Chemistry Patents for Sale or License

Process for making reinforcing elastomer-clay nanocomposites

A process for producing a natural rubber nanocomposite containing exfoliated organically modified montmorillonite and maleic anhydride grafted elastomer in a dispersion of natural rubber and reinforcing filler/inert filler wherein the cured nanocomposite has improved mechanical properties compared to conventional rubber compound containing a mixture of the reinforcing filler, carbon black and the inert filler, CaCO3. Economic and financial information of the patent are as follows. The inno
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Method for Obtaining Oxide Catalysts on the Base of Exfoliated Layered Aluminosilicates

The subject of the offer is a novel, affordable and environmentally friendly method of synthesis of oxide catalysts with high surface area dispersed on aluminosilicate supports. The method may be applied in the production of catalysts for many processes, such as dehydrogenation and oxidation of hydrocarbons or environment pollutants removal - nitrogen oxides reduction and oxidation of volatile organic compounds, in which co-existence of acidic and redox active surface sites plays an important ro
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Method of synthesis of CMK-3 carbon replica

The subject of the offer is an innovative, environmentally friendly method for obtaining of CMK-3 carbon replica, which may be a material useful in various catalytic and sorption processes as well as electrochemical applications. The method has a high potential for industrial application, and its use can significantly improve the production of high-ordered carbon materials with high surface area. In recent years, various routes of synthesis of CMK-n-type carbon replicas have been intensively
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Sun Care Patent

Sunscreen Protectant – Dermal Science UV ProtectantTM protects you and your clothing from harmful UV radiation. Available in tablet form, this protectant is added to a normal load of laundry and provides long lasting UPF protection to cotton clothes. Laundry care is an $8B category in the US and supplements/additives represent 17% of that total. Additionally, the US Suncare category, including sunscreen and lotions, represents $2B in consumer spending. UPF protected clothing is not measured
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Hydroxy Ceramides and analogs thereof and their use for Preventing or Treating Cancer

Disclosed are compounds, compositions, methods of treatment and synthetic methods for making compounds related to stereoisomers of 2-hydroxy-ceramides and the use of 2-hydroxy-ceramides and their analogs.
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Antibacterial, Self-Cleaning Photocatalytic Material

The subjects of the offer are new materials obtained by the modification of nanocrystalline titanium oxide(IV) and the photocatalytic coatings of TiO2 deposited on polymer surfaces widely used for the manufacture of disposable medical equipment. Materials can be applied for an efficient photocatalytic microorganism’s inactivation or organic pollutants. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) based materials are commonly known as photocatalysts of environmental and biomedical relevance. Photoactive TiO2 irr
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On Site Carbon Dioxide Generation

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Indole compounds and their use as radiation sensitizing agents and chemotherapeutic agents

Radiotherapy is the treatment of cancer and other diseases with ionizing radiation. Radiotherapy is used in curative therapy, palliative therapy, adjuvant therapy after or before surgery, simultaneous radio-chemotherapy, etc. Radiotherapy is successful because ionizing radiation kills dividing cells and is thus slightly more toxic to fast growing cancer cells. Radiotherapy may be used to treat localized solid tumors, such as cancers of the skin, tongue, larynx, brain, breast, or uterine cervix.
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Compositions and Methods for Inhibiting Sphingosine Kinase

Amidine analogs that can inhibit the activity of sphingosine kinase 1 and sphingosine kinase 2 (SphK1 & SphK2) are provided. The compounds can prevent angiogenesis in tumor cells.
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Bicyclic Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Analogs

Compounds that have agonist activity at one or more of the S1P receptors are provided. The compounds are sphingosine analogs that, after phosphorylation, can behave as agonists at S1P receptors.
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Alkynes and Methods of Reacting Alkynes with 1,3-Dipole-Functional Compounds

1,3-Dipole-functional compounds (e.g., azide functional compounds) can be reacted with certain alkynes in a cyclization reaction to form heterocyclic compounds. Useful alkynes (e.g., strained, cyclic alkynes) and methods of making such alkynes are also disclosed. The reaction of 1,3-dipole-functional compounds with alkynes can be used for a wide variety of applications including the immobilization of biomolecules on a substrate.
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Synthetic Lipid a Derivative

The invention provides functionalized monosaccharides and disaccharides suitable for use in synthesizing a lipid A derivative, as well as methods for synthesizing and using a synthetic lipid A derivative.
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Synthesis and Stabilization of Neutral Compounds with Homonuclear Bonds

The present invention is directed to the synthesis and stabilization of neutral molecules containing homonuclear single or multiple bonds, methods of preparation, and uses thereof.
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Phosphorescent Compositions, Methods of Making the Compositions, and Methods of Using the Compositions

Compositions, methods of making compositions, materials including compositions, crayons including compositions, paint including compositions, ink including compositions, waxes including compositions, polymers including compositions, vesicles including the compositions, methods of making each, and the like are disclosed.
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Microbial production of alanine

Microbial production of pyruvate and metabolites derived from pyruvate in cells exhibiting reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase activity compared to wildtype cells. Acetate and glucose are supplied as a carbon sources.
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Preparation of Alkenes By Mild Thermolysis of Sulfoxides

Embodiments of this disclosure, among others, encompass methods for generating alkenes under mild thermolytic conditions that can provide almost total conversion of a precursor compound to an alkene without isomerization or the need to chromatographically purify the final product By selectively blocking the amino and carboxy groups of the depvatized amino acid, the methods of the disclosure provide for the synthesis of a peptide having the vinylglycine moiety at either the carboxy or the amino t
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Heparan Sulfate Synthesis

The invention provides an efficient modular chemical synthesis for heparan sulfate oligosaccharides based on orthogonal protection strategies. Modular disaccharide building blocks, themselves the product of a novel combinatorial synthesis, are combined in numerous ways to produce a range of oligosaccharides.
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Microbial Production of Pyruvate and Pyruvate Derivatives

Microbial production of pyruvate and metabolites derived from pyruvate in cells exhibiting reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase activity compared to wild-type cells. Acetate and glucose are supplied as a carbon sources.
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Near Infrared Doped Phosphors Having a Zinc, Germanium, Gallate Matrix

Phosphors based on transition metal-activated gallates, particularly Cr3+- and Ni2+-activated zinc germanium gallates, are disclosed herein. In some embodiments such phosphors can exhibit persistent infrared phosphorescence for as long as 400 hours. Such phosphors can be used, for example, as components of a luminescent paint.
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Near Infrared Doped Phosphors Having an Alkaline Gallate Matrix

Phosphors based on doping of an activator (an emitter) into a host matrix are disclosed herein. Such phosphors include alkaline gallate phosphors doped with Cr3+ or Ni2+ ions, which in some embodiments can exhibit persistent infrared phosphorescence for as long as 200 hours. Such phosphors can be used, for example, as components of a luminescent paint.
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Fluorescent Prochelators for Cellular Iron Detection

Fluorescent probe compound of Formula Ia or Formula Ib: are described, along with methods of using the same to detect iron, copper, and hydrogen peroxide.
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Methods and Compositions for Predicting Success in Addictive Substance Cessation and for Predicting a Risk of Addiction

The present invention relates to genetic polymorphisms that are associated with dependence on an addictive substance. In particular, the present invention relates to a method for predicting success in addictive substance cessation in a subject, such as predicting success in nicotine cessation. In some embodiments, nicotine cessation is accompanied by a nicotine replacement source and/or an antidepressant. The invention further provides a method for identifying a subject who has an increased risk
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Methods and Compositions for Identifying Individuals At Reduced Risk of Sepsis

The present invention provides a method of identifying a subject having a reduced risk of developing sepsis, comprising detecting at least one APOE3 allele in nucleic acid from the subject.
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Nicotinic Acid Receptor Ligands

The present invention relates, in general, to nicotinic acid receptor ligands and, in particular, to ligands that have a relative efficacy for activating a G- protein-coupled receptor function (e.g., signaling) that is greater than their relative efficacy for stimulating ss-arrestin function (e.g., recruitment and/or signaling). The invention further relates to the use of such "biased ligands" to decrease triglycerides levels and to potentially increase high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels in p
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Asymmetric Alpha Functionalization and Alpha, Alpha Bisfunctionalization of Aldehydes and Ketones

The present invention relates, generally, to asymmetric a-functionalization and to asymmetric a,a-bisfunctionalization of ketones and aldehydes and, in particular, to chiral auxiliaries suitable for use in effecting such functionalizations and to methods of using same.
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Method for Distinguishing Follicular Thyroid Adenoma (FTA) from Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma (FTC)

Follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) is distinguished from follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) by comparing amount of an expression product of at least one gene selected from the group consisting of DDIT3, ARG2, ITM1, C1orf24, TARSH, and ACO1 in a test follicular thyroid specimen to a normal control thyroid specimen. The test follicular thyroid specimen is identified as FTA if the amount of expression product of TARSH is equal to or greater in the test follicular thyroid specimen than in the normal c
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Droplet-Based Surface Modification and Washing

The present invention relates to droplet-based surface modification and washing. According to one embodiment, a method of splitting a droplet is provided, the method including providing a droplet microactuator including a droplet including one or more beads and immobilizing at least one of the one or more beads. The method further includes conducting one or more droplet operations to divide the droplet to yield a set of droplets including a droplet including the one or more immobilized beads and
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METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS FOR IDENTIFYING INHIBITORS OF MUTS-alpha OR MUTS-beta INTERACTION WITH MUTL-alpha

Disclosed are methods and kits for screening potential inhibitors of MutS[beta] by screening agents for the ability to selectively inhibit interaction between MutS[beta] and MutL[alpha]. Also disclosed are kits for performing the methods of the invention.
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Reacting chemical compound by biotransformation, preferably whole cell biotransformation, useful for degrading environmental pollutant and producing chiral intermediate, comprises adding alginite as r

Reacting chemical compounds by biotransformation, preferably whole cell biotransformation, comprises adding alginite as reaction additive to the reaction medium.
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Cleavage of esters, amides or thioesters of formic acid, comprises converting ester, amide or thioester of formic acid to carbon dioxide and corresponding alcohol, amine or thiol by a formate dehydrog

Cleavage of esters, amides or thioesters of formic acid, comprises converting ester, amide or thioester of formic acid to carbon dioxide and corresponding alcohol, amine or thiol by a formate dehydrogenase. An independent claim is also included for a kit for the cleavage of formyl protecting groups, comprising the formate dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase, preferably immobilized on a common carrier.
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Distillation of ionic liquids

Process for the distillation of mixtures containing salts with a melting point below 200 ° C at 1 bar (ionic liquids) contained, characterized in that - contains the cation of ionic liquid, a heterocyclic ring system with at least one nitrogen atom and all nitrogen atoms of the heterocyclic ring system is an organic have group as a substituent, - it is the anion of the ionic liquid is a compound with at least one carboxylate group (short-carboxylate) or at least one phosphate group (short-phosp
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Procedures and preparation of ionic liquids by anion

Process for the preparation of salts of formula I, (B +) nxAy-where B is a cation which contains at least one nitrogen atom, A is an anion and n is an integer from 1 to 3, x and y are whole numbers are 1 to 3 and the product of x and y equal to n, by reaction of salts of the formula II, (B +) nxCy, have where B and n, x and y as defined above and C for A different connection with one or more carboxylate groups (carboxylates briefly mentioned), is the ammonium salt of the anion a or with the prot
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Method for Producing Cellulose Acetals

The present invention describes a method for producing acetals of poly-, oligo-or disaccharides by dissolving them in at least one ionic liquid and then reacting them with a vinylether. The resulting acetalized poly-or oligosaccharides can be cross-linked by treatment with acid. The present invention relates also to acetals of poly-, oligo-or disaccharides and cross-linked poly-or oligosaccharides.
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Process for Silylating Cellulose

The present invention describes a process for silylating polysaccharides, oligosaccharides or disaccharides or derivatives thereof by dissolving these in an ionic liquid and reacting them with a silylating agent.
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Acid Ceramidase Polymorphisms and Methods of Predicting Traits Using the Acid Ceramidase Polymorphisms

Provided are methods of predicting a trait in a subject including obtaining information about at least a portion of a polynucleotide sequence of the subject, the polynucleotide sequence encoding the acid ceramidase polypeptide, and using the information to predict the expression of the trait in the subject. Further provided are methods of developing a treatment plan for a subject with a disease or condition responsive to exercise. The methods may include obtaining information about at least a po
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Methods and apparatus for manipulating droplets by electrowetting- based techniques

An apparatus is provided for manipulating droplets. The apparatus is a single-sided electrode design in which all conductive elements are contained on one surface on which droplets are manipulated. An additional surface can be provided parallel with the first surface for the purpose of containing the droplets to be manipulated. Droplets are manipulated by performing electrowetting-based techniques in which electrodes contained on or embedded in the first surface are sequentially energized and de
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Droplet-Based Pyrosequencing

The present invention relates to droplet-based pyrosequencing including a method of identifying a base at a target position in a sample nucleic acid. The method includes: (a) providing a droplet microactuator including a first droplet including a sample nucleic acid immobilized on a bead; and (b) on the droplet microactuator: (i) contacting the first droplet with one or more reagent droplets to yield a second droplet, wherein the one or more reagent droplets include reagents for extending a doub
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C16 Unsaturated FP-selective Prostaglandin Analogue

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a new PGF (prostaglandin F) analogue useful in treating various diseases and symptoms including bone disorders. ; SOLUTION: A compound having a structure in accordance with formula (I) is provided. Besides, optical isomers, diastereomers and enantiomers of formula (I), and pharmaceutically acceptable salts of these compounds, biohydrolyzable amides, esters and imides thereof, are also provided. Further, pharmaceutical compositions each containing these compound(s
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Droplet-based Biochemistry

The present invention relates to a droplet microactuator and to systems, apparatuses and methods employing the droplet microactuator for executing various protocols using droplets. The invention includes a droplet microactuator or droplet microactuator system having one or more input reservoirs loaded with reagents for conducting sequencing protocols, such as the reagents for conducting a pyrosequencing protocol. The invention also includes a droplet microactuator or droplet microactuator system
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Cobalt-catalyzed Asymmetric Cyclopropanation with Diazosulfones

Asymmetric cyclopropanation of olefins with diazosulfones.
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Acylsulfonamides and Processes for Producing the Same

The present disclosure relates to acylsulfonamides and processes for their preparation. The processes involve a target-guided synthesis approach, whereby a thioacid and a sulfonyl azide are reacted in the presence of a biological target protein, a Bcl-2 family protein, to form the acylsulfonamide.
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Triazoles and Processes for Producing the Same

The present disclosure relates to triazoles and processes for their preparation. The processes involve a target-guided synthesis approach, whereby an alkyne and an azide are reacted in the presence of a biological target protein, a Bcl-2 family protein, to form the triazole.
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Enantioselective Ring-opening of Aziridines

A process for the preparation of a nucleophilic addition product of an aziridine and a nucleophile, the process comprising treating the arizidine with the nucleophile in the presence of a biaryl phosphoric acid catalyst.
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Cobalt-catalyzed Asymmetric Cyclopropanation of Electron-deficient Olefins

Cobalt-catalyzed asymmetric cyclopropanation of electron-deficient olefins.
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Supramolecular Assemblies and Building Blocks

The present invention generally relates to supramolecular assemblies and their modes of synthesis. The supramolecular assemblies include a 1:8 ratio of a supermolecular polyhedral building block and a triangular molecular building block, the supermolecular polyhedral building block having points of extension corresponding to the vertices of a rhombicuboctahedron for linking the supermolecular polyhedral building block to the triangular building block.
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Proteasome Inhibitors Having Chymotrypsin-like Activity

Disclosed herein is the use of HLM-008182, as well as its analogues formed via in-house synthesis, as a potent proteasome inhibitors. A new method was developed for HLM-008182 through a four-step protocol and the method was further optimized to a two step protocol. The synthesis in both protocols was regioselective with TiCl4. The reaction was highly efficient with microwave assisted heating and THF as solvent. The modification around the molecule HLM-008182 established primary SAR, indicating t
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Alkene Aziridination

A process for the asymmetric aziridination of an alkene comprising treating the alkene with a sulfonyl azide, preferably trichloroethoxysulfonyl azide, in the presence of a cobalt(II) porphyrin.
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Asymmetric Cyclopropanation with Succinimidyl Diazoacetate

Cobalt(ll) complexes of the D 2-symmetric chiral porphyrins are effective catalysts for asymmetric cyclopropanation reactions with succinimidyl diazoacetate. The Co-catalyzed reaction is suitable for various olefins, providing the corresponding cyclopropane succinimidyl esters in high yields and excellent diastereo- and enantio-selectivity. The resulting enantioenriched cyclopropane succinimidyl esters can serve as convenient synthons for the general synthesis of optically active cyclopropyl car
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Cobalt-Catalyzed Asymmetric Cyclopropanation of Alkenes with alpha-Nitrodiazoacetates

A process for the cyclopropanation of olefins with a metal porphyrin catalyst and an acceptor/acceptor substituted diazo reagent.
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Asymmetric Cyclopropanation of Electron-deficient Olefins with Diazo Reagents

Cobalt-catalyzed asymmetric cyclopropanation of electron-deficient olefins.
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Ionic Liquid Mediated Sol-gel Sorbents

Ionic liquid (IL)-mediated sol-gel hybrid organic-inorganic materials present enormous potential for effective use in analytical microextraction. One obstacle to materializing this prospect arises from high viscosity of ILs significantly slowing down sol-gel reactions. A method was developed which provides phosphonium-based, pyridinium-based, and imidazolium-based IL-mediated advanced sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid materials for capillary microextraction. Scanning electron microscopy results d
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Metal Porphyrin Catalyzed Olefin Aziridination with Sulfonyl Azides

Cobalt(II) complex of P1 [Co(P1)], a new porphyrin that was designed on the basis of potential hydrogen bonding interactions in the metal-nitrene intermediate, is a highly active catalyst for olefin aziridination with azides. The [Co(P1)]-based system can be effectively employed for different combinations of aromatic olefins and arysulfonyl azides, synthesizing various sulfonylated aziridines in excellent yields. Besides its mild catalytic conditions, the Co-catalyzed aziridination process enjoy
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Heterosubstituted N-thiolated Beta-lactam Compounds and Methods of Use

The invention relates to heterosubstituted N-thiolated beta-lactams, compositions comprising these compounds, methods for their production, and methods of use as antibiotics to inhibit the growth of bacteria. In one embodiment, the compounds have the structure shown in formula (A) or formula (B) or formula (C): wherein the R groups are as defined in the specification. The antibacterial agents of the invention can be administered to a human or animal to treat or inhibit bacterial infection, such
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Silica-based Material for Detection and Isolation of Chitin and Chitin-containing Microorganisms

The subject invention provides silica-based material that has high affinity to chitin, chitin derivatives and chitin-containing microorganisms at an acidic pH. In an embodiment, the silica-based material surface comprises glass. Also provided are methods for preparing the subject silica-based chitin-binding material. In addition, the subject invention provides rapid, specific, sensitive, accurate and convenient methods for detection, isolation and purification of chitin, chitin derivatives and c
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Eggshell Catalyst and Method of Its Preparation

An eggshell catalyst useful for a Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis or other reactions comprises a homogeneously dispersed transition metal and a promoter situated in an active phase in a precisely selected outer region of a catalyst pellet. The active phase region is controlled to a specific depth, which permits the control of the catalysts selectivity, for example, the size of the hydrocarbon chains formed in the FT process. A method of preparing these eggshell catalysts involves a non-aqueous sy
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Light Curing Compositions

The present invention relates to light curing compositions, comprising radically polymerizable vinyl compounds and daylight sensitive radical initiators of the formula (I) and/or (II), and optionally containing further additives, such as fillers, pigments, solvents, and to the use thereof as a coating material for technical, optical, and medical applications.
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Device for the Continuous Annular Electrochromatography

An annular gap apparatus (110) for performing a capillary electrochromatography is disclosed. The annular gap apparatus (110) has at least one separator (112) with at least one fixed annular gap (114), wherein the annular gap (114) is at least partially filled with at least one stationary phase (204) and can be filled with at least one electrolyte (136). The annular gap apparatus (110) has at least one feeding system (138) for feeding a starting substance (140) into the annular gap (114). The an
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Catalyst systems comprising an alkaline earth metal chloride and their application for metathesis reactions

Catalyst system (I) comprising a metathesis catalyst containing a complex catalyst on basis of a 6th or 8th group metals and exhibits at least one carbene group at the metal bonded ligands, and an alkaline earth metal chloride, preferably calcium chloride or magnesium chloride, is new. An independent claim is included for the molecular weight degradation of the nitrile rubber, where co- or ter-polymer containing at least a conjugated diene, at least an alpha ,beta -unsaturated nitrile and option
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New ruthenium- and osmium-carbene-complex catalysts, which are bonded with chiral carbon atoms or over double bonds at a catalyst base skeleton, useful e.g. in metathesis-reactions, preferably in ring

Ruthenium- and osmium-carbene-complex catalysts (I), which are bonded with chiral carbon atoms or over one or more double bonds at a catalyst base skeleton, are new. Ruthenium- and osmium-carbene-complex catalysts of formula (I), which are bonded with chiral carbon atoms or over one or more double bonds at a catalyst base skeleton, is new. Either R 1>-R 8>alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, carboxylate, alkoxy, alkenyloxy, alkynyloxy, aryloxy, alkoxycarbonyl, alkyl amino, alkylthio, arylt
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Chelating Agent

A compound of the formula: wherein R<1> is selected from H, methyl, ethyl, carboxyl protecting groups and hydrophilic moieties, R<2> and R<3> are independently selected from H, methyl, ethyl and carboxyl protecting groups, R<4> is selected from H, methyl, ethyl, hydrophilic moieties and carboxyl protecting groups, and R<5> is an aryl, heteroaryl, alkyl or a combination of these groups and is substituted with a carbonyl group, an aminooxy group or a functional group suitable for participating in
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Polycrystalline silicon thin layers produced by titanium-supported metal-induced layer exchange

The method involves applying a layer sequence on a substrate, where the layer sequence has an oxidation layer arranged between an output layer and an activator layer. The layer sequence is treated with heat for forming a polycrystalline end layer, and the stable oxidation layer is produced by oxidation of transition metals during heat treatment. The oxidation layer is made of titanium oxide, the activator layer is made of silver and the output material is made of semiconductor material such as s
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Multilayer Silk Protein Films

The present invention is directed to a method of forming multilayer silk protein films and a multilayer film obtained therefrom. The invention is further directed to various materials, products and compositions containing said multilayer film and to the use of Said multilayer film in several applications.
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Use of Prokaryotic Tir-domain Containing Proteins As Therapeutic and Diagnostic Agents

The present invention relates inter alia to nucleic acid molecules encoding prokaryotic TIR-domain containing polypeptides as well as fragments and functional homologues thereof for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.
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Muteins of hNGAL and Related Proteins with Affinity for a Given Target

The present invention relates to novel muteins derived from human lipocalin 2 (hNGAL) and related proteins that bind a given non-natural ligand with detectable affinity. The invention also relates to corresponding nucleic acid molecules encoding such a mutein and to a method for their generation. The invention further relates a method for producing such a mutein. Furthermore, the invention is directed to a pharmaceutical composition comprising such a lipocalin mutein as well as to various uses o
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Polymeric Delivery Systems for Active Agents

A composition, comprising: (a) at least one copolymer comprising repeating units of formula (I) wherein RA is a hydrocarbon group, optionally substituted with -OH, -SH, -COOH, NR'2, -COOR', -CONR', -CHO, with R' representing H or C1-3 alkyl, and with RA being selected such that the repeating unit of formula (I) is hydrophilic; and repeating units of the formula (II), wherein RB is a hydrocarbon group optionally substituted with halogen, -OH, -SH, -COOH, - NR"2, -COOR", -CONR", -CHO, with R" repr
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Mutated Abl kinase domains

The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides which comprise a functional kinase domain comprising the amino acid sequence of the native human Abl kinase domain or an essentially similar sequence thereof in which at least one amino acid selected from Met244, Leu248, Gly250, Glu252, Tyr253, Val256, Glu258, Phe311, Ile313, Phe317, Met318, Met351, Glu355, Glu359, Ile360, His361, Leu370, Asp381, Phe382, His396, Ser417, Glu459 and Phe486 is replaced by another amino acid, said mutated functi
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NMP-containing Extract, a Method of Its Production and Uses Thereof

The present invention relates to a N-methylpyridinium cation (NMP)-containing extract, a method for its production, uses of said NMP-containing extract as a dietary supplement and for the prevention or reduction of oxidative stress, and to foodstuff containing said extract.
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Compounds for Non-invasive Measurement of Aggregates of Amyloid Peptides

The invention relates to the provision of compounds, methods for producing them, and their use for imaging and quantification of aggregates of ss-amyloid peptides in vivo. In a preferred aspect of the invention, a tracer is administered to humans and displays enrichment in body parts that are containing aggregates of amyloid peptides. Tracers of the invention can be used for non-invasive depiction and quantification of aggregates of ss-amyloid peptides in humans affected with diseases that are c
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Deuterium Isobaric Tag Reagents for Quantitative Analysis

Deuterium isobaric tag reagents are provided for the quantitation of biomolecules, where the reagents contain heavy isotope atoms, including one or more 2H in each reagent. Generally, the reagents are described by the formula: reporter group - balancer group - reactive group, wherein the reporter group and the balancer group are linked by an MS/MS scissionable bond. Each of the reporter group and balancer groups independently contain 0 to 9 heavy isotope atoms selected from 13C, 15N and 2H and t
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CYCLOPENTADIENYLPHOSPHAZENE COMPLEXES (CpPN COMPLEXES) OF METALS OF THE THIRD AND FOURTH GROUP AND OF THE LANTHANOIDS

The present invention relates Cyclopentadienylphosphazen complexes (CPPN complexes) of Group III. and group IV and the lanthanides with the exception of lutetium. The novel complexes are too isolobal and isoelectronic [(CpSiN) TiR2] complexes. In the novel there is exactly one complex CPPN unit. In all, the novel complexes of cyclopentadienyl CPPN a monodentate anionic ligands of the metal atom dar.The metal atom is also bound to other anionic ligands. In a preferred embodiment, binding within C
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Non-viral Transfection Agent

The invention relates to a non-viral transfection agent comprising polymer/nucleic acid complexes and nanofibers, wherein the polymer/nucleic acid complexes are composed of at least one nucleic acid and at least one cationic polymer. The nanofibers carry the polymer/nucleic acid complexes, wherein the non-viral transfection agent is advantageously produced by means of electrospinning. The cationic polymer is favorably a polyimine or polyethyleneimine and can be modified with one or more hydrophi
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Process for Preparation of Polyolefins Via Living Coordinative Chain Transfer Polymerization

Disclosed is a method of producing a polyolefin composition comprising contacting a metallocene pre-catalyst, co-catalyst, and a stoichiometric excess of a metal alkyl; adding a first olefin monomer; and polymerizing the first monomer for a time sufficient to form the polyolefin. The method allows for the use of minimum amounts of activating co-catalyst and metallocene pre-catalyst. Also disclosed is a method of producing a block polyolefin composition comprising contacting a metallocene pre-cat
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Allylic Oxidations Catalyzed by Dirhodium Catalysts under Aqueous Conditions

The present invention relates to compositions and methods for achieving the efficient allylic oxidation of organic molecules, especially olefins and steroids, under aqueous conditions. The invention concerns the use of dirhodium (II,II) "paddlewheel complexes, and in particular, dirhodium carboximate and tert-butyl hydroperoxide as catalysts for the reaction. The use of aqueous conditions is particularly advantageous in the allylic oxidation of 7-keto steroids, which could not be effectively oxi
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Aminde Detection Method and Materials

Compounds linked to a solid support through a divalent linker moiety are disclosed. In particular, compounds such as 1-hydroxybenzotriazole-6-carboxylic acid are directly linked to the support under mild conditions (i.e., in aqueous or organic solvents at neutral pH and at room temperature). The polymer bound 1-hydroxybenzotriazole-6-carboxylic acid can be used for the derivatization of amines as well as for single step amino group modification of proteins, peptides, and amines via acylation or
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Synthesis Methods of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors (HDACIS)

Simple and efficient procedures for the synthesis of histone deacetylase inhibitors. The procedure may provide MS-275 in 72% overall yields.
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Processes for Plant Polysaccharide Conversion

The present invention provides a novel process for ethanol fermentation.
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Method and Device for Isolating a Chemically and Radiochemically Cleaned 68Ga-radio Nuclide and for Marking a Marking Precursor with the 68Ga-radio Nuclide

The invention relates to initial <68>Ge/Ga-generator elute which is guided directly to a cation exchanger, whereon <68 >Ga is quantitatively absorbed and is cleaned simultaneously in a chemical and radio chemical manner. Subsequently, the <68>Ga-radio nuclide is combined with a radio pharmaceutical substance by a marking precursor made of a ligand or a peptide or a protein which is cross-linked in a covalent manner to a ligand.
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Antioxidant and Paramagnetic Heparin-nitroxide Derivatives

The present invention relates to novel heparin-nitroxide derivatives comprising heparin and at least two and more nitroxides/polynitroxide radicals that are covalently coupled to heparin by derivatisation of glycosaminoglycan carboxyl or amino groups. The heparin-nitroxide derivatives are useful as therapeutic or diagnostic agents. This invention further concerns novel methods for the production of the heparin-nitroxide agents, and methods of their uses for specifically targeting and labelling o
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Methods and Compositions for Diagnosis and Treatment of Cancer

The invention relates to an isolated regulatory nucleic acid, comprising a nucleic acid sequence according to SEQ ID NO 2 or a biologically active fragment thereof that can be specifically amplified and detected by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR), to the use thereof as a tumor marker and for sampling substances, in particular prospective reactive agents for inhibiting the nucleic acid, the peptide or the protein, wherein such substances binding thereto are identified using a binding assay and
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Use of 3-(indolyl)- Or 3-(azaindolyl)-4-arylmaleimide Derivatives in Leukenia Management

The present invention relates to the use of a compound of formula (I) wherein R1 is H, C1-C6-alkyl, phenyl-C1-C4-alkyl or phenyl, R2 is a phenyl group which is substituted with 2 or 3 C1-C6-alkoxy groups and R3 is indolyl or azaindolyl which may carry one or two substituents independently selected from C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkoxy, phenyl, OH, halogen, NH2, C1-C6-alkylamino, di-C1-C6-alkylamino, heteroaryl with 5 or 6 ring atoms containing 1 or 2 heteroatoms which are independently selected from O,
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3-(indolyl)- or 3-(azaindolyl)-4-arylmaleimide derivatives for use in the treatment of colon and gastric adenocarcinoma

The present invention relates to the use of a compound of formula (I) wherein R 1 , and R 3 are as defined in the description and R 2 is a phenyl group which is substituted with 2 or 3 C 1 -G 6 alkoxy groups, or a physiologically acceptable salt thereof, or a solvate of the compound of formula (I) or of the salt thereof, for treatment of colorectal or gastric adenocarcinoma.
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Universal Phosphoramidite for Preparation of Modified Biomolecules and Surfaces

Reagents useful for attaching biomolecules (e.g., proteins, oligonucleotides, and other biomolecules) to a surface, processes of attaching molecules to a surface to form modified surfaces using these reagents, and methods of detecting a target compound using these modified surfaces are disclosed.
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Conjugated Monomers and Polymers and Preparation and Use Thereof

Disclosed are new conjugated compounds (e.g., monomers and polymers) that include ladder-type moieties which can be used for preparing semiconducting materials. Such conjugated compounds can exhibit high n-type carrier mobility and/or good current modulation characteristics. Compounds of the present teachings also can exhibit ambipolar semiconducting activity. In addition, the compounds of the present teachings can possess certain processing advantages such as solution- processability and/or goo
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Chalcogenide Compounds with a Clay-like Cation-exchange Capacity and Methods of Use

Chalcogenide compounds with cation exchange capability and methods of using the compounds are described. Compounds of the general formula A2xMxSn3-XS6 are described wherein x is 0.1-0.95, A is Li+, Na+, K+ or Rb+ and M is Mn2+, Mg2+, Zn2+, Fe2+, Co2+ or Ni2+. Compounds of the general formula H2xMxSn3-XS6 are also described wherein x is 0.1-0.95 and M = Mn2+, Mg2+, Zn2+, Fe2+, Co2 + or Ni2+. The compounds can be layered compounds. The compounds are capable of intercalation of Cs+, Sr2+, Hg2+, Pb2
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Enhancing the Physical Properties of Semi-crystalline Polymers Via Solid-state Shear Pulverization

Solid-state shear pulverization of semi-crystalline polymers and copolymers thereof and related methods for enhanced crystallization kinetics and physical/mechanical properties.
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Modified Acrylic Block Copolymers for Hydrogels and Pressure Sensitive Wet Adhesives

A method of producing an acrylic block copolymer comprising hydrophobic poly (lower alkyl methoacrylate), hydrophilic poly (lower alkyl methacrylic acid), and hydrophobic poly (lower alkyl methacrylate).
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Catalytic Enantioselective Synthesis of Flavanones and Chromanes

Various chromanone, flavanone and abyssinone compounds as can be prepares enantioselectively using a chiral thiourea catalyst.
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Networks for Organic Reactions and Compounds

A method for analyzing a collection of organic chemical reactions and compounds reported in the literature in the form of a complex network in either a normal, one-mode graph or a bipartite graph is disclosed. Also disclosed are methods, algorithms, computer-readable storage mediums and other applications derived from the analysis of this graph / network theory.
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Aminopyridine Dimer Compounds, Compositions and Related Methods for Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition

Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor compounds comprising bi-terminal aromatic ring moieties, and related methods of NOS inhibition.
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Method of Synthesizing Acetonide-Protected Catechol-Containing Compounds and Intermediates Produced Therein

The inventors disclose here a novel, facile approach to the synthesis of acetonide-protected catechol-containing compounds having at least one amine group. In specific embodiments, the invention provides novel methods of synthesizing 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (H-DOPA(acetonide)-OH (6)), Fmoc-protected H-DOPA(acetonide)-OH (Fmoc-DOPA(acetonide)-OH (7)), Fmoc-protected dopamine (Fmoc-dopamine(acetonide) (10)), TFA-protected dopamine (TFA-dopamine(acetonide) (13)) and acetonide-protected 4-(2-amin
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Systems and Methods for Selective Alcohol Production

The present invention relates to metabolic engineering issues related to flux determinism in core primary-metabolism pathways. In particular, the present invention relates to alcohol (e.g., butanol) production and selectivity, and related methods thereof.
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Tetratopic Phenyl Compounds, Related Metal-organic Framework Materials and Post-assembly Elaboration

Disclosed are tetratopic carboxylic acid phenyl for use in metal-organic framework compounds. These compounds are useful in catalysis, gas storage, sensing, biological imaging, drug delivery and gas adsorption separation.
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Click Chemistry, Molecular Transport Junctions, and Colorimetric Detection of Copper

Click chemistry is used to construct molecular transport junctions (MTJs) through assembly of a molecular wire across a nanogap formed between two electrodes. Also disclosed are methods of using click chemistry and oligonucleotide-modified nanoparticles to detect the presence of copper in a sample.
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Antifouling Hydrogels, Coatings, and Methods of Synthesis and Use Thereof

The invention provides an antifouling hydrogel comprising an effective amount of antifouling polymer modified with a compound containing catechol functional groups to yield a modified antifouling polymer comprising at least one catechol functional end group; and an effective amount of at least one oxidizing reagent, wherein the at least one oxidizing reagent reacts with the modified antifouling polymer to provide a modified antifouling polymer comprising at least one oxidized catechol end group,
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Chiral Pyrrolidine Core Compounds En Route to Inhibitors of Nitric Oxide Synthase

Diastereomeric pyrrolidine compounds and methods of preparation, as can be used en route to the preparation of a range of nitric oxide synthase inhibitors.
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Short Duplex Probes for Enhanced Target Hybridization

The present disclosure is directed to compositions and methods for detecting or associating with a target polynucleotide.
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Methods for Total Nitrogen Removal from Waste Streams

A method and related apparatus for oxidation and reduction of a reduced aqueous nitrogen contaminant.
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Zinc-activated contrast agents

The present invention relates to contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In particular, the present invention relates to MRI contrast agents that are activated in the presence of zinc(II) (e.g., resulting in a brighter image).
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Apparatus and methods for water treatment

An apparatus and method for treatment of water borne oxidized contaminants, using hydrogen as an electron donor for denitrification and reduction of other oxidized contaminants. Preliminary results reported here show that a biofilm of autotrophic denitrifiers accumulates rapidly in the wastewater setting, the MBfR can drive NO3- concentrations below 1 mgN/L, and the H2 pressure controls the NO3- flux.
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Self-assembling Poly(diol Citrates)-protein Hydrogels

The present invention can be directed to poly(diol-citrate)-based copolymers, compositions thereof comprising protein components and methods of use and assembly.
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Solid phase host compositions

A new family of silicon-based polymers has been prepared in which organic host components are bound covalently. The polymer is a polysilsesquioxane matrix comprising, for example, hosts such as cyclodextrins (CD) or calixarenes (CX).
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Nanoarrays of single virus particles, methods and instrumentation for the fabrication and use thereof

A novel coordination chemistry or metal ion binding approach to controlling the site-isolation and orientation of virus particles, such as TMV, on a nanoarray template generated by lithography including Dip Pen Nanolithography. By using the surface chemistry that is inherent in many viruses, metal-ion based or inorganic coordination chemistry was used to immobilize individual virus particles without the need for their genetic modification. Single particle control will enable a wide variety of st
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Process for Continuous Solvent Production

A continuous process for production of solvents, particularly acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) using fermentation of solventogenic microorganisms and gas stripping is provided. The solventogenic microorganisms are inoculated in a nutrient medium containing assimilable carbohydrates (substrate) and optional other additives. Control of the solventogenic microorganism concentration in the fermentor (cell concentration) and the assimilable carbohydrate concentration in the fermentor, along with removal
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Hydroamination of Alkenes

A method includes reacting an amino group, a composition including rhodium and an organic ligand, and a substrate having structural formula (I) in a reaction mixture. R1 is an organic group including a sp3 carbon atom bonded to CA. R2 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, methyl, and an organic group including a sp3 carbon atom bonded to CA. R3 and R4 independently are selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, methyl, and an organic group including a sp3 carbon atom bonded to
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Apparatus and Method for Applying a Film on a Substrate

A system that incorporates teachings of the present disclosure may include, for example, an apparatus having a plurality of applicators, each applicator with an ingress opening to receive a liquid, and an egress opening to release the liquid, and a conductor positioned in a conduit of each of the plurality of applicators, the conductor and the conduit having dimensions to cause a surface tension of the liquid to prevent a constant flow of the liquid from the egress opening. Each conductor of the
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Water Repellent Metal-organic Frameworks, Process for Making and Uses Regarding Same

Microwave assisted synthesis may be used to produce water-repellent metallic organic frameworks (MOFs) molecules. The water-repellent MOFs contain non-polar functional groups, such as a trifluoromethoxy group, which has a strong water repellent effect. The water-repellent MOF, when exposed to water vapor for one week does not result in a significant X-ray power pattern change. The water-repellent MOFs may be suitable as an adsorbent in many industrial applications, such as gas chromatography.
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Slow Release of Organoboronic Acids in Cross-coupling Reactions

A method of performing a chemical reaction includes reacting a compound selected from the group consisting of an organohalide and an organo-pseudohalide, and a protected organoboronic acid represented by formula (I) in a reaction mixture: R1-B-T; where R1 represents an organic group, T represents a conformationalIy rigid protecting group, and B represents boron having sp3 hybridization. When unprotected, the corresponding organoboronic acid is unstable by the boronic acid neat stability test. Th
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Catalytic Compositions, Composition Production Methods, and Aqueous Solution Treatment Methods

Composition production methods are provided that can include providing PdO nanoparticles on a nitrogen-doped titanium oxide surface to form a catalytic mixture. Catalytic compositions and/or bactericides are provided that can include a substrate supporting Ti, O, N, and Pd. Water purification methods are provided that can include exposing an aqueous solution to a composition comprising at least a substrate supporting Ti, O, N, and Pd. Photocatalytic methods are provided that can include : provid
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Method for Forming Allylic Alcohols

A method of performing a chemical reaction includes reacting an allyl donor and a substrate in a reaction mixture, and forming a homoallylic alcohol in the reaction mixture. The substrate may be an aldehyde or a hemiacetal. The reaction mixture includes a ruthenium catalyst, carbon monoxide at a level of at least 1 equivalent relative to the substrate, and water at a level of at least 1 equivalent relative to the substrate, and an amine at a level of from 0 to 0.5 equivalent relative to the subs
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Highly Permeable Polymeric Membranes

Provided are substantially flat membranes that include a block or graft co-polymer and a water transport protein, such as Aquaporin-Z, or a synthetic mimic of such proteins. Also provided are methods of removing contaminants from a liquid, by contacting the liquid with a substantially flat membrane that includes a block or graft co-polymer and a water transport protein or synthetic mimic thereof. Also provided are methods of making such membranes. Further provided are compositions that include a
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Solvent Removal and Recovery from Inorganic and Organic Solutions

A process for recovering solvents from inorganic and organic solutions is disclosed. The process utilizes a polymer capable of selectively extracting the solvent from the inorganic or organic solution. Introduction of the polymer into the solvent solution creates formation of a polymer-rich phase and a solute-rich phase. The recovered solvent may be separated from the polymer-rich phase by heating the polymer-rich phase to at least the cloud point of the polymer. The polymer and/or solute may be
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Method for the Synthesis of A-ring Aromatized Acetyl Minocyclines

The invention relates to a method for the production of A-ring aromatized acetyl minocyclines. The aim of the invention to provide a less complex method for the production of A-ring aromatized acetyl minocyclines of the formula (I), wherein R1 to R5 = acetyl and/or H, which can also be used on an industrial scale, is achieved in that minocycline hydrochloride is reacted with acetanhydride in the presence of a proton catcher, the reaction product is subjected to chromatographic filtration using a
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Method for the Synthesis of A-ring Aromatized Acetyl Minocyclines

The invention relates to a process for production of A-ring aromatized acetyl-minocycline.The object of the invention, a resource-light process for the production of A-ring aromatized acetyl-Minocycline Formula $ F1 where R <1> to R <5> = acetyl and / or H to provide, it is also feasible on an industrial scale , is solved by the fact that minocycline hydrochloride reacted with acetic anhydride in the presence of a proton scavenger, the reaction product of a chromatographic purification using a c
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Directed Assembly of Three-dimensional Structures with Micron-scale Features

Polyelectrolyte inks comprising a solvent, a cationic polyelectrolyte dissolved in the solvent, and an anionic polyelectrolyte dissolved in the solvent, are described. The concentration of at least one of the polyelectrolytes in the solvent is in a semidilute regime.
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Selective Aliphatic C-H Oxidation

A composition including a complex of a metal, a tetradentate ligand, at least one ancillary ligand, and a counterion may be used for selective sp3 C-H bond oxidation. The tetradentate ligand may include a N-heterocyclic-N,N'-bis(pyridyl)-ethane-1,2-diamine group or a N,N'-bis(heterocyclic)-N,N'-bis(pyridyl)-ethane-1,2-diamine group. The composition can be used in combination with H2O2 to effect highly selective oxidations of unactivated sp3 C-H bonds over a broad range of substrates. The site of
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Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Ligands and the Uses Thereof

The invention relates to pyridinyl nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligands, compositions comprising an effective amount of a pyridinyl nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligand and methods to treat or prevent a condition, such as depression and nicotine dependence, comprising administering to an animal in need thereof an effective amount of a pyridinyl nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligand.
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Modified Polydicyclopentadienes

The present invention provides novel, modified polydicyclopentadienes and methods to prepare modified polydicyclopentadienes. The modified polydicyclopentadienes prepared by the methods of the invention are useful in many applications including new and useful solid phases for chromatography.
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Methods for the Preparation of Thiazolidinethione Indene-Based Chiral Auxiliaries

Methods for the preparation of indene-based thiazolidinethiones are provided comprising contacting 1-amino-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-2-ol, or a substituted derivative thereof, with an acid under suitable reaction conditions to provide a first intermediate; and contacting the first intermediate with an alkali xanthate in the presence of an alkali hydroxide under suitable reaction conditions to provide a compound of formula (III), wherein R1-R8 are defined herein.
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Apparatus and Method for Carrying Out Multiple Reactions

The invention provides methods and an apparatus useful for site-isolating reagents or catalysts during chemical reactions. The methods and apparatus are useful for carrying out cascade or domino reactions.
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Spray Dried Microbes and Methods of Preparation and Use

The invention provides spray-dried preparations of microbes and methods of using those microbes.
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Bifunctional Lactide Monomer Derivative and Polymers and Materials Prepared Using the Same

The invention described herein provides a novel lactide monomer derivative and process for preparing the lactide monomer derivative. The monomer derivative of the invention is bifunctional in nature, and can be employed a variety of efficient synthesis processes to prepare various polymers. Further, the bifunctional monomer derivative can be used to prepare various intermediate-stage compounds and polymers, which in turn can be used to synthesize other compounds, polymers, copolymers and composi
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Polylactide Composites and Methods of Producing the Same

Embodiments of polylactide composites comprise a polylactide, and a polymerized natural oil dispersed inside the polylactide.
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Preparation of Solvent-borne Polymeric Bioactive Coatings

Processes for preparation of a protein-polymer composite material are provided according to embodiments of the present invention which include providing an admixture of a polymer resin, a surfactant and a non-aqueous organic solvent. An aqueous solution containing bioactive proteins and substantially free of surfactant is mixed with the admixture. The emulsion is mixed with a crosslinker to produce a curable composition. The curable composition is cured, thereby producing the protein-polymer com
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Non-thermal Plasma Synthesis with Carbon Component

The disclosure herein describes a method for producing ammonia by introducing N2, CO and water into a non-thermal plasma in the presence of a catalyst, the catalyst being effective to promote the disassociation of N2, CO and water to form reactants that in turn react to produce NH3 and CH4. This disclosure also describes producing a reactive hydrogen ion or free radical by the method comprising passing water through a non-thermal plasma in the presence of a catalyst, the catalyst being effective
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Detection of Nucleic Acid Sequence Differences Using Coupled Ligase Detection and Polymerase Chain Reactions

The present invention relates to a method for identifying a target nucleotide sequence. This method involves forming a ligation product on a target nucleotide sequence in a ligase detection reaction mixture, amplifying the ligation product to form an amplified ligation product in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) mixture, detecting the amplified ligation product, and identifying the target nucleotide sequence. Such coupling of the ligase detection reaction and the polymerase chain reaction permi
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Solvent-borne Polymeric Bioactive Coatings for the Facilitated Removal of Bioorganic Stains

Protein-polymer composite materials are provided according to embodiments of the present invention that include an admixture of a polymer resin, a surfactant and a non-aqueous organic solvent. An aqueous solution containing bioactive proteins is mixed with the admixture. The emulsion is mixed with a crosslinker to produce a curable composition. The curable composition is cured, thereby producing the protein-polymer composite material that is useful for facilitating removal of bioorganic stains.
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Hot-melt Adhesive and Method for the Manufacture Thereof

The invention relates to a hot-melt adhesive, comprising at least one polysaccharide ester (6) obtained through the reaction of a polysaccharide (5) with an imidazolide (3) in molten imidazole (1). The invention further relates to a method for manufacturing the hot-melt adhesive in which imidazole (1) is melted and an acid chloride (2) and/or an acid anhydride and/or a lactone is reacted with the melted imidazole (1) to form an imidazolide (3), wherein at least one polysaccharide (5) is added to
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Tetrazine-based Bio-orthogonal Coupling Reagents and Methods

Coupling reactions, suitable for use in organic or aqueous media, are performed by contacting a 1,2,4,5-tetrazine with a dienophile. The dienophile may be covalently bonded to a protein, and the coupling reaction may be performed in biological media such as those containing cells or cell lysates. The reactions may be performed in the presence of primary amines, thiols, acetylenes, azides, phosphines, and products of Staudinger and/or Sharpless-Huisgen reactions Novel 3-substituted cyclopropene c
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Method of Making Stable, Homogeneous Potassium Hydride Dispersions

A stable, homogeneous dispersion of potassium hydride is formed by reacting a mixture of wax and potassium metal with hydrogen.
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Reduced Dye Probes for the Detection of Radical Oxygen Species

Reduced dyes, such as hydrocyanines, deuterocyanines, and/or other deuterated dyes, such as deuteraled leuco dyes, capable of detecting one or more reactive oxygen species are described herein The reduced dyes are generally prepared by reducing the oxidized dye with a reducing agent, such as sodium borohydpde or sodium borodeuteride The reduced dyes exhibit little or no fluorescence due to the disrupted 1t conjugation However, upon reaction with ROS, the reduced dyes are oxidized, regenerating t
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PREPARATION OF SYNTHETIC NUCLEOSIDES VIA p-ALLYL TRANSITION METAL COMPLEX FORMATION

This invention provides highly regioselective and stereoselective processes for preparing synthetic nucleosides. A process for the preparation of synthetic nucleosides is provided that comprises a) preparing a bicycloamide derivative, b) reacting the bicycloamide derivative with a nucleic acid base or heterocyclic base or salt thereof in the presence of a transition metal catalyst to form a cyclopentenecarboxamide, and c) cleaving a carboxamide group from the cyclopentenecarboxamide to form the
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Polyoxometalate Water Oxidation Catalysts and Methods of Use Thereof

Homogeneous water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) for the oxidation of water to produce hydrogen ions and oxygen, and methods of making and using thereof are described herein. In a preferred embodiment, the WOC is a polyoxometalate WOC which is hydrolytically stable, oxidatively stable, and thermally stable. The WOC oxidized waters in the presence of an oxidant. The oxidant can be generated photochemically, using light, such as sunlight, or electrochemically using a positively biased electrode. The h
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Methods of Preparing 1-deoxy-sphingoid Bases and Derivatives Thereof

Novel methods of synthesizing 1-deoxy-sphingoid bases and derivatives are disclosed. The synthesis is achieved from commercially available and inexpensive starting materials. The process includes thioesterification, cross-coupling, and reduction. The process may also include directed epoxidation, regioselective epoxide-opening, hydrogenation, and dihydroxylation. The methods described herein provide 1-deoxy-sphingoid bases and derivatives in high overall yield and high enantiomeric purity.
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Compounds, Intermediates, and Methods of Preparing the Same

The present disclosure provides optionally substituted seven-membered ring isomers of naturally occurring carbohydrate compounds, methods of synthesizing these compounds, intermediate compounds, methods of synthesizing the intermediate compounds, and the like.
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PROCESSES FOR PREPARING 5,7 DIAMINOPYRAZOLO[1,5-a] PYRIMIDINE COMPOUNDS

Processes for the preparation of certain 5,7-diaminopyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine compounds comprising the reaction of a primary or secondary amine and a protected 5-halo-7-aminopyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine compound in solvent system comprising water and one or more organic solvents, optionally in the presence of an exogenous base.
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Method of manufacture of 1,3-dioxolane and 1,3-oxathiolane nucleosides

Processes for the preparation of 1,3-oxathiolane nucleosides are provided that include efficient methods for the preparation of the 1,3-oxathiolane ring and subsequent condensation of the 1,3-oxathiolane with a pyrimidine or purine base. Using the processes described herein, the compounds can be provided as isolated enantiomers.
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Tridentate Platinum (II) Complexes

A platinum (II) complex of the general formula (I) or (II), in which Ar1, Ar2, and Ar3 are each independently aryl, heteroaryl, or heterocyclic. Ar1, Ar2, and Ar3 together form a tridentate ligand coordinated to the platinum through atoms X, Y, and Z, respectively, and X, Y, and Z are independently carbon or nitrogen. V is a bridging group or a covalent bond, and W is an anion. In general formula (I) in some cases, Ar1 is an anion and Ar2 and Ar3 are neutral; in other cases, Ar1 and Ar3 are neut
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Platinum(II) Di(2-pyrazolyl)benzene Chloride Analogs and Uses

Synthesis of platinum(II) di(2-pyrazolyl)benzene chloride and analogs includes forming a 1,3-di-substituted benzene including two aromatic five-membered heterocycles, and reacting the 1,3-di-substituted benzene with an acidic platinum-containing solution to form a luminescent platinum(II) complex. The luminescent platinum(II) complex is capable of emitting blue and white light and can be used as an emitter in a light emitting device.
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Methods of Identifying Molecular Function

Disclosed herein are methods for identifying the molecular function of compounds, methods of iterative evolution of compounds, and a surface having high chemical diversity for performing the disclosed methods.
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Screening Method to Identify Molecules Having the Ability to Modulate the Activity of a Catalyst

The present invention provides methods in which to screen or identify molecules that can have catalytic activity or that can alter a catalyst's activity.
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Compound Arrays for Sample Profiling

The invention provides arrays of compound for use in profiling samples. The arrays include compounds bind to components of the samples at relatively low affinities. The avidity of compounds binding to components of the samples can be increased by forming arrays such that multivalent components of the samples (e.g., antibodies or cells) can bind to more than one molecule of a compound at the same time. When a sample is applied to an array under such conditions, the compounds of the array bind to
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Bacterium for Production of Fatty Acids

A bacterium that produces fatty acids is disclosed. The bacteria further contains at least one modified polar cell layer.
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Fabricating Porous Materials Using Thixotropic Gels

Methods, apparatuses, and systems for fabricating porous materials using thixotropic gels. A shear force is applied to a thixotropic material causing the material to flow. Multiple components are added to the thixotropic material while applying the shear force causing the multiple components to be distributed in the material. The shear force is removed such that the static properties of the thixotropic material in the absence of the shear force retain a distribution of the multiple components in
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Tri-2-naphthylamines

The invention relates to tri-2-naphthylamines that can be useful in a variety of optical devices as hole-transport materials. For example, the tri-2-naphthylamines can be useful as hole-transport materials in organic light emitting diodes.
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Cyclopamine Analogs

The invention provides novel derivatives of cyclopamine having the following formula.
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Molecular Rectifiers Comprising Diamondoids

Provided is a molecular rectifier comprised of a diamondoid molecule and an electron acceptor attached to the diamondoid molecule. The electron acceptor is generally an electron accepting aromatic species which is covalently attached to the diamondoid.
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Preparing a colorless ionic liquid comprises reaction of heteroatom containing compound with quaternizing agent, where at least one heteroatom act as electron pair

Preparing a colorless ionic liquid (I) comprises: reaction of heteroatom containing compound, in which at least one heteroatom act as electron pair, with each of quaternizing agent under conditions that form anions and cation, where the reaction conditions are implemented in such a way that 85% of the educts are converted during the reaction time; and the drop of the product phase has an average-diameter of 400 microns.
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Glur2 Receptor Modulators

The present invention provides for compositions and methods for modulating the GluR2 receptor. It is based, at least in part, on the discovery, by X- ray crystallography, that a known GluR2 agonist binds to the receptor in two different orientations, thereby diminishing its potency. The present invention provides for structural alternatives in which alternative binding possibilities are substantially eliminated.
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Synthesis of Oligomeric Neolignans and their Use

Compounds having the structure formule (I) and their uses are described herein.
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On-demand Microfluidic Droplet Or Bubble Generation

Microfluidic systems and methods can dispense single or multiple fluid particles (such as a gas or other fluid bubble) or an encapsulated particle (e.g., a bead or biological cell) into a microchannel.
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Preparation of Functional Polymers

The process of the present invention is directed toward conducting highly selective, high yield post polymerization reactions on polymers to prepare functionalized polymers. An embodiment of the present invention comprises conducting click chemistry reactions on polymers. Preferably, the polymers were prepared by controlled polymerization processes. Therefore, embodiments of the present invention comprise processes for the preparation of polymers comprising conducting a click chemistry reaction
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Living Synthesis of Conducting Polymers Including Regioregular Polymers, Polythiophenes, and Block Copolymers

Regioregular poly(3-alkylthiophenes) and other polythiophenes can be prepared by living polymerization which have good solubility, processability and environmental stability. The polymerization method can afford regioregular poly(3-alkylthiophenes) in high yields. Kinetic study of polymerization revealed the living character of this process. The molecular weight of poly(3-alkylthiophenes) is a function of the molar ratio of the monomer to nickel initiator, and conducting polymers with relatively
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Improved Controlled Radical Polymerization Processes

A transition metal mediated chain transfer agent controlled polymerization process is described. The process combines the advantages of atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and reversible addition fragmentation transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Synthesis of chain transfer agents useful in the disclosed processes is also disclosed. Other improvements on ATRP and RAFT processes are also described.
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Purification Methods and Purified Conjugated Polymers

Metal complexing agents are used to purify polymers including conducting polymers to provide very low metal content. The process comprises precipitating the polymer in solution into a solvent system comprising the metal complexing agent. Very low levels including undetectable levels of metals such as nickel and magnesium can be achieved. High purity polymers are used in electronics and photovoltaic applications.
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Chiral Indole Intermediates and their Fluorescent Cyanine Dyes Containing Functional Groups

This invention relates to the functionalized cyanine dyes and more particularly, to the synthesis of chiral 3-substituted 2,3'-dimethyl-3H-indole and its derivatives as intermediates for preparation of cyanine dyes, to methods of preparing these dyes and the dyes so prepared.
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Monolithic Polymer Crosslinked Composite Materials and Methods of Making

A bidentate free radical crosslinking initiator binds chemically to silica and silica rich surfaces and enables the free radical based polymerization of various materials such as styrene, divinylbenzene and methylmethacrylate onto silica and silica rich surfaces. When used in connection with aerogels, the resultant crosslinked aerogels exhibit greatly increased strength with only nominal increase in density.
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Pre-formed Assemblies of Solgel-derived Nanoparticles As 3-d Scaffolds for Composites and Aerogels

A composite material that includes a dopant comprised of pre-formed, three dimensional assemblies of skeletal structures that are comprised of solgel derived nanoparticles. The composite material includes a chemically bonded, in situ formed, polymer coating that at least partially coats mesoporous surfaces of the nanoparticles to provide enhancement of random dispersion of the dopant and to minimize or avoid agglomeration. Further, the polymer may be functionalized or the mesoporous surfaces of
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Soy-based Polyols

The invention provides B-sides of urethane formulations, wherein the B-sides comprise both alcohol and epoxy moieties. Also provided are urethane formulations comprising the B-side of the invention, as well as A-sides comprising isocyanate molecules.
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Method of Producing Lower Alcohols from Glycerol

This invention relates generally to a process for value-added processing of fats and oils to yield glycerol and glycerol derivatives. More particularly, the process converts glycerol to acetol and then acetol to propylene glycol to produce a propylene glycol with ultra-low amounts of ethylene glycol. The propylene glycol thus produced may be used as an antifreeze, deicing compound, or anti-icing compound.
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Method of Producing Lower Alcohols from Glycerol

A reactive-separation process converts glycerin into lower alcohols, having boiling points less than 200 DEG C., at high yields. Conversion of natural glycerin to propylene glycol through an acetol intermediate is achieved at temperatures from 150 DEG to 250 DEG C. at a pressure ranging from 1 and 25 bar. The preferred applications of the propylene glycol are as an antifreeze, deicing compound, or anti-icing compound. The preferred catalyst for this process in a copper-chromium powder.
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Functionalization of Organic Surfaces

The present invention relates to functionalizing a surface of an organic material. For example, surfaces of materials having C-H bonds, such as polymers having C-H bonds, can be functionalized. In certain embodiments, a heterobifunctional molecule having a photoactive anchor, a spacer, and a terminal functional group is applied to the surface of an organic material that contains one or more C-H bonds. The heterobifunctional molecule can be bound to any surface having C-H bonds as the photoactive
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Synthesis of Acenes and Hydroxy-acenes

A method comprising reducing an acenequinone to form an acenepolyhydrodiol by exposing the acenequinone to a reducing environment comprising an alkoxyaluminate.
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In situ Plating and Soldering of Materials Covered with a Surface Film

The disclosed subject matter provides systems and methods for etching and/or metal plating of substrate materials. An exemplary method in accordance with the disclosed subject matter for metal-plating or etching a substrate includes submerging portions of the substrate in a first bath of chemical solution, performing in-situ laser ablation of the substrate to achieve an immersion plated pattern with a first cation, plating-up the immersion plated pattern with the first cation in the first bath,
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Photolabile Compounds

The present invention describes Photolabile Compounds methods for use of the compounds. The Photolabile Compounds have a photoreleasable ligand, which can be biologically active, and which is photoreleased from the compound upon exposure to light. In some embodiments, the Photolabile Compounds comprise a light antenna, such as a labeling molecule or an active derivative thereof. In one embodiment, the light is visible light, which is not detrimental to the viability of biological samples, such a
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Structures Having an Adjusted Mechanical Property

In various embodiments, the properties of a cross-linkable polymer can be changed by modifying the degree of cross-linking. The degree of cross-linking can be modified on a localized basis using lithographic patterns in which the cross-linkable polymer can be selectively and controllably subjected to charged particles or electromagnetic radiation. The modification of the degree of cross-linking can be applied to substrates having surfaces with varying geometric forms.
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Substrate Laser Oxide Removal Process Followed By Electro Or Immersion Plating

Method of ablating the surface of a substrate including providing a dry substrate and an electrolyte source, ablating the surface of the dry substrate to at least partially remove a native oxide layer, and immersing the ablated dry substrate in the electrolyte source, in which the dry substrate is ablated prior to being introduced into the electrolyte source. Also provided is a method of ablating the surface of a substrate that includes providing a dry substrate and an electrolyte, depositing a
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Surface-modified structures, useful e.g. in optical or catalytic applications, comprise substrate, e.g. of glass, silicate primary coating and secondary coating, e.g. of metal

A novel surface-modified structure (I) comprises (a) a substrate, (b) a silicate primary coating and (c) a secondary coating and/or particles containing element(s) other than silica and oxygen. The chemical composition of (b) differs from that of (a) and (c). Either (b) is located between (a) and (c); or (b) and (c) together form a gradient coating, having the compositions of (b) and (c) on the sides facing towards and away from (a) respectively. Independent claims are included for: (1) a surfac
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Method for the Determination of Intra- and Intermolecular Interactions in Aqueous Solution

The present invention relates to the determination of intra- or intermolecular interaction between molecules in aqueous solution, said method comprising the steps of: (a) determining the dehydration ([Delta]Gdehydration) of all atoms in the intermolecular interface, (b) adding the vacuum hydrogen bond energy ([epsilon]H-bond), and (c) further adding the change in the free enthalpy of the interacting partners upon their interaction. The obtained results can be used for the prediction if and to wh
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Method for the Stereoselective Synthesis of Phosphorus Compounds

The present invention relates to a method for the stereoselective synthesis of phosphorus compounds, wherein in the first reaction step a chiral auxiliary is covalently bound to the phosphorus atom of phosphoryl chloride, thiophosphoryl chloride or phosphorus trichloride, the product from the first reaction step in a subsequent step is reacted with an alcohol, thiol or amine as a nucleophile in the presence of a base, and in the last step the chiral auxiliary is displaced from the product of the
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Process and Apparatus for Ion Channel Characterization

The present invention provides a process and an apparatus for performing the process, for ion channel characterisation, especially for determination of the impact of effector compounds onto the ion channel activity. For measuring, ion channels are comprised in lipid membrane vesicles. For detection, the generation or change of an optically detectable signal, e.g. of a dye like a colorimetrically detectable or a fluorescent compound, in dependency from the gating activity of the ion channel is us
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Means for Treating Myosin-related Diseases

This invention relates to a method of designing a modulator of a myosin, the method comprising molecular modeling of a compound such that the modeled compound interacts with at least three amino acid residues of said myosin.
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Methods for Identifying Nucleotide Ligands

Methods of identifying associations between nucleotide ligands and target molecules include amplifying a pool of non-random oligonucleotides to form libraries of oligonucleotides, contacting the library with a target molecule and separating the non-random oligonucleotides that associate with the target molecule from the non-random oligonucleotides. Methods of identifying a variant of an allele that binds a target molecule can include contacting at least one target molecule with a first and secon
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Mesoporous Inorganic Oxide Spheres and Method of Making Same

A method of preparing mesoporous inorganic oxide spherical particles includes providing a reaction mixture capable of producing mesoporous inorganic oxide spheres; heating the reaction mixture to produce mesostructured inorganic oxide particles and removing organic material from the mesostructured inorganic oxide particles to form the mesoporous inorganic oxide spherical particles. In one embodiment a reaction mixture includes a proton donor, a source of inorganic oxide, and a source of fluoride
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Curcumin Derivatives and their Use As Radioprotectors

Disclosed are compositions relating to analogues, derivatives, and metabolites of curcumin, methods of synthesis thereof, and methods for use of said compositions. This abstract is intended as a scanning tool for purposes of searching in the particular art and is not intended to be limiting of the present invention.
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Hybrid Host Materials for Electrophosphorescent Devices

Compounds (including polymers) for use in hybrid host materials which can be used in electroluminescent devices. The compounds comprise at least one electron- transporting moiety and at least one hole-transporting moiety which are joined by a flexible linker. Hybrid host materials comprising the compounds exhibit stability against phase separation, elevated glass transition temperature, morphological stability against crystallization, and isolation of the electron transporting moiety and hole tr
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Method for the Sensitive Detection of Polyamino Acids and Other Macro-molecules

The invention relates to a method for the detection of an analyte containing polyamino acid. The object of the invention is to detect polyamino acids in a highly sensitive manner. The object is achieved in that an LM is coupled to a protein after chemical activation, and is complexed using a lanthanide ion. In order to detect polyamino acids, the time-resolved fluorescence measurement is utilized after electrophoretic separation. The detection limit is 0.5 pg per spot (bovine serum albumin), whe
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Device and Method for Preparing and Performing Multiple Polymerase Chain Reactions

The present invention relates to methods, kits and devices with multiple open reaction chambers having multiple pre-deposited primer compositions, and a basic sample loading mechanism that utilizes an immiscible companion fluid for preparing and performing multiple Polymerase Chain Reactions
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Trioxane Monomers and Dimers

Monomeric and dimeric trioxane fluoroaryl amides, 5-carbon-linked, C-10 non-acetal trioxane dimer esters; trioxane silylamides; and trioxane dimer orthoesters and methods of their use for treating subjects infected with malaria or other parasitic infectious diseases including, but not limited to, toxoplasmic infection; subjects afflicted with psychiatric conditions associated with toxoplasmic infection; and subjects afflicted with cancer.
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Thermally Stable Volatile Film Precursors

A precursor for the deposition of a thin film by atomic layer deposition is provided. The compound has the formula MxLy where M is a metal and L is an amidrazone-derived ligand or an amidate-derived ligand. A process of forming a thin film using the precursors is also provided.
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New Rac1 Inhibitors As Potential Pharmacological Agents for Heart Failure Treatment

The present invention finds application in the field of medicine and, in particular, to new compounds particularly active in inhibiting Rac1 member of the Rho family. Pharmaceutical preparations containing them useful for the treatment and/or prevention of heart failure are disclosed as well.
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A Method for the Formation of Megamitochondria

The present invention relates to an in-vitro method for the formation of megamitochondria in cells, wherein the cells are grown in a suitable fermentation medium acidulated with lactic acid to pH values between 5.3 and 6.7. The invention further concerns H+ ionophores, ionophores which catalyze the electroneutral exchange of K+ for H+ and inhibitors of actin polymerisation for the prevention or treatment of a disease in which inhibiting or reducing the formation of megamitochondria has a benefic
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Fluorinated Nanodiamond As a Precursor for Solid Substrate Surface Coating Using Wet Chemistry

The present invention is directed to nanodiamond (ND) surface coatings and methods of making same. Such coatings are formed by a covalent linkage of ND crystals to a particular surface via linker species. The methods described herein overcome many of the limitations of the prior art in that they can be performed with standard wet chemistry (i.e., solution-based) methods, thereby permitting low temperature processing. Additionally, such coatings can potentially be applied on a large scale and for
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Large Scale Microbial Culture Method

A new culture method for producing high levels of a metabolite, such as succinic acid uses oxygen rich culture without pH adjustment to increase the biomass, acclimation in under oxygen lean conditions having <5% partial pressure of oxygen, and the production of high levels of succinate under oxygen deprived conditions. The method can be performed in a single reactor, and is amenable to efficient scale up.
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Fullernene Compositions and Methods for Photochemical Purification

In various embodiments, the present disclosure describes fullerene derivatives that are capable of photocatalytically generating reactive oxygen species in the presence of ultraviolet and/or visible light. In some embodiments, the fullerene derivatives are aminofullerenes containing a plurality of amine-terminated moieties covalently bonded to the fullerene cage. The fullerene derivatives may optionally be covalently bonded to a substrate surface for use in photocatalytic disinfection systems fo
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Fluorescent fused-ring traizoles that inhibit cell proliferation and uses thereof

Fused-ring triazole compounds which inhibit proliferation of cells and exhibit a unique and intense fluorescence are provided. Also provided are methods for synthesizing these compounds and methods for using these compounds to inhibit cell proliferation and infection and to label and fluorescently detect selected molecules.
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Ligands Specific for Cannabinoid Receptor Subtype 2

A compound of Formula I: (I) has activity as a cannabinoid receptor antagonist. In Formula 1, R1 is unsubstituted or substituted aryl, unsubstituted or substituted cycloalkyl, unsubstituted or substituted heterocyclyl, unsubstituted or substituted aralkyl, or unsubstituted or substituted heteroaryl; R2 is unsubstituted or substituted alkyl, unsubstituted or substituted aryl, or unsubstituted or substituted heteroaryl; and R3 is unsubstituted or substituted alkyl, unsubstituted or substituted ara
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Vinyl Substituted Fatty Acids

Activated fatty acids, pharmaceutical compositions including activated fatty acids, methods for using activated fatty acids to treat a variety of diseases, and methods for preparing activated fatty acids are provided herein.
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Fluorous reaction systems

The present invention provides a method for carrying out a chemical reaction comprising the steps of forming an organic/fluorous solubilizing liquid phase comprising a solvent system. The solvent system is selected or adapted to substantially solubilize a fluorous reaction component or components (that is, a fluorous reagent, a fluorous catalyst and/or a fluorous reactant). The "fluorous reaction component" is functionalized to comprise at least one fluorous moiety having the formula -(R)d(Rf)e.
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Fatty Acid Monomers to Reduce Emissions and Toughen Polymers

Novel fatty acid monomers and methods for their synthesis are provided for use in polymerization reactions. Fatty acid monomers are employed as reactive diluents in the polymerization of vinyl esters and polyesters for one or more purposes selected from improving the fracture resistance, lowering the processing viscosity and reducing the volatile organic compounds present in the polymerization mixture.
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Production and Uses of Carbon Suboxides

Methods for the reduction of gaseous carbon dioxide emissions from combustion or oxidation reactions are provided. The various methods involve the formation of carbon suboxides and/or polymerized carbon suboxides (PCS), preferentially over gaseous carbon oxides to thereby reduce gaseous carbon dioxide emissions. The various methods can be employed for efficient generation of energy and/or hydrogen. In addition, various methods for the use of polymerized carbon suboxide are disclosed.
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Poly(ethylene Glycol) and Poly(ethylene Oxide) By Initiated Chemical Vapor Deposition

A method for ionic polymerization of ethylene oxide. In the first step of the method, a gaseous monomer composition comprising ethylene oxide at a first flow rate is mixed with a gaseous ionic polymerization initiator at a second flow rate, thereby forming a mixture. The formed mixture is then heated with at least one heated filament to thereby form at least one polymer. The method may also be employed to coat a variety of different substrates in situ during the polymerization reaction.
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Crosslinked Hydrogels

The present invention preferably provides for a method of forming and the resulting solid polymer gel composition comprising polyethylene imine and at least one hydrogen bonding polymer. The composition has a greater viscosity than either of the polyethylene imine or the hydrogen bonding polymer alone and is injectable immediately after mixing of the polyethylene imine and the at least one hydrogen bonding polymer. A method of tissue repair may include mixing about 9.25% (w/w) to about 13.65% (w
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Lead sensor and methods of use

A fluorophore that forms a complex with Pb ions is disclosed. The fluorophore/lead complex fluoresces with an intensity greater than complexes formed by the fluorophore with other metals. The fluorophore may be used as a sensor/detector for lead ions in various samples. Methods for detecting and calculating the concentration of lead ions in samples are also disclosed.
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Basic Acetophenones as Inhibitors of No-Synthases

Use of the substance characterized by general structural formula (I) for the preparation of an agent inhibiting the enzymatic activity of NO-synthase, R1, R2, R3, R4 and/or R5 being hydrogen, an alkyl group, an aryl group or a heterocyclic group and n equals 2 or 3.
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Inhibitors of Dimethylarginine Dimethylaminohydrolase

The invention relates to an inhibitor of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) of general structural formula (I), wherein B is a branched or unbranched, substituted or non-substituted, saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbon chain having a chain length of 1 to 6 and/or a substituted or non-substituted aromatic system having a ring size of 3 to 6; R1 is selected from the group of structures (i-vii), wherein R2, R3 and R4 are selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, an alkyl or aryl r
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Derivate Von N

The invention relates to physically-chemically and pharmacokinetically enhanced N ?-hydroxy-L-arginine (NOHA) derivatives and a method for producing the NOHA derivatives having enhanced physical-chemical and pharmacokinetic properties according to the invention.
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Radio-opaque Polymer Biomaterials

Iodinated and/or brominated derivatives of aromatic dihydroxy monomers are prepared and polymerized to form radio-opaque polymers. The monomers may also be copolymerized with other dihydroxy monomers. The iodinated and brominated aromatic dihydroxy monomers can be employed as radio-opacifying, biocompatible non-toxic additives for other polymeric biomaterials. Radio-opaque medical implants and drug delivery devices for implantation prepared from the polymers of the present invention are also dis
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Apparatuses and Methods for Determining Protease Activity

The present invention relates to compositions and an apparatuses for determining protease activity. The compositions of the invention contain a reporter protein fused to at least one protease cleavage sequence, and linker for attaching the protease cleavage sequence to a solid support. Methods for determining protease activity and characterizing proteases are also provided.
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Expression System Compositions and Methods

The present invention relates to novel expression systems and methods for preparing samples for 3D structure determination of a protein based on a protein expression vector, E. coli host, and specific growth media.
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System for Dehumidifying, Heating And/cooling of a Liquid

The invention relates to an absorber (1) or a regenerator. A liquid in said absorber (1) runs across an exchange surface to interact with a gas for the exchange of humidity. The liquid is supplied to the exchange surface by a distribution device (6) wherein the liquid, depending on the volume flow, automatically takes a first path (59) towards the exchange surface (3) or cumulatively uses paths (59, 60). This allows different volume flows of the liquid to be taken into account while the exchange
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Reservoir

The invention relates to a reservoir (1) for storing two pressureless fluids (2; 3). An insert (12) can be inserted into a reservoir base (6) of the reservoir. Said insert has a storage container (20) and conduits (21 to 24) having connections (29 to 32) via which a chamber (4) in the reservoir base (6) and a chamber (5) in the storage container (20) can be separately filled with the fluids (2; 3) and the fluids (2; 3) can be separately withdrawn from the chambers (4; 5). The storage container (
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Device for Disinfecting Water By Means of Anodic Oxidation

The invention relates to a device for disinfecting water by means of anodic oxidation, wherein a reservoir (10) is provided for disinfected water, wherein a feed line (15) leads from the water to be disinfected into the reservoir (10), wherein a reactor (4) for the anodic reaction of the water is arranged in the feed line (15), wherein the reservoir (10) has a redox sensor (5) for measuring the redox potential, wherein the water feed from the feed line (15) into the reservoir (10) is intermitten
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Actuation Via Surface Chemistry Induced Surface Stress

A method of controlling macroscopic strain of a porous structure includes contacting a porous structure with a modifying agent which chemically adsorbs to a surface of the porous structure and modifies an existing surface stress of the porous structure. A device in one embodiment includes a porous metal structure, which when contacted with a modifying agent which chemically adsorbs to a surface of the porous metal structure, exhibits a volumetric change due to modification of an existing surface
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Inorganic-organic Composite Fluorescent Substance

The present invention relates to a composite fluorescent substance, comprising an inorganic matrix and an organic fluorescent dye, wherein the inorganic matrix is constructed of an inorganic compound selected from the group of metal oxides, metal hydroxides, metal oxide hydroxides, metal phosphates, metal oxide phosphates, metal sulfates, metal oxide sulfates, metal carbonates, metal oxide carbonates, metal silicates, metal oxide silicates, metal borates, metal oxide borates, and mixtures thereo
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Organo-cascade Catalysis: One-pot Production of Chemical Libraries

A method for production of a chemical library is provided, where the method involves: reacting, in a single vessel, a) a plurality, x, of aldehydes and/or ketones; and b) either (i) a plurality, y, of nucleophiles, (ii) a plurality, z, of electrophiles or both (i) and (ii); in the presence of c) a cascade catalyst capable of catalyzing reaction between said plurality of aldehydes and/or ketones and said plurality of nucleophiles, said plurality of electrophiles or both; to obtain a mixture of x-
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Synthesis of Bio-functionalized Rare Earth Doped Upconverting Nanophosphors

Methods for preparing rare earth doped monodisperse, hexagonal phase upconverting nanophosphors, the steps of which include: dissolving one or more rare earth precursor compounds and one or more host metal fluoride compounds in a solvent containing a tri-substituted phosphine or a tri-substituted phosphine oxide to form a solution; heating the solution to a temperature above about 250 DEG C. at which the phosphine or phosphine oxide remains liquid and does not decompose; and precipitating and is
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Conversion of Carbon Dioxide to Organic Products

The invention relates to various embodiments of an environmentally beneficial method for reducing carbon dioxide. The methods in accordance with the invention include electrochemically or photoelectrochemically reducing the carbon dioxide in a divided electrochemical cell that includes an anode, e.g., an inert metal counterelectrode, in one cell compartment and a metal or p-type semiconductor cathode electrode in another cell compartment that also contains an aqueous solution of an electrolyte a
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Functionalized Graphene Sheets Having High Carbon to Oxygen Ratios

Functionalized graphene sheets having a carbon to oxygen molar ratio of at least about 23:1 and method of preparing the same.
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High-yield Activation of Polymer Surfaces for Covalent Attachment of Molecules

Polymer surfaces coated with organometallic layers, wherein the organometallic layers and polymer surfaces have functional groups that react to bond the organometallic layer to the polymer surface with organometallic functional groups remaining unreacted for the subsequent covalent attachment of organic overlayers. Coating methods and coated articles are also disclosed.
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Organic Vapor Jet Deposition Using an Exhaust

Methods and systems for organic vapor jet deposition are provided, where an exhaust is disposed between adjacent nozzles. One or more carrier gases may be provided and ejected from a plurality of nozzles. An exhaust may be provided to create a localized vacuum between nozzles. The exhaust may reduce pressure buildup in the nozzles and between the nozzles and the substrate, leading to improved deposition profiles, resolution, and improved nozzle-to-nozzle uniformity. The exhaust may be in fluid c
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Device and Method for Organic Vapor Jet Deposition

A device and a method for facilitating the deposition and patterning of organic materials onto substrates utilizing the vapor transport mechanisms of organic vapor phase deposition is provided. The device includes one or more nozzles, and an apparatus integrally connected to the one or more nozzles, wherein the apparatus includes one or more source cells, a carrier gas inlet, a carrier gas outlet, and a first valve capable of controlling the flow of a carrier gas through the one or more source c
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Initiator-tightened Compositions

Disclosed herein are gel and plastic compositions comprising tightened layers of polymerized vinyl monomers, as well as methods of making the same, where the layers are tightened in having smaller pores. The tightened layers comprise tightened inner layers and exterior layers, and the compositions comprise polymer-attached (pendant) initiator or helper residues.
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Betulinic Acid Derivatives and Methods of Use Thereof

This invention features betulinic acid derivatives having the formula: wherein the variables are defined herein. The invention also provides related compounds and intermediates thereof, as well as pharmaceutical compositions, kits, and articles of manufacture comprising such compounds. Treatment methods and methods of manufacture are also provided.
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Hybrid Prokaryotic-eukaryotic Tubulins and Use Thereof

The present invention embraces hybrid Prosthecobacter- eukaryotic tubulin proteins and use thereof for identifying agents that modulate the activity of tubulin.
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Functional Polysobutylene Based Macromonomers and Methods for Making and Using the Same

A method of synthesizing a functionalized polymer represented by the structural formula (I) comprising a step of reacting a polymer represented by structural formula (II) with a compound Nu1 -M to nucleophilically substitute moiety X1 with moiety Nu1. Values and preferred values of the variables in formulas (I) and (II) are defined herein.
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Thiophene-based Conjugated Polymers for Detection of Explosives

A device comprises a sensing element, wherein the sensing element includes a polymer or a copolymer having at least one unit of structural formula (I) having particular substituents for R' and R, formula (I): A method of detecting certain chemical compounds in a sample that includes exposing the device to the chemical compound. The diminishing fluorescence of the sensing element is indicative of the presence of the chemical compound in the sample.
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Polyisobutylene-based Polyurethanes

An elastomeric polymer, comprising (1) a hard segment in the amount of 10% to 60% by weight of the elastomeric polymer, wherein the hard segment includes a urethane, urea or urethaneurea; and (2) a soft segment in the amount of 40% to 90% by weight of the elastomeric polymer. The soft segment comprises (a) at least 2% by weight of the soft segment of at least one polyether macrodiol, and/or at least one polycarbonate macrodiol; and (b) at least 2% by weight of the soft segment of at least one po
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Modified Polymers and Methods for Making and Using the Same

The present invention provides block copolymers, e.g., thermoplastic elastomers, having at least one monomer that is covalently bonded to a sulfonate moiety. The present invention also provides block copolymers, e.g., thermoplastic elastomers, having at least one monomer that is covalently bonded to a peptide. The present invention also provides methods for making and using (e.g., in articles of manufacture such as medical devices) the copolymers of the present invention.
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Copolymers Having Polyisobutylene and Biodegradable Polymer Segments

The present invention pertains to copolymers having one or more polyisobutylene segments and one or more biodegradable polymer segments, to methods of making such copolymers, to medical articles that contain such copolymers, and to methods of making such medical articles. According to certain aspects of the invention, copolymers are provided, which comprise a plurality of polyisobutylene segments and a plurality of biodegradable polymer segments. According to certain aspects of the invention, co
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End-capped Polymer Chains and Products Thereof

Methods are described herein for converting carbocationically terminated polymers to anionically terminated polymers. These methods comprise: (a) providing a carbocationically terminated polymeric moiety; (b) reacting the carbocationically terminated polymeric moiety with a heterocyclic compound of the formula where -X- is selected from -S-, -O-, -NH- and -NR-, and where R is an alkyl group or an aryl group, thereby providing an end-capped polymeric moiety; and (c) reacting the end-capped polyme
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Polymerization of aromatic monomers using derivatives of hematin

Hematin, a hydroxyferriprotoporphyrin, is derivatized with one or more non-proteinaceous amphipathic groups. The derivatized hematin can serve as a mimic of horseradish peroxidase in polymerizing aromatic monomers, such as aromatic compounds. These derivatized hematins can also be used as catalysts in polymerizing aromatic monomers, and can exhibit significantly greater catalytic activity than underivatized hematin in acidic solutions. In one embodiment, polymerization is in the presence of a te
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Functional Hydrocarbon Polymers and Process for Producing Same

A method of synthesizing a compound of formula (IIIe), comprising a step of reacting a compound of formula (IIIc): A functional polymer of formula (XXXa): The variables in formulas (IIIc), (IIIe), and (XXXa) are defined herein.
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Methods for forming copolymers comprising olefin and protected or unprotected hydroxystyrene units

Novel methods for forming copolymers, including block copolymers, which comprise one or more olefin units and one or more protected or unprotected hydroxystyrene units are provided.
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Methods and Apparatus for the Synthesis of Useful Compounds

The present invention relates to methods and apparatus for activation of a low reactivity, non-polar chemical compound, hi one example embodiment, the method comprises introducing the low reactivity chemical compound to a catalyst. At least one of (a) an oxidizing agent or a reducing agent and (b) a polar compound is provided to the catalyst and the chemical compound. An alternating current is applied to the catalyst to produce an activation reaction in the chemical compound. This activation rea
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Process Intensification in Microreactors

The present disclosure provides for a chemical reactor which includes elongate chambers defining an arrangement and including first, second, and third elongate chambers adapted to support respective distinct first, second, and third reactor functions associated with respective first, second, and third process feeds, and a distributor arranged in fluidic communication with each of the elongate chambers and for connecting the elongate chambers to at least one fluid source. The distributor is dimen
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Glucose Sensors and Methods of Manufacture Thereof

Disclosed herein is a device that functions as a glucose sensor. The device has a reference electrode; a counter electrode, a working electrode; an electrically conducting membrane; an enzyme layer; a semi-permeable membrane; a first layer of a first hydrogel in operative communication with the working electrode; the first layer of the first hydrogel being operative to store oxygen; wherein the amount of stored oxygen is proportional to the number of freeze-thaw cycles that the hydrogel is subje
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Chemical Oxidization of Volatile Organic Compound

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To effectively oxidize volatile organic compounds in the soil. ; SOLUTION: Volatile organic compounds are removed from the contaminated soil by introducing one or both of a water-soluble peroxygen compound, such as a persulfate, and a permanganate into the soil, either in situ or ex situ, in amounts and under conditions wherein the soil oxidant demand is satisfied and volatile organic compounds in the soil are oxidized. In a preferred embodiment, when both are used, the per
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Fully Crosslinked Chemically Structured Monolayers

The present invention relates to a structured monolayer, which is composed of low molecular weight aromatics and in the lateral direction of fully networked, with the mono-layer on one of the two surfaces of a pattern of functional groups, a method for producing such a structured monolayer and their use.
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Odor Samples of Peroxidic Explosives

The invention relates to the use of a neutral ionic liquid for stabilizing peroxidic explosives and for producing stable solutions of peroxidic explosives. The invention further relates to stable compositions comprising a solution of a neutral ionic liquid having a detectable quantity of a peroxidic explosive, to the production thereof, and to the use thereof as an odor sample.
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Enantioselective production of alpha-hydroxy carbonyl compounds

The invention relates to a process for the regioselective and enantioselective preparation of +--hydroxy carbonyl compounds from +--ketocarbonyl compounds via enzymatic reduction.
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Methods and Compositions for Inhibiting Clostridium Difficile Spore Germination and Outgrowth

Certain bile acids, including novel bile acids, and derivatives thereof can be used to inhibit the germination of C. difficile spores and/or the growth of C. difficile cells. The methods and compositions of the invention are useful for preventing and treating C. difficile-associated diseases, including but not limited to C. difficile colitis.
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Treating Catalysts

A method includes contacting a catalyst including a metal having an average particle size of approximately one nanometer or greater with SO2; and reducing the average particle size of the metal.
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Sulfur-tolerant Water-gas Shift Catalysts

A method for oxidizing carbon monoxide by a water-gas shift (WGS) reaction and a method for reducing carbon dioxide by a reverse water-gas shift (RWGS) reaction, both using a catalyst of the formula xMZLn2O2SOy, in which M, Ln, x, and y are as defined herein. Also disclosed are novel compositions for use as catalysts for both the WGS and RWGS reactions.
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Heterocyclic Inhibitors of Necroptosis

The invention features a series of heterocyclic derivatives that inhibit tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) induced necroptosis. The heterocyclic compounds of the invention are described by Formulas (I) and (Ia)-(Ie) and are shown to inhibit TNF-a induced necroptosis in FADD-deficient variant of human Jurkat T cells. The invention further features pharmaceutical compositions featuring the compounds of the invention. The compounds and compositions of the invention may also be used to treat disor
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Method for de novo detection of sequences in nucleic acids:target sequencing by fragmentation

The present invention provides a method for determining nucleic acid sequences of a template nucleic acid that requires no prior knowledge of the nucleic acid sequence present in the template nucleic acid. The method is based on combining information about the mass of a fragment, the mass of any one nucleotide and the combinations thereof, and the sequence specificity of a nucleotide cutter, either enzymatic or chemical cutter, to determine a sequence of a nucleic acid fragment. This method allo
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New substituted bisoxazoline ligands, useful as chiral catalyst in asymmetric organic synthesis, preferably nitroaldol reaction

Substituted bisoxazoline ligands (I) are new. Substituted bisoxazoline ligands of formula (I) are new.R1, R2, R3 = aryl, e.g. phenyl or alkyl, e.g. methyl, isopropyl or tert-butyl. Independent claims are also included for: (1) preparation of (I); (2) a polyglycerol bound bisoxazoline derivative of formula (IV); (3) preparing (IV) comprising reacting substituted bisoxazoline ligand of formula (V) with modified polyglycerol of formula (OH-(CH 2-CH(OH)-CH 2-O) m-CH 2-CH(R4)-CH 2-O) n-H) (VI) under
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Polyoxadiazole polymers

Polyoxadiazole polymer (I), (II) or (III) is new. Polyoxadiazole polymer of formula (I), (II) or (III) is new. n : >= 1, preferably 6-10; m, p, q : integer; X : [1,3,4]oxadiazole derivative of formula (IV), substituted triazole derivative of formula (V) or (-(C(=O)-NH-NH-C(=O)-R 1>)-) (VI); Y 1>[1,3,4]oxadiazole derivative of formula (VII), (V) or (VI); R 1>, R 3>residue with 1-40C; R 2>H or residue with 1-40C; and Z : [1,3,4]oxadiazole-2,5-diyl, substituted triazole derivative of formula (VIII)
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Method for the Solid Phase-based Production of Phosphate-bridged Nucleoside Conjugates

The invention relates to a method for producing phosphate-bridged nucleoside conjugates. In the method, a cyclosaligenyl nucleotide is produced first, to which a linker is added, which is used to perform the immobilization on a solid phase. A subsequent reaction with corresponding nucleophiles results in the desired phosphate-bridged nucleoside conjugates, which can then again be cleaved from the solid phase-bound linker.
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Crosslinked Polycyclooctene

Chemically crosslinked polycyclooctene having excellent shape recovery properties is prepared by ring-opening metathesis polymerization of cis-cyclooctene followed by chemical crosslinking. The crosslinked polycyclooctene can be shaped, the shape memorized, a new shape imparted with the original shape being recoverable by suitable temperature adjustment. The dependence of shape memory characteristics on degree of crosslinking was established. In addition to polycyclooctene, blends thereof with o
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Polyesters with Grafted Zwitterions

The invention relates to polymers, such as aliphatic polyesters, with grafted zwitterions More particularly, the invention relates to polyester-graft-phosphorylcholine polymers prepared by ring-opening polymerisation and click chemistry, compositions and products comprising same, and related methods and uses, for example, in drug delivery.
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Polymeric Compositions, Methods of Manufacture Thereof and Articles Comprising the Same

Disclosed herein is a polymeric composition comprising a polymeric composition comprising a first crosslinked network; and a second crosslinked network; wherein the first crosslinked network is crosslinked at a first stress and/or a first strain and the second crosslinked network is crosslinked at a second stress and/or a second strain; where the first stress and/or the first strain is different from the second stress and/or the second strain either in magnitude or direction. Disclosed herein is
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Rapid Cell Block Embedding Method and Apparatus

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a method and apparatus for rapidly embedding cells that utilizes a flow-through embedding technique. ; SOLUTION: The apparatus 10 includes a cell flow pathway 16 defined by an inflow tube 20 for delivering cell fragment from a cell sample 14 to a sample port 26. The sample port 26 communicates with a tissue cassette 30 with a filter 40 installed. The cell flow pathway 16 communicates with a reagent flow pathway 18 for delivering reagents 82, 92, 102 to the casset
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Single Probe, Multiple Temperature, Nucleic Acid Detection Methods, Kits, and Compositions

Provided herein are methods, kits, and compositions related to nucleic acid detection assays that allow discrimination of multiple target sequences with a single probe. In particular, provided herein are methods kits, and compositions that include single-probe target sequence discrimination where different target amplicons may have identical probe hybridization sequences by employing multiple temperature end-point signal probe detection. Also provided herein are methods, kits, and compositions f
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Cross-linking of Superoxide Dismutase Monomers

A stabilized superoxide dismutase (SOD1 ) analogue, wherein the side chains of two amino acids on two different SOD1 monomers are connected is provided. A method of producing a stabilized superoxide disumutase (SOD1) analogue comprises reacting a first SOD 1 monomer, a second SOD1 monomer, and a cross-linker.
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Conjugate Addition Reactions Using Bifunctional Cinchona-alkaloid-based Catalysts

One aspect of the present invention relates to quinine-based and quinidine-based catalysts. Another aspect of the present invention relates to a method of preparing a chiral, non-racemic compound from a prochiral electron-deficient alkene, comprising the step of: reacting a prochiral electron-deficient alkene with a nucleophile in the presence of a catalyst; thereby producing a chiral, non-racemic compound; wherein said catalyst is a derivatized quinine or quinidine.
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Amphiphilic Compositions and Methods for Preparing and Using Same

The invention relates to amphiphilic C-glycoside derivatives, to methods of using them and to processes for synthesizing them. Specifically, the invention relates to novel cyclic and linear enone-glycolipids and cyclic ketone-glycolipids.
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Chiral Stationary Phases Based on Xanthone Derivatives

The present invention relates to the development of new chiral stationary phases (CSPs), named chiral xanthone stationary phases (CXSPs), and to the use thereof for the enantiomeric resolution by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). More specifically, it relates to the invention of new xantone-derived chiral stationary phases. The invention relates to the preparation of this type of phases by linking a chiral xanthone derivative (chiral selector) to a spacer that enables subsequently a
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Device to Separate Olefins from Paraffins and to Purify Olefins and Use Thereof

The present invention discloses a device, which uses membranes, capable of separating olefins from paraffins. The device (1) considers an ultramicroporous ceramic membrane module, zeolite or silicate based, containing a fixed carrier of copper I or silver ions (#-complexant ions) inserted by ion exchange, or as a monolayer of CuCl, AgNO3, Cu or Ag+ (2). Olefins have higher diffusivity and affinity to the membrane than the remaining species, therefore the bicomponent permeation selectivity become
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Enzymatic Synthesis of Enantiomerically Enriched Derivatives of Cis- and Trans-cyclopentane-1,2-diamines

The invention relates to the enzymatic resolution of derivatives of cis- and trans-cyclopentane-1,2-diamines in order to obtain enantiomerically pure or enriched compounds, a method for preparing the starting materials for this method, the products of said method and the transformation thereof into products of commercial interest.
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Method for the Dehalogenation and Hydrogenation of Halogenated Aromatic Molecules

Method for the consecutive dehalogenation and hydrogenation of halogenated aromatic molecules under mild temperature and pressure conditions in the presence of a catalyst of rhodium complexes with bis(imino)pyridine ligands. Furthermore, the invention relates to said complexes.
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Two-zone Fluidised-bed Reactor

The invention relates to a fluidised-bed reactor (10, 20, 30, 40) comprising two zones (11,12, 21, 22; 31, 32; 41, 42), in which the upper zone (11, 21, 31, 41) has a different cross-section to the lower zone (12, 22, 32, 42). A zone with a reducing atmosphere is obtained in one of the two zones (11,12, 21, 22; 31, 32; 41, 42) and a zone with an oxidising atmosphere is obtained in the other zone. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the cross-section of the upper zone (11, 21, 31, 41) is
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Method for Obtaining Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Methane

The invention relates to a method for obtaining aromatic hydrocarbons from a stream containing at least one light hydrocarbon selected from the list comprising methane, ethane, ethylene, propane, propene, propylene, butane, butene or butadiene, in which the stream is brought into contact with a catalyst in a fluidised bed reactor, said catalyst comprising a catalytic material and a binder. The aforementioned reactor can include two reaction zones, namely an oxidising zone and a reducing zone.
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Scalable Process for Producing Phycocyanine

The invention relates to a three-stage process for producing and purifying phycocyanine originating from microalgae of the genus Anabaena, said process being characterised by scalability and high yield. The first stage consists of a cell disruption by means of an osmotic shock which releases the cytoplasmatic material, using a phosphate buffer. The second stage uses a chromatographic expanded-bed adsorption column consisting of an ion-exchange material as the adsorbent phase. The third stage is
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Halogenated Derivatives of 2h-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4h)-one with C-2 Alkyl Chains Or N-4 Acyl Residues

The invention relates to halogenated derivatives of 2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one with C-2 alkyl chains or N-4 acyl residues. The invention belongs to the field of chemical compounds that can be used for agricultural pest control. The invention comprises a series of chemical compounds, together with the corresponding methods for the preparation thereof and examples of potential uses. These compounds have molecular structures based on natural products with phytotoxic activity and can be used as mod
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Polymer Matrices Based on Polysaccharides and Cyclodextrins

The present invention relates to novel materials based on polymer matrices obtained from polysaccharides, to the methods for obtaining same and to the uses thereof. More particularly, the invention relates to the use of said materials based on starch, dextrin or cyclodextrins to sequester organic and inorganic contaminants and for the purification of water.
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Method for the Preparation of Mero Sesquiterpenes from Labdane Diterpenes

The present invention describes a method for producing mero sesquiterpenes, more specifically drimenylbenzenes and drimenylnaphthoquinones, by means of a Diels-Alder reaction between a labdane diterpene and a dienophyl. Subsequently, a dehydrogenation yields the aromatized derivatives.
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N-benzyl Imidazole Derivatives

The invention relates to the use of a N-benzyl 5-substituted imidazole derivative having the general formula (I) wherein R is (C1-3)alkyl, (C1-3)alkyloxy, halogen, nitro or cyano; R1 is formyl, (C1-6)alkyl, optionally substituted with OH, (C1-3)alkyloxy, (C1-3)alkylcarbonyloxy, (C1-3)alkyloxy- carbonyl or halogen, or (C1-3)alkyloxycarbonyl; or R1 is phenyl, optionally substituted with 1 -3 substituents independently selected from (C1-3)alkyl, (C1-3)alkyloxy, hydroxylmethyl and halogen; or a phar
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Method for Releasing and Labelling 0-glycans

The application describes a one-pot process for releasing and labelling O-glycans from glycoproteins, thereby facilitating analysis via LC-ESI-MS-MS. The process comprises contacting the glycoprotein with an amine, eg. methylamine, dimethylamine, or ammonia, NH3 in the presence of a labelling agent, especially l-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP,- CAS Reg. No. 89-25-8), l-naphthyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (NMP) or 1- (4-methoxy)phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMPMP, CAS Reg. No. 60798-06-3).
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Copolymers

The invention provides a block copolypeptide comprising a hydrophilic heteropolypeptide block (A) and a hydrophobic homopolypeptide block (B). There is also provided a polymersome comprising a block copolypeptide of the invention. The invention further provides a method for preparing a copolymer comprising ring-opening polymerisation (ROP) of an amino acid N-carboxyanhydride (NCA) initiated from a peptide.
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Lanthanide Compounds

A compound, according to general formula 1: M( II )Ln(III) 1-p-q Ce(III) p Tb(III) q M'(III) 3 O 7 wherein M(II) represents a divalent metal selected from the group of Ca, Sr and mixtures thereof; Ln(III) is a trivalent metal selected from the group consisting of Y, Gd, La, Lu and mixtures thereof; M' (III) is another trivalent metal selected from the group consisting of Al, Ga and mixtures thereof; and wherein p and q represent fractional numbers varying between 0 and 1, and1=p+q>0 is provided.
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Method for Producing Carboxylic Acids By Oxidative Cleavage of Unsaturated Compounds

The invention provides a method of oxidative cleavage of an unsaturated carbon-carbon bond, said method comprising contacting a reactant molecule containing a carbon-carbon unsaturated bond with a catalytic system comprising (i) either a mixture of tungstate salt and tungstic acid or a mixture of a molybdate salt and molybdic acid; (ii) an aqueous solution of dihydrogen peroxide; (iii) a phase-transfer catalyst; and (iv) a carboxylic acid.
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Coordination Complex System Comprising Tautomeric Ligands

The invention relates to a coordination complex system comprising a ligand having the formula: R1-SO2-NH-P (XR2)2 (1a); or R1-SO2-N=PH (XR2)2 (1b); or R1-SO(OH)=N-P(XR2)2 (1c); wherein X is independently O, S, NH, or a bond; R1 and R2 are independently selected from hydrogen and substituted or unsubstituted alkyl or aryl; wherein at least one equivalent of the ligand is complexed to an equivalent of a metal selected from a transition metal and lanthanide. The invention also relates to the use of
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Process for the Production of Phosphorous Compounds

The invention is directed to a process for the production of certain phosphorous, namely urea, thio-urea and sulphonamide phosphorous compounds. The present invention provides a process for the production of phosphorous compounds which process allows an easy and effective separation of the reaction products from impurities by applying a solid alkaline ion-exchange resin.
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Metal Catalysts Comprising Nitrogen-containing Aromatic Ligands and Use Thereof

The present invention discloses a method for the preparation of a polymer from vinyl group-containing monomers comprising the step of polymerizing the vinyl group-containing monomers in the presence of a metal catalyst having a moiety M<2+>(Y)4(X)2, wherein M is a transition metal selected from the group of Ru, Mn, Fe, Co, Zr, Rh and Os, each Y independently is a nitrogen-containing aromatic mono-ring ligand, at least one ligand Y being substituted on at least one position with a carbon-containi
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The Method of Glyceric Acid Selective Preparation and Catalysts for Its Realization

The present invention relates to chemical technology, particularly to the glyceric acid preparation method in process of selective glycerol oxidation in presence of new supported Pd catalyst. Object matter of this invention is increasing glyceric acid yield and selectivity of process using economical and environmentally safe methods, as well as utilization of bio-diesel manufacturing byproduct - glycerol. Glycerol oxidation is performed in alkaline water solutions by oxygen's pressure of 1 to 10
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Process for the Oxidative Cleavage of the Ethylenic Double Bonds of Vinylaromatics

The invention relates to a process for the oxidative cleavage of vinylaromatics of the formula (1), with the characteristic feature that compounds of the formula (1) are oxidized in accordance with the reaction scheme below to aldehydes or ketones of the formulae (2) and (3) in the presence of molecular oxygen and with at least one of haemin b ("haemin"), chloro(dibromodiphenylprotoporphyrinato)iron(III) ("haemin 1"), chloro[tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)- protoporphyrinato]iron(III) ("haemin 2"),
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Method for Producing Glucose Derivatives

The present invention relates to a method for producing 2-0- (a- D-glucopyranosyl) -glycerate from a glucosyl donor and a glucosyl acceptor comprising the steps: - providing a sucrose phosphorylase (EC 2.4.1.7), incubating said sucrose phosphorylase with a mixture comprising a glucosyl donor and glyceric acid as glucosyl acceptor and isolating and/or purifying 2-0- (a-D-glucopyranosyl)-glycerate.
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Non-leaching Heterogeneous Catalyst Systems for Coupling Reactions

Supported palladium containing catalyst systems comprising an inorganic support material, a modifying agent covalently attached to said inorganic support material through at least one first functional group FG1, such modifying agent comprising at least one second functional group FG2 for bonding a ligand thereto, a ligand covalently bound to said modifying group through said functional group FG2, and a palladium compound attached to said ligand.
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Method for preparation of ruthenium-based metathesis catalysts with chelating alkylidene ligands

The invention relates to a method for preparation of ruthenium-based carbene catalysts with a chelating alkylidene ligand ("Hoveyda-type catalysts") by reacting a penta-coordinated ruthenium (II)-alkylidene complex of the type (L)(Py)X 1 X 2 Ru(alkylidene) with a suitable olefin derivative in a cross metathesis reaction. The method delivers high yields and is conducted preferably in aromatic hydrocarbon solvents. The use of phosphine-containing Ru carbene complexes as starting materials can be a
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Method for the Preparation of Reactive [18] F Fluoride

The present invention is related to a method to obtain reactive [18F] fluorides in an organic medium suitable for radiolabelling without any azeotropic evaporation step, by the use of a solid phase extraction column containing a modified non-ionic solid support.
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Inorganic-binding Peptides and Quality Control Methods Using Them

The present invention relates to quality control methods using inorganic binding peptides, wherein inorganic entities are identified using inorganic-binding peptides specifically binding to the inorganic entity of interest. In particular, the invention includes a method for the identification of defects or inhomogeneities on a surface by detecting an inorganic entity of interest. It further includes a method for the isolation of powder particles comprising an inorganic entity of interest from a
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Marked Peptides and Use Thereof for Assaying Circulating Irap

The invention relates to a method for assaying the circulating extracellular portion of the IRAP ("insulin-responsive aminopeptidase") protein, including at least one step of quantitatively assaying the released and purified extracellular portion of the IRAP using at least one marked peptide, said marked peptide specifically interacting with said extracellular portion of the IRAP.
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Method for screening and selecting ligands

The present invention provides a method for screening of ligands wherein the target is a membrane protein, which is reconstituted into a membrane environment, using the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology. In particular, the target is a VDAC protein.
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Extracellular Allosteric Inhibitor Binding Domain from a Tyrosine Kinase Receptor

The present invention relates to an extracellular binding domain for an allosteric inhibitor, whereby said binding domain is derived from a single membrane span tyrosine kinase receptor. More specifically, the invention relates to an extracellular domain derived from a Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR). It further relates to the use of this domain for the identification of similar domains in the extracellular part of other tyrosine kinase receptors, and to a screening method for identific
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Cyclic Imidate Ligands

The present invention relates to a use of a cyclic imidate as a ligand for catalysis in which the ligand contains substructure (Y) as a minimal structural motive, wherein the carbon atoms and the nitrogen atom can be optionally substituted by a chemical substituent.
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Colorimetric Assay for the Visual Detection of Primary and Secondary Amines

The present invention concerns a novel method and kit system for the detection of solid-phase bound primary amines, secondary amines, or thiol groups comprising adding a fluid to said substrate and further comprising adding a novel reagents to said substrate and recording a colour reaction on said substrate that comprise said amine or said thiol groups. The method and kit of present invention can be used for the quantitative determination of organic substituents with primary or secondary amines
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Improved cleaning of plasma chamber walls by adding of noble gas cleaning step

An improved reaction chamber and chamber cleaning process are disclosed able to remove water residues by making use of noble-gas plasma reactions. The chamber is easy to operate and the method is easily applicable and may be combined with standard cleaning procedure. A noble-gas plasma (e.g. He) that emits high energy EUV photons (E>20 eV) which is able to destruct water molecules forming electronically excited oxygen atoms is used to remove the adsorbed water.
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Low Temperature Direct Selective Methane to Methanol Conversion

Direct selective conversion of methane to methanol at low temperature (e.g. less than 300 degrees Celsius) is provided. The conversion is carried out at ambient pressure. An oxygen- activated catalyst is first created by heating a catalyst in an oxidizing environment. The oxygen-activated catalyst has at least one active site that is identified as a mono-([mu]- oxo)dicupric core. Methane gas is subsequently passed over the oxygen-activated catalyst to directly form methanol. The active sites in
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Method for Producing Hydrogen By Water Dissociation

The invention relates to a method for producing hydrogen from an aqueous medium containing an electron donor, a photosensitizer and a supported catalyst. The method is characterised in that the photosensitizer is a compound containing a porphyrin cycle bearing peripheral cationic groups non-conjugated with the porphyrin cycle, wherein said compound is not complexed with a metal and the reaction medium is subjected to a white light irradiation. The method can be used for obtaining hydrogen with a
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Method for Hybridizing Nucleic Acids

The invention relates a method for manipulating, isolating, detecting or amplifying a target nucleic acid in a sample by hybridization with an oligonucleotide-oligocation molecule, comprising allowing said nucleic acid to react with an oligonucleotide- oligocation of structure I A i B j H (I) wherein . A i is an i-mer oligonucleotide residue, with i = 3 to 50, where nucleotide A is an oligomer with naturally or non naturally occurring nucleobases and/or pentafuranosyl groups and/or native phosph
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Controlled Release of Active Aldehydes and Ketones from Equilibrated Dynamic Mixtures

The present invention concerns a dynamic mixture obtained by combining, in the presence of water, at least one diamine derivative, comprising at least one benzylamine moiety, with at least one active aldehyde or ketone. The invention's mixture is capable of releasing in a controlled and prolonged manner said active compound, in particular perfuming ingredients, in the surrounding environment.
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Cyclitols and their Derivatives and their Therapeutic Applications

The present invention is directed to polyphosphorylated and pyrophosphate derivatives of cyclitols. More particularly, the invention relates to polyphosphorylated and pyrophosphate derivatives of inositols. The invention also relates to compositions of the polyphosphorylated and pyrophosphate derivatives of inositol and other similar, more lipophilic derivatives, and their use as allosteric effectors, cell-signaling molecule analogs, and therapeutic agents.
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Catalytic Phosphination Method

The invention relates to a double or triple catalytic phosphination method, essentially performed in a single step of injecting phosphine groups on a di-, tri- or tetra-halobiaryl compound.
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Apparatus and Processes for Generating Variable Concentration of Solutes in Microdroplets

The present invention relates to systems and methods for generating microdroplets with varying concentrations of a particular solute from a solution at fixed concentration.
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Method of Preparing an Adduct

A method for identifying one or several molecular structure(s) having a high-affinity for a target of interest, said molecular structure(s) each comprising one nucleotide chain onto which is hybridized at least one PNA-encoded molecule.
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Method for the Silanisation of Polysaccharides

The invention relates to a method for the silanisation of polysaccharides in a homogenous medium and in the presence of ionic liquids.
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Method for Synthesizing Hydroxy-bisphosphonic Acid Derivatives

The present invention relates to a method for preparing a hydroxy-bisphosphonic acid derivative or a salt thereof, from the corresponding carboxylic acid, comprising the following steps: - activation of the carboxylic acid function in the form of the boronate derivative thereof through the action of a borane, then - reaction with tris(trimethyl-silyl)phosphite, under Arbuzov conditions - treatment with an alcohol, chosen in particular from an aliphatic alcohol or trifluoromethanol, and - separat
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Novel Compounds, Use Thereof As Medicaments, and Method for the Preparation Thereof

The invention relates to novel compounds having the following formula (I) in which: n is an integer from 1 to 12, in particular from 1 to 8, m and m' are, independently of one another, integers from 0 to 8, - q and q' are, independently of one another, integers from 0 to 2, p and p' are, independently of one another, integers from 0 to 4, A and A' are, independently of one another, a CH2 group, (in the particular case of amidines) an NH group or an NR" group, in which R" is a linear or branched
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Thermoreversibly Crosslinked Elastic Bituminous Composition

The invention relates to a bituminous composition comprising at least one bitumen and at least one organogelling molecule taken alone or as a mixture, said organogelling molecule being represented by the following general formula (I): where: A represents an acyclic, cyclic or polycyclic, saturated or unsaturated, linear or branched hydrocarbon-based group having 3 to 92 carbon atoms, resulting from the polymerization of the side chains of at least one unsaturated fatty acid, X represents an NH g
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Amphiphilic Block Copolymer and Method for Preparing Same

The invention relates to an amphiphilic block copolymer, to the preparation thereof, and to the use thereof in the form of a self-stabilizing latex. The copolymer has the formula R5O-[-CH2CH2-O-]n-C(=O)-CR3R4-[CH2CR6R7]m-S-C(=S)-S-R1 where: R1 is a straight or branched alkyl group, an alkenyl group having one or more -C=C- bonds, or an alkynyl group having one or more -C=C- bonds, said groups including 8 to 18 carbon atoms; 20=n=100; R3 and R4 each are independently H, an alkyl group with 1 to 4
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Method for Synthesizing Polyesters in an Acidic Ionic Liquid Medium

The present invention relates to a method for synthesizing polyesters or copolyesters having a mean molar mass, in mass MW, greater than 10000, by means of a direct polyesterification reaction between a diacid, diester, hydroxyacid, or hydroxyester and a diol, or between hydroxyacids or hydroxyesters, said method being characterized in that said polyesterification reaction is carried out at a temperature of 60 to 150 DEG C at atmospheric pressure in a reaction medium including at least one acidi
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Processes for the Preparation of the Alpha Crystal Polymorph of Metal Phthalocyanines

Methods for producing a stabilised alpha copper phthalocyanine are described. More specifically such methods comprise forming a mixture of (a) a compound of the general formula (II), in which, R1 and R2 are independently -CN or -C(O)OH, or R1 and R2 together are -C(O)OC(O)-, -C(O)NHC(O)- or -C(NH)NH(NH)C-, and form a fused five-membered ring structure and R3, R4, R5 or R6 which may be the same or different are -H, a halide, an C1- C5 alkyl, or a substituent group containing a heteroatom; and (b)
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A Process for Preparing Silica Microparticles

Silica core - shell microparticles are prepared by growing a porous silica shell from a silica precursor onto the surface of non- porous silica particle dispersed in a mixed surfactant solution under basic pH conditions. The particles are hydrothermally treating in an oil-in-water emulsion system and the particles are calcined to remove residual surfactants. Optionally, the particles o may be base etched to expand the size of the pores in the silica shell. Core-shell silica particle with an orde
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Colorimetric anion sensor element

A sensor element suitable for colorimetric detection of anions in a sample, the sensor element comprising a water insoluble polymeric hydrogel having a polymer network defining a water permeable microvoid network, and an anion recognition dye (receptor) incorporated into the polymeric hydrogel. The anion recognition dye has a general formula (I), Wherein R1, R2, R3 and R4 are each, independently, selected from H or an optionally substituted group consisting of lower alkyl, allyl, aryl, thioureas
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Intermediates in the Enantioselective Synthesis of 3-(aminomethyl)-5-methyl-hexanoic Acid

(S)-(+)-3-(aminomethyl)-5-methyl-hexanoic acid or (S)-pregabalin is an anticonvulsive drug. In addition to its use as an anticonvulsive agent, pregabalin has also been indicated as a medicament in the treatment of anxiety, neuropathic pain and pain in patients with fibromyalgia. Provided herein are thioester intermediates in the synthesis of and processes for the synthesis of 3-(aminomethyl)-5-methyl-hexanoic acid in the (R) or (S) configuration.
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Conjugated Linoleic Acid Derivatives

A conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) derivative having the structure (I) wherein n is an integer from 1 to 10; and wherein the broken lines at positions 9 and 11, or at positions 10 and 12, are each double bonds separated by a single bond, and wherein the remaining broken line is a single bond.
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Alpha-GLYCOSYL THIOLS AND alpha-S-LINKED GLYCOLIPIDS

The present invention relates to stereoselective methods for the preparation of [alpha]-glycosyl thiols and [alpha]-S-linked glycosylceramides.
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pH sensor device comprising an ionogel

A pH sensor comprising an ionic liquid stabilised in a gel so as to form an ionogel; and a pH indicator salt. The ionic liquid may comprise a trihexyltetradecylphosphonium [P6,6,6,14]+ cation and one or more of a bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) amide [NTf2]-, dicyanoamide [dca]-, dodecylbenzenesulfonate [dbsa]- and p-toluenesulfonate (tosylate) [tos]- anion. The gel may comprise a polymer such as a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) derivative, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), or a copolymer of N-isopropyla
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Making a stationary phase for separations from electrochemically polymerised monomer

A method of fabricating the stationary phase of an analysis tool for subsequent use in analytical separations (e.g. chromatography), includes the steps of electrochemically growing the stationary phase from a material comprising an electroactive or conducting monomer by effecting electrochemical polymerisation of the monomer. The resulting polymer may be polyaniline. The polymerization may take place in a channel provided in a chip or microchip. An analysis tool including such a stationary phase
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Organosilane coating compositions and use thereof

A sol-gel coating composition comprising a hydrolysed organosilane, an arganometallic precursor and a corrosion inhibitor, wherein the corrosion inhibitor is a chelator for the organometallic precursor. The corrosion inhibitor and the organometellic precursor may form a nonoparticulate complex. The coating composition may comprise one or more additive selected from: an antimicrobial additive, a harder, a water repelling additive, a dye, a scratch resistant additive and a flexibility enhancing ad
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Biodegradable Solvents for the Chemical Industry

This invention relates to ionic liquid (ILs) solvents for chemical synthesis based on an alkyl - imidazolium cation core containing ionic liquids which have enhanced biodegradability and reduced toxicity relative to existing imidazolium bases ILs such as 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (bmmim) salts. Many of the described ILs produce a score of over 60% biodegradability over 28 days in a biodegradability test such as the Sturm Test, the Closed Bottle Test (OECD 301D) or the CO2 Headspace Test (ISO 1
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Compositions and Methods for Expressing In-frame Multimeric Proteins

The present invention concerns methods and compositions for making and using multimeric, single chain proteins of a defined structure. The invention also includes nucleic acid expression systems for making such multimeric proteins, and methods for identifying modulators of such multimeric proteins. The invention also comprises methods for predicting the current characteristics based on an arrangement of ion channel subunits, and vice versa.
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Method of Surface Treating Microfluidic Devices

The formation of a barrier layer within individual channels or cavities of a microfluidic device is described. The barrier layer is effected through a gas phase deposition process, desirably implemented in a plasma environment.
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Ionic Liquid Solvents

A chiral ionic compound comprising an alkyl substituted imidazolium or pyridinium cationic core having an alkyl ester side chain (-alkyl-C(O)O-) directly linked to the core and an associated counter anion, characterized in that the -O- atom of the ester side chain is linked to an alpha, a beta or a gamma hydroxycarboxylic acid functionality via the alpha, beta or gamma hydroxy of the acid functionality and the hydroxycarboxylic acid functionality has at least one asymmetric carbon, or characteri
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Identification of Phosphorylation Sites in Polypeptides By Employment of Uranyl Photocleavage

The present invention relates to a method of cleaving a polypeptide at one or more phosphorylated residues. Said cleavage is induced by irradiation and is dependent on the presence of uranyl. The method is useful for analysis of phosphoproteoms and also for protein purification. The method also relates to a method of protein purification, wherein the phosphorylated protein is immobilized on a column said immobilization being dependent on uranyl.
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Method of Identifying Individuals At Risk of Thiopurine Drug Resistance and Intolerance

The present invention is directed to a method of screening individuals for the presence or absence of one or more polymorphisms associated with the risk of thiopurine resistance or intolerance.
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Prepolymer Composition

The present invention relates to a prepolymer composition comprising a polyester prepolymer, a vinyl-functional monomer having a vapour pressure which is less than styrene at 20 DEG C and an accelerator. The prepolymer composition can be combined with a promoter which causes the prepolymer composition to cure. The cured composition forms a polymeric material which is capable of reinforcing surfaces, in particular the surfaces of mine tunnels including longwall coal mine roadways.
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Method for the Determination of the Position of Unsaturation in a Compound

A mass spectrometric method for determining the position of unsaturation in a compound is disclosed.
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Dye Composition for Use in Photoelectric Material

A dye composition for use in a photoelectric material, the dye composition comprising a plurality of dyes comprising a chromophore and at least one binding group for binding with a semiconductor (preferably a metal oxide semiconductor) wherein the plurality of dyes include a first dye wherein the binding group is linked to the dye chromophore by a linker not in conjugation with the chromophore and a second dye wherein the binding group is attached by a linker in conjugation with the chromophore.
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Polymer electrolytes and devices containing them

The application arises from studies that have shown that electrochemical cells containing SPEs including: (i) a non-volatile organic ionic salt; and (ii) an inorganic electrolyte salt have an improved conductivity across a range of temperatures, and are more stable to water compared to electrochemical cells containing SPEs including either an IL or an inorganic electrolyte salt.
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Synthesis of Ageladine a and Analogs Thereof

The invention describes a one pot process for synthesizing a compound of structure (I), or a tautomer thereof. A compound of structure (II), or a tautomer thereof, and an aldehyde of structure RdCHO are condensed to form a condensation product. The resulting condensation product is then oxidized in the same reaction mixture to produce the compound of structure (I) or a tautomer thereof.
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Controlled Polymerisation Process

The present invention relates to a controlled metathesis-driven polymerisation process which is particularly useful for the synthesis of biological polymers such as peptides and polymers. The invention also provides metathesisable supports, groups and linkers for use in the process.
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Peptide Purification By Means of Metal Ion Affinity Chromatography

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an oligopeptide (tag) for purifying an objective protein and a polymer substrate for metal ion affinity chromatography. ; SOLUTION: The polymer substrate is functionalized with a functionality comprising at least one cyclic, metal ion coordinating ligand group. The cyclic ligand group comprises at least 3 metal ion coordinating donor atoms independently selected from the group consisting of N, O and S. The histidine-containing oligopeptide has a specific amino ac
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Contoxin Analogues and Methods for Synthesizing Same

According to the present invention, there is provided a range of new conotoxin derivatives and methods for synthesizing these analogues and other intramolecular dicarba bridge-containing peptides, including dicarba-disulfide bridge-containing peptides.
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Compositions and Uses Therefor

The invention is directed inter alia to the use of receptor-associated protein (RAP) polypeptide or a functional analog thereof to reduce amyloid oligomerisation and deposition and to reduce Ass associated neuropathologic features. Thus, the invention provides a composition comprising RAP or an analog thereof which binds ss-amyloid peptide (Ass) for use in the treatment or prophylaxis of a symptom of Alzheimer's disease (AD) or a related condition in a subject. One illustrative symptom is memory
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Molecularly Imprinted Polymers, Methods for their Production and Uses Thereof

The present invention relates to methods of preparing molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) which facilitate chemical hydrolysis and more particularly the hydrolysis of chemical substrates which possess hydrolytically labile bonds such as peptides and proteins. The present invention is thus directed to MIPs designed to possess hydrolytic activity, methods for preparing such MIPs and uses of the MIPs.
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A Method for the N-demethylation of N-methyl Heterocycles

The present invention provides methods of N-demethylating, N-methylated heterocycles and N-methyl, N-oxide heterocycles using a transition metal with an oxidation state of zero, ferrocene or substituted derivatives thereof, or Cr 3+ .N-demethylated heterocycles prepared by the methods of the present invention are also provided.
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Antimalarial Agents That Are Inhibitors of Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase

Inhibitors of parasitic dihydroorotate dehydrogenase enzyme (DHOD) are candidate therapeutics for treating malaria. Illustrative of such therapeutic agents include the compound: and a triazolopyrimidine class of compounds that conform to Formula (IX): and their solvates, stereoisomers, tautomers and pharmaceutically acceptable salts.
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Novel Bismuth(III) Nsaid Compounds and Methods for their Use

The present invention relates to the field of non-specific anti inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). In particular, the invention relates to bismuth(III) tris-carboxylate complexes having the formula [Bi(III)L3]n including its pharmaceutically acceptable salts and solvates, wherein, L is chosen from the group comprising carboxylato-NSAIDs, their derivatives, prodrugs or metabolytes, and n is >=1. The bismuth(III) tris-carboxylate complexes of the invention may be formulated for use in treatments for a w
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Affinity Ligands and Methods for Protein Purification

The present invention relates generally to affinity ligands and chemical affinity ligand-matrix conjugates for use as chromatographic adsorbents and methods which utilise the adsorbents in the purification of proteins by affinity chromatography. The affinity ligand-matrix conjugates of the present invention comprise ligands of general formula (I): wherein m represents an integer from 0-2, n represents an integer from 0-6, p represents an integer from 0-4, R1 represents H or C1-3 alkyl, R2 is an
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Temperature-responsive Polymer Particles in Protein Separation Applications

The present invention relates to a method for isolating proteins from a solution containing the proteins. The invention also relates to a method for the chromatographic separation of proteins. The present invention also relates to crosslinked hydroxylic polymer particles functionalized with temperature-responsive copolymer, and to methods of preparing such particles.
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Peptide purification by means of hard metal ion affinity chromatography

A polymer substrate functionalized with a functionality comprising at least one cyclic, metal ion coordinating ligand group which comprises at least 3 nitrogen donor atoms in the ring of the cyclic group, at least one of the nitrogen atoms having an optionally substituted carboxy(lower alkyl) or optionally substituted phosphono(lower alkyl) group covalently attached thereto, is well suited for use in conjunction with "hard" metal ions of low toxicity (such as Ca<2+>, Mg<2+>or Fe<3+>) in the sepa
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Terpene Synthases from Santalum

An isolated nucleic acid molecule that encodes a terpene synthase and is selected from among: a) a nucleic acid molecule comprising the sequence of nucleotides set forth in SEQ ID NO: 1, SEQ ID NO: 3 or SEQ ID NO: 5; b) a nucleic acid molecule that is a fragment of (a); c) a nucleic acid molecule comprising a sequence of nucleotides that is complementary to (a)-or (b); and d) a nucleic acid molecule that encodes a terpene synthase having at least or at least about or at least about 60%, 65%, 70%
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Method of Oxidising Organic Compounds

Disclosed herein is a method of oxidising an organic compound, wherein the oxidation is catalysed by nanoparticles of RuO2.Also disclosed are methods for forming the RuO2 nanoparticles.
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Organometallic Catalyst and Preparation Thereof

The present invention relates to a method for producing an organometallic catalyst and an organometallic catalyst when produced by the method. The method comprises the steps of combining a polycarboxylic acid or anhydride and a metal-oxide, metal-hydroxide or metal-salt with a solvent at a temperature and pressure at which the solvent exists as a supercritical or near-critical fluid. The polycarboxylic acid or anhydride is reacted with the metal-oxide, metal-hydroxide or metal-salt for sufficien
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Peptide and Phosphopeptide Synthesis Via Phosphate Assisted Ligation

Methods of preparing polypeptides and proteins. In particular, the invention has been developed as a method of preparing peptides and phosphopeptides through formation of a peptide bond via phosphate assisted peptide ligation
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Surface polymerisation process and polymer product using RAFT agent

A method of polymerising monomer to form polymer at the surface of particulate material, said method comprising: providing a dispersion of said particulate material in a continuous liquid phase, said dispersion comprising a RAFT agent as a stabiliser for said particulate material, and said continuous liquid phase comprising one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomers; and polymerising said one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomers under the control of said RAFT agent to thereby form poly
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Tropoelastin Derivatives

The invention relates to derivatives of tropoelastin and variants of those derivatives. The invention further provides expression products and hybrid molecules of the derivatives and variants of the invention. The invention further provides methods for the production of the derivatives, variants, expression products and hybrid molecules. Further provided are formulations, cross-linked structures and implants comprising the derivatives, variants, expression products and hybrid molecules of the in
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Flotation Aids and Processes for Using the Same

This invention relates to particulate and/or liquid droplet separation processes from liquids containing the same and the use of specific chemical additives to control surface wetting, hydrophobicity and surface forces in such processes.
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Novel Compounds, Derivatives Thereof and their Use in Heterojunction Devices

The invention relates to novel polyaromatic and polyheteroaromatic compounds and derivatives thereof. The compounds display high solubility in organic solvents. A further aspect of the invention relates to the use of the novel compounds in the fabrication of organic film based heterojunction devices. In one form the devices display high conversion efficiencies in solar cell applications.
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Nitrogen-containing Macrocyclic Conjugates As Radiopharmaceuticals

The present invention relates to compounds that are useful as metal ligands and which either contain a molecular recognition moiety or can be bound to a molecular recognition moiety and methods of making these compounds. Once the compounds that contain a molecular recognition moiety are coordinated with a suitable metallic radionuclide, the coordinated compounds are useful as radiopharmaceuticals in the areas of radiotherapy and diagnostic imaging. The invention therefore also relates to methods
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Process for the Preparation of Asymmetrical Bis(thiosemicarbazones)

The present invention relates to a method of making asymmetrical bis(thiosemicarbazones), compounds useful as synthetic intermediates in the method, new bis(thiosemicarbazones) that can be readily accessed by use of the method and methods of treatment and imaging utilising some of the new bis(thiosemicarbazones).
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Process for Generation of Protein and Uses Thereof

A method of generating a protein with an improved functional property, th e method comprising: (a) identifying at least one Target amino acid Residue in a first protein, wherein said Target amino acid Residue is associated wit h said functional property; (b) comparing at least one homologous second pro tein from the same or a different phylogenetic branch as the first protein w ith the first protein and identifying at least one Variant amino acid Residu e between the first protein and the second
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Immobilized Enzymes and Co-factors

The present invention is concerned with the immobilization of enzymes and their co-factors in a system which permits regeneration of the co-factors. Also included in the present invention are methods and devices which utilize such systems.
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Dinuclear, Quadruply-stranded Compounds Comprising Palladium Or Platinum

The invention relates to a compound of formula (M2L4 where: M = a palladium or platinum metal ion; L = X = -O-, -S-, -NH-, or (-CH2-)n, where n = 1, 2 or 3; R2, R4, R5, R6 are each independently selected from -H, -F, -Cl, -Br, -I, -methyl, -ethyl, -propyl, -O-methyl, -OH, -CH2OH, and - CH2CH2OH, R7, R8, R9, R10 are each independently selected from -H, -F, -Cl, -Br, -I, - methyl, -ethyl, -propyl and -O-methyl; a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, complex thereof, compositions comprising the compou
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Modified Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type-1 Molecule and Methods Based Thereon

The present invention relates to a modified plasminogen activator inhibitor type- 1 (PAI-1) molecule that displays an increased in vivo half-life of the active form of PAI- 1, but is deficient in one or more functional activities as compared to the wild-type PAI- 1 protein. The modified PAI-1 molecule that displays an increased half-life further displays at least one of the following funtional characteristics: (i) decreased binding activity to at least one of the following molecules: urokinase p
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Method for Synthesizing Xanthohumol

A method is provided for synthesizing xanthohumol by inserting a prenyl-group onto the aryl-ring via a para-Claisen rearrangement after using a Mitsunobu reaction to establish the key prenylether precursor. A Claisen-Schmidt condensation is used to construct the chalcone scaffold followed by removal of MOM protecting groups under acidic conditions that are optimized to prevent concomitant cyclization to the flavone.
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Boron Selective Ionic Liquids and Polymeric Ionic Liquids, Methods of Making and Methods of Use Thereof

Boron selective ionic liquids and polymeric ionic liquids, methods of making and methods of using the same are disclosed.
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Muscarinic Receptor Agonist

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a muscarinic receptor agonist stimulating cholinergic activity. ; SOLUTION: There is provided a compound of formula (I), wherein R<SB>3</SB>is H, CH<SB>2</SB>CH<SB>3</SB>, COCH<SB>3</SB>or formula (II). ; COPYRIGHT: (C)2010,JPO&INPIT
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Interface Polymer

A method of depositing an anion exchange polymer on an electrode substrate, said method comprising: a) contacting an electrode substrate with an anion exchange polymer in ionic form, wherein the polymer comprises a quaternary ammonium group as the anion exchange group, and b) treating the polymer, so as to render it insoluble on the substrate. The present invention relates to a method of depositing an anion exchange polymer on an electrode substrate. The present invention also relates to an e
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Capacitive Deionization

A process for separating organic compounds from an aqueous medium, said process comprising: adding surfactant to the aqueous medium, such that the organic compounds interact with the surfactant to form charged or polar entities; passing the aqueous medium between charged electrodes, whereby the charged or polar entities are electrosorbed onto the electrodes.
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A Method of Making a Hard Latex and a Hard Latex

A method of making a hard latex from a latex comprising an aqueous dispersion of a polymer, the method comprising the step of exposing the latex to infrared radiation.
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Photocatalytic Fluidized Bed Reactor with High Illumination Efficiency for Photocatalytic Oxidation Processes

The invention relates to the realization of synthesis of organic com not pounds or abatement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in gas-solid fluid- ised bed photocatalytic reactor with improved illumination efficiency. The photoreactor consists of a two-dimensional fluidized bed catalytic reactor with two walls transparent to ultraviolet radiation, by an illumination system based on an array of LEDs positioned near its external walls, and heated by Joule effect inside the catalytic bed to cont
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Fully Crosslinked Chemically Structured Monolayers

The present invention relates to a structured monolayer which is made up of low molecular weight aromatics and is fully crosslinked in the lateral direction, where the monolayer has a pattern of functional groups on one of the two surfaces, a process for producing such a structured monolayer and also the use thereof.
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Novel Sulfonium Borate Complex

A novel sulfonium borate complex, which can reduce the amount of fluorine ions produced during thermal cationic polymerization, and realize low-temperature, rapid curing properties in a thermal cationic polymerizable adhesive, is represented by the structure of the following formula (1). In the formula (1), R 1 is an aralkyl group and R 2 is a lower alkyl group. However, when R 2 is a methyl group, R 1 is not a benzyl group. X is a halogen atom, and n is an integer of 1 to 3.
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Bicyclic Monophosphines

A compound of formula (I): wherein: RP1 and RP2 are independently selected from C3-12 alkyl groups; RC is a C5-6 aryl group, optionally substituted by one or more groups selected from: C1-7 alkyl, C1-7 alkoxy, halo, NH2, C1-7alkylamino, di-C1-7alkylamino, and C5-6 aryl; RA1 and RA2 are independently selected from H, Cl, and an optionally substituted group selected from: C1-7 alkyl, C1-7 alkoxy, C1-7 alkylthio and C5-6 aryl, wherein the optional substituents are selected from: C1-7 alkyl, C1-7 al
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Aluminum Complexes and their Use in the Synthesis of Cyclic Carbonates

Dimeric aluminium catalysts of formula I: and their use in catalysing the synthesis of cyclic carbonates from epoxides and carbon dioxide.
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Formation of 18F and 19F Fluoroarenes Bearing Reactive Functionalities

An iodonium compound of formula (I): where RAR1 is a C5-6 aryl group, bearing at least one substituent selected from formyl, thionoacyl, acylamidocarboxy, thionoester, azo, C2-20 alkenyl, C2-20 alkynyl, and (CH2)nRc, where Rc is selected from ether, amino, azo and thioether; RAR2 is a C5 heteroaryl group, optionally substituted by one or more groups selected from C1-12 alkyl, C5-12 aryl, C3-12 heterocyclyl, ether, thioether, nitro, cyano and halo, and may be linked to a solid support or fluorous
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Method for Monitoring the Dehybridi Zation of Double Stranded Nucleic Acid

The present invention relates, in one aspect, to a method for monitoring the dehybridisation of double stranded nucleic acid, comprising the steps of: (a) providing a nucleic acid probe and a target nucleic acid; (b) forming a double stranded nucleic acid of which at least one of the strands of the nucleic acid is in contact with a solid substrate; (c) applying a potential ramp to the solid substrate; and (d) monitoring the dehybridisation of the double stranded nucleic acid across the potential
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Ammoximation Process

A redox ammoximation process in which a ketone or aldehyde is reacted with ammonia and oxygen in the presence of a catalyst, wherein: the catalyst is an aluminophosphate based redox catalyst having the qualitative general formula (I) M1M2AlPO-5 (I) in which M1 is at least one transition metal atom having redox catalytic capability; M2 is at least one metal atom in the (IV) oxidation state; M1 and M2 are different from each other; and a proportion of the phosphorous atoms in the M1M2AlPO-5 type s
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Methods of identifying modulators of CFTR/CK2 interaction

A method of identifying a compound capable of modulating CFTR/CK2 interaction and/or CFTR phosphorylation by CK2 comprising exposing CFTR and/or CK2 to a test compound and assessing the effect of the test compound on CFTR/CK2 interaction and/or CFTR phosphorylation by CK2. A method of screening for compounds of use in preventing or treating a secretory state or disorder and/or a cancer and/or cystic fibrosis wherein CFTR and/or CK2 is exposed to a test compound and the effect of the test compoun
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Polypeptides, Polynucleotides and Uses Thereof

A recombinant polynucleotide encoding migrating stimulating factor (MSF) or variants or fragments or derivatives or fusions thereof or fusions of said variants or fragments or derivatives. Reagents are disclosed which can distinguish MSF and fibronectin, and which can distinguish polynucleotides which encode MSF or fibronectin. These reagents are believed to be useful in, for example, diagnosing cancer. MSF or variants or fragments or derivatives or fusions thereof, or fusions of said variants o
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Fluorescence Lifetime and Fluorescence Assays

The invention provides a method for determining a degree of phosphorylation of a substrate, for example a peptide substrate, using a fluorescence probe that acts alone or with another material and has a lifetime that varies when in proximity to a phosphate, the method comprising: causing the fluorescence probe to fluoresce; measuring a time response of the fluorescence, and analysing the fluorescence time response to identify a fluorescence component having a lifetime associated with phosphoryla
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N-myristoyl Transferase Inhibitors

The present invention relates to N-heterocyclic sulphonamide compounds, in particular pyrazole sulphonamide compounds, and their use as N-myristoyl transferase inhibitors.
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Wide Temperature-range Smectic Liquid Crystal Materials

A method of making a wide temperature-range smectic liquid crystal material comprises taking a wide temperature-range nematic mixture and doping this with a mesogenic silicon-containing material. Aspects of the invention provide wide temperature-range smectic materials and devices using the smectic materials.
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Preparation of Halogen and Hydrogen Containing Alkenes Over Metal Fluoride Catalysts

Halogenated alkenes, especially fluorinated alkenes can be prepared from halogenated and fluorinated alkanes, respectively, by dehydrohalogenation or dehydrofluorination in the presence of a high-surface metal fluoride or oxifluoride. Preferably, trifluoroethylene, pentafluoropropene, tetrafluorobutenes or trifluorobutadiene are prepared. Aluminium fluoride is highly suitable. The metal fluoride or oxifluoride can be applied supported on a carrier.
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Method for Producing a Material Containing Zinc Oxide and a Semiconductor Element with a Material Containing Zinc Oxide

The invention relates, amongst other things to a method with the features given in the generic part of claim 1. According to the invention, a p-doped zinc oxide-containing material (30, 60, 125, 225, 325) is produced, wherein the p-doping is carried out during the growth of the material by a nitrogen-doping and the growth temperature during the growth and the doping of the zinc oxide-containing material is in the range 150 DEG C to 400 DEG C.
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Catalyst and Process

The invention is a method of dehydrogenating a hydrocarbon, especially an alkane, to form an unsaturated compound, especially an alkene, by contacting the alkane with a catalyst comprising a form of carbon which is catalytically active for the dehydrogenation reaction. The catalyst may be formed by passing a hydrocarbon over a metal compound at a temperature greater than 650 DEG C.
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Modulation of miRNA Activity

Provided is a method of identifying a compound which modulates miRNA activity comprising (i) determining the ability of a test compound to alter the polyuridylation activity of a ZCCHC polypeptide wherein a test compound which alters the polyuridylation activity is useful in modulating miRNA activity; or (ii) determining the ability of a test compound to alter the binding of a ZCCHC polypeptide to a LIN28 polypeptide, wherein a test compound which alters said binding may be useful in modulating
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Probes Comprising Fluorescent Artificial Nucleobases and Use Thereof for Detection of Single Base Alteration

The present invention relates to forced intercalation probes (FIT-probes) comprising at least one nucleoside analogue which comprises at least a fluorescent artificial nucleobase directly bound to a carbon of a modified sugar moiety wherein said modified sugar moiety is a carba-sugar or an amino acid nucleic acid (AANA). Thereby the nucleoside analogue is incorporated into DNA or RNA in the place of a single native base.
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A Composite Comprising At Least One Type of Perfluoroalkyl-perfluoro-phthalocyanine

The present invention relates to a composite comprising at least one type of perfluoroalkyl-perfluoro-phthalocyanine, and to a method of producing such composite. The present invention also relates to a method of generating singlet oxygen, a method of killing eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells and a method of sterilization, cleaning and/or decontamination. Moreover, the present invention relates to a composite or a device for use in a method of sterilization, cleaning and/or decontamination.
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Fluorescent Dyes and Complexes

A fluorescent dye comprising a xanthene-derived fluorophore having the formula (I) wherein R1, R2, R3, R4, R5 and R6 are independently selected from H, alkyl, alkoxy, alcohol, ether, alkenyl, alkenoxy, aryl, aralkyl and amido, except that R1, R4 and/or R5 is not H when bonded to Y, Y1 or Y2, respectively; X is either O- or S-; and at least one of Y, Y1, Y2, Y3, Y4 and Y5 is a group for covalently bonding the dye, optionally through, the use of a coupling agent, to a target molecule, and is other
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Dimethylthiofoxins and azafoxins which may be useful as ligands for G-protein coupled receptors

The invention provides compounds of general formulae (II) or (III), or pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof. X is -CO-(Y)k-(Z)nor -SO2-(Y)k-(Z)nwherein k is 0 or 1, each Y is a cycloalkyl, polycycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl or polycycloalkenyl group, n is an integer from 1 to the maximum number of substitutions permissible on the cyclo group Y, each Z is H or various residues or Z may be a peptide radical. R2, R3and R4are independently any substitutent.; The invention also provides methods for pr
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Conductive Polymer Compositions in Opto-Electrical Devices

A conductive polymer composition comprising: a polymer having a HOMO level greater than or equal to -5.7 eV and a dopant having a LUMO level less than -4.3 eV.
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Ultrahydrophobic Surfaces and Methods for their Production

The present invention relates to a method of producing an ultrahydrophobic surface, the method comprising providing a mixture comprising low surface energy material and a sacrificial material, forming a layer from the mixture wherein the layer contains particles of the sacrificial material, treating the layer so as to destroy the particles of sacrificial material and generate a laterally continuous matrix of solid low surface energy material containing an array of depressions.
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Polypeptides Including Modified Constant Regions

Disclosed are processes for producing a variant polypeptide (e.g. antibodies) having increased binding affinity for an Fc[gamma]R, which processes comprise modifying the polypeptides by substitution of the amino acid at position 268 of a human IgG CH2 region for a non-native polar or charged amino acid e.g. Gln, Asn, Glu, or Asp. also provided are corresponding polypeptides, nucleic acids, and methods of use of the same e.g. in improved lytic therapies.
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Compounds and their use in detecting an amino acid and/or latent fingerprint

The present invention relates to compounds of amino acids and/or latent fingerprints of formula:[Het]-CHOwherein Het is a nitrogen containing heterocyclic system in which a nitrogen atomis substituted by a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group, aryl group, aralkyl group or alkaryl group, and -CHO is an aldehyde group, and salts thereof. Preferred compounds are N-methylpyridine-4-carboxaldehyde iodide, N-methyl-4-carboxaldehydequinolinium iodide, N-methyl-lH-benzimidazole-2-carboxaldehyde, N-p
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Method for extending the life of chemical sensors

The method is described for extending the life of chemical sensors for determining individual components in the gas phase, the contact between fluoride-ion conductor and metal electrode being heated once or repeatedly under the conditions of the gas to be measured briefly to temperatures between 300 and 600 DEG C. Heating may be carried out by electrical resistance heating, the metal electrode being itself used as the heating resistor. With the method according to the invention, simple activatio
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Capillary arrangement used in electro-spraying ionization processes in mass spectrometry, e.g. for converting molecules having a high molecular mass (e.g. DNA) from a solution into ions has an electri

Capillary arrangement (10) has an electrically conducting metal oxide layer (4) for contacting a sample fluid in the arrangement. An Independent claim is also included for a process for the production of the capillary arrangement.
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Procedures and cutlery for the digestion of cells and the preservation and extraction of nucleic acids from living cells or tissues

The invention relates to a method for sample fixation, sample preservation, for cell disruption and extraction of nucleic acids in living cells, cell aggregates and tissue samples, and a working set for the implementation of the procedure. The method is to use living cells or tissue fragments of a nearly water-free to equilibrate with water-miscible volatile organic liquid and catch up then, the dehydrated cells through generation of mechanical stimuli in the volatile organic liquid to separate
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Method for Detecting Target Nucleic Acids Using Template Catalyzed Transfer Reactions

The present invention relates to the detection and quantification of nucleic acid sequences and to the sequence determination of nucleic acids using template catalyzed transfer reactions. The invention also relates to methods, reagents, and kits for detecting and quantifying nucleic acid sequences and for determining the sequence of nucleic acids.
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Preparing mineral organic fertilizer from process water of hydrothermal carbonization of plant material comprises separating carbon and organic residual components from process water and isolating min

Preparing mineral organic fertilizer from process water of the hydrothermal carbonization of plant material, comprises separating carbon and organic residual components from the process water and isolating the mineral components from the process water by drying. An independent claim is included for the organic fertilizer produced by the above method. - ACTIVITY : Fertilizer. - MECHANISM OF ACTION : None given.
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Polymer Micelle Complex Including Nucleic Acid

It is an object of the present invention to provide: a polyion complex that sufficiently retains a photosensitizing substance in serum and is excellent in terms of structural stability; a nucleic acid polyplex as a constituent thereof; and a device and a kit for delivering a nucleic acid into a cell. The nucleic acid polyplex of the present invention comprises a cationic polymer represented by general formula (1) and a nucleic acid. The polyion complex of the present invention comprises the nucl
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ENVIRONMENT-RESPONDING siRNA CARRIER USING DISULFIDE-CROSS-LINKED POLYMERIC MICELLE

Disclosed is a siRNA-encapsulating polymeric micelle complex (a polyion complex) having high monodispersibility and structural stability and excellent in the ability of transporting siRNA into a cell. Further disclosed are a nucleic acid delivery device, a nucleic acid delivery kit, a pharmaceutical composition, and a gene therapy agent, each of which uses the complex. The polyion complex is characterized by comprising: a block copolymer composed of a polyethylene glycol moiety and a polycation
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Organic-inorganic Hybrid Nano Particle Composed of Nucleic Acid Conjugate Having Polyethylene Glycol Bound Thereto and Calcium Phosphate

Disclosed is an organic-inorganic hybrid nano particle comprising a conjugate of a nucleic acid and a polyethylene glycol chain bound covalently to the nucleic acid and a calcium ion (Ca2+) and a phosphate ion (PO4 3-). The particle can be used as an effective delivery system for delivering a nucleic acid into a cell.
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Cationic Poly (Amino Acids) and Uses Thereof

Provided is an efficient delivery system for nucleic acids. Provided specifically are cationic poly(amino acids) that have a side chain having different amine functional groups in a portion that includes a cationic group and wherein a hydrophobic group has been introduced into a part of the side chain, and polyion complexes (PIC) of the poly(amino acids) and oligo- or polynucleotides.
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Polyion Complex of Double-stranded Ribonucleic Acid

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a delivery system useful for delivering a double-stranded ribonucleic acid that achieves gene silencing in glomeruli, particularly mesangial cells or other cells to the tissues or cells; and others. ; SOLUTION: A polyion complex is in the form of a non-polymeric micelle, which is composed of a double-stranded ribonucleic acid and a block copolymer represented by formulae (I) or (II) electrostatically coupled to each other and has an average particle diameter meas
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Contrast Medium-containing Organic-inorganic Hybrid Particle

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a carrier for stably delivering an MRI contrast medium to a target site. ; SOLUTION: The organic-inorganic hybrid particle comprises a block copolymer containing an unchargeable hydrophilic polymer chain segment and a polymer chain segment containing a repeating unit having a carboxylate ion group on a side chain, a calcium ion (Ca<SP>2+</SP>), a phosphate ion (PO<SB>4</SB><SP>3-</SP>) or a carbonate ion (CO<SB>3</SB><SP>2-</SP>) or a mixture of these anions, and
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Copolymer Including Uncharged Hydrophilic Block and Cationic Polyamino Acid Block Having Hydrophobic Group in Part of Side Chains, and Use Thereof

The present invention relates to a block copolymer containing an uncharged hydrophilic polymer chain block and a cationic polyamino acid chain block, wherein the hydrophilic polymer chain block is covalently bound to one end of the main chain of the polyamino acid chain block, and the hydrophobic group is covalently bound to the side chains of not less than 10% and not greater than 70% of amino acid repeating units in the polyamino acid chain block. This block copolymer forms a stable aggregate
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Charge Conversional Ternary Polyplex

Disclosed is a polymer composite (polyplex) that contains nucleic acid, a cationic polymer, and an anionic polymer. The anionic polymer covers the surface of the composite comprising the cationic polymer and nucleic acid, has a negative charge at neutral pH, and can change so as to have a positive charge at mildly acidic pH. The present invention relates to a polymer complex (polyplex) containing a nucleic acid for use as a nonviral synthetic vector capable of delivering the nucleic acid to a
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Esterases for Monitoring Protein Biosynthesis in Vitro

The present invention relates to the use of an esterase for monitoring and/or tracking the synthesis of a protein, polypeptide or peptide in a cell-free translation system or in an in vivo expression system in which the synthesis of a protein, polypeptide or peptide can occur, wherein said monitoring and/or tracking comprises the detection of the function of said esterase. The present invention further relates to a vector comprising a nucleic acid molecule coding for an esterase and expressi
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Expression vector for Bacillus species

The present invention is related to the use of the gsiB promoter as an inducible promoter in an expression system, whereby the promoter can be induced by a measure selected from the group comprising decrease in pH, increase in temperature, addition of alcohol, preferably ethanol, exhaustion of nutrients and oxygen limitation. The present invention is related to the use of the gsiB promoter, a nucleic acid replicon comprising such promoter, a host cell comprising such respective nucleic acid r
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Imidazo[1,5-B]pyridazinamido Ligands and their Complexes

The invention relates to novel NN(R) ligands of the formula 1 (imidazo[1,5-b]pyridazine-substituted amino ligands) in uncharged or anionic form and catalysts which can be produced therewith, in particular for asymemtric catalysis, and a process for producing such ligands and catalysts.
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Triorgano(amino)borates: Activation of Alkali Metal Amides, Converting Alkali Metal Amides Into Hydrocarbon-soluble Reagents

The invention relates to triorgamo(amino)borates and to the production and use thereof. Object of the invention is it to make a chemical compound available those the synthesis of new chemical products allowed and/or. with their assistance existing, aufwändige or less inefficient reaction processes optimized to become to be able. Object was to be made available it thus such a chemical compound, which overcomes in particular the disadvantages of alkali metal amides. A such chemical compound is
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Surface-treated Copper Foil and Copper-clad Laminate

To provide a surface treated copper foil satisfying all of the bonding strength to polyimide film, chemical resistance, and etching property, and to provide a CCL using the surface treated copper foil, a surface treated copper foil is formed being comprising an untreated copper foil on at least one surface of which Ni-Zn alloy is deposited, wherein Zn content (wt%) = Zn deposition amount/(Ni deposition amount + Zn deposition amount) x 100 is 6% or more and 15% or less, and Zn deposition amount i
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Superior Liquid Uptake Resins for Polymer-supported Synthesis (SLURPS)

Background Solid phase synthesis, or polymer-supported synthesis, is a technique for chemical transformations in which molecules are bound to a solid, such as a polymer bead, during the reaction and hence are easier to separate afterwards. The main benefit lies in the fact that these supports, by being insoluble, allow the easy separation of bound product from soluble reagents and contaminants. When used to support catalysts (including enzymes), they provide a means of recovering and recycl
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Processing and Application of Cereal Processing Byproduct-Based Adhesives

Tech ID: 11321 / UC Case 2004-311-0 Abstract Processing and Application of Cereal Processing Byproduct-based Adhesives Full Description A novel processing and application method for cereal processing byproduct-based adhesives has been developed by researchers at the University of California, Davis. Rice bran, a by-product of rice milling, is mainly used as animal feed with low economic value. New processing applications can serve to increase its value. In this invention, rice bran is
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Scratch Resistant Polymer Blends

This invention relates to polypropylene-based polymer blends exhibiting enhanced scratch resistance. Polypropylene-based materials such as TPO’s are used in a broad range of applications, including automotive parts, appliances, and construction materials. One critical deficiency of these materials vs. more expensive engineering plastics is their poor scratch resistance. A polymer blend having enhanced scratch resistance is disclosed comprising: (a) A major amount of a thermoplastic
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Cost-Efficient, Biodegradable Microspheres with Control of Diameter, Density, Color and Surface Chemistry

BACKGROUND: Currently commercialized microspheres for flow measurement and bioscience applications are manufactured via polymerization processes that are costly or impossible to customize and require handling of hazardous materials. Further, the resulting microspheres contain hazardous or non-biodegradable components which often prohibit their release to the public environment. These issues drive manufacturing cost up and limit the size of markets for the product. DESCRIPTION: Researchers at
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Solid Base Transesterification Catalysts for Biodiesel Production

BACKGROUND: Biodiesel presents physical-chemical properties similar to petro-diesel, and can be used directly in the motor with no further significant mechanical modifications or expenditure in maintenance. The base catalyzed transesterification of triglycerides produces a non-toxic, biodegradable, renewable and clean burning fuel that can directly replace petroleum diesel in most applications. However, commercial technology for biodiesel production generally employs homogeneous bases as catalys
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Use of Magnetic Nanoparticles to remove Dispersed Nanoparticles from Aqueous Solutions

BACKGROUND: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are important structural blocks for the preparation of composites with unique optical, electrical, and mechanical properties and their production is expected to increase significantly in the years to come. CNTs are extremely hydrophobic and prone to aggregation, and they are not readily dispersed in aqueous or non-aqueous solutions. However, recent studies have found that natural organic matter, especially its major component, humic acid (a large fraction of s
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Novel Enantiomeric Chiral Alcohols

DESCRIPTION: University of California, Merced (UC Merced) researchers have synthesized novel enantiomeric chiral alcohols, derivatives of a phenyl isobutanol. These compounds feature a conformationally restrictive methyl group on the phenyl group adjacent to the alcohol functionality. APPLICATIONS: The UC Merced chiral alcohols are potential candidates for chiral auxiliaries, chiral ligands, and alcohol precursors to other types of ligands, such as thiols or amines. ADVANTAGES: The conform
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Improved Physical Methods for Increasing Stereoselectivity

BACKGROUND: Since 1988, the Food & Drug Administration has required that the enantiomeric composition of all drugs be known, making stereoselective reactions essential for the pharmaceuticals industry. However, the reactions used to establish chirality at one or more stereocenters often are not sufficiently stereoselective to warrant asymmetric synthesis, thus necessitating the addition of costly stereoisomer resolution steps. Chiral pool resolution strategies have two significant limitations th
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Sequential Sampling within a Portable Computing Environment

BACKGROUND: In industrial, agricultural, and warehouse/retail settings, there are many situations where sequential sampling and hypothesis testing could markedly improve productivity and quality control. However, the underlying mathematics can be very complicated, leading to very high computing requirements. Also, the logistics of sequential data collection is difficult. Thus, existing systems typically use simplified protocols (e.g. fixed sample sizes) or use advanced hardware that is relativel
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Heterogeneous Copper Catalysts

BACKGROUND: The development of effective asymmetric reactions that enable the enantioselective formation of one chiral center over another continues to be an important area of research. A second important area of research relates to the development of water-soluble organometallic catalysts. Conventionally, catalytically active organometallic complexes have been applied as homogeneous catalysts in solution in the organic reaction phase. Difficulties associated with recovery of the homogeneous cat
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Organic Multi-Photon Absorbing Molecules

BACKGROUND: Two-photon or other multi-photon absorbing molecules have been designed in a variety of technologies involving such subjects as optical data storage, 3-D microfabrication techniques, frequency upconverted lasing, optical power limiting, photodynamic therapy, and multi-photon fluorescence microscopy for biological imaging. The absorption of two or more photons by such molecules can trigger chemical and physical changes that make these substances useful for two-photon applications.
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A Novel Class of Pre-Emergent Herbicides

The University of California is seeking industrial partners to commercialize a novel class of herbicidal compounds, the DHC’s. The DHC’s were developed by a major producer of ag chemicals. This company decided to follow different leads and recently donated patents applications claiming the DHC’s as well as a significant amount of DHC formulation and test data to the University of California. The DHC’s show great promise as pre-emergent herbicides in numerous crops. Testing has identif
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Nanoparticle Assembled Hollow Spheres

BACKGROUND: Nanoparticles with very small diameters (<100 nm) can be produced from a variety of compositions, such as metals, metal oxides, metal non-oxides, and polymers. The physical, chemical, and electronic properties of nanoparticles differ from those of bulk materials and molecules, which makes them desirable for preparing macroscopic, functional materials and devices. Directed nanoparticle assembly requires highly specific interactions between nanoparticles and organic molecules to achiev
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Bifunctional Catalysts and Methods for Synthesis of Impermeable and Semipermeable Coatings

BACKGROUND: Fields that involve the handling of sensitive materials, such as electronics, chemicals, and biological agents need a means of safely isolating these items to protect them or the outside environment from contamination. Current methods for coating, sealing, or encapsulating these materials may involve exposure to heat or other chemicals, which can be detrimental to both the substance and the environment. DESCRIPTION: Scientists at the University of California have developed metho
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Searching Composition Space in Combinatorial Chemistry by Monte Carlo Methods

BACKGROUND: Combinatorial chemistry involves searching a large compositional space for compounds with a high figure of merit in order to find a molecule with a given property. However, current methods of searching only apply to relatively small libraries of compounds, with limited numbers of compositions and figures of merit that change smoothly with the composition. For example, exhaustive search methods fail when the potential composition space is larger than can be constructed or searched in
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Modular Adhesives and Energy-Dissipating Materials

BACKGROUND: Natural materials are renowned for their strength and toughness. Spider dragline silk has a breakage energy per unit weight two orders of magnitude greater than high tensile steel, and is representative of many other strong natural fibers. The abalone shell, a composite of calcium carbonate plates sandwiched between organic material, is 3,000 times more fracture resistant than a single crystal of the pure mineral. The organic component, comprising just a few percent of the composite
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A Chemical Enhancer of Net Photosynthesis

A University of California researcher has isolated genes (described in PCT application #WO00029607A1) from the soil bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti (a symbiont naturally found with alfalfa) that produce a molecule that increases net photosynthesis by 25% to 30% within 20 hours after being applied to alfalfa roots. Shoots of treated plants show a 10% increase in dry weight within two weeks. The UC molecule and its associated genes are a previously unknown mechanism for the bacterial promotion
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A Methyl Bromide Substitute for Agricultural Use

Methyl bromide is extremely important to United States and World agriculture (64,000,000 lbs. used in the U.S. in 1990), and is the most widely used and efficacious general-purpose fumigant in the world. It has extensive applications in soil fumigation, quarantine treatment of exports and imports, post-harvest commodity fumigation, and as a structural fumigant for wood-destroying organisms. Under the terms of the Montreal protocol of 1991 and subsequent amendments, and under current federal law
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One-Pot Organocopper Chemistry and Stereospecific Nucleoside Formation

A researcher at the University of California has made several inventions related to organic syntheses involving higher-order cuprates. Higher-order organocuprates are reagents containing copper atoms to which are bound multiple negatively-charged ligands in ethereal solvents, and have been successfully exploited as highly selective and efficient means of making carbon-carbon bonds. The use of cuprates in 1,4-conjugate addition reactions for introduction of unsaturated carbanions is particularly
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Safe and Powerful Reductant

Researchers at the University of California have synthesized a family of compounds which have very strong reduction properties and are also inexpensive and exceptionally safe. Since 1947 the standard high-powered reductant available has been lithium aluminum hydride, but its violent reaction with air, water, and other compounds makes it a dangerous reagent. This pyrophoric property has been especially troublesome in industry where large quantities are needed. Safer alternatives such as OMH1
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Synthesis of Beta-Amino Alcohols

Enantiomerically pure .-amino alcohols play an increasingly important role in both the treatment of a wide variety of human disorders and as chiral auxiliaries in organic synthesis. The importance of enantiomeric purity in pharmaceuticals has been amply demonstrated by the debilitating and sometimes tragic side-effects caused by the presence of the non-therapeutic enantiomer of an otherwise beneficial drug. Enantiomerically pure .-amino alcohols have also been shown to be exceedingly effective
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Poly(2-Methoxy,g-(2'Ethyl-Hexyloxy)-P-Phenylene Vinylene), MEH-PPV, and Methods for Use

BACKGROUND: The possibility of combining the important electronic and optical properties of semiconductors and metals with the attractive mechanical properties and processing advantages of polymers has existed since the discovery of conducting polymers in the late 1970's. However, early attempts resulted in non-processable materials with poor mechanical properties. Improvements in rendering specific conjugated polymer systems soluble made the materials processable, but moderate molecular weights
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A Monoclonal Antibody Assay for Detecting Cyclodiene Insecticides

Researchers at the University of California (UC) have produced a mouse hybridoma cell line, which secretes monoclonal antibodies directed against the most common and persistent polychlorinated cyclodiene insecticides. The monoclonal antibodies are the basis of a competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA), which the UC researchers have developed for use as a sensitive and straight-forward system for detecting the contaminants in foods, soils, and human populations. Polychlorinated
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Novel Chromogenic Ionophores

Ionophores selectively complex with specific ions in sample solutions, and are widely used for measuring ion concentrations in such solutions in conjunction with ion-selective electrodes. University of California researchers have developed new classes of ionophores, called chromogenic hemispherands and chromogenic cryptahemispherands, that enable rapid, easy-to-perform measurements of particular ion concentrations without the need for cumbersome and expensive devices like ion-selective electrod
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Novel Self-Doped Polymers

PATENT ABSTRACT: A self-doped conducting polymer having along its backbone a .pi.- electron conjugated system which comprises a plurality of monomer units, between about 0.01 and 100 mole % of the units having covalently linked thereto at least one Bronsted acid group. The conductive zwitterionic polymer is also provided, as are monomers useful in the preparation of the polymer and electrodes comprising the polymer.
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Novel Conductive Polymers

POLYISOTHIANAPHTENE, A NEW CONDUCTING POLYMER UC Case No. 1984-044-2 U.S. Patent 4,640,748 Patent Abstract: A polymer having an isothianaphthene structure represented by the formula (Ia) and/or Ib): wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 each represents a hydrogen atom or a hydrocarbon residue having 1 to 5 carbon atoms such as methyl, methoxy and thiomethyl, with the proviso that R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 may link together to form, along with the benzene ring, a fused ring which is naphthalene; X is su
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Prevention of Browning in Fruits and Vegetables

Bruising or other mechanical wounding of fruits and vegetables cause many post-harvest problems; including the browning of injured and adjacent tissue. Currently, the only way to control browning induced by mechanical wounding is with refrigeration or chemical treatment. While these treatments slow down browning, such procedures can add significantly to costs and may have a negative effect on product quality; e.g. they may leave chemical residues and alter texture. University of California sc
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Tough, Self-Healing Silicone Materials

Siloxane- and organosiloxane-based materials (collectively termed "silicones") are ubiquitous in commercially available goods and high technology applications, often in the form of oils, rubbers, resins, and hard solids. Their general usefulness is due to their broad and tunable range of beneficial properties, such as their low dielectric constant, high thermomechanical stability, high biocompatibility, high optical transparency, and controllable hardness, porosity, and hydrophilicity. Moreover,
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Amide Forming Chemical Ligation under Mild Reagent-Free Conditions

BACKGROUND: Despite the importance of amide (peptide) bonds, there are currently few methods for their preparation. The synthesis of amide bonds is generally limited to methods requiring the use of excess coupling reagents and side chain protected amino acid residues. These processes are inefficient and can prove difficult to use when joining large strands or fragments. DESCRIPTION: Researchers at the University of California have developed a novel peptide ligation process to prepare nativ
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Compositions and Methods for in Vitro Molecular Sorting Compartmentalization in Double (W/O/W) Emulsions

The present invention provides an in vitro system for compartmentalization of molecular or cellular libraries and provides methods for selection and isolation of desired molecules or cells from the libraries. The library includes a plurality of distinct molecules or cells encapsulated within a water-in-oil-in-water emulsion. The emulsion includes a continuous external aqueous phase and a discontinuous dispersion of water-in-oil droplets. The internal aqueous phase of a plurality of such droplets
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Raman Spectroscopy Apparatus and Method for Continuous Chemical Analysis of Fluid Streams

The present invention provides apparatus and methods for analyzing the chemical composition of fluid streams using Raman spectroscopy. The apparatus includes a laser source for producing light having an excitation wavelength. The light is introduced into a bundle of optical fibers connected to a tubular Raman enhancement cell. A transparent optical element (lens and/or window) acts as a barrier element to isolate the flowing sample stream from the optical components. The Raman enhancement cell i
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Use of Drosophila Embryos for Delivery and High-throughput Screening of Chemical Compounds

Present-day drug discovery frequently involves screening hundreds of thousands of compounds for biological activity against a target molecule. Compound screening is typically preformed using cell-based systems because they promise accurate, whole-cell data representative of the physiological condition. However, compounds that pass this initial screening often fail in future toxicological testing. Pharmaceutical companies want the closest possible model to the human organism while still retaining
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Quantitative Analysis of Unresolved Isomers and Isobars by Tandem Mass Spectrometry

This novel and improved deconvolution method allows high-throughput, quantitative analysis of isobars from unresolved chromatographic peaks, and accurate quantification of isomers or isobars in a complex mixture. Tandem mass spectrometry is attractive for many applications due to its high selectivity, wide dynamic range, and high throughput capabilities. Analysis of isobars and isomers by tandem mass spectrometry is complicated by the similarity between their mass spectra and often requires ext
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Electrochemical Reduction of Ferric Ions Using Hydrogen Gas

Solvent extraction/electrowinning (SXEW) is a growing segment of the copper industry, producing some of the best quality copper in the market. Electrowinning of copper is a highly energy-intensive process that oxidizes water, producing oxygen and an acid mist that may be hazardous to both humans and equipments in the work environment. This invention relates to the ferrous/ferric/sulfur dioxide (FFS) chemical species in the electrowinning process. The reactions that represent the electro-chemistr
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Chemical Vapor Synthesis of Uniform Mixtures of Fine Powders

Producing homogeneous mixtures of fine powders using conventional methods can be a challenging task, especially when the mixture is a composite powder. This technology describes a process of synthesizing fine powder mixtures from reactions in the gas phase followed by condensation and surface deposition. It allows sintering at relatively low temperatures, making it possible to mold the mixture into different shapes and sizes. One application of this technology has been to produce a homogeneous m
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A Virtual Electrochemical Laboratory

This software-based invention simulates a laboratory environment that enables students to understand how common electrochemical experiments are performed. Easily installed on a Microsoft Windows platform, the virtual lab allows students to explore a research environment, conduct experiments by trial and error, and develop an electrochemical setup to acquire data and analyze results. The software includes common electrochemical experiments under a wide variety of physical and chemical condition
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Wastewater Treatment Igloos or "Poo-Gloos" for the Removal of Ammonia

Wastewater treatment lagoons are one of the most widespread treatment technologies in the United States and are suited for small to medium sized rural communities, animal feedlot operations, as well as some industries. Lagoons are effective at removing organic material and suspended solids, provided they are not overloaded. This technology is a device that enhances the ability of the lagoons to remove organic material (biological oxygen demand) as well as nitrogenous compounds like ammonia from
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Magnetic Activated Carbon Particles for Gold Recovery, Water Treatment and other Applications

This invention describes the process of mixing a magnetic material homogeneously with an activated carbon material. Activated carbon is commonly used to remove a number of materials from liquids and gases, for recovery of values or for purification. The magnetic carbon from this invention is of fine particle size that has improved kinetic properties and adsorbs larger amounts of material per unit mass of carbon. <i>Benefits</i> Activated carbon finds use in the extractive metallurgy of gol
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Direct Reading, Quantitative Biosensors for Measuring Chemical Concentrations

Bioluminescence and chemiluminescence are chemical oxidation processes that result in photon emission. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) are two molecules that play unique and central roles in biology and are the basic coupling agents of cellular metabolism. Many biochemical enzyme processes involve one of these two molecules. Evolution has produced bioluminescence processes based on these two molecules. This invention describes diagnostic and detection de
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Novel Synthesis of Indoles

Technology This technology offers two main opportunities. First, it can produce a number of new 2-substituted Indoles that cannot be realized by the Fisher synthesis, and which can be used the starting material to new therapeutic agents. Secondly, it provides a significant improvement over current processes to produce existing therapeutically relevant molecules.. Furthermore, the potential to produce the enantiopure form of drug product by this new methodology is of significant commercia
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Methods of Synthesizing Arborescent Polymers

Methods have been developed for the synthesis of branched (arborescent) homopolymers with a well-defined structure. These molecules, characterized by a cascade-branched (arborescent) architecture, belong to the dendritic polymers family. They were synthesized with molecular weights ranging from 104-108 and branching functionalities (number of side chains) from 10-104. These polymers were obtained from either a sequential grafting reactions or by a more industrially oriented single reactor - (on
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Polymerizable Beta-Diketones for MIPs of Divalent or Trivalent D and F Block Metals

A process for preparing vinyl substituted beta-diketones includes reacting a halogen-containing beta-diketone with an olefin in a reaction zone under Heck coupling reaction conditions in the presence of a catalyst, a base, and an organic phosphine to provide a vinyl substituted beta-diketone product.
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Soluble, Processible Molecularly Imprinted Macromolecules

The scientific community's excitement for the use of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPS) for sensors and filters is rising at an almost exponential rate, with the practical realization that plastics holding impressions of molecules could revolutionize many important aspects of drug discovery, medical diagnostics, chemical analysis and environmental science. Molecular imprinting is a technique for preparing synthetic polymers with recognition sites specific for a target molecule. These artifici
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Vessel for Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME) Chemical Sampling

Researchers at the Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) have further developed the Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME) process. This a process whereby chemicals of interest are selectively and competitively adsorbed onto a silica fiber coated by a stationary chemical phase. The adsorption process starts with the exposure of the fiber to the sample of interest and continues for the length of the exposure time. The silica fiber is a commercial off-the-shelf device availab
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Fluid Sampling Interface for a Submerged Water-Borne Vehicle

It is unsafe and often impossible for humans to directly assess potentially hazardous environments. Today, unmanned vehicles and robots are often used to perform activities that are difficult, dangerous, or impossible for humans. Unmanned vehicles are very successful obtaining materials that need to be chemically analyzed. For example, it is desirable to obtain chemical analysis of water samples at different locations and different depths. However, if there are high radiation or toxin levels, th
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Dual-Sided Microchannel Plate Detector Mount for Coaxial Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometers

Small devices that can rapidly and accurately analyze chemical and biological molecules are required by many industries. Homeland Security and the medical community lead the list. Current instruments are either too large to be used as a first responder in the field, too slow in giving results to analyze large amounts of protein data, or too costly for widespread use. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory has invented and is patenting a double-sided microchannel plate detecto
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Polymer Based Lanthanide Luminescent Sensors for the Detection of Organophosphorous Compounds

A number of organophosphorus compounds are used in nerve agents, including the chemically similar organo-fluorophosphorus compounds found in nerve gasses such as Sarin and Soman. Detection and quantification of these highly toxic compounds by remote sensors at very low levels are critical. Although a variety of physical, chemical and biological techniques have been investigated, few sensors are small and inexpensive enough to be used in military or environmental situations. Methods for the unamb
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Automated Propellant Blending (MSC-22757)

Abstract: Innovators at NASA Johnson Space Center have developed a safer, more consistent and economical way in which to blend propellants. Used mainly for the production of Zirconium Potassium Perchlorate (ZPP) propellant, this automated blending apparatus and process has produced compositions that exhibit faster burn rates and are more dependable than mixtures from other methods.
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Ammonia Monitor Including Solid Phase pH Conditioning and a Liquid-Liquid Exchange Module (MSC-22270)

Abstract: The Ammonia Monitor Including Solid Phase pH Conditioning and a Liquid-Liquid Exchange Module is a new kind of analytical instrument that measures ammonia dissolved in water. It provides continuous, real-time determination of the concentration of ammonia and ammonium in an aqueous process stream. The invention uses a "flow injection analyzer" that injects a sample into a flowing stream. The device is computer controlled, reagentless, and requires no preparation of the sample.
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UV-Curable Polyimides ()

Abstract: The National Aeronautics and Space Administration seeks to transfer technology for the development and production of polyimides using ultraviolet light, rather than heat, to effect polymerization.
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Lightweight Ceramic Insulation and Method (MSC-20782)

Abstract: NASA has introduced an alternative approach to the fabrication of ceramic insulation that is capable of withstanding temperatures up to 1600 degrees C. The process takes water-soluble salts, such as sodium carbonate and aluminum sulfate, and converts them into a powder of porous particles through a cryogenic liquid/freeze drying technique.
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Low-Temperature Oxidation Catalysts (TOP1-466)

Abstract: NASA Langley Research Center is actively seeking partnerships and collaborations to commercialize its Low-Temperature Oxidation Catalysts technology. Several licensees are developing commercial applications
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Low-Temperature Oxidation Catalysts (TOP1-466)

Abstract: NASA Langley Research Center has developed a family of catalysts for low-temperature oxidation of carbon monoxide and other gases. These oxidation catalysts have high activity at low temperatures. Both carbon monoxide and formaldehyde can be readily oxidized in air at typical room temperatures, without requiring any energy input, provided that a suitable gas flow through the catalyst is maintained. The low-temperature oxidation catalysts can be fabricated in a number of ways and coate
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Thermostable Purified Endoglucanases from Thermophilic Bacterium Acidothermus Cellulyticius

U.S. Patent 5,275,944 Technology Description A purified low molecular weight cellulase endoglucanase I having a molecular weight of between about 57,420 to about 74,580 daltons from Acidothermus cellulolyticus (ATCC 43068). The cellulase is water soluble, possesses both C.sub.1 and C.sub.x types of enzyme activity, a high degree of stability toward heat, and exhibits optimum temperature activity at about 83.degree. C. at pH's from about 2 to about 9, and in inactivation temperature of about
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Process for Selection of Oxygen-tolerant Algal Mutants that Produce H.sub.2

U.S. Patent 5,871,952 Technology Description A process for selection of oxygen-tolerant, H.sub.2 -producing algal mutant cells comprising:(a) growing algal cells photoautotrophically under fluorescent light to mid log phase;(b) inducing algal cells grown photoautrophically under fluorescent light to mid log phase in step (a) anaerobically by (1) resuspending the cells in a buffer solution and making said suspension anaerobic with an inert gas; (2) incubating the suspension in the absence of
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Hydrogen Producting Using Hydrogenase-Containing Oxygenic Photosynthetic Organisms

U.S. Patent 6,989,252 Technology Description This invention relates to photosynthetic hydrogen production and specifically to a biophotolysis process, which can be cycled, for the temporal separation of oxygen evolution and hydrogen production in algae.
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Fluorescence technique for on-line monitoring of state of hydrogen-producing microorganisms

U.S. Patent 7,229,785 Technology Description In situ fluorescence method to monitor state of sulfur-deprived algal culture's ability to produce H.sub.2 under sulfur depletion, comprising: a) providing sulfur-deprived algal culture; b) illuminating culture; c) measuring onset of H.sub.2 percentage in produced gas phase at multiple times to ascertain point immediately after anerobiosis to obtain H.sub.2 data as function of time; and d) determining any abrupt change in three in situ fluorescen
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Solar-Induced Chemical Vapor Deposition of Diamond-Type Carbon Films

U.S. Patent 5,346,729 Technology Description An improved chemical vapor deposition method for depositing transparent continuous coatings of sp.sup.3 -bonded diamond-type carbon films, comprising: a) providing a volatile hydrocarbon gas/H.sub.2 reactant mixture in a cold wall vacuum/chemical vapor deposition chamber containing a suitable substrate for said films, at pressure of about 1 to 50 Torr; and b) directing a concentrated solar flux of from about 40 to about 60 watts/cm.sup.2 through
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Process for Selection of Oxygen-tolerant Algal Mutants that Produce H.sub.2

U.S. Patent 5,871,952 Technology Description A process for selection of oxygen-tolerant, H.sub.2 -producing algal mutant cells comprising:(a) growing algal cells photoautotrophically under fluorescent light to mid log phase;(b) inducing algal cells grown photoautrophically under fluorescent light to mid log phase in step (a) anaerobically by (1) resuspending the cells in a buffer solution and making said suspension anaerobic with an inert gas; (2) incubating the suspension in the absence of
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Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Depositions (PECVD) Method of Forming Vanadium Oxide Films and Vanadium Oxide Thin-Films Prepared Thereby

U.S. Patent 6,156,395 Technology Description A method is disclosed of forming a vanadium oxide film on a substrate utilizing plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The method includes positioning a substrate within a plasma reaction chamber and then forming a precursor gas comprised of a vanadium-containing chloride gas in an inert carrier gas. This precursor gas is then mixed with selected amounts of hydrogen and oxygen and directed into the reaction chamber. The amounts of precursor g
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Photoenhanced Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Acids

U.S. Patent 4,919,813 Technology Description A process is described for rapid conversion of organic acids and alcohols anaerobic digesters into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, the optimal precursor substrates for production of methane. The process includes addition of photosynthetic bacteria to the digester and exposure of the bacteria to radiant energy (e.g., solar energy). The process also increases the pH stability of the digester to prevent failure of the digester. Preferred substrates for
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Using liquid desiccant as a regenerable filter for capturing and deactivating contaminants

Technology Description A method, and systems for implementing such method, for purifying and conditioning air of weaponized contaminants. The method includes wetting a filter packing media with a salt-based liquid desiccant, such as water with a high concentration of lithium chloride. Air is passed through the wetted filter packing media, and the contaminants are captured with the liquid desiccant while the liquid desiccant dehumidifies the air. The captured contaminants are then deactivated in
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Solid Lithium-Ion Electrolyte

Technology Description The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.
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Method and System for Simulating Heat and Mass Transfer in CoolingTowers

Technology Description The present invention is a system and method for simulating the performance of a cooling tower. More precisely, the simulator of the present invention predicts values related to the heat and mass transfer from a liquid (e.g., water) to a gas (e.g., air) when provided with input data related to a cooling tower design. In particular, the simulator accepts input data regarding: (a) cooling tower site environmental characteristics; (b) cooling tower operational characteristics
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Solar Hydrogen Generation

Background The establishment of the hydrogen economy will require a non-fossil fuel source of hydrogen. One of the most promising alternatives is to use solar energy to generate hydrogen. Currently, this can be done with conventional solar cells coupled to water electrolysis cells, but the approach is expensive in terms of capital equipment. Invention Description The solution is a simplified, less expensive, and mass producible mechanism for producing hydrogen from the sun's energy. Utilizin
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Microporous Mixed Matrix Membranes

Background Dense mixed matrix membranes have been researched for many years since they are easier to produce than zeolite membranes, they are durable and flexible, and they offer a performance enhancement over polymer membranes. However, dense mixed matrix membranes have limited improved selectivity over pure polymer and the polymer-zeolite interphase formation directly affects the membrane's performance. Invention Description Inventors at UT Austin have created a new high selectivity polyme
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Lanthanide-Containing Conducting Polymers as Emissive Materials

Background This technology represents a novel method of assembling emissive materials with potential applications that include: hybrid, organic, and polymer light-emitting diodes (LEDs), flexible screens and displays, and chemical sensors. A new class of electropolymerizable lanthanide-containing complexes have been synthesized that can be easily converted into highly conductive thin films of conducting polymers, which have lanthanide metal centers judiciously incorporated within the resulting a
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Inexpensive, efficient method for manufacturing organic photovoltaics and LEDs

Background The incorporation of active components such as semiconductor nanoparticles into conducting polymer matrices has many potential applications, including electronic materials, photovoltaic cells, luminescent devices, and sensor arrays. By judiciously placing seed points within the conducting metallopolymer materials that the research team has synthesized, they are able to highly control the growth of active components resulting in a conductive polymer matrix. This allows the end user to
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Electrochromic Material Based on a Conducting Ladder Polymer

Background Electrochromism is the phenomenon displayed when some type of matter reversibly changes color when a burst of charge is applied. Recent applications of electrochromic materials include electrochromic windows which darken when voltage is added and are transparent when voltage is taken away. Like suspended particle devices, electrochromic windows can be adjusted to allow varying levels of visibility. Electrochromism has also been applied to mirrors that respond to various lighting condi
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Detection of Single Nanoparticle Collisions by Electrocatalytic Amplification and its Analytical Applications in Nanotechnology and Biotechnology

Background Current detector/sensor technology has been used to detect the presence of molecules in substances quickly and with relatively high sensitivity. For example, the average diabetic is able to quickly test his blood with the prick of a finger. Conventional technology allows for this quick analysis under the condition that the substance being testing for is present in relatively high concentrations. This technology has the potential to detect the presence of substances in solutions given
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Carbon Dioxide Capture by Aqueous Piperazine

Background The conventional process for CO2 absorption/stripping uses aqueous amines such as monoethanolamine (MEA). Piperazine has previously been identified as a very reactive amine. It is an attractive alternative to MEA because it reacts with CO2 thirty times faster than MEA. However, piperazine is a solid at ambient temperature that has a limited soubility in water. Furthermore, the boiling point of liquid piperazine is less than that of MEA, so it is expected to have a greater volatility t
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A New Method for Anion Metathesis

Background Organic salts are essential reactants in a number of important applications, including the preparation of reaction media, catalysts, precatalysts, analytical materials, solvent, and sensory materials. The properties of organic salts greatly depend on the nature of the associated anion. Metathesis reactions are often used to create the desired combination of organic salt and anion for practical application. Metathesis refers to bimolecular chemical reactions where bonds of two react
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Phenolate Constrained Geometry Polymerization Catalyst and Methods for Preparing ( 96053)

Scientists at Northwestern University have created a unique constrained geometry catalyst (CGC) for olefin polymerization by a simple cost effective one step-synthesis. Upon activation with strong Lewis acid cocatalysts efficient polymerization of ethylene, propylene and styrene is realized. ADVANTAGE: High olefin polymerization activity suitable for commercial production under ambient conditions. Improved catalyst preparation, stability and Ziegler-Natta polymerization activity are observed
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Silyl-Terminated Polymer and Method for Preparing Silyl-Terminated Polyolefins ( 96055)

A new class of a-olefin polymerization catalysts has been developed at Northwestern University. The catalysts in the presence of silanes efficiently produce silyl-capped polyolefins with controlled molecular weight and polydispersity. The Ziegler-Natta type catalysts reduce process cocatalyst requirements. A range of commercially valuable polymers are generated with this novel system. ADVANTAGE: Efficient a-olefin polymerizations catalysts, with reduced cocatalyst demand, affording polymers
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Perfluoronapthyl Substituted Boron Containing Catalyst Activator ( 96101

A novel Ziegler-Natta polymerization activator has been created at Northwestern University. Tris (b-perfluoronapthyl) borane (PNB) cocatalyzes Group 4 metal complexes into a powerful a-olefin polymerization system. PNB promotes efficient ethylene polymerization with a variety of Zr and Ti Ziegler-Natta catalysts. ADVANTAGE: PNB promotes both monomeric and dimeric catalyst species generated in Ziegler-Natta ethylene polymerizations. Unlike previous Lewis acid borane promoters, PNB maintains hi
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NOx Reduction Catalyst ( 97039)

The invention relates to a method for the reduction of nitrogen oxides in gaseous streams such as the exhaust emission from a lean burn internal combustion. U.S. Patent No. 6,143,681
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Supported Organometallic Catalysts for Hydrogenation and Olefin Polymerization ( 98038)

Northwestern University scientists have prepared a new class of olefin / arene hydrogenation and olefin polymerization heterogeneous catalysts that exhibit high conversion rates under ambient conditions. The novel catalysts are supported on sulfate-modified zirconia, which provide exceptional Lewis acidity and chemical reactivity, appropriate for industrial applications. ADVANTAGE: High activity heterogeneous catalysts suitable for commercial olefin / arene hydrogenation and olefin polymeriz
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Organosilicon Compounds and Uses Thereof ( 99043/99008)

Researchers at Northwestern University developed a series of novel silicone-based linkages as tools for the solid-phase synthesis of compounds containing a benzene ring. U.S. Patent No. 6,416,861
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Chemical CO2 Fixation: Cr(III) and Co(III) Salen Complexes as Highly Efficient Catalysts for the Coupling of CO2 and Epoxides (21048)

New highly active Cr(III)- and Co(III) catalyst systems for the coupling of CO2 and terminal epoxides to cyclic carbonates under extremely mild conditions. Carbon dioxide is an attractive and economical C1 building block in organic synthesis and carbonates are versatile chemical intermediates. However to date, catalyst systems that convert CO2 to cyclic carbonates via the metal-catalyzed coupling of CO2 and epoxides, have been limited by reactivity/stability problems and demanding operating cond
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Method for the Preparation of Monodisperse High Molecular Weight Polymers (21062)

A novel method has been developed whereby monodisperse high molecular weight polymers (> 500,000 g/mol) can be prepared from a variety of synthetic, normally disperse high molecular weight polymers. This mechanical process is applied directly to the polymer and does not involve synthetic or chemical modifications. Improved properties are anticipated with reduced polydispersity in plastics, textile fibers, optical media, biomedical, electronic and specialty polymers. ADVANTAGES: A direct and
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Solid Phase Organic Silicate Host Compositions (21075)

A new class of solid organic host – silicon (polysilsesquioxane) matrix polymers have been created. Inorganic silicates, which provide mesoporous cavities, and organic shape / size template molecules are combined to create a novel family of materials capable of tailored separation, catalytic, and surface active functions including metal ion removal and organic molecule recovery. ADVANTAGES: The polymers offer a stable silicate - organic host matrix that can be readily modified by utilizing
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Method of Producing an Exfoliated Polymer-Clay Nanocomposite Through Solid-State Shear Pulverization (22089)

Well dispersed polymer-clay nanocomposites are readily produced with continuous solid state shear pulverization (S3P). Process affords polymer hybrid nanocomposites with enhanced properties in the absence of compatabilizing agents. ADVANTAGES: A general process affording highly dispersed polymer-clay nanocomposites in a wide variety of polymer systems. SUMMARY: Polymer-clay nanocomposites provide enhanced mechanical and thermal properties compared to conventional materials. Increased ten
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Catalytic Synthesis of High Energy Density Nanocomposite Dielectric Materials (26136)

A process affording homogeneously dispersed ceramic nanoparticles within the matrix of processable, high-strength polymers. The high energy density polymer-metal oxide composites provide effective high energy storage in capacitor and insulator applications. ADVANTAGES: Polymer-metal oxide composite materials exhibiting excellent permittivities and high breakdown strength insulator properties in a readily processable matrix for high energy dielectric applications. The scaleable preparation pro
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Enhanced Polymer Properties by Solid State Shear Pulverization (28003

Northwestern’s solid state shear pulverization (S3P) process improves the physical properties of a variety of homopolymers. Enhanced polymer crystallinity, mechanical and oxygen barrier properties are achieved with S3P processing. ADVANTAGES: S3P polymer treatment significantly enhances polymer crystallinity, mechanical and oxygen barrier properties without the need of additive nucleating agents or fillers. SUMMARY: Various solid-state processes have been applied to polymers, including
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Neutral Bimetallic Transition Metal Napthldioxydiiminato Catalysts and Related Polymerization Methods (28037)

New bimetallic Ni olefin polymerization catalyst system. ADVANTAGE: Bimetallic olefin polymerization catalysts with increased activity, degree of and selectivity for methyl group branching, and comonomer incorporation versus mononuclear analogues under mild process conditions. The catalysts also produce highly branched polyethylenes in the absence of a cocatalyst. SUMMARY: The remarkable cooperativity effects displayed by single-site group 4 bimetallic olefin polymerization catalysts inc
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Polymer-Cellulose Composites via Solid-State Shear Pulverization (28135

Process for producing polymer-cellulose composites with enhanced properties. ADVANTAGES: A scalable process to produce well dispersed polymer-cellulose composites having enhanced properties, without need of compatibilizing agents. SUMMARY: Cellulose provides many opportunities to improve the physical properties of a range of polymers. Various composites have been devised, and performance results vary with cellulose purity and scale size. Cellulose composites also provide an excellent gre
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Surface-Immobilized Antimicrobial Peptoids (28138)

Northwestern researchers have developed peptoid mimics of antimicrobial peptides that can be immobilized onto surfaces, rendering these surfaces capable of compromising the membranes of attached bacteria. ADVANTAGES: Peptoids afford promising alternatives to conventional antimicrobials because of their stability, ease of synthesis and low cytotoxicity. These agents present solutions to infections associated with implantable medical devices. SUMMARY: Surface-immobilized antimicrobial polym
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Selective Inhibitors of Nitric Oxide Synthases (21036/98009)

This discovery presents two series of compounds that demonstrate very high selectivity for inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) over the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) enzymes, crucial in the treatment of neurological diseased states. These inhibitors offer the potential for treatment of neurological disorders, including stroke, schizophrenia, migraine headaches, cerebral ischemia, long-term depression, Parkinson's, and Alzheimer's disease ADVANTAGES: Selective modulati
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Facile Direct Conjugation of Peptides, Peptide Modified Polymers and Therapeutic Agents to Tissue Surfaces. (27127)

Synthetic peptide-polymer conjugates are enzymatically coupled to cartilage under mild conditions through the formation of isopeptide bonds between the peptides and extra cellular matrix (ECM) proteins. The system provides a general means of drug delivery, tissue engineering and repair or bioadhesives administration in a biocompatible process. ADVANTAGES: Facile enzymatic controlled tissue engineering of ECM tissues under mild physiological conditions with potential for minimally invasive th
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Oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) amphiphiles and methods for self-assembly

INVENTION: Amphiphilic oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) compounds and methods of use en route to self-assembled composites and device fabrication. Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide OPV compounds and/or methods for assembly, thereby overcoming various deficiencies and shortcomings of the prior art, including those outlined above. It will be understood by those skilled in the art that one or more aspects of this invention can meet certain objectives, while one or more
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Novel Ion Exchange Materials for Heavy Metals Removal

INVENTION: The novel ion exchange materials are metal sulfide based materials. They are made of inexpensive, non-toxic elements. They can be prepared by solid state or hydrothermal synthesis and are chemically and thermally stable. The current production scale is on the order of grams, however the cost effective manufacturing process is easily scaleable to large quantities. One form of the material is very stable under strongly acidic conditions and can be regenerated by 12M HCl without modifyin
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Polymer-Cellulose Composites via Solid-State Shear Pulverization

INVENTION: Process for producing polymer-cellulose composites with enhanced properties. ADVANTAGES: A scalable process to produce well dispersed polymer-cellulose composites having enhanced properties, without need of compatibilizing agents. SUMMARY: Cellulose provides many opportunities to improve the physical properties of a range of polymers. Various composites have been devised, and performance results vary with cellulose purity and scale size. Cellulose composites also provide an ex
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Chlorine-Resistant Reverse-Osmosis Membrane

Current state-of-the-art technology for reverse osmosis filtration of water has one major flaw: the addition of chlorine can cause the membrane to degrade. However, when treating saltwater or brackish water, it is necessary to introduce chlorine for sanitation and disinfection purposes. Unfortunately, commercially available membranes encounter significant problems when chlorine is introduced: namely, the degradation of the membrane, followed by the severe reduction of the permeability of the mem
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Centrifuge Permeameter for Unsaturated Soils System

Current testing methods cannot measure the unsaturated hydraulic properties of granular materials simultaneously, and require long testing periods. They are impractical and involve the use of several granular specimens as well as destructive or intrusive measurements of the relevant testing variables. The significantly time-consuming testing period may take up to one year to collect final results. Invention Description The centrifuge permeameter method identifies the relationships between so
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Centrifuge Permeameter for Unsaturated Soils System

Background Current testing methods cannot measure the unsaturated hydraulic properties of granular materials simultaneously, and require long testing periods. They are impractical and involve the use of several granular specimens as well as destructive or intrusive measurements of the relevant testing variables. The significantly time-consuming testing period may take up to one year to collect final results. Invention Description The centrifuge permeameter method identifies the relationships
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Centrifuge Permeameter for Unsaturated Soils System

Current testing methods cannot measure the unsaturated hydraulic properties of granular materials simultaneously, and require long testing periods. They are impractical and involve the use of several granular specimens as well as destructive or intrusive measurements of the relevant testing variables. The significantly time-consuming testing period may take up to one year to collect final results. Invention Description The centrifuge permeameter method identifies the relationships between so
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Binder Compositions for Laser Sintering Processes

Background Rapid prototyping has developed steadily as an industry over the past two decades. The leading four companies in the field had aggregate sales estimated at $387 million in 2007, approximately a 10% increase over 2006. However, currently there is no binder capable of providing the structural support to cast ceramic or metal powders and then dissolving. Consequently, access to hard, durable metal or ceramic parts through rapid prototyping processes is not currently available. Invent
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Advanced Polymer Membranes for the Purification of Hydrogen and Other Gases

Background Current methods for carbon dioxide removal and hydrogen purification are not only very expensive but also cause large losses of gas and use toxic chemicals. The hydrogen required in the refining business is generated through costly, toxic, and inefficient systems like steam methane reforming and pressure swing adsorption. Furthermore, most polymer membranes used for membrane purification systems are more permeable to small molecules (e.g., hydrogen) than to larger molecules (e.g., car
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Additive technology to eliminate bio-fouling in membranes; e.g., desalinization

Background One of the major roadblocks to widespread use of membranes for water purification is membrane fouling. Fouling occurs when certain impurities in water are deposited on the surface of a membrane or in its internal pore structure. This deposition leads to a dramatic reduction in water flux, which increases the operating costs and decreases membrane lifetime. Therefore, new membrane materials are needed to help reduce foulant adhesion. Most studies have focused increasing membrane hydrop
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A New Method for Anion Metathesis

vBackground Organic salts are essential reactants in a number of important applications, including the preparation of reaction media, catalysts, precatalysts, analytical materials, solvent, and sensory materials. The properties of organic salts greatly depend on the nature of the associated anion. Metathesis reactions are often used to create the desired combination of organic salt and anion for practical application. Metathesis refers to bimolecular chemical reactions where bonds of two reac
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Highly Efficient and Specific Oxidation of Nucleic Acids with Dinuclear Copper Complexes

The present invention is related to a novel method for splitting nucleic acids at specific points on a complementary nucleic acid segment using a dinuclear copper-based compound of Formula I. Additionally, the present invention is related to a novel treatment of cancer, tumors, and cancer cells using a dinuclear copper-based compound of Formula I or a naked ligand of formula II: (Formula I and II).
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Abstract Tungstated Zirconia Nanocatalysts

Preparation of tungstated zirconia solid acid catalyst with enhanced activity Advantages . Enhanced activity relative to solid acid catalysts . Enhanced selectivity, thermal stability, and resistance to deactivation . Environmentally friendly; Low environmental impact relative to liquid catalysts . Lower safety risk compared to liquid catalysts Technology . A method for producing a new type of solid acid catalyst with a precisely synthesized nanostructure which offers enhanced activ
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Method for Producing Tetrapodal Nanoparticles with High Selectivity

Large-scale production of tetrapodal CdSe nanoparticles Advantages . Method produces tetrapodal CdSe nanoparticles of uniform size with high selectivity . Production costs (relative to existing methods) reduced approximately 200-fold . Method does not require use of highly toxic alkyl phosphonates The Technology The process of this invention allows for the production of CdSe tetrapods with 90% shape-selectivity using either a hot injection technique or a one-pot slow decomposition approach
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Group IV monolithic column

In present chromatography products, silica based and organic polymers are used to fabricate monolithic columns. While some of these stationary phases have pH and temperature limitations, zirconia offers superior pH and temperature characteristics. One company has commercialized zirconia based products but these are not monolithic. Monolithic structures have superior permeability requiring significantly lower pressure and shorter separation time compared to that of packed columns. Even with super
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Temporally Addressable Biochemical Sensor Arrays

Chemical sensor arrays are low cost, compact, robust and versatile alternatives to large analytical tools and hence drive the need to rapidly fabricate reusable chemical sensor arrays for simultaneous multi-analyte quantification. This invention includes the rapid fabrication of reusable chemical sensor arrays for simultaneous multi-analyte quantification by machining a novel array of minature spherical sensor dots atop an LED. The array can be specifically tailored for any known class of a
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Protein Imprinted Xerogels with Integrated Emission Sites (PIXIES)

Chemical sensor arrays are low cost, compact, robust and versatile alternatives to large analytical tools and hence drive the need to rapidly fabricate reusable chemical sensor arrays for simultaneous multi-analyte quantification. This invention includes the rapid fabrication of reusable chemical sensor arrays for simultaneous multi-analyte quantification by machining a novel array of minature spherical sensor dots atop an LED. The array can be specifically tailored for any known class of a
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Solution Processable n-Type polymers

Introduction Conjugated polymers and organic semiconductors promise great advances in electronics because of the benefits they offer over silicon, including being cheaper with less demanding manufacturing requirements and allowing for larger, more flexible, and more robust materials that are more responsive to chemical and biochemical stimulus. A critical roadblock in developing this technology, however, is the lack of easily synthesized n-type polymers and, subsequently, the lack of effective p
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Continuous Production of Microcellular Fibers

Introduction In microcellular plastic foams, inert gas is dissolved in thermoplastic under high pressure. The forced evacuation of this gas during processing creates pores (or cells) within the final plastic. The pores are small enough that clarity of the plastic is unaffected, and because of the pores, much less starting material is required in microcellular plastics than in conventional plastics, greatly reducing weight and cost. As a wide range of pore densities is achievable, this technology
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Microcellular Foaming of Cyclic Olefin Copolymer (COC)

Introduction Cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) is a commercially available thermoplastic. It possesses exceptional clarity in its natural form, similar to that of glass, and it has high moisture resistance and low absorption rates. This thermoplastic’s many qualities make it an exceptional candidate for many applications, ranging from optics to packaging. The ability to create microcellular plastic foams using COC would further increase its range of applications with a significant reduction in mat
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Methods for Detecting and Extracting Gold

Introduction Gold is found in various forms on earth. It can be found in rocks, ore deposits, eluvial deposits, alluvial deposits, placer deposits etc. Gold is also recovered from secondary sources such as electronic scrap and waste electroplating solutions. Most methods of extracting gold are extremely expensive and require heavy machinery and are labor intensive. Some methods require the use of highly toxic and environmentally hazardous cyanide to extract gold. Floatation, which is a simpler a
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Programmable Generation and Transport of Droplets on Microscale Surface Texture Ratchets

Introduction Advances in microfluidic technology are constantly opening doors to new and exciting applications. Currently, many laboratory processes can be combined on a single chip commonly only millimeters in size while manipulating liquid volumes of picoliter size or less. In order to effectively perform the many processes that may be required of a microfluidic system, various tools are required, such as pumps, valves, mixers, and ratchets. In particular, the development of ratchets and other
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Nanocellular Foaming of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene using Ultrasound

Introduction Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a thermoplastic consisting of molecules of incredibly long chains with molecular weights of several million. It has the highest impact strength of any thermoplastic, has a high resistance to corrosion, moisture, and abrasion, and has a friction coefficient similar to that of Teflon. The ability to create nano-structured UHMWPE materials could yield many useful and unique properties, including mechanical and optical properties, and
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Solution Processable n-Type polymers

Introduction Conjugated polymers and organic semiconductors promise great advances in electronics because of the benefits they offer over silicon, including being cheaper with less demanding manufacturing requirements and allowing for larger, more flexible, and more robust materials that are more responsive to chemical and biochemical stimulus. A critical roadblock in developing this technology, however, is the lack of easily synthesized n-type polymers and, subsequently, the lack of effective p
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Polymer Solar Cells using Self-Assembled Monolayer modified Zinc Oxide/Metal as Cathodes

Introduction Conjugated polymer-based organic solar cells are considered an essential source of inexpensive renewable energy due to their advantages of being fabricated by low-cost and large-area printing and coating techniques on light-weight flexible substrates. Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells composed of a polymer:fullerene composite layer sandwiched between a transparent metal-oxide anode and a metallic cathode are one of the most successful types of polymer solar cells. However, the p
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Continuous Production of Microcellular Fibers

Introduction In microcellular plastic foams, inert gas is dissolved in thermoplastic under high pressure. The forced evacuation of this gas during processing creates pores (or cells) within the final plastic. The pores are small enough that clarity of the plastic is unaffected, and because of the pores, much less starting material is required in microcellular plastics than in conventional plastics, greatly reducing weight and cost. As a wide range of pore densities is achievable, this technology
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Microcellular Foaming of Cyclic Olefin Copolymer (COC)

Introduction Cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) is a commercially available thermoplastic. It possesses exceptional clarity in its natural form, similar to that of glass, and it has high moisture resistance and low absorption rates. This thermoplastic’s many qualities make it an exceptional candidate for many applications, ranging from optics to packaging. The ability to create microcellular plastic foams using COC would further increase its range of applications with a significant reduction in mat
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Method for the Preparation of SiC Nanorods

Summary A process has been developed to produce SiC nanorods in high yield with diameters <100 nm (typical diameters of 2-40 nanometers) and aspect ratios of 10-1000 nm. This method can be used to produce SiC nanorods in single run, batch, and continuous reactors under relatively mild conditions. Applications This method represents a low-cost approach for producing SiC nanorods on an industrial scale. Thus, it represents a significant improvement over current methods requiring preformed carbo
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Selective Deposition of Cells in Microwells

Summary This invention is a method of selectively functionalizing indentations (such as wells or channels in microfluidic systems) or protrusions on a substrate such that, for example, cells selectively bind to the indentations or the protrusions. The ability to control the placement of cells on a surface is useful in making arrays of cells, which in turn make possible analytical systems for the detection of toxic substances, systems for high throughput screening for drug discovery and new metho
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Method and Apparatus for Fluid Dispersion

Summary The invention is a microfluidic device for focusing and/or breaking fluid sections and drops. The subject fluid flows in the device's central channel as the dispersing fluid flows in the two outer channels. The outer fluid exerts pressure and viscous stresses that focus the inner fluid into a narrow thread that then breaks at, or just after, the orifice via capillary instability. The invention also covers "passive breakup" and "flow focusing" techniques to control the size and size di
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Electrostatic Steering of Charged Droplets in Microfluidic Devices

Summary The invention consists of means of charging droplets and then using that charge to choose which channel a droplet will enter at a bifurcation. There is a need to have fast, accurate means of precisely sorting and directing materials in an automated way on a microfluidic device. Examples of materials that one would want to sort are mixtures of living and dead cells, or male and female embryos. Other situations where there is a need to steer droplets are for combinatorial chemistry mixi
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Method and Apparatus for Forming Multiple Emulsions

Summary Everyday emulsions have drops of one liquid dispersed in an immiscible continuous liquid. A multiple emulsion has immiscible droplets dispersed in drops dispersed in an immiscible continuous liquid (double emulsion). The IP describes a simple apparatus that can make multiple emulsions with a high degree of control - such as the ability to make emulsions of one droplet in one drop and to control the relative sizes of each. The IP claims a platform for making double emulsions, which have m
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Novel Peptide Therapeutic for Multiple Sclerosis

Summary Background: In Multiple Sclerosis, the host’s immune system (lead by T cells) attacks and destroys myelin basic protein, the principle component necessary for nerve transmission. Part and parcel of this immune response pathway are the so-called Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecules. MHC molecules interact with myelin basic protein and bring it to the cell surface for interaction with T cells, which in turn proliferate and dispose lethal inflammatory cytokines to the cel
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Mu Opioid Peptidomimetics: Lead Compounds for the Treatment of Pain

Summary Background: Although peptides have shown some promise in clinical trials as therapeutic agents, their success has largely been limited by several factors, including rapid degradation by peptidases, poor cell permeability, and a lack of binding specificity resulting from conformational inflexibility. Science has overcome these limitations with the advance of peptidomimetics--a system for the production of modified chemical compounds capable of mimicking the structural and or functional pr
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Novel Peptide Therapeutic for Multiple Sclerosis

Summary Background: In Multiple Sclerosis, the host immune system (lead by T cells) attacks and destroys myelin basic protein, the principle component necessary for nerve transmission. Part and parcel of this immune response pathway are the so-called Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecules. MHC molecules interact with myelin basic protein and bring it to the cell surface for interaction with T cells, which in turn proliferate and dispose lethal inflammatory cytokines to the cell. This t
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A Novel Class of HIV Therapeutics: Monoclonal Antibodies that Neutralize Previously Resistant HIV Primary Isolates

Summary Background: Molecular studies of the genomic organization of HIV-1 show that it encodes a number of genes common to all retroviruses, such as the gag, pol, and env genes. The env gene of HIV-1 produces a cleaved envelope glycoprotein (gp120) that is expressed on the exterior viral envelope surface. The binding and fusion of HIV-1 viruses with cells is mediated by specific interactions between the external subunit of gp120 and the CD4 receptor on the target cell surface. Studies have show
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Antibody Purification

Summary Background: Monoclonal antibodies have become increasingly important for biomedical research and clinical therapeutics. The antibodies are used extensively in basic biomedical research, diagnostics and treatment of various illnesses such as infections and cancer. The present methods of purifying antibodies all require chromatography which is labor intensive, requires expensive materials and is also operationally demanding at large scales. This has led the industry to constantly look f
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Deposition of nanoscale materials using structured surfaces

Summary The ability to precisely localize and control deposition of materials at the nanoscale is extremely important for a wide variety of emerging technologies. Many unique physical properties emerge only at the nanoscale and it is very useful to be able to control the formation of these materials. Control over the nucleation, growth, and assembly of nanomaterials is critical to advanced applications and complex device structures. While it is difficult to manipulate materials at such small siz
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Production of Digitized Stereoscopic Polarizing Images by Inkjet Printing

Summary The Technology The Stereo Imaging Research Group developed methods, materials and applications for stereoscopic hardcopy. The group's StereoJet process forms polarizing images by inkjet printing, using commercial desktop printers without modification. Key inventions include specialized substrates, inks and procedures. Each StereoJet print or transparency consists of a pair of superimposed, oppositely polarizing digital images, one representing the left-eye view and the other repre
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Production of Digitized Stereoscopic Polarizing Images by Inkjet Printing

Summary The Technology The Stereo Imaging Research Group developed methods, materials and applications for stereoscopic hardcopy. The group's StereoJet process forms polarizing images by inkjet printing, using commercial desktop printers without modification. Key inventions include specialized substrates, inks and procedures. Each StereoJet print or transparency consists of a pair of superimposed, oppositely polarizing digital images, one representing the left-eye view and the other repre
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Creating Nano-Wrinkles of Virtually any Design on the Surface of Polymers

Summary Creating Nano-Wrinkles of Virtually any Design on the Surface of Polymers Elevator pitch: A new method has been developed at Harvard to design and create virtually any type of nano-wrinkle patterns on the surfaces of polymers. Anticipated applications for these hard-skin nano-wrinkled surfaces include tissue engineering, where the wrinkles can create custom-designed scaffolds for optimizing cell growth, and microfluidics, where customized wrinkle patterns can enable complex fluidic
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General Approach to Large Area, Controlled Density, Aligned Films of Nanowires and Carbon Nanotubes via Bubble Expansion

Summary Background Central to many proposed electronic device-based applications of nanowires and carbon nanotubes is the development of methods that enable organization over large areas with controlled orientation and density. While progress has been made in studies of individual or small numbers of nanowire and nanotube devices prepared by directed assembly and centimetre scale assembly of nanowire field effect transistor arrays by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique, it is unclear if these can be
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Uniform Non-Spherical Colloidal Particles with Tunable Shapes

Summary Background: Non-spherical colloidal particles are useful in advanced applications beyond those that regular spherical colloidal particles exhibit. For example they are useful for modifying optical properties, controlling suspension rheology, and engineering colloidal composites. However current methods of making uniform sized particles with a controllable non-spherical shape are generally not scaleable to commercial quantities, which limits their practical application. The current inv
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Patterning of metals and metal compounds using ionotropic polymers

Summary Background: Patterning surfaces to create some function is a core technology propelling our technical society. The most important such technology, photolithography, is used to create IC chips with nanoscale features. It is also the most expensive with fab capital costs greater than several billion dollars. Not all surface patterning needs require nanoscale resolution. Soft lithography, pioneered by George Whitesides, can create patterns on a surface in the microscale using a suite of
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Portable and Inexpensive Chemical and Biological Sensors

Summary The broadly tunable quantum cascade laser (QCL) described in this invention enables the production of a small, portable chemical and biological sensor that can detect a range of molecules within a single, compact device. Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs) are intraband semiconductor lasers that can emit within the mid-infrared and terahertz spectral regions, in particular, the molecular ‘fingerprint’ range where many molecules have tell-tale absorptions. The broadly tunable QCL u
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Microfabricated, Chip-Based, Low-Power Optical Tweezers

Summary Since they were first demonstrated over twenty years ago, optical tweezers have been widely used for the manipulation and measurement of many microscale particles, particularly in the biological sciences. However, many of these systems require large, high-powered laser systems along with bulky and expensive optical objectives. With growing interest in microfluidics and other chip-based systems for high-throughput biological studies, a compact and integrated optical tweezer would be highl
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Microfluidic Platform for Constructing Tunable 3D Cellular Microenvironments for Performing Biologically Relevant Cell-Based Assays

Summary Markets/Needs Addressed: In vitro studies of living cells are commonly carried out in 2-dimensional (2D) systems involving cells grown in monolayers in glass or polystyrene Petri dishes. The limitations of these systems, and their differences from native three-dimensional (3D) in vivo biology, are well accepted. Indeed, the sometimes drastic changes in phenotype and/or gene expression that cells (e.g. primary human cells) may undergo when cultured in 2D systems limit the biological rele
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Deposition of nanoscale materials using structured surfaces

Summary The ability to precisely localize and control deposition of materials at the nanoscale is extremely important for a wide variety of emerging technologies. Many unique physical properties emerge only at the nanoscale and it is very useful to be able to control the formation of these materials. Control over the nucleation, growth, and assembly of nanomaterials is critical to advanced applications and complex device structures. While it is difficult to manipulate materials at such small siz
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Transparent Conductor (formerly Zinc Oxyflouride)

Summary This invention embodies unique chemical vapor deposition (CVD) thin film compositions which reflect infrared radiation, transmit visible light, absorb ultraviolet radiation and conduct electricity. Furthermore, these transparent conductors can easily be patterned. Applications Materials with these properties may have applications in photovoltaic devices (for example, as electrodes for solar cells), computer screens, television screens, liquid crystal displays (LCDs), or as electrochro
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LHASA Software Program: Chemical Synthesis Analysis

Summary The computer program LHASA (an acronym for Logic and Heuristics Applied to Synthetic Analysis), which has been under continuous development at Harvard and various collaborating universities for more than 25 years, is intended to assist organic chemists in designing multistep routes to complex molecules. The program accepts as input a target molecule drawn in the language of structural formulae that is common to all organic chemists. A perception of the target is conducted to identify mol
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Fabrication of Carbon Microstructures

Summary This invention provides a convenient, inexpensive, rapid, and reproducible method for making high-carbon solid structures on the micro scale (dimensions of less than 2 mm, less than 100 nm, or less than 50 nm) by molding them from fluid precursors. These high carbon materials can be rendered electrically conducting or insulating by tailoring the materials to a selected thermal treatment. Furthermore, their mechanical properties can be tailored by use of different additives. Applicatio
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Vapor Deposition of Silica Nanolaminates

Summary This invention concerns a very efficient atomic layer deposition (ALD) method to make extremely smooth and highly conformal silica thin films with excellent step coverage. As microelectronic circuits become more and more dense, with decreasing distances between active elements and interconnects, better methods of laying down dielectrics as insulation are required to retain performance. This invention is such a better method. Prior art ALD methods, while known to produce highly conformal
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Microfluidic Arrays for Multiplex Detection of Analyts

Summary This invention is a microfluidic array apparatus and a method of performing multiple analyses on multiple samples simultaneously, utilizing nanoliter volumes of reagents. It has two embodiments, the first consists of N microfluidic channels, perhaps in a parallel array, in fluidic contact with N' microfluidic channels, perhaps parallel and orthogonal to the N channels, making NxN' contact points where analyses can occur. Contact is controlled by use of membranes, or other dividers, at th
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Scaleable Hydrogen Production via Bioengineered Yeast Systems

Summary A new synthetic biology approach is proposed for producing hydrogen from bioengineered yeast strains. The invention applies aggressive engineering of metabolic pathways and reducing complexes to create a yeast microenvironment capable of producing hydrogen from glucose at theoretical maximum levels (approaching >50 kg hydrogen/ton of biomass) according to the glucose-hydrogen reaction: C6H12O6 (glucose) + H2O Ã 6CO2 + 12H2. In nature, while the overall economics of this reaction
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Specific Targeting of Cell Division (and Cancer): Small molecule inhibitors of Eg5 Hold Potential for Enhanced Safety

Summary Prof. Mitchison’s group at Harvard was the first to show, very elegantly, that it is possible to specifically target cell division proteins other than tubulin by using a small molecule, monastrol, which targets Eg5 and leads to mitotic arrest. Eg5 is responsible for establishing and maintaining the bipolar spindle. This work on monastrol subsequently led to considerable activity in several fields such as in chemistry for the improved synthesis of monastrol, enantioseparation, and
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Novel Anti-CMV Small Molecules

Summary Five structurally diverse small molecules have been discovered that inhibit human cytomegalovirus (CMV) replication with sub- to low micro-molar potency and at concentrations of up to 500-fold lower than those exhibiting cytotoxicity. These molecules represent a distinct departure from contemporary therapy as they inhibit interaction between viral polymerase subunits. In previous studies, it was discovered that specific residues in the connector loop of the UL44 viral subunit were essent
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Novel Clinical Stage Treatments for Epilepsy and Pain

Summary The principal investigator has discovered that Huperzine A (HupA) is characterized by extremely potent therapeutic activity against epilepsy and chronic pain. HupA was tested in a formalin model of pain, in which it produced complete inhibition of pain behavior in all treated mice, with a dosage well below known TD50 values. HupA has also shown extensive evidence for being effective in various animal models of epilepsy, including the 6-Hz mouse model. Clinical studies are being pursu
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Transparent Conductor (formerly Zinc Oxyflouride)

Summary This invention embodies unique chemical vapor deposition (CVD) thin film compositions which reflect infrared radiation, transmit visible light, absorb ultraviolet radiation and conduct electricity. Furthermore, these transparent conductors can easily be patterned. Applications Materials with these properties may have applications in photovoltaic devices (for example, as electrodes for solar cells), computer screens, television screens, liquid crystal displays (LCDs), or as electrochro
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DEREK Software

Summary The computer program DEREK (an acronym for Deductive Estimation of Risk from Existing Knowledge) is designed to assist chemists and toxicologists in predicting likely areas of possible toxicological risk for new compounds, based on an analysis of their chemical structures. DEREK is derived from the LHASA program for computer-assisted synthetic analysis (see 375/Corey), which has been under development at Harvard and various other universities for more than 25 years. Like LHASA, DEREK
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Extended Nitride Material Comprising C2N and Formation Method

Summary This invention includes a novel carbon nitride material and a method for its production. Carbon nitride has been shown to be harder than diamond as well as a better heat conductor. Pulsed laser ablation of graphite targets combined with an intense, atomic nitrogen source has been used to prepare the C-N thin film materials, in which carbon and nitrogen form unpolarized covalent bonds. Qualitative tests indicate that these C-N solids are thermally robust and hard. In addition, strong elec
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Fabrication of Carbon Microstructures

Summary This invention provides a convenient, inexpensive, rapid, and reproducible method for making high-carbon solid structures on the micro scale (dimensions of less than 2 mm, less than 100 nm, or less than 50 nm) by molding them from fluid precursors. These high carbon materials can be rendered electrically conducting or insulating by tailoring the materials to a selected thermal treatment. Furthermore, their mechanical properties can be tailored by use of different additives. Applicatio
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Method for the Preparation of SiC Nanorods

Summary A process has been developed to produce SiC nanorods in high yield with diameters <100 nm (typical diameters of 2-40 nanometers) and aspect ratios of 10-1000 nm. This method can be used to produce SiC nanorods in single run, batch, and continuous reactors under relatively mild conditions. Applications This method represents a low-cost approach for producing SiC nanorods on an industrial scale. Thus, it represents a significant improvement over current methods requiring preformed carbo
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HBPA Photoaffinity Probe

Summary This invention describes a photolabeling reagent p-(4-hydroxybenzoyl)phenylalanine (HBPA) which overcomes many difficulties associated with BPA. Patent protection includes this compound's synthesis and use in photolabeling. Harvard's intellectual property portfolio includes the following patent: US 5,986,136 issued November 16, 1999. Applications Determination of intermolecular interactions in biological systems: -receptors for bioactive peptides -immunoreceptors -cell signalling
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Liquid Precursors for Formation of Metal Oxides

Summary Films of metal oxides have been deposited from vaporized precursor mixtures of metal beta-diketonates and, optionally, oxygen or other sources of oxygen. For example, a liquid mixture formed of the mixed aluminum beta-diketonates has derived a mixture of the ligands 2,6-dimethyl-3,5-heptanedione; 2,7-dimethyl-3,5-heptanedione; 2,6-dimethyl-3,5-octanedione; 2,2,6-trimethyl-3,5-heptanedione; 2,8-dimethyl-4,6-nonanedione; 2,7-dimethyl-4,6-nonanedione; 2,2,7-trimethyl-3,5-octanedione; and 2,
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Vapor Source for Chemical Vapor Deposition

Summary A novel apparatus has been developed to turn liquids into vapors for use in chemical vapor deposition. It employs a high-frequency ultrasonic plate to break the liquid into tiny droplets and a gas-dynamic sorting tower to reprocess larger droplets into smaller ones before quickly vaporizing them. The method can vaporize liquids with high efficiency even if they have low vapor pressures and limited thermal stability. The vapor concentration can be set to a known and reproducible value by
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On Bead Tagging and Decoding for Combinatorial Synthesis

Summary Pharmaceutical drug discovery has been greatly impacted by the development of novel approaches to the rapid synthesis of novel compounds, including combinatorial synthesis approaches. A common problem in combinatorial synthesis is that the compounds are frequently produced as mixed pools attached to solid state supports. From these, it is necessary to identify the specific compound of interest by deconvoluting or using encoding techniques during synthesis. Harvard Medical School resea
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Liquid Precursor for Formation of Materials Containing Alkali Metals

Summary Volatile liquid precursors (reagents) have been developed for the formation of alkali metal-containing materials using chemical vapor deposition (CVD), spray coating, spin coating or sol-gel deposition processes. The liquid precursors comprise alkali metal amides. Films containing alkali metals are deposited from vapors of the precursor liquids and, optionally, oxygen or other sources of oxygen. Applications This process may be used to deposit lithium niobate films having non-linear o
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Techniques for high yield synthesis of macrocyclic compounds

Summary Many useful pharmaceuticals, including natural products, have a macrocyclic structure that can be a challenge when exploring synthesis methods. The Walsh Laboratory has discovered a new process using of a solid-phase resin to synthesize macrocycle compounds, including polyketide synthase (PKS), non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) and fatty acid synthase (FAS). The peptidic precursor molecules are connected to the solid-phase resin using a specific linker, and macrocyclization is achi
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Vapor Deposition of Silica Nanolaminates

Summary This invention concerns a very efficient atomic layer deposition (ALD) method to make extremely smooth and highly conformal silica thin films with excellent step coverage. As microelectronic circuits become more and more dense, with decreasing distances between active elements and interconnects, better methods of laying down dielectrics as insulation are required to retain performance. This invention is such a better method. Prior art ALD methods, while known to produce highly conformal
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Method of Creating Self-Assembled, Selectively-Permeable Colloidosome Structures

Summary Colloidosomes are spherical shells of micron-sized particles made by the simple technique of self-assembly onto emulsion droplets. These hollow, elastic capsules are ideal for efficiently encapsulating active agents for selective and timed release because they are highly controllable in strength, permeability and elasticity. Colloidosomes are an enabling technology with a variety of applications from functional foods to drug delivery to biotech and metallurgy. Capsules are composed o
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Selective Deposition of Cells in Microwells

Summary This invention is a method of selectively functionalizing indentations (such as wells or channels in microfluidic systems) or protrusions on a substrate such that, for example, cells selectively bind to the indentations or the protrusions. The ability to control the placement of cells on a surface is useful in making arrays of cells, which in turn make possible analytical systems for the detection of toxic substances, systems for high throughput screening for drug discovery and new metho
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Microfluidic Arrays for Multiplex Detection of Analyts

Summary This invention is a microfluidic array apparatus and a method of performing multiple analyses on multiple samples simultaneously, utilizing nanoliter volumes of reagents. It has two embodiments, the first consists of N microfluidic channels, perhaps in a parallel array, in fluidic contact with N' microfluidic channels, perhaps parallel and orthogonal to the N channels, making NxN' contact points where analyses can occur. Contact is controlled by use of membranes, or other dividers, at th
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Production of Digitized Stereoscopic Polarizing Images by Inkjet Printing

Summary The Technology The Stereo Imaging Research Group developed methods, materials and applications for stereoscopic hardcopy. The group's StereoJet process forms polarizing images by inkjet printing, using commercial desktop printers without modification. Key inventions include specialized substrates, inks and procedures. Each StereoJet print or transparency consists of a pair of superimposed, oppositely polarizing digital images, one representing the left-eye view and the other repre
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Highly Conformal Tungsten Nitride Thin Films

Summary The invention describes a method of producing a uniform, smooth and conformal coating of tungsten nitride, synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The silver-colored coating (or film) is metallic and a good electrical conductor. Suitable applications in microelectronics include barriers to the diffusion of copper and electrodes for thin film capacitors and field-effect transistors (FETs). Similar processes deposit molybdenum nitride, which is suitable for layers alternating with si
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Alteration of Surface Affinities

Summary This invention claims a method for using a pulse of current in an electrochemical microdevice to change a surface from one that resists the adsorption of proteins and cells to one that promotes that adsorption. This invention allows the preparation of surfaces that adsorb eucaryotic cells and presents them in patterns, and then the controlled release of these cells from those patterns. The movement of the cells across the surface following the current pulse provides the basis for bioche
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Atomic Layer Deposition Using Metal Amidinates

Summary This invention relates to materials and processes for d eposition of conformal films containing metals on solid substrates. Examples include copper, cobalt and iron metals or their oxides or nitrides. Suitable applications include electrical interconnects in microelectronic and magnetoresistant layers in magnetic information storage devices. Applications Atomic Layer Deposition, semiconductors For Further Information Please Contact the Director of Business Development Bob Benson Emai
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Using Electro-magnetically Induced Transparency in Photonic Crystal Cavities to

Summary This invention describes a photonic crystal system which uses electro-magnetically induced transparency (EIT) as the non-linear medium in photonic crystal cavities to obtain devices of unprecedent non-linear sensitivity, with operating power requirements many orders of magnitude smaller than in most non-linear optics devices. Implementation is not limited to EIT and can use any kind of cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). This invention also describes a method of forming a microcavit
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Method and Apparatus for Fluid Dispersion

Summary The invention is a microfluidic device for focusing and/or breaking fluid sections and drops. The subject fluid flows in the device's central channel as the dispersing fluid flows in the two outer channels. The outer fluid exerts pressure and viscous stresses that focus the inner fluid into a narrow thread that then breaks at, or just after, the orifice via capillary instability. The invention also covers "passive breakup" and "flow focusing" techniques to control the size and size di
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Electrostatic Steering of Charged Droplets in Microfluidic Devices

Summary The invention consists of means of charging droplets and then using that charge to choose which channel a droplet will enter at a bifurcation. There is a need to have fast, accurate means of precisely sorting and directing materials in an automated way on a microfluidic device. Examples of materials that one would want to sort are mixtures of living and dead cells, or male and female embryos. Other situations where there is a need to steer droplets are for combinatorial chemistry mixi
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Method and Apparatus for Forming Multiple Emulsions

Summary Everyday emulsions have drops of one liquid dispersed in an immiscible continuous liquid. A multiple emulsion has immiscible droplets dispersed in drops dispersed in an immiscible continuous liquid (double emulsion). The IP describes a simple apparatus that can make multiple emulsions with a high degree of control - such as the ability to make emulsions of one droplet in one drop and to control the relative sizes of each. The IP claims a platform for making double emulsions, which have m
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Engineering 3D and Free Standing Tissue Structures

Summary Background: Efforts to build biosynthetic materials or engineered tissues that recapitulate the structure-function relationships of natural processes often fail because of an inability to replicate the proper in vivo conditions. For example, engineering a functional muscle tissue requires that the sarcomere and myofibrillogenesis be controlled at the micron length scale, while cellular alignment and formation of contiguous tissue requires organizational cues over the millimeter to centim
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Antibody Purification

Summary Background: Monoclonal antibodies have become increasingly important for biomedical research and clinical therapeutics. The antibodies are used extensively in basic biomedical research, diagnostics and treatment of various illnesses such as infections and cancer. The present methods of purifying antibodies all require chromatography which is labor intensive, requires expensive materials and is also operationally demanding at large scales. This has led the industry to constantly look f
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Novel Surfactants for Stabilizing Emulsions of Water or Hydrocarbon Oil-Based Droplets in a Fluorocarbon Oil Continuous Phase

Summary Emulsions—dispersions of two immiscible fluids—have many applications in industry and everyday life. These range from paints, to crop protection, chemical synthesis, and production of latices. They are also increasingly attractive for analytical applications. Traditional emulsions consist of water and hydrocarbon oil. However, this combination does not allow for a wide variety of applications. It is therefore of advantage to replace one of these liquids with a third class o
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"MoleProbe": a Real-Time Molecular Diagnostic Device

Summary A novel engineering method for generation of freestanding 2-D and 3-D tissue structures. Biopolymers (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids or combinations thereof) are deposited onto a transitional polymer surface with a patterning technique that allows for nanometer-to-millimeter-scale spatial positioning. In one example, the transitional polymer layer dissolves or switches states to release the biopolymer structure(s). The free-standing biopolymer structure(s) is then seeded
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Complex particle fabrication by chemically-directed contact electrification

Summary Background: Micro- and nanoscale particles are an area of intense research and commercial activity. They have many potential uses, for example in drug delivery, electronics and material applications. The current invention is a method of fabricating complex core/shell particles in a controllable, inexpensive and industrially scaleable way. Novel technology: Core shell microspheres composed of smaller particles layered on a larger core particle and bound by opposite electrical cha
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Patterning of metals and metal compounds using ionotropic polymers

Summary Background: Patterning surfaces to create some function is a core technology propelling our technical society. The most important such technology, photolithography, is used to create IC chips with nanoscale features. It is also the most expensive with fab capital costs greater than several billion dollars. Not all surface patterning needs require nanoscale resolution. Soft lithography, pioneered by George Whitesides, can create patterns on a surface in the microscale using a suite of
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Native Anti-corrosion Coatings for Metals

Summary The need: Corrosion of metals hamper the performance and safety of products ranging from medical implants to large-scale naval vessels, aircraft, bridges, and oil pipeline structures. A 2002 study of the US Federal Highway Administration estimated the cost of corrosion of metallic materials to be $276 billion, approximately 3.1% of national Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Developing novel approaches to mitigate corrosion is of great scientific and technological importance. Applications
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Systems and Methods for Assembly via Contact Electrification

Summary Taking advantage of a newly discovered mechanism for contact electrification of insulators the inventors have invented a new method of patterning insulator surfaces with particles. By assembling a surface with patterned areas composed of materials having different zeta-potentials one can, by contact electrification, make the different materials take on different surface charges. Then bringing charged particles to the surface will result in the particles preferentially sticking to one of
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A novel bioplastic

Summary A novel bioplastic, poly ((3R,5R)-3,5-dihydroxyhexanoic acid (poly(3,5-DHH), has been discovered. This molecule may be manufactured biosynthetically and offers significant advantages over current bio-plastics standards, such as high solubility and ease of chemical modification. Bioplastics based off of poly(3,5-DHH) may be used as a thermoplastics in injection molding techniques in addition to uses in the medical, surgical, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics fields. Applications A biodegra
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Deposition of nanoscale materials using structured surfaces

Summary The ability to precisely localize and control deposition of materials at the nanoscale is extremely important for a wide variety of emerging technologies. Many unique physical properties emerge only at the nanoscale and it is very useful to be able to control the formation of these materials. Control over the nucleation, growth, and assembly of nanomaterials is critical to advanced applications and complex device structures. While it is difficult to manipulate materials at such small siz
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Novel Synthetic Mechanism to b-Lactone and Analogs: Lead Compounds for the Treatment of Proteasome-Related Diseases

Summary Background: Proteasome inhibition offers considerable promise in the therapy of a number of types of diseases, such as cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. One such proteasome inhibtor, Velcade, is currently marketed for treatment of multiple myeloma by Millennium Pharmaceuticals. Despite the success of Velcade, there still exist many issues to resolve. For example, animal studies indicated that bortezomib injected intravenously leaves the vascular compartment within minutes, rendering
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Improved Method of Expression Cloning

Summary The human genome will soon be completely sequenced, presenting a vast new array of targets against which pharmaceutical agents can potentially be designed. However, to capitalize on this new information, the cellular function and medical significance of each of these genes will need to be determined. Here we describe a new cell-free expression cloning method that can rapidly identify novel proteins based on their function. Whereas traditional expression cloning methods have been used to
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HBPA Photoaffinity Probe

Summary This invention describes a photolabeling reagent p-(4-hydroxybenzoyl)phenylalanine (HBPA) which overcomes many difficulties associated with BPA. Patent protection includes this compound's synthesis and use in photolabeling. Harvard's intellectual property portfolio includes the following patent: US 5,986,136 issued November 16, 1999. Applications Determination of intermolecular interactions in biological systems: -receptors for bioactive peptides -immunoreceptors -cell signalling
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Bilins as anticancer agents

Summary A remarkable discovery at Harvard Medical School has led to the recognition that a naturally-occurring small molecule and analogs thereof possess potent anticancer properties through their ability to control cell differentiation. According to the invention, bilins are administered to induce terminal differentiation of dividing mammalian cells and thereby halt uncontrolled cell proliferation. This invention represents a major conceptual departure from traditional, signaling pathway-target
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Inhibitors of Protein-Processivity Factor

Summary Harvard investigators have discovered that Pol interacts with a processivity factor at a site that is distinct from sites of normal interaction between known Pol family members and other cellular factors. Unlike most protein-protein interactions, the target site is uniquely suited to small molecule drug discovery. Structure-based methods of designing and screening candidate drugs aimed at disrupting Pol processivity factor binding at this target site are fully disclosed. Treatment of vir
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Method of Detecting Compounds Utilizing Genetically Modified Lambdoid Bacterioph

Summary This invention describes a method to detet a molecule of interest in a given solution, and a method of selecting or screening for cell lines that can continuously produce desired compounds. This method uses a genetically and chemically modified lambdoid bacteriophage that has a target molecule chemically linked to its gpV gene product. Applications Some examples of target molecules include: -protein -peptide -hormone -nucleic acid -carbohydrate -lipid -glycoprotein -proteoglycan -l
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Nonhomologous Random Recombination of Nucleic Acids (Nucleic Acid Shuffling)

Summary This invention comprises methods for non-homologous random recombination (NRR) of nucleic acids, and their use to develop and select nucleic acids or polypeptides with novel structure and function. This technology is distinct from previous DNA shuffling methods in that it provides more comprehensive recombination of nucleic acid sequences for non-natural evolution. Background: In vitro DNA mutagenesis and shuffling enable the non-natural "molecular evolution" of nucleic acid sequen
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Modular Conditional Knockout: Precise Temporal Control of Protein Degradation in Living Cells

Summary Polyubiquitinated proteins in eukaryotes are directed to the proteasome for degradation. It is generally accepted that proteasome-mediated proteolysis depends strictly upon ubiquitination, as disruption of that process has been observed to halt proteolytic activity of the proteasome. Researchers at Harvard Medical School have made the striking observation that a non-ubiquitinated protein, if linked to the proteasome complex, will undergo efficient degradation. The invention provides meth
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Transformation of a Semiconducting Nanowire into a Conducting Nanowire in a Controllable Way

Summary This invention describes a nanowire that changes from a semiconductor to a conductor along its length and a method of making it. The method involves reacting a semiconductor nanowire with a metal to form a single crystal nanowire composed of the reaction product. The reaction product is a conductor. By masking selected portions of the semiconductor before reaction with the metal a nanowire composed of semiconductor areas and conductor areas can be produced. One can first grow or place se
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Affinity grids in preparing single particle specimens for Electron Microscopy

Summary Immobilized metal affinity chromatography has been used extensively to isolate macromolecular complexes for structural studies. This is facilitated by the high affinity interaction between a short continuous stretch of histidine residues and nickel cations chelated by nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA). The Affinity Grid has been recently introduced as an electron microscopy (EM) grid featuring a pre-adsorbed Ni-NTA lipid-containing monolayer. Using the Affinity Grid, polyhistidine-tagged pr
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Crosslinkable Hole Transporting Materials for Organic Lightemitting Diodes

Introduction High-performance organic or polymer light-emitting diodes comprise multilayer configurations having hole-transporting, emissive and electron-transporting layers to balance the injection and transport of both holes and electrons. In general, holetransporting material is the first applied layer onto the anode upon sequential layerby- layer fabrication of a device. This hole-transporting layer (HTL) plays a very important role in the efficiency of multilayer PLEDs. Technology descripti
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Nanocomposite Photovoltaic Cells

Introduction Photovoltaic cells based on polymer semiconductors are of great interest as a low cost approach to solar energy conversion into electricity. The most efficient polymer solar cells are based on binary blends, in which polymers function as electrondonors and fullerenes as electron-acceptors. Heating or annealing induces phase separation of the polymer/fullerene blends, resulting in a two-phase morphology, a process that is difficult to control. Technology description To circumvent the
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Programmable Generation and Transport of Droplets on Microscale Surface Texture Ratchets

Introduction Advances in microfluidic technology are constantly opening doors to new and exciting applications. Currently, many laboratory processes can be combined on a single chip commonly only millimeters in size while manipulating liquid volumes of picoliter size or less. In order to effectively perform the many processes that may be required of a microfluidic system, various tools are required, such as pumps, valves, mixers, and ratchets. In particular, the development of ratchets and other
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Fabrication of Gold Nanocages and Cubic Nanoframes for Biomedical Treatment through Etching Nanoboxes

Introduction Because of their small sizes and unique properties, nanomaterials are finding widespread use in studying complex biological systems. Gold nanostructures have been the subject of intensive research because of their unique and tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) properties. Because of their biocompatibility and easy surface modification (i.e., using the well-established Au-thiolate chemistry to attach antibodies, polymers or other ligands), Au nanostructures are also being conside
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Production of Palladium Nanostructures with Shape Selection by Adding Bromide

Introduction Single-crystal, one-dimensional nanostructures of palladium are attractive as interconnects for fabricating nanoscale electronic devices. Polycrystalline, mesoscopic wires made of palladium have been utilized for resistance-based detection of hydrogen gas. However, polycrystalline wires containing gaps between adjacent grains often shrink after initial exposure to hydrogen and may cause random, irreversible changes to the resistance of a sensing device. It should be possible to over
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Copper Chloride-mediated Synthesis of Silver Nanowires

Introduction Owing to the high electrical and thermal conductivity of bulk silver, the synthesis of Ag nanowires has been and continues to be an area of active research. The properties and applications of the nanostructures are determined by the shape, size, structure, and composition of the nanostructures. The presence of various ions has been shown to influence the shape and size of metallic nanostructures produced via the polyol method. Technology description Younan Xia’s laboratory has inv
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Electrospray Evaporative Spray Cooling (EESC)

Introduction As electronic devices get increasingly more powerful and more compact, there are an increasing number of semiconductor components that emit an increasing amount of heat. In order to ensure that these devices remain long-lived and reliable, more efficient methods of dissipating heat buildup is essential. Conventional cooling techniques, such as heat sinks and convective airflow, are becoming less and less appropriate for the evolving electronics landscape. However, evaporative spray
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Carbon Nanotubes by Electrospinning with a Polyelectrolyte and Vapor Deposition Polymerization

Introduction Ever since the discovery of carbon nanotubes they attracted a great deal of attention due to the myriad of possible applications, such as in fuel cells, lithium-ion batteries, and supercapacitors. Nevertheless, the synthesis of well-defined carbon nanotubes of 50 to 100-nm diameter has been a long standing goal of material chemistry. Technology description To reach this goal, UW researchers have developed a method that allows fabrication of carbon nanotubes with well-controlled diam
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Integrated Platform for Chemical Profiling of Ultrasmall Subcellular Compartments from a Single Cell

Introduction The ability to analyze biological and chemical activity at the subcellular level is limited by the tools that are currently available. Typically a choice between the spatial fidelity of imaging techniques or the detailed chemical and biological information available using various separation techniques needs to be made. This invention combines the benefits of these two approaches into one integrated platform. Technology description The inventors have demonstrated a system to isolate
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Novel Gadolinium nanoparticles for Magnetic Resonance Lymphatic Imaging

Introduction Gadolinium (Gd3+) is chelated with diethylenentriaminepentaacetyl (DTPA) to provide contrast in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to identify pathogenic tissues. Unfortunately, the Gd3+-DTPA complexes approved for clinical use are cleared within a few minutes and do not provide sufficient concentrations or time in lymphoid tissues. Many pathogenic conditions, including the spread of cancer, require high-resolution lymphoid tissue images. Technology description Rodney Ho’s laboratory
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Nanocellular Foaming of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene using Ultrasound

Introduction Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a thermoplastic consisting of molecules of incredibly long chains with molecular weights of several million. It has the highest impact strength of any thermoplastic, has a high resistance to corrosion, moisture, and abrasion, and has a friction coefficient similar to that of Teflon. The ability to create nano-structured UHMWPE materials could yield many useful and unique properties, including mechanical and optical properties, and
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Production of Palladium Nanostructures with Shape Selection by Adding Bromide

Introduction Single-crystal, one-dimensional nanostructures of palladium are attractive as interconnects for fabricating nanoscale electronic devices. Polycrystalline, mesoscopic wires made of palladium have been utilized for resistance-based detection of hydrogen gas. However, polycrystalline wires containing gaps between adjacent grains often shrink after initial exposure to hydrogen and may cause random, irreversible changes to the resistance of a sensing device. It should be possible to over
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Copper Chloride-mediated Synthesis of Silver Nanowires

Introduction Owing to the high electrical and thermal conductivity of bulk silver, the synthesis of Ag nanowires has been and continues to be an area of active research. The properties and applications of the nanostructures are determined by the shape, size, structure, and composition of the nanostructures. The presence of various ions has been shown to influence the shape and size of metallic nanostructures produced via the polyol method. Technology description Younan Xia’s laboratory has inv
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A Microfluidic Device and Methodology for Rapid, Quantitative Determination of Analyte Concentration in a Fluid Sample

Introduction Advances in microfluidic technology are constantly opening doors to new and exciting applications, especially for biosensors and environmental monitoring. One recent area of interest is point-of-care diagnostic devices. These devices provide fast, accurate, and inexpensive sample analysis. Recent advances have enabled a universal platform that is adaptable to a potentially limitless array of analytes and could lead to affordable health care devices, including for the developing worl
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Platelet Clotting Force Array

Introduction Advances in microfluidic technology are constantly opening doors to new and exciting applications, such as point-of-care diagnostic devices. These microscale diagnostic platforms will enable faster, cheaper, and more accurate patient evaluation for a wide array of parameters. One such parameter is the coagulation capacity of blood, for abnormalities in which can be indicative of a wide variety of pathologies. The ability to more quickly and easily assess platelet function would grea
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Programmable Generation and Transport of Droplets on Microscale Surface Texture Ratchets

Introduction Advances in microfluidic technology are constantly opening doors to new and exciting applications. Currently, many laboratory processes can be combined on a single chip commonly only millimeters in size while manipulating liquid volumes of picoliter size or less. In order to effectively perform the many processes that may be required of a microfluidic system, various tools are required, such as pumps, valves, mixers, and ratchets. In particular, the development of ratchets and other
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Signal Amplification Method for SPR-based Chemical Detection

Introduction Surface plasma resonance (SPR) is a general spectroscopic method for sensing refractive index changes near the surface of a metal film. Its sensitivity to these changes provides a versatile platform for the observation and quantitation of chemical reactions and intermolecular binding at the metal/solution interface. The generality of the technique has led to its application to a variety of chemical systems, including biological interactions and reactions. Technology description Rese
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3-D Tissue Culture Chamber

Introduction Many of the seminal findings in cell and molecular biology have come from cultures of cells grown in two dimensions but the limitations of biology in just 2D are becoming clear. Cells in tissue are not just autonomous masses but consist of many interdependent cell types and their surrounding extracellular materials in which the complex and dynamic interplay between them determine of affect the tissues’ function, development and physiological balance. Researchers at the University
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Platelet Clotting Force Array

Introduction Advances in microfluidic technology are constantly opening doors to new and exciting applications, such as point-of-care diagnostic devices. These microscale diagnostic platforms will enable faster, cheaper, and more accurate patient evaluation for a wide array of parameters. One such parameter is the coagulation capacity of blood, for abnormalities in which can be indicative of a wide variety of pathologies. The ability to more quickly and easily assess platelet function would grea
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Preparative Separation of Mixtures by Mass Spectrometry

Introduction With the average development cost for new pharmaceutical products in the hundreds of millions and continuing to increase, there is a pressing need to identify successful therapeutic compounds at the earliest stage possible. Combinatorial chemistry provides the drug discovery process with a valuable tool for generating new leads but tools are required to rapidly and accurately screen the large libraries of new compounds that are generated. Technology description The inventors have de
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Design of Thermal Interface Material Based on High Temperature Shape Memory Alloy for Connecting Two Thermoelectric Legs

Introduction Efficient heat management is crucial for electronics to optimize performance and to avoid premature component deterioration. An area of primary concern is at the interface of adjoining thermal components, such as with heatsink interfaces and with connections between thermoelectric legs. Problems arise due to the inability of the two surfaces, necessarily of differing metals, to fully connect because of imperfections. This issue is addressed by using thermal interface material (TIM)
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Design of Active Materials and Structures based on Composites of Shape Memory Alloy and Shape Memory Polymer

Introduction Shape memory alloys (SMA) and shape memory polymers (SMP) have shown tremendous promise for a wide variety of applications because of their ability to “remember” a previous state when heated. However, they can only remember a single shape. The ability to remember two shapes would make these materials much more useful as morphing or “smart” materials in which the change of shape is reversible between the two “remembered” states. Technology Description Professor Taya at
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Method of Detecting, Characterizing, and Quantifying Bulk, Light- Element Materials Using High-Energy, Penetrating X-Rays

Introduction X-rays have long been used in the characterization of a wide variety of materials. However, conventional techniques for dealing with light-element (or low-Z) materials, such as those containing nitrogen and carbon, are too low in energy to penetrate significant distances into enclosing material or into the bulk of the material of interest. A higher energy technique is required to solve this problem. Technology Description Researcher Elam at the University of Washington has developed
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Precision coating of macromolecules on Surfaces

Introduction Production of chemically modified surfaces by ion deposition allows for unique chemistries on those surfaces, providing functionalities that are critical to medical devices such as stents and vascular grafts. Sophisticated materials are now required for complex medical applications such as implant biocompatibility and biosensing as well as passive functions like sterility. Technology description Researchers at the University of Washington have developed a process and apparatus for d
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Shockwave Reactor

Introduction Ethylene is a commercially important chemical with many applications, and it is especially important as a building block for other, more complex molecules. It is typically made by cracking various larger hydrocarbons using pyrolysis. The hydrocarbon feedstock for these reactions varies greatly due to the volatility in their market price, and those in the business of ethylene production must maintain plants that are flexible in the exact process they use for production in order to ac
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Novel Compound Semiconductor Use as a Buffer Layer for Controlled Oxide Growth on Silicon

Introduction An area of research that has gained increasing importance in recent years is the controlled growth of oxides other than SiO2 on silicon. Technology description Researchers at the UW have developed the use of Ga2Se3 as a novel buffer layer preventing SiOx and silicide formation during the controlled growth of oxides on silicon. Oxides can be grown on silicon without unwanted silicon reactions, and the growth of titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been demonstrated. Business opportunity Oxide
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Electroactive Polymer Using Shape Memory Alloy

Introduction Shape memory polymers have shown tremendous promise for a wide variety of applications for their ability to “remember” a previous state when heated. Unfortunately, they have been slow to develop commercial availability. Many of these polymers also have small compression ratios. However, many of the same properties desired in shape memory polymers can be mimicked using shape memory alloys (SMA) in a polymer framework. This technique has many advantages over shape memory polymers,
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Droplet Compartmentalization for Chemical Separations and On-Line Sampling

Introduction The ability to separate complex mixtures of chemicals and biomolecules is an important component of any chemical synthesis or biological processing. To date, there is no technology available to combine the high resolution of analytical separations with monodisperse droplet generation. Integrating these two technologies will allow for the detailed analysis of extremely low concentration analytes, such as are found in single cells, sub-cellular organelles, or low concentration synthet
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Copper Chloride-mediated Synthesis of Silver Nanowires

Introduction Owing to the high electrical and thermal conductivity of bulk silver, the synthesis of Ag nanowires has been and continues to be an area of active research. The properties and applications of the nanostructures are determined by the shape, size, structure, and composition of the nanostructures. The presence of various ions has been shown to influence the shape and size of metallic nanostructures produced via the polyol method. Technology description Younan Xia’s laboratory has inv
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Catch and Release Method for Charged Particle Concentration

Introduction Cell separation in a microfluidic device can be difficult at times. One difficulty researchers face is the ability to capture and separate charged particles when carried in an aqueous solution. Technology description Our researchers have developed a microfluidic method and device to capture and separate charged cells in an aqueous solution. Business opportunity Some advantages of this new capture and separation method and device are: 1) it can be used with a large concentration of c
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A Method and Design for Performing Rapid Parallel Microfluidic Molecular Affinity Assays

Introduction Point-of-care diagnostic testing, or testing performed at the patient bedside, allows physicians to diagnose patients more rapidly than traditional laboratory-based testing. Rapid results can enable better patient management decisions, improved patient outcomes, and a reduction in the overall cost of care. Technology description UW researchers have developed a method and design for performing rapid molecular binding assays, including immunoassays, and in particular, sandwich immunoa
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Method for Deconvolving Single-Molecule Intensity Distributions for Quantitative Biological Measurements

Introduction Fluorescence microscopy images of cells often contain puncta, or clusters of fluorescence signal. To measure the concentration of labeled proteins in a puncta, calibration typically needs to be performed for each fluorescence species. Traditional calibration techniques only provide average values rather than exact numbers which can lead to large uncertainties in the actual number of the measured proteins. This problem is especially acute when dealing with proteins that are of low to
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Carbon Nanotubes by Electrospinning with a Polyelectrolyte and Vapor Deposition Polymerization

Introduction Ever since the discovery of carbon nanotubes they attracted a great deal of attention due to the myriad of possible applications, such as in fuel cells, lithium-ion batteries, and supercapacitors. Nevertheless, the synthesis of well-defined carbon nanotubes of 50 to 100-nm diameter has been a long standing goal of material chemistry. Technology description To reach this goal, UW researchers have developed a method that allows fabrication of carbon nanotubes with well-controlled diam
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Carbon Nanotubes by Electrospinning with a Polyelectrolyte and Vapor Deposition Polymerization

Introduction Ever since the discovery of carbon nanotubes they attracted a great deal of attention due to the myriad of possible applications, such as in fuel cells, lithium-ion batteries, and supercapacitors. Nevertheless, the synthesis of well-defined carbon nanotubes of 50 to 100-nm diameter has been a long standing goal of material chemistry. Technology description To reach this goal, UW researchers have developed a method that allows fabrication of carbon nanotubes with well-controlled diam
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Advanced Biomimetic Surfaces for Surface-Enhanced Raman Biomimetic Surfaces for Surface-Enhanced Raman

Introduction Raman spectroscopy characterizes molecules by their Raman scattering. As incoming light scatters off a molecule, most does so elastically, neither gaining nor losing energy, and this is known as Rayleigh scattering. Some of this light, however, about 1 in 10 million photons, is the subject of an energy exchange with the molecule and scatters inelastically, possessing more or less energy than it started with, and this is known as Raman scattering. Raman scattering acts as a vibration
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Advanced Biomimetic Surfaces for Surface-Enhanced Raman Biomimetic Surfaces for Surface-Enhanced Raman

Introduction Raman spectroscopy characterizes molecules by their Raman scattering. As incoming light scatters off a molecule, most does so elastically, neither gaining nor losing energy, and this is known as Rayleigh scattering. Some of this light, however, about 1 in 10 million photons, is the subject of an energy exchange with the molecule and scatters inelastically, possessing more or less energy than it started with, and this is known as Raman scattering. Raman scattering acts as a vibration
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Air-Stable p-Type Semiconducting Polymers

Introduction Conjugated polymers and organic semiconductors promise great advances in electronics because of the benefits they offer over silicon, including being cheaper with less demanding manufacturing requirements and allowing for larger, more flexible, and more robust materials that are more responsive to chemical and biochemical stimulus. A critical roadblock in developing this technology, however, is the lack of air-stable p-type polymers, for the cost of excluding oxygen during device fa
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Inductive Salinometer with Data Logging Capabilities and Toroidal Sensor

Introduction Salinity levels in seawater are not constant and can vary dramatically both temporally and spatially due to phenomena such as temperature, precipitation, deep-water upwelling, and tidal action. These variations are especially pronounced in coastal and estuarine waters where seawater interfaces with land and fresh water. While technologies do exist to measure salinity, they do not currently exist to monitor it over time and space while unattended. Technology Description Professor Bus
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Exciplex™a Highly Sensitive Nucleic Acid Fluorescent Detection System

BACKGROUND Conventional fluorescent dyes used in nucleic acid detection methods suffer from a number of limitations. High backgrounds result in false positives and a reduction in sensitivity. The small Stokes shift (difference between excitation and emission wavelengths) often requires optical filters to be used that further reduce sensitivity. Several detection techniques (Molecular Beacons, Sniper etc) also require the use of long oligonucleotide sequences whose design complexity can limit the
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Monomer for 'one-part' Crosslinkable Water-borne Coatings (HESS)

BACKGROUND Water-borne latex-based coatings have been in commercial use for well over five decades. For chemical and polymer suppliers, the inherently easier and safer manufacturing/ handling associated with water-borne latex-based coatings is a major advantage and a strong reason for expanding their use. In producing industrial coatings, solvent no longer needs to be removed in the application process, which obviates the need for complex solvent recovery or incineration plant and eliminates the
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pH modified UV treatment of water pesticidal and pharmaceutical

The Invention The invention consists of introducing a pH influenced polychromatic ultra-violet (UV) photolysis process for disinfection of water contaminated by several organic components (alone or in a mixture of contaminants), where the pH to enhance contaminant breakdown is optimized by correlating each contaminant type with parameters such as pKa and photolytic activity. A data base of optimized pH values is used to tailor the process for the specific contaminants found in the effluent. Th
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Use of Photosensitized Epon Epoxy Resin 1002F for MEMS and BioMEMS Applications

Background: Microelectrical-mechanical systems (MEMS) are miniature mechanical devices intended to perform non-electronic functions such as sensing or actuation. These devices are typically built from silicon using lithographic techniques borrowed from the semiconductor industry. Some examples of these devices are silicon pressure sensors and silicon accelerometers. Other manufacturing methods have been developed such as microembossing, stamping, microinjection molding, precision machining, and
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A Chemical Compound with Possible p53 Cancer Mutant Rescue Activity

Background: Mutants of the tumor suppressor protein are frequently found in human cancers. About three quarters of them have a single amino acid change in the core domain of p53 that is needed to bind to p53 DNA binding cites. There is great interest for identifying chemical compounds that can restore function to p53 cancer mutants because 1) the patient pool that would benefit from such drugs enormous and 2) cancers with p53 mutations have worse prognosis. One of the challenge is the remarkabl
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One-Step Direct Synthesis of LaPO4

Background: Monazite is an important ceramic material for several potential applications including composite ceramics, machineable ceramics, nuclear waste storage, fluorescent materials, electrochemical substrates, and as an electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells. Monazite forms weak interfaces with several of the important ceramic oxides and these weak interfaces at high temperatures are required for high toughness in fibrous composite oxide materials. Monazite can stably contain radioactive el
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A Microfabrication Process for Vertical Microelectrodes inside Polymer Microchannels

Background: For microfluidic applications, different electrodes inside the microfluidic channels may be patterned by metal evaporation methods such as thermal evaporation, electric beam evaporation, and sputtering. Since most of the deposition methods only deposit very thin layers of metal (e.g., usually thousands of Angstrom), while the microfluidic channels have dimensions of 10-100um, this means the electrodes are often deposited at the bottom of the microchannel. Unfortunately, electrodes d
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A New PET Radiotracer for Serotonin 5HT1A Receptors

Background: Serotonin 5-HT1A receptors are implicated in Alzheimers disease, dementia, anxiety, schizophrenia, and depression, and significant efforts have been undertaken to develop various compounds that bind to these receptors for potential use in diagnosis and therapy of disorders associated with serotonin 5-HT1A receptors. Among other proposed approaches, particularly desirable compounds include those suitable for selective positron emission tomography (PET) analysis. While currently known
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New Protein Resistant and Biodegradable Biopolymer

Background: The ability to resist nonspecific protein adsorption (protein resistance) is an indicator of a material's biological inertness or biocompatibility. Protein resistant biomaterials such as the commonly used poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) have been used in a number of applications such as prostheses, contact lenses, implanted devices, microfluidic systems, drug delivery, and substrates for assays. However PEG has two major limitations. First PEG can only be functionalized at the chain end
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High-Isolation Tunable MEMS Capacitive Switch

Background: For a typical MEMS switch, the resonant frequency is around 20 to 30 GHz which can not be employed by commercial wireless systems operating at a frequency band of 2 to 8 GHz. This resonant frequency can be tuned by changing the inductance of the switch membrane. When inductance is increased, the resonant frequency is moved to a lower frequency band at which location, high isolation is achieved. There have been many published solutions to this problem but it has been found to be diff
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Depth Profiling of the Skin Structure in Vivo

University researchers have developed a photoacoustic probe contained within a handpiece for use in contact with the skin. The laser pulses generate acoustic waves at the subsurface absorption sites. It is believed that no known use of photoacoustics has been used for this purpose in the past. Previous probes of skin structure include biopsy and histology, and optical and ultrasound measurements. The photoacoustic method provides a non-invasive method, unlike a biopsy. It also is not subject to
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Fabrication Method for Polymer Thin Films

University researchers have developed a method that allows for the synthesis of a wide variety of polymer thin films, the fabrication method of which can be combined with photolithography to create surface patterns. Thin film thickness is controlled from 1 nm to the submicron range. The method also supports the creation of "smart surfaces". It is applicable to most of the vinyl monomers, and block copolymers can be produced as well. Application: Utility includes biochips, coatings on biomedic
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Molecular Imprinting for the Recognition of Peptides in Aqueous Solution

Molecular imprinting is a process for synthesizing materials that contain highly specific recognition sites for smaller molecules. Today, molecular imprinting is used for many purposes, including the creation of macromolecular binding and catalytic sites and as binding sites for the separation or resolution of optical isomers or enantiomers. In many of the methods previously known for preparation of MlPs, the monomers used have not been soluble in water or aqueous media at the concentrations ut
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Aluminum - Lithium Alloy Metal Matrix Composites

For high temperature aerospace application, Ti alloys are often utilized to produce structural parts. However, the cost has often been the drawback. Finding an alternative has motivated the development of advanced aluminum alloys to satisfy the requirement of titanium alloys. Researchers of the University of California, Irvine, have developed a new class of elevated-temperature aluminum based materials by incorporating the concept of metal matrix composites into designs. This novel class of alum
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Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron (EZVI) (KSC-12246)

Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron is a versatile technology that can be used at many of these locations. Applicable sites may include: dye and paint manufacturers;dry cleaners; chemical manufacturers; metal cleaning and degreasing facilities; leather-tanning facilities; pharmaceutical manufacturers; adhesive and aerosol manufacturers; and government facilities. Thousands of DNAPL-contaminated sites have been identified across the United States; however, few technologies exist that can treat DNAPL¿s i
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Hydrocarbon Oxidation for Manufacturing Chemicals

APPLICATION OF TECHNOLOGY: Chemical manufacturing Hydrocarbon oxidation ADVANTAGES: Works at ambient temperature Highly selective Energy-efficient process Environmentally benign ABSTRACT: Heinz Frei, Fritz Blatter and Hai Sun have developed a selective thermal or photochemical oxidation procedure that favors oxidation of unsubstituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls in solvent-free zeolites under dark thermal conditions or under irradiation with visible light. These small ab
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Using liquid desiccant as a regenerable filter for capturing and deactivating contaminants

A method, and systems for implementing such method, for purifying and conditioning air of weaponized contaminants. The method includes wetting a filter packing media with a salt-based liquid desiccant, such as water with a high concentration of lithium chloride. Air is passed through the wetted filter packing media, and the contaminants are captured with the liquid desiccant while the liquid desiccant dehumidifies the air. The captured contaminants are then deactivated in the liquid desiccant, w
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Device and method of positionally accurate implantation of individual particles in a substrate surface

A device and a method for positionally accurate implantation of individual particles in a substrate surface (1a) are described. A diaphragm for a particle beam to be directed onto the substrate surface (1a) and a detector provided thereon in the form of a p-n junction for determining a secondary electron flow produced upon impact of a particle onto the substrate surface (1a) are provided on a tip (4) which is formed on a free end portion of a flexible arm (2) to be mounted on one side. The devic
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Biological Production of Polymer Monomers

EJIB-2541 APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Producing a wide variety dicarboxylic acids for the manufacture of commercial polymers, e.g. polyesters, polyamides, polyurethanes ADVANTAGES: Starting material is renewable, cellulosic or other biomass instead of petroleum Enzymes can be modified to produce a wide-variety of diacid polymer precursors Compatible with a variety of host organisms and feedstocks, enabling yield/tolerance optimization Process does not release NO2, which damages
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Microfluidic device forming enhanced spatial and temporal gradients

Microfluidic device improving on current chemical gradient-generation designs in the forming of spatial and temporal gradients in a compact structure TECH FIELD(S) Microfluidic devices FEATURES Available is an improved microfluidic design for generating spatial and temporal chemical gradients. Bifurcated and trifurcated channels serve as basic fluidic elements splitting flow between two and three channels, respectively. The number of discrete steps in the gradient is 2^(N + 1) for N g
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Device for Controlled Placement of Effluents from Mechanically or Electrically Driven Separations

TECH FIELD(S) Analytical Chemistry, Mass Spectrometry, Proteomics FEATURES The analysis of samples utilizing analytical chemistry techniques frequently requires the samples to be subjected to a number of successive techniques in order to obtain the desired information. This is particularly true when the sample to be analyzed included biological molecules such as proteins or polypeptides. For example, it is common subject a biological sample to a chromatograph technique in order to separate
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Process for Thermo Catalytic Cracking (TCC) of heavy oils feeds to increase production of light olefins (Ethylene-Propylene) at low Temperature

Solution / invention summary : TCC Process is operated in existing steam cracking reactors and uses a novel catalyst material to increase the production of Ethylene-Propylene at a lower cracking temperature and with heavy hydrocarbon feed materials. TCC is very selective to light olefins. Catalyst formulations contain zeolite and metal oxydes. The catalyst is very stable and the regeration cycle is efficient at low temperature and pressure. Advantages / benefits : 1) Increases by 30% the p
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Surface Patterning

Surface Patterning – Simultaneous functionalization and patterning of surfaces by scribing or scoring in the presence of reactive species. This technique has been done on silicon wafers using a diamond tipped pencil but it can be used on other materials using other scribes. General Information For many materials, the act of abrading, scratching, or scribing will produce highly reactive surface species. If material is scored in the presence of a reactive chemical, a reaction between an ac
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Hydrophobic Coatings on Polymer Surfaces

A permanent water and oil resistant coating for polymer/plastic/organic material has been developed by the Chemistry Department ay BYU. The material bonds permanently with nylon and other polymeric and organic materials making them more resistant to water and oil. The coating is applied through chemical reactions producing a permanent covalent bond between the coating and the surface making it's seams water resistant, oil resistant, chemically stable and structurally resilient. Some of the co
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Monolithic Column Technology for Strong

Monolithic Column Technology for Strong Cation-Exchange Liquid Chromatography - Improves chromatography technology by eliminating the need to add organic solvents to decrease the hydrophobic character of the column. General Information Ion exchange chromatography is a process that separates ions such as large proteins or peptides based on their charges. A stationary phase exhibiting a particular charge is attached to the wall of a column and a solvent is passed through. Proteins or peptides
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Electrically Actuated Micropumps

Electrically actuated micropumps enable microchip liquid chromatography separations to be carried out rapidly and with miniaturized instrumentation. The micropumps can be powered with a battery, using potentials in the tens of volts, while generating adequate pressures for liquid chromatographic separations. This technology has potential for application in lightweight (field-deployable) or disposable liquid chromatography instrumentation, for example, to be used in on-site analyses. Parallel arr
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