed techniques: Highly Sensitive: The invented glucose sensor has be
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New Silver Containing Cathode for Primary Lithium Batteries for Medical Devices

INVENTION: Northwestern researchers have synthesized a new cathode, Ag4V2O6F2, (SVOF) with significantly higher accessible silver content than current medical battery cathodes employing silver vanadium oxide (SVO). Greater capacity and potential are produced compared to SVO. In addition the chemical nature of SVOF affords higher open circuit potential than that in SVO devices. The SVOF cathode maintains a greater potential than SVO electrodes for extended periods of time, allowing optimal device
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Rapid Detection of an Anthrax Biomarker by Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

INVENTION: Northwestern researchers have created a surface-enhanced Raman biosensor for use in detecting and identifying Bacillus anthracis, a spore-forming bacterium and dangerous pathogen for the disease anthrax. The system promises the potential for detecting other hazardous microorganisms. ADVANTAGES: The present invention provides an efficient platform and methodology for the rapid detection of anthrax and other microorganisms in a surface-enhanced Raman biosensor, suitable for portable
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Microchannel Assemblies as Artificial Blood-Capillary Beds for Artificial Organs

INVENTION: A thin biocompatible wafer with millions of micron-size channels has been designed to allow for efficient transport in artificial organs. This wafer may be significantly important in artificial lung design. BACKGROUND: A major function of most internal organs (e.g., lungs, kidneys, liver, pancreas, etc.) is the transport of chemical species (nutrients, oxygen and waste products) to and from the blood. Such transport occurs at the capillary level of the circulation, where the width
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Surface Enhanced Raman Nanobiosensor

INVENTION: Scientists at Northwestern have created surface-enhanced Raman biosensors for detection of in vivo and ex vivo analytes. In particular, the present invention provides a technology for the in vivo detection of blood glucose.>/p> ADVANTAGES: A potentially faster, easier, and less painful method for frequently measuring blood glucose levels of individuals is provided. Continuous monitoring of blood glucose would facilitate feedback control of implanted insulin pumps and related devic
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Method of Making Silver Vanadium Oxide Material Useful as a Battery Cathode

INVENTION: Ag2V4O11 (SVO) and Ag4V2O6F2, (SVOF) are important cathode materials for medical battery applications such as defibrillators. A one-step process has been developed affording crystalline SVO and SVOF by reaction under ambient conditions, eliminating the need for superambient pressure and temperatures. ADVANTAGES: Superior performing medical battery cathode materials can be produced with significant cost and environmental advantages. SUMMARY: The current standard cathode materia
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SMOFC Battery Cathode

INVENTION: A novel battery cathode composition having a higher discharge capacity available from silver reduction at a potential above 3V compared to that of the current standard medical battery cathode SVO material. ADVANTAGES: Batteries incorporating the new cathode exhibit a potential above 3 V for extended periods of time, critical to medical devices such as defibrillators. The cathode is devoid of vanadium, provides chemical stability and electrochemical performance. SUMMARY: The me
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Surface-Immobilized Antimicrobial Peptoids

INVENTION: Northwestern researchers have developed peptoid mimics of antimicrobial peptides that can be immobilized onto surfaces, rendering these surfaces capable of compromising the membranes of attached bacteria. ADVANTAGES: Peptoids afford promising alternatives to conventional antimicrobials because of their stability, ease of synthesis and low cytotoxicity. These agents present solutions to infections associated with implantable medical devices. SUMMARY: Surface-immobilized antimicr
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Method for Identifying Drug Targets in Biological Networks

This is the extension of the bridging centrality network to biological networks. In the network representation, proteins and other biological molecules are the nodes of a network and the interactions between the molecules are the edges connecting nod es. The degree of a node and and centrality have been proposed as graph theoritic metric that assesses the number of shortest paths passing through a given node. Although target identification with these centrality metrics can potentially locate ta
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High-Throughput Synthetic Platform for Natural Product Analog Libraries

Summary Background: In small molecule drug development, researchers typically develop biased libraries in which all members share a particular characteristic, such as an ability to interact with a particular target ligand or structural features designed to mimic a particular aspect of a class of natural compounds. For example, a number of libraries have been designed to mimic one or more features of natural peptides. Although these libraries have provided reliable synthetic strategies for compou
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Novel Peptide Therapeutic for Multiple Sclerosis

Summary Background: In Multiple Sclerosis, the host’s immune system (lead by T cells) attacks and destroys myelin basic protein, the principle component necessary for nerve transmission. Part and parcel of this immune response pathway are the so-called Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecules. MHC molecules interact with myelin basic protein and bring it to the cell surface for interaction with T cells, which in turn proliferate and dispose lethal inflammatory cytokines to the cel
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Application of streptococcus intermedius intermedilysin (ILY) for obesity treatment and contraception

Summary A bacterial toxin has been shown to enhance immune reactions to adipocytes when injected locally, facilitating antibody-mediated and complement-dependant cytolysis. Applications A peptide therapeutic for localized delivery for the ablation of fat cells. Results from localized injection similar to micro-liposuction and blepharoplasties. For Further Information Please Contact the Director of Business Development Alex Szidon Email: alex_szidon@harvard.edu Telephone: (617) 495-3067
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SMERs: Small Molecule Enhancers for Treatment of Cancer and Neurodegenerative Diseases

Summary Background: Autophagy is the process by which cells cannibalize cellular elements such as proteins and organelles to generate intracellular metabolites for cell survival and cell death. For example, a cell undergoes autophagy for architectural remodeling during development or to eliminate damaging cytoplasmic components during oxidative stress, infection, or accumulation of protein aggregates. Many external factors play a role in regulating autophagy, the best characterized of which is t
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Inhibition of Sirt$ for treatment of obesity and ehancing fat metabolism

Summary A method of screening for compounds that modulate SIRT4 fatty acid oxidation activity. SIRT4 is a mitochondrial protein that plays a central role in regulating amino acid stimulated insulin secretion (AASIS) in pancreatic ?-cells by inhibiting glutamate dehydrogenase and impacting fatty acid oxidation. Alterations in lipid metabolism occur during aging and metabolic stress, and are therefore implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related and metabolic diseases. Applications Data fro
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Inhibitors of Cellular Necrosis

Summary A new paradigm in cell death has been discovered, Necroptosis. Necroptosis reflects a distinct mechanistic pattern of programmed cell death that combines elements of passive unregulated necrosis and organized, energy-dependent apoptosis. Activated by the TNF family, sterols, and toll-like receptors via the RIP1 regulator, Necroptosis has been implicated in ischemic events such as myocardial infarctions and retinal ischemia. Diseases characterized by Necroptosis also include solid organ f
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ras Oncogene Inhibitors

Summary Activated ras genes have been associated with a number of human cancers. An activated ras gene, H-ras-1, was the first non-viral oncogene discovered. Several other human ras proto-onco genes have subsequently been identified including H-ras-2, K-ras-1, K-ras-2, and N-ras. Activated K-ras genes have been detected in pre-malignant neoplasms of the human colon and in human pre-leukemia. The ras proteins and ras-like proteins, including R-ras, RAS2, rap-2, and phoB, have a conserved carb
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Hyperactive mutant of the Himar1 mariner transposase

Summary Mariner-family transposable elements are active in a wide variety of organisms and so are important genetic engineering tools. The Himar1 element, isolated from the horn fly, Haematobia irritans, has been shown to be active in E. coli. Hyperactive variants of the corresponding transposase have been isolated. These proteins retain their hyperactivity and are useful both in vivo and in vitro as research tools and in cell-based manufacturing processes. See Lampe et al., 1999, Proc. Natl
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"Teabag" Processing: an Automated, High Throughput Method for Affinity Purification

Summary A high throughput system for protein purification has been developed, whereby a “tea-bag” structure is used to house microspheres for targeted protein binding and elution. The microspheres are compatible with any solid-phase protein purification, which includes coupling of Ni++/Histidine, Glutathione/Glutathione-S-transferase, avidin/biotin, and immunoprecipitation (beads with either protein A or G). From an efficacy perspective, the system has demonstrated equivalent purifie
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Programmable Generation and Transport of Droplets on Microscale Surface Texture Ratchets

Introduction Advances in microfluidic technology are constantly opening doors to new and exciting applications. Currently, many laboratory processes can be combined on a single chip commonly only millimeters in size while manipulating liquid volumes of picoliter size or less. In order to effectively perform the many processes that may be required of a microfluidic system, various tools are required, such as pumps, valves, mixers, and ratchets. In particular, the development of ratchets and other
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An optical spectroscopic approach for quantifying Hb/Mb ratio noninvasively noninvasively

Introduction Impaired blood flow and mitochondrial defects are involved in a wide variety of metabolic and degenerative diseases. The inability to quantify tissue hemoglobin (Hb) content presents a significant barrier to non-invasive assessment of regional mitochondrial function in blood flow. Technology description Researchers at the University of Washington have developed an approach for the noninvasive determination of local Hb concentration in skeletal muscle. The approach uses the spectral
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Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Disease

Introduction Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among both men and women in the United States and, as such, is associated with high costs in terms of health care, morbidity, and mortality. An important aspect of the fight to reduce CVD is the development of diagnostic tests to identify people who are at increased risk of CVD and who will thus benefit from treatment. As such, there is a pressing need to identify markers for the rapid, accurate and non-invasive diagnosis an
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Oxidation Resistant form of Apolipoprotein A-I

Introduction High density lipoprotein (HDL) protects against atherosclerosis by removing cholesterol from cells of the artery wall. Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), which accounts for ~70% of the total protein in HDL, promotes cholesterol and phospholipid efflux largely by an active transport process. There has been increasing interest in the development of apoA-I to treat or prevent cardiovascular disease. However, oxidation severely impairs the ability of apoA-1 to promote cholesterol efflux. More
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Fabrication of Gold Nanocages and Cubic Nanoframes for Biomedical Treatment through Etching Nanoboxes

Introduction Because of their small sizes and unique properties, nanomaterials are finding widespread use in studying complex biological systems. Gold nanostructures have been the subject of intensive research because of their unique and tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) properties. Because of their biocompatibility and easy surface modification (i.e., using the well-established Au-thiolate chemistry to attach antibodies, polymers or other ligands), Au nanostructures are also being conside
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Automated Yeast Pedigree Analysis

Introduction Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or budding yeast, is a single-cell eukaryotic microorganism that commonly is used by biologists to study genetics. Yeast pedigree analysis is used to study genomic instability associated with aging and cancer and involves the isolation and characterization of the products of mitotic cell divisions throughout the lifespan of an individual cell. The mother cell is trapped and held in place as daughter cells are identified and captured for further study. Yeast
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The Multiple Drug Resistance Gene, Polymorphisms, and uses Thereof

Introduction Multiple drug resistance is a well-documented phenomenon and critical problem in the treatment of various diseases including cancer and HIV. While there are many mechanisms leading to multiple drug resistance, one area of focus is the MDR1 gene and its protein product P-glycoprotein (Pgp). Pgp functions as a membrane channel that removes drugs from cells. By increasing Pgp activity, removal of drugs from diseased cells is accelerated, making the drugs ineffective. Pgp is able to exp
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Localization Wire for Surgical Excision of Breast Lesions

Introduction With the introduction of screening mammography, the median tumor size has decreased considerably, and approximately half of breast cancers in surgical practice are non palpable and amenable to breast conserving surgery. Traditionally, non palpable lesions are excised with a wire or wires as guiding tools, which are critical for defining the extent of the abnormal tissue. The two wire shapes that are currently used are the J-shaped and the barbed. The J-shaped, often referred as the
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Surface Receptor Antigen Vaccines

Introduction The invention relates to DNA vaccines, or vaccines containing molecules encoded by such DNA, for the induction of specific, sustained high titer antibody responses. More specifically, the invention is directed to DNA vaccines that comprise recombinant expression constructs encoding a cell surface receptor antigen (SRA) and one or more immune response altering molecules. Vaccines are provided that include a gene encoding a desired cell surface antigen receptor (or the expressed produ
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Improved use of Recombinant Viruses for Liver Regeneration

Introduction Diseases of the liver, both genetic and acquired, are especially detrimental due to the fact that the liver is a key organ for most metabolic pathways. Currently, the only method of curing liver diseases is via a liver transplant. Unfortunately, many transplants succumb to rejection, leaving the patient with no recourse. The liver is also unique due to its ability to regenerate. This technology exploits gene therapy and the regenerative nature of the liver as a means to recover live
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Novel Thymidylate Synthase Mutants for Treating Chemotherapy-induced Mucositis and Other Chemotherapy Side Effects

Introduction 35 novel thymidylate synthase (TS) mutants have been generated by random mutagenesis. These mutants are different from wild type TS in single, double, or multiple mutations, which are located distant from the active center. The new TS mutants reveal enhanced resistance to TS-inhibiting drugs, like 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and 5-fluoro-2-deoxyuridine monophosphate (FdUMP), which are frequently used for cancer chemotherapy. All these mutants can be used for protection of normal human cel
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Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS as an Immune Modulator

Introduction Vaccines often require the use of adjuvants, immune modulating substances, to generate adequate immune responses for the prevention or treatment of disease. Current adjuvant systems often display toxic properties, can be unstable, and can have unacceptably low immunostimulatory effects. The discovery and development of new adjuvant systems is essential for the efficacy and safety of existing and future vaccines. University of Washington researchers have identified a new immune modul
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Diagnosis and Treatment of Malignancy

Introduction Novel methods for the detection, monitoring, treatment, and prevention of malignancies have been developed that are based on the body’s own immune response to cell surface markers on cancer cells. Technology description Detection of the proliferation of T-cells in response to in vitro exposure to cell surface markers of cancer, or detection of immunocomplexes formed between the cell surface marker and antibodies in body fluid, allows the diagnosis of the presence of a malignancy.
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Compositions and Methods for Detecting Pancreatic Cancer

Introduction Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal disease; it is highly invasive and unresponsive to standard chemotherapy. The discovery of genes that cause familial forms of cancers has often shed light on the biology of the sporadic form of the disease. University of Washington researchers have identified an inherited gene mutation in the cytoskeleton scaffold gene, Palladin, which leads to a highly penetrant autosomal dominant form of Familial Pancreatic Cancer. They have demonstrated that t
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Molecules and Methods for the Treatment and Detection of Cancer

Introduction Approximately 30,000 women are diagnosed with ovarian cancer yearly in the United States, and only about 50% of those diagnosed will survive the disease. Early, accurate prognosis of ovarian cancer is closely related to stage of the disease at diagnosis. It is estimated that about 106,000 people are diagnosed every year with colon cancer in the United States alone, and about 55,000 people die annually from this disease. Over 200,000 women are newly diagnosed with breast cancer in th
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Mouse Model of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST)

Introduction Recent developments have firmly established the important role of receptor tyrosine kinases in human cancer. Kit is a receptor tyrosine kinase and its role as a cellular oncogene has been established in a number of cancers including gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), which belong to a group of cancers called soft tissue sarcomas. Relatively little is known about the intervening steps in the genesis of sarcomas in general or GIST in particular. Technology description UW researc
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Construction and Use of Mutant Herpes Thymidine Kinase Genes in Cancer Therapy

Introduction In addition to surgery, many cancers are also treated with a combination of therapies involving cytotoxic chemotherapeutic drugs and/or radiation therapy. However, disadvantages to this method are that radiotherapeutic and chemotherapeutic agents are toxic to normal tissues, often have extremely high failure/remission rates and create lifethreatening side effects. This invention employs herpes simplex thymidine kinase (HSV TK) gene as a suicide gene for tumor cell ablation in gene
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Methods and Compositions to Quantitate Thyroglobulin in Human Blood Specimens

Introduction Thyroglobulin is a marker of thyroid cancer. The presence of thyroglobulin in the plasma/serum of patients indicates functioning thyroid tissue. Following surgery and treatment with radioactive iodine, patients with thyroid cancer should be free of all functioning thyroid tissue. Detectable thyroid tissue in these patients indicates the need for further therapy. However, current methods of detection and quantitation of thyroglobulin using immunoassays are complicated by several limi
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Grasper Pad Sensing

Introduction Minimally invasive surgery is now being used routinely as one of the most preferred choices for various types of operations. Despite its many advantages, such as reduction of trauma, less pain, smaller injuries, faster recovery time, and reduction of postoperation complications, MIS decreases the tactile sensory perception of the surgeon during grasping or manipulation of biological tissues. Therefore, the corresponding diagnostic information is lost. Present-day commercial endoscop
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Transgenic Mice Expressing Human Myeloperoxidase

Introduction Myeloperoxidase (MPO) co-localizes with macrophages in the human artery wall, and its characteristic oxidation products have been detected in atherosclerotic lesions. Thus, oxidants produced by the enzyme might promote atherosclerosis. However, macrophages in mouse atherosclerotic tissue do not express MPO. Therefore, mice are an inappropriate model for testing the role of MPO in vascular disease. To overcome this problem, UW researchers generated transgenic (Tg) mice containing the
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A Microfluidic Device and Methodology for Rapid, Quantitative Determination of Analyte Concentration in a Fluid Sample

Introduction Advances in microfluidic technology are constantly opening doors to new and exciting applications, especially for biosensors and environmental monitoring. One recent area of interest is point-of-care diagnostic devices. These devices provide fast, accurate, and inexpensive sample analysis. Recent advances have enabled a universal platform that is adaptable to a potentially limitless array of analytes and could lead to affordable health care devices, including for the developing worl
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A Novel Diagnostic Test for Atherosclerosis and Clinically Active Coronary Artery Disease

Introduction Low levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) are associated with a greatly increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). Evidence indicates that HDL protects against atherosclerosis by removing cholesterol from macrophages in the artery wall. In vitro studies indicate that chlorination of apolipoprotein A-I, the major protein of HDL, blocks its ability to promote cholesterol efflux from cells. Nitration of apolipoprotein A-I is also inhibitory, though less so than chlorination. R
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Warfarin Dosing and Genetic Variation

Introduction Warfarin is an anticoagulant used to prevent the blood from forming dangerous clots that could result in stroke. Determining the most effective and safest dose for each patient is extremely complicated and time consuming as warfarin metabolism varies greatly between patients and is affected by diet, activity, and the taking of other drugs. Patients require an average of 18 visits over 10 months in order to achieve the correct dose. The technology described here can be applied toward
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Phospholipid Transfer Protein, a Regulator of Cholesterol

Introduction The level of cholesterol in the blood is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease (CAD) which can eventually lead to heart attack or stroke. Cholesterol is present in many forms, the most familiar of which are the lipoproteins LDL and HDL. As atherosclerosis and CAD are associated with low levels of HDL, it is desirable to increase HDL levels in persons at risk of disease. Thus, the control of HDL metabolism is a promising target for the development o
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Targeting Drugs to the Lymph Nodes for HIV and Cancer Therapies

Introduction HIV patients are currently treated using “HAART,” a highly active anti-retroviral therapy in which a plethora of drugs are administered to patients. This therapy is effective in reducing virus concentration in the blood, however, studies have shown that levels in the lymph nodes do not decrease as significantly during HARRT treatment. This suggests that the HIV viral particles “hide” in a lymph node reservoir, contributing greatly to the inability to completely eliminate the
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Methods of treating pulmonary disease using acetazolamide and structurally related derivatives

Introduction Alveolar hypoxia, as occurs with chronic lung diseases or ascent to high altitude, results in hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). Exaggerated HPV causes high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and may complicate the course of patients with chronic cardiopulmonary disease. HPV is believed to require Ca influx into pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells. The oral carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitor acetazolamide (AZ) is frequently used for prevention and treatment of acute mountain
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Treatment of Microvascular Angiopathies

Introduction Acute injuries to smaller blood vessels and subsequent dysfunction of the tissue in which the injured blood vessels are located (microvascular angiopathies) are common features of a variety of diseases of different organs, such as kidney, heart and lungs. A subgroup of such diseases is unified by the presence of thrombotic microangiopathies (TMA), most commonly caused by the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) that is responsible for acute renal failure or often more severe diseases. Th
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Non-toxic protocol to establish paraoxonase 1 (PON1) status

Introduction Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a member of a three-gene family localized on human chromosome 7. Due to its role in the metabolism of both lipids and organophosphorus (OP) compounds, genetic variability in PON1 has been examined by many research groups as a risk factor for vascular and other diseases as well as for OP exposure. A simple, high throughput, two-substrate assay/analysis system determines both PON1 levels as well as the functional PON1192 allo form(s) present in plasma (PON1 St
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Platelet Clotting Force Array

Introduction Advances in microfluidic technology are constantly opening doors to new and exciting applications, such as point-of-care diagnostic devices. These microscale diagnostic platforms will enable faster, cheaper, and more accurate patient evaluation for a wide array of parameters. One such parameter is the coagulation capacity of blood, for abnormalities in which can be indicative of a wide variety of pathologies. The ability to more quickly and easily assess platelet function would grea
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BCRP expressing cell lines

Introduction The breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is an ATP-binding cassette efflux transporter originally identified by its ability to confer multidrug resistance in cancer cells. BCRP mediates the efflux transport of a broad spectrum of substrates, including many drugs routinely administered to pregnant women to treat various diseases. Given its tissue localization pattern, BCRP is expected to play an important role in absorption, distribution, and elimination of drugs. Indeed, the impo
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A Mouse Model for Osteoporosis

Introduction Osteoporosis, an age-related disease in which loss of bone mass causes skeletal deformities and fractures, affects nearly 20 million people in the US, mostly women. A major complication is a fracture of the thigh bone, in which case 20-30% of patients die in the year following the fracture. Half of the survivors remain disabled to some degree. Development of new therapies for this disease requires the appropriate animal model, one of which is described here. Technology description S
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Type III Adenylyl Cyclase Gene Knockout Mice

Introduction The olfactory sensory system has the remarkable capacity to detect and discriminate among a wide array of odorants and translate them into cognitive representations. Cyclic nucleotide–gated ion channels in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) are hypothesized to play a critical role in olfaction. Type III adenylyl cyclase (AC3) is obligatory for olfactory signaling and this enzyme is likely the primary source of cAMP required for olfactory signaling. Technology description Dr Daniel S
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Zinc Transporter-3 Knockout Mouse

Introduction The presence of histochemically reactive zinc within synaptic vesicles defines a subset of neurons that have been termed zinc-enriched (ZEN) neurons. Because ZEN neurons are prevalent throughout the limbic system and zinc is capable at physiological concentrations of exerting neuromodulatory effects on receptors thought to be involved in learning and memory, synaptically released zinc has been considered to play an important role in memory formation. Zinc transporter, ZnT3 is a defi
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Diabetes Food Additive, Neutraceutical & Drug

Project 1: We currently are marketing / outlicensing a diabetic food additive / neutraceutical. Possible Drug development aspects. Project 2: We are looking for a grant, an angel investor(s) and/or venture capital group to bring to NCE status a new drug to treat and prevent Alzheimers. If you really want to cure Alzheimers, Call us.
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Neuroprotective Agent for the Treatment of Ischemic Stroke

Novel neuroprotective peptide agent capable of reducing the amount of ischemic brain injury. Description Researchers at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health have developed a novel neuroprotective peptide agent capable of reducing the amount of ischemic brain injury. This is accomplished by disrupting a unique extracellular interaction between the AMPA receptor (AMPAR) and the enzyme, GAPDH. Our agent disrupts this AMPAR-GAPDH interaction resulting in cell survival and preservation of
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University of Nebraska-Lincoln Technology Out-Licensing Opportunities

The Lincoln, Nebraska-based Office of Technology Development (OTD): http://otd.unl.edu/ manages the intellectual property assets of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. OTD’s mission is to help turn academic research into tangible products and services, while returning income to the inventors and to the University to support further research and education. OTD has recently partnered with the Consulate General of Canada Minneapolis to offer Canadian companies access to technologies enabling the
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NH-7211 – a Broad Acting Anti-Alzheimer’s Compound

Novel small chemical compounds capable of disrupting the three key misfolded proteins responsible for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other CNS disorders Description Our researchers have created novel small chemical compounds capable of disrupting the three key misfolded proteins responsible for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other CNS disorders. Our lead compound, NH-7211 has been extensively tested in both in vitro and in vivo models and has shown a unique ability to inhibit ABeta40/ABeta4
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Epilepsy, Alzheimers & Parkinson's Drug Development

Upsher-Smith Laboratories, Inc., is a privately held, specialty pharmaceutical company with headquarters in Minneapolis, MN (www.upsher-smith.com). The company is seeking collaborative partners and out-licensing opportunities for improved drug therapies that treat epilepsy, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Background Upsher-Smith Laboratories, Inc., a privately held, specialty pharmaceutical company with headquarters in Minneapolis, MN (www.upsher-smith.com), is pursuing improved drug
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Drug Delivery Technologies

Upsher-Smith Laboratories, Inc., a privately held, specialty pharmaceutical company with headquarters in Minneapolis, MN (www.upsher-smith.com), is actively seeking Canadian companies or research organizations with technology or expertise in various areas of drug delivery. Background Upsher-Smith Laboratories, Inc., a privately held specialty pharmaceutical company with headquarters in Minneapolis, MN (www.upsher-smith.com), is pursuing improved drug therapies to empower people suffering
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Women's Healthcare

Upsher-Smith Laboratories, Inc., a privately held specialty pharmaceutical company with headquarters in Minneapolis, MN (www.upsher-smith.com), would like to augment its current portfolio with marketed or near-to-market women’s health products. Upsher-Smith Laboratories, Inc., a privately held specialty pharmaceutical company with headquarters in Minneapolis, MN (www.upsher-smith.com), is pursuing improved drug therapies to empower people suffering from diseases to lead healthy, productive li
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Spinal Disc Nucleus Replacement

BACKGROUND In the last 10 years commercial interest in treatment of spinal degeneration in relation to back pain has increased with a large number of devices competing in a market estimated to be worth more than $3.5bn and growing at 15 - 20% pa. This technology being developed at the University of Manchester has a number of advantages over competitors. THE TECHNOLOGY Nucleus replacement or repair: this technology will replicate the function of the natural nucleus of the spinal disc whilst maint
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eLUNSERS: a SOFTWARE TOOL FOR MONITORING THE SIDE-EFFECTS OF NEUROLEPTIC DRUGS

BACKGROUND Neuroleptics are the drugs of choice in the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar mania and related disorders but suffer from troublesome side-effects such as drug induced parkinsonism, restlessness, facial tics etc. The severity and patient acceptability of these effects varies widely. Research by Dr Jennie Day into the side-effects of neuroleptic drugs has led to the development of a widely recognised questionnaire-based tool, the LUNSERS Scale, for monitoring patients on such medicat
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Collaboration/Licence Opportunity Size and Permeability Selective Encapsulation and Delivery of

BACKGROUND Although there is considerable research being carried out in the area of hollow sub-micron constructs for the purposes of encapsulation of useful therapeutic entities, most of the processes developed to date for the preparation of such constructs are incompatible with maintaining the functionality of sensitive biomolecule payloads. In addition in many clinical conditions it would be useful to be able to deliver and maintain biological activity of the therapeutic agent proximal to the
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Novel Anti-helminthic

BACKGROUND Gastrointestinal nematode infections are amongst the commonest infections of man and animals worldwide. Collectively 1 in 3 people on the planet are infected by at least one species and approximately 50% of these are school age children In the developing world they affect the well being of children and their susceptibility to other disease. Researchers at the University of Manchester have shown that treatment of animals infected with parasitic worms with a known pharmaceutical compoun
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Novel Antimicrobial Peptides

BACKGROUND Ai2 Limited is a University of Manchester spinout company that aims to become a significant player in the global anti-infectives market. The company’s focus is on developing novel anti-microbial products, for out-licensing to healthcare companies across a range of sectors. THE TECHNOLOGY The core technology stems from research into a class of human proteins involved in innate immunity, whose role in fighting infection had not previously been identified. Specific regions of these pro
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3-D Self-assembled Peptide Hydrogels

BACKGROUND Pre-designed self-assembling scaffolds are highly advantageous in a number of areas, including tissue regeneration, 3D cell culture, in vitro toxicity testing and understanding of cell/extracellular matrix interactions. Self-assembling peptides, with the various properties of amino acids (biological compatibility; bonded structure), are very powerful building blocks for the fabrication of self-assembling scaffolds. Dr. Rein Ulijn of the School of Materials at the University of Manches
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Biodrug Delivery Mechanism Via Yeast Encapsulation

BACKGROUND A research project in in the Faculty of Life Sciences at the University of Manchester has led to the development of a novel yeast-based drug delivery mechanism. THE TECHNOLOGY A genetically engineered yeast strain, able to express recombinant protein drugs / vaccines and incorporating a genetic switch to trigger cell lysis in response to specific conditions has been developed. The key concept is the passage of intact yeast cells through the stomach, and their subsequent lysis in the i
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mapping and quantifying the contribution of elements to the overall performance of the system they compose

BACKGROUND Research at the University of Manchester has identified a new tissue marker with potential use in the stratification of breast cancer patient groups and improved targeting of treatment for each patient. THE TECHNOLOGY The human homolog of the suppressor of deltex protein (SDRP) is aberrantly expressed in breast cancer cell lines. SDRP is thought to be a ubiquitin ligase and is a component of the Notch signalling pathway, which plays a key role in regulating cell proliferation. Express
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Multi-Silencing Algorithm (MSA) for analysis of ´Multi-Knockout´ and perturbation experiments

The Invention The invention describes a new, reliable and efficient method for mapping and quantifying the contribution of elements to the overall performance of the system they compose. The Need With the genomic revolution a huge amount of data has become available concerning the expression of genes and proteins under a multitude of knockout conditions. There is a desperate need for the development of new and appropriate methods to analyze this information, identifying the underlying genet
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Detoxification of Tannins in Transgenic Plants

A novel genetic system for the elimination of tannins in edible plant materials such as canola seeds and sorghum seeds has been developed. This involves genetic engineering of these plants such that they accumulate a tannin-detoxifying agent. The Need Global agricultural production is greatly influenced by animal feeding technology, consequently there is a great need to improve the efficiency of animal feeding. The final yield of desired proteins expressed in transgenic plants is limited by ta
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Inhibitors of Systemic Virus Spread in Plants

The Invention Plant viruses and viroids exploit plasmodesmata nano-channels as conduits for viral spread. Plasmodesmal proteins, endogenous to plants, have been modified such that they permanently block plasmodesmata nano-channels. This blockage inhibits plant virus spread: a major cause of reduced crop yields Potential Applications Wide-spread protection against viral spread in plants Advantages Enhances general plant resistance to viral spread Unique mechanism, currently not exploited in
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Domestication of the Marine Nudibranch Spurilla Neapolitana for Commercial Husbandry: Targeting the Marine Ornamental Industry

The Invention A technology was developed enabling the domestication / commercial husbandry of S neapolitana - The optimal pest control for marine aquaria.The novel technology includes special culture media for propagating the distinct nudibranch life cycle stages, and unique culture apparatus for propagating benthic marine invertebrates, namely sea anemones, the nudibranchs prey. The Need The marine ornamental industry is a fast developing commercial sector. The trade which supplies
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Medical Spectroscopy

DOMAIN Aging of injuries on a victim’s body is an important aspect of forensic medicine. Currently, visual assessment and colorimetry based on empirical criteria are the most common techniques for this task, although the results are uncertain. The aim of this study was to develop a mathematical model to describe blood diffusion within bruised skin, and to use this method to retrieve the age of a bruise from measured skin reflectance. DESCRIPTION NTNU researchers have developed a new method
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Diagnosis and prognosis of cancers in GI tract

DOMAIN Although the incidence of gastric carcinoma (tumour in stomach) is declining, this disease is still the second most frequent cause of cancer death worldwide. Gastric carcinomas are often not detected until at an advanced stage; consequently, the 5-year survival rates are low and most often in the order of 10-20%. Variables such as size, microscopic differentiation and growth pattern, depth of infiltration as well as metastases in regional lymph nodes or in remote organs and tissues, all p
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Alginate - Drug Delivery System

DOMAIN The mucosal surfaces of the body (such as GI tract, respiratory tract, eye, and genitourinary tract) constitute the major target for drug and gene delivery. As such, mucous secretions can have a significant influence on drug/gene complex uptake. These effects of mucus are usually more pronounced for larger drugs, such as protein molecules, particulates and colloidal systems, and for gene delivery complexes. DESCRIPTION In order to penetrate the mucus barrier, drug formulations may be m
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Rapid prediction of gene expression levels using spectroscopy

DOMAIN The study of gene expression in cells is increasingly being used to understand their biological function. The genes are up- and down-regulated by a complex protein regulatory network, which responds to the biochemical changes originating from within and outside the cell. One of the most popular methods for performing gene expression studies of a large number of genes today is the micro-array technique. Expression is here measured through the amount of RNA strings produced for the differen
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Optimal selection of flurophores for bioimaging using hyperspectral cameras

DOMAIN In many situations it would be beneficial to have an instrument that can show In biology and medicine, fluorescent labelling is used to detect the location and concentration of various molecules. This can be used to discover how molecules are interacting in relation to diseases and biological functions. Often, it is of interest to study the distribution of multiple marker molecules in a tissue simultaneously. This, however, is made difficult by the fact that most fluorophore labelling met
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Real time hyperspectral imaging

In many situations it would be beneficial to have an instrument that can show directly the spatial distribution of various chemical components in real time of a surface. Typical application areas are forensic and military where investigators can rapidly locate the presence of blood, gunpowder, toxic chemical and explosive residues on surfaces. To accomplish this, rapid (real-time) scanning is needed. In addition to that, the results have to be intuitively visualised. To detect the concentration
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ThirdEye – early detection of cerebral palsy (CP)

DOMAIN An early and accurate detection of cerebral palsy (CP) enables correct treatment at an early age to the infant at risk. Today’s methods for detecting CP are unable to establish a diagnosis until late in the first year of life, in some cases even later. Experts are currently doing analysis of infant spontaneous movements at 4 months of age. Opportunities exist for early and better diagnostic procedures. DESCRIPTION NTNU research scientists are developing a novel computer-based tool fo
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MEMRI (manganese enhanced MRI)

DOMAIN Within an ageing population, ischemic heart disease (IHD) and secondary heart failure represent major challenges underlining a demand for diagnostic imaging to identify IHD in its different stages and forms. There is also a need to diagnose heart failure developing after myocardial infarction, to identify other forms of heart failure, and to monitor the efficacy of drug treatment. The seriousness and the epidemic nature of ischemic heart disease call for effective diagnostic methods to
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Determining leakage through a heart valve

Determining the severity of a leakage through a heart valve is important. There are several parameters that are clinically interesting in this regard: the area of the lesion, the flow or flow rate through the lesion and the geometry of the lesion. These three parameters are not easy to measure. Current practices comprise mainly invasive techniques with catheters or non-invasive ultra- sound techniques. It is desirable to avoid invasive techniques, as they may be uncomfortable for the patient, an
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Glycosylase enzymes

DOMAIN Glycosylases have found use in a number of methods aimed at analyzing DNA for the presence of altered nucleobases that could result from ionizing radiation or chemical oxidants, identifying mismatched base pairs, studying repair of abasic sites in double-stranded DNA and as a means to prevent carry- over contamination of PCR reactions by products from previously generated amplicons. Several different glycosylases have been identified, most of which are specific for a certain type of alter
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