Material Science Patents for Sale or License

Multilayered Protective Coating for Protecting Metallic Surfaces of Implant Materials and Use Thereof

The invention provides use of multilayered protective coating comprising of at least an inner silane layer and an outer parylene layer, for protecting metallic surfaces of implant materials from corrosion processes and release of heavy metal ions from implant into patient. The subject of the technology offer is a polymer multi-layer coating for protecting the surface of metal implant materials against corrosion processes and the release of heavy metal ions from the implant into th
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Hybrid Photocatalysts, the Method of their Synthesis and Use

The subject of the invention is a hybrid photocatalyst which is a layered aluminosilicate, possibly organically modified, containing compounds introduced into the aluminosilicate galleries bearing groups such as porphyrin, rose bengal, anthracene, pyrene, perylene, tetracene, rubrene, naphthalene, phthalocyanines, coumarins, and methylene blue, which are organic chromophores able to absorb visible and/or ultraviolet light and sensitize photochemical reactions. The invention includes also the met
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Conductive Carbon Layers on Powdered Supports

A process for the preparation of carbon layers on powdered supports comprising dissolving a hydrophilic polymer (PH) at the level of 85 do 99.9% by weight in water, adding pyromellitic acid (PMA) or pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) at the level of 0.1-15% by weight, then introducing to the mixture the powdered support at a level of 1-99% by weight. The suspension is concentrated and dried, and the composite precursor formed is subjected to a pyrolysis process at 300-1500 DEG C.
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Antibacterial, Self-Cleaning Photocatalytic Material

The subjects of the offer are new materials obtained by the modification of nanocrystalline titanium oxide(IV) and the photocatalytic coatings of TiO2 deposited on polymer surfaces widely used for the manufacture of disposable medical equipment. Materials can be applied for an efficient photocatalytic microorganism’s inactivation or organic pollutants. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) based materials are commonly known as photocatalysts of environmental and biomedical relevance. Photoactive TiO2 irr
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Composition in the Form of Liquid for Maintenance of Contact Lenses and Medical Materials

The invention relates to a composition, particularly in the form of liquid to be used externally as a rinsing contact lenses, containing nanocrystalline photocatalyst active in visible light, and optionally hydrogen peroxide. Titanium dioxide based materials are commonly known as photocatalysts of environmental and biomedical relevance.Photoactive TiO2 irradiated with ultraviolet light shows antiseptic, fungicidal, disinfecting and odour-neutralizing properties. It can be used for production
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Fabrication of Metamaterials

An example method of fabricating a metamaterial comprises providing a first metamaterial layer, the first metamaterial layer including a first plurality of conducting patterns, such as electrically coupled resonators. A second metamaterial layer is then formed, including a second plurality of conducting patterns, to form a multilayer metamaterial. Positional alignment of the first and second plurality of conducting patterns can be achieved relative to the same fiducial mark, which may be associa
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Tunable Metamaterials

Examples of the present invention include a metamaterial comprising a plurality of resonators disposed on a substrate, the substrate comprising a dielectric support layer and a relatively thin semiconductor layer, having a Schottky junction between at least one conducting resonator and the semiconductor layer. The properties of the resonator may be adjusted by modifying the physical extent of a depletion region associated with the Schottky junction.
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Clathrate Compounds and Methods of Manufacturing

The present invention comprises new materials, material structures, and processes of fabrication of such that may be used in technologies involving the conversion of light to electricity and/or heat to electricity, and in optoelectronics technologies. The present invention provide for the fabrication of a clathrate compound comprising a type II clathrate lattice with atoms of silicon and germanium as a main framework forming lattice spacings within the framework, wherein the clathrate lattice fo
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Wet etching process

The present invention illustrates a bulk silicon etching technique that yields straight sidewalls, through wafer structures in very short times using standard silicon wet etching techniques. The method of the present invention employs selective porous silicon formation and dissolution to create high aspect ratio structures with straight sidewalls for through wafer MEMS processing.
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CMP slurry for polymeric interlayer dielectric planarization

The proposed slurry can be used to planarize polymeric candidate ILD materials such Benzocylobutene (BCB), SILK, Polyimide, etc. The slurry consists of colloidal suspension of nanoparticle abrasives made up of Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS)-derived silica and Zirconium-dioxide (ZrO2), its derivatives and any materials modified from ZrO2 and/or TEOS, in a chemically active medium. The base solution of the slurry consists of deionized (Dl) water, buffering agents like inorganic buffer comprised of
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Method of thin film electrospray deposition

A method of forming a smooth thin film on a substrate within a short deposition time, the method comprising introducing ionic substances (salts, acids, bases) to a polymeric solution to be sprayed. These ions attach to the polymer strands in solution, increasing their charge to mass ratio. This results in mutual repulsion of the strands during the spray process and produces a smooth film, even at relatively high polymeric solution concentrations. A side effect of this process is the introduction
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High Temperature Solder Materials

A solder material is formed utilizing a transient liquid phase sintering process, where a precursor material is first formed. The precursor material comprises a plurality of metal particles including a first metal having a first melting point temperature and a second metal having a second melting point temperature, the first melting point temperature being greater than the second melting point temperature. The precursor material is heated to a process temperature (Tp) that is greater than the se
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Low Temperature Polymer Bonding Using UV/Ozone Surface Treatment

The present invention relates to a method for bonding two surfaces to one another. The invention particularly pertains to the use of such method in which one of the surfaces is a polymeric plastic (and more preferably a polymeric thermoplastic (especially poly-(methyl methacrylate) ("PMMA") or cyclic olefin copolymer ("COC")). More particularly, the invention relates to treating at least one of the contacting surfaces with UV in the presence of oxygen to thereby generate ozone (O3) and atomic ox
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Substrate-independent Layer-by-layer Assembly Using Catechol-functionalized Polymers

The present invention provides a simple, non-destructive and versatile method that enables layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly to be performed on virtually any substrate. A novel catechol-functionalized polymer which adsorbs to virtually all surfaces and can serve as a platform for LbL assembly in a surface-independent fashion is also provided.
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Ceramic Composite Thin Films

A ceramic composite thin film or layer includes individual graphene oxide and/or electrically conductive graphene sheets dispersed in a ceramic (e.g. silica) matrix. The thin film or layer can be electrically conductive film or layer depending the amount of graphene sheets present. The composite films or layers are transparent, chemically inert and compatible with both glass and hydrophilic SiOx/silicon substrates. The composite film or layer can be produced by making a suspension of graphene ox
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Universal Matrix

A method comprises: (i) providing a tip and a substrate surface, (ii) disposing a patterning composition at the end of the tip, (iii) depositing at least some of the patterning composition from the tip to the substrate surface to form a deposit disposed on the substrate surface, wherein the patterning composition comprises at least one patterning species, at least one carrier that is different from the patterning species, and at least one additive different from the patterning species and the ca
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Coated Colloidal Materials

Coated colloidal materials, methods for making coated colloidal materials, and methods of using coated colloidal materials are disclosed. The method yields coated colloidal materials where the optical characteristics of the core is not adversely affected. The coated colloidal materials can be self-assembled into films, layers, or structures and used in the detection of analytes through detection assays.
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Multilayer structure with zirconium-oxide tunnel barriers and applications of same

A multilayer structure with zirconium-oxide tunnel barriers. In one embodiment, the multilayer structure includes a first niobium (Nb) layer, a second niobium (Nb) layer, and a plurality of zirconium-oxide tunnel barriers sandwiched between the first niobium (Nb) layer and the second niobium (Nb) layer, wherein the plurality of zirconium-oxide tunnel barriers is formed with N layers of zirconium-oxide, N being an integer greater than 1, and M layers of zirconium, M being an integer no less than
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Metal-Organic Framework Materials Based on Icosahedral Boranes and Carboranes

Disclosed herein are metal-organic frameworks of metals and boron rich ligands, such as carboranes and icosahedral boranes. Methods of synthesizing and using these materials in gas uptake are disclosed.
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Magnetic Material with Large Magnetic-field-induced Deformation

A magnetic materials construct and a method to produce the construct are disclosed. The construct exhibits large magnetic-field-induced deformation through the magnetic-field-induced motion of crystallographic interfaces. The construct is a porous, polycrystalline composite structure of nodes connected by struts wherein the struts may be monocrystalline or polycrystalline. If the struts are polycrystalline, they have a "bamboo" microstructure wherein the grain boundaries traverse the entire widt
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Nonlinear Optic Glassy Fiber, Methods of Making and Applications of the Same

A process for producing an optical glass fiber from crystal-glass phase material. In one embodiment, the process includes the step of providing a molten crystal-glass phase material in a container, wherein the temperature of the molten crystal-glass phase material is at or above the melting temperature of the molten crystal-glass phase material, Tm, to allow the molten crystal-glass phase material is in liquid phase. The process further includes the step of cooling the molten crystal-glass phase
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Methods of Flash Reduction and Patterning of Graphite Oxide and Its Polymer Composites

A method of reducing a film of graphite oxide. In one embodiment, the method includes the steps of providing a film of graphite oxide with a thickness d0; and delivering optical energy in a single pulse to the film of graphite oxide at a distance no more than 1.0 cm away from the film of graphite oxide to reduce the film of graphite oxide to a film of graphene with a thickness d, wherein the optical energy has a radiant exposure in the range of between 0.1 and 2 J/cm2, and wherein the thickness
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Redox-activated Patterning

A method of forming a target pattern using a redox activated surface is disclosed. The method includes patterning a redox agent on a template layer formed on a substrate, the template layer having a first oxidation state, wherein upon contact with the redox agent, the contacted portion of the template layer changes to a second oxidation state different than the first oxidation state, and a template pattern is formed from the portion of the template layer having either the first oxidation state o
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Method of forming a film of graphite oxide single layers, and applications of same

A method for forming a film of graphite oxide single layers. In one embodiment, the method includes the steps of preparing a solution of graphite oxide to allow a plurality of graphite oxide single layers to be formed and dispersed in the solution; and applying the solution of graphite oxide onto an air-water interface of water to form a film at the air-water interface, wherein the film comprises a plurality of graphite oxide single layers and is characterized by a packing density, wherein the f
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Self-Healing Laminate System

A laminate material may include a first flexible layer, and a self-healing composite layer in contact with the first flexible layer. The composite layer includes an elastomer matrix, a plurality of first capsules including a polymerizer, and a corresponding activator for the polymerizer. The laminate material may self-heal when subjected to a puncture or a tear.
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Co-doped Titanium Oxide Foam and Water Disinfection Device

A quaternary oxide foam, comprises an open-cell foam containing (a) a dopant metal, (b) a dopant nonmetal, (c) titanium, and (d) oxygen. The foam has the advantages of a high surface area and a low back pressure during dynamic flow applications. The inactivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) was demonstrated in a simple photoreactor.
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Methods and Systems for Modeling Material Behavior

A method for modeling material behavior includes using empirical three dimensional non-uniform stress and strain data to train a self-organizing computational model such as a neural network. A laboratory device for measuring non-uniform stress and strain data from material includes an enclosure with an inclusion in it. As the enclosure is compressed, the inclusion induces a non-uniform state of stress and strain. A field testing device includes a body having a moveable section. When the body is
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Apparatuses and Methods for Applying One Or More Materials on One Or More Substrates

A system that incorporates teachings of the present disclosure may include, for example, an apparatus having a tube with an ingress opening to receive a liquid, and an egress opening to release the liquid, a conductor positioned in a conduit of the tube, the conductor and the conduit having dimensions to cause a surface tension of the liquid to prevent a constant flow of the liquid from the egress opening, and a power supply coupled to the conductor to apply a charge to the liquid to overcome th
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Flexible Microstructured Superhydrophobic Materials

Described herein are flexible superhydrophobic films. Also described are methods for imparting superhydrophobicity to a variety of objects, for example objects having any shape or surface contours. For specific applications, the flexible superhydrophobic films include an adhesive backing layer, useful for attaching the film to objects. Some of the films described herein allow for selective control over the wettability of a surface by flexing the film, for example flexing the film results in a mo
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Heavily Doped Metal Oxides and Methods for Making the Same

A method of making a doped metal oxide includes heating a first doped metal oxide by rapid thermal annealing, to form a second doped metal oxide. The crystal structure of the second doped metal oxide is different from the crystal structure of the first doped metal oxide. The method may provide a doped titanium oxide, where the atomic ratio of dopant nonmetal to titanium is from 2% to 20%, and at least 10% of the doped titanium oxide is in the rutile phase. The method also can provide a doped tin
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Emulsions and Foams Using Patchy Particles

Provided are emulsions and foam compositions that include patchy particles having at least two different surface chemistries, such as Janus particles. Also provided are methods of stabilizing emulsions and foam compositions by adding patchy particles to such emulsions or foam compositions during the process of forming such emulsions or foam compositions or after formation thereof. Further provided are methods of controlling droplet size in an emulsion or foam composition by adding patch particle
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Composite Material Compositions and Methods

Compositions comprising a substrate having a layer thereover, the layer comprising a fluoropolymer and a nanofiller. Compositions comprising a substrate having a layer thereover, the layer comprising a fluoropolymer and a clay material. Methods for preparing a composite coating material solution, comprising : preparing a first solution comprising a fluoropolymer and an acetate; preparing a second solution comprising a clay material and a nanofiller suspension; and mixing the first and second sol
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Interfacial Functionalization for Self-Healing Composites

A reinforced composite material includes a solid polymer matrix, a reinforcing material in the solid polymer matrix, and a first plurality of capsules. The reinforcing material includes a surface. The capsules are on the surface of the reinforcing material, and include a liquid healing agent. The amount of the healing agent of the capsules is at least 0.01 milligrams per square centimeter of the surface area of the reinforcing material.
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Self-Assessing Mechanochromic Materials

A mechanochromic material includes a polymer having a backbone containing a mechanophore.
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Systems for Self-Healing Composite Materials

A composite material precursor composition includes a matrix precursor, a first plurality of capsules including a liquid polymerizer, an activator, and an accelerant. The liquid polymerizer polymerizes when in contact with the activator, and the accelerant is an accelerant for the polymerization of the liquid polymerizer. The composite material precursor may be used to form a composite material that includes a solid polymer matrix, the first plurality of capsules in the solid polymer matrix, the
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Highly Permeable Polymer Membranes

Provided are substantially flat membranes that include a block or graft co-polymer and a water transport protein, such as Aquaporin-Z, or a synthetic mimic of such proteins. Also provided are methods of removing contaminants from a liquid, by contacting the liquid with a substantially flat membrane that includes a block or graft co-polymer and a water transport protein or synthetic mimic thereof. Also provided are methods of making such membranes. Further provided are compositions that include a
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Systems for Applying a Thermal Barrier Coating to a Superalloy Substrate

Systems for applying a thermal barrier coating to a superalloy substrate including at least one target for supplying a materia) for making ihe thermal barrier coating; at least one laser operably directed toward the target for liberating atomic particles from the target: and a plasma torch for generating a plasma for accelerating and depositing the atomic particles onto the superalloy substrate as the thermal barrier coating where the superalloy substrate is a nickel based superalloy or a cobalt
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Method for Producing Layered Materials Using Long-lived Photo-induced Active Centers

The invention relates to a method for applying a photo-activated layered polymer coating to a substrate material in which one or more layers do not contain photoinitiator, or are not exposed to initiating light, but cure due to migration of cationic active centers. At least two separate monomer layers are applied to the substrate material. At least one of the monomer layers includes a photoinitiator capable of producing cationic active centers. The at least one layer including the photoinitiator
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Layered Zeolite Materials and Methods Related Thereto

A novel oxide material (MIN-I) comprising YO2; and X2O3, wherein Y is a tetravalent element and X is a trivalent element, wherein X/Y = O or Y/X = 30 to 100 is provided. Surprisingly, MIN-I can be reversibly deswollen. MIN-I can further be combined with a polymer to produce a nanocomposite, depolymerized to produce predominantly fully exfoliated layers (MIN-2), and pillared to produce a pillared oxide material (MIN-3), analogous to MCM-36. The materials are useful in a wide range of applications
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Apparatus Having Reduced Noise and Method of Using the Apparatus for Detecting Ionic Materials

An apparatus and method for detecting ionic materials includes a sensing electrode which contacts a liquid sample and detects a sensing voltage corresponding to a surface potential which is changed by a concentration of ionic materials in the liquid sample, a first switching transistor having a first terminal connected to the sensing electrode and a second terminal connected to a first node, a second switching transistor having a first terminal connected to a reset voltage and a second terminal
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Plated Cobalt-boron Catalyst on High Surface Area Templates for Hydrogen Generation from Sodium Borohydride

The invention provides a catalyst-coated nickel template including a) an open-cell nickel foam having within it pores defined by an internal nickel surface, the foam also having an external nickel surface not within the pores; and b) a layer of catalyst including Co and B on at least a portion of the internal nickel surface and at least a portion of the external nickel surface. The invention also provides a method of making a catalyst-coated nickel template that includes contacting a nickel temp
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Shear thickening fluid containtment in polymer composites

Shear thickening fluid suspoemulsions are shown to exhibit unique material properties that have potential application in a broad range of fields of use. Suspoemulsions containing shear thickening fluids as immiscible blends exhibit a nontrivial shear thickening response for volume fractions as low as 10% of STF in the silicone emulsion. Measurements indicate that the system shows phase inversion and it is even possible to form materials with a cocontinuous microstructure with interesting, hyster
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Ferromagnetic Resonance and Memory Effect in Magnetic Composite Materials

Magnetic devices incorporating magnetic composite materials are disclosed. A tunable magnetic device includes magnetic composite material and a magnetic field source. The magnetic composite material includes an insulator and magnetic material embedded in the insulator. The magnetic material has a remanent magnetization. The magnetic field source is operable to apply a magnetic field to the magnetic composite material in order to change the remanent magnetization of the magnetic material. A magne
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Fibers, Tubes and Porous Structures of Metal and Metal Oxide

Nanoscale materials comprised of metal or metal oxide which are in the form of fibers or tubes or which have a porous structure can be prepared using composite fibers containing admixtures of polymers and metal precursors and/or metal oxide precursors.
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Rubbery-block Containing Polymers, Fiber Sizings Thereof and Composites Thereof

The present invention relates generally to sizing compositions for fibers used in composite materials. More specifically, this invention relates to siloxane fiber sizing solutions comprising rubbery-polymers and their use in preparing composite materials. Using the sizings of the present invention not only improves the energy absorption of the composite materials made thereof, but also maintains the interfacial strength of composite materials. Particularly, the rubbery-polymers of the present in
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Nozzle-Based, Vapor-Phase, Plume Delivery Structure for Use in Production of Thin-Film Deposition Layer

A physical vapor deposition effusion method comprising translating a strip material through a physical vapor deposition zone in a deposition chamber and providing first and second substantially closed vessels located serially along the processing path in the same deposition chamber, each vessel emitting different source materials to produce overlapping plumes and having an array of vapor delivery nozzles distributed uniformly across the vessel along the width of the zone, and configured to expel
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High-temperature Treatment of Hydrous Minerals

Increasing the activity of a hydrous magnesium silicate with respect to sequestration of carbon dioxide by mineral carbonation includes rapid heating of the hydrous magnesium silicate. Rapid heating of the hydrous magnesium silicate includes heating a quantity of particles of hydrous magnesium silicate with flame conditions to substantially dehydroxylate the particles. The dehydroxylated particles can be contacted with carbon dioxide in a sequestration process to form magnesium carbonate.
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Porous Geopolymer Materials

Preparing porous materials includes forming a mixture including a geopolymer resin and a liquid between which a nanoscale (1 - 1000 nm), microscale (1 - 1000 m), and/or milliscale (1 - 10 mm) phase separation occurs. The mixture is solidified (e.g., at an ambient temperature or a relatively low temperature), and a portion (e.g., a majority or a significant majority) of the liquid is removed from the solidified mixture. The liquid can include organic liquids from agricultural, geological, industr
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Refractory Porous Ceramics

A refractory, porous ceramic composite including crystalline mullite (3Al2O3+2SiO2 or 3Al6Si2O11) and a crystalline phase of LaPO4 is formed from a mullite-LaPO4 sol-gel by annealing the dried gel. During the annealing process, particle sintering and self-foaming occur in the glassy state, and pores are produced due at least in part to the release of entrapped gases that form during the pyrolysis of the gel. The resulting crystalline composite, or crystalline nanocomposite, has a high porosity a
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Porous Materials for Biological Sample Collection

Methods, apparatuses, and systems for collecting samples using hybrid porous materials that include an organic material and an inorganic material. A method for sample collection includes contacting a hybrid porous material and a biological sample to the porous material. The hybrid porous material includes an inorganic material and an organic material. The method includes placing the porous material with the attached sample in a liquid medium, wherein the sample is separated from the porous mater
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Unidirectionally reinforced fiber composite material's structural condition determining method for use in e.g. automobile manufacturing field, involves testing material and determining viscoelastic ma

The method involves testing unidirectionally reinforced fiber composite material. Lamb-waves in the fiber composite material are excited and measured. Viscoelastic material characteristics of the fiber composite material are determined. A real part and/or an imaginary part of elasticity coefficients is determined as the material characteristics of the fiber composite material by a module integrated in an evaluation unit. Dispersion characteristics are determined for one or more directions with r
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Semifinished textile stacks or preforms, useful in fiber-reinforced composites, contain superimposed textile sheets with fiber position and/or condition indicating elements for quality control

Production of semifinished textile stacks (10) and preforms, consisting of two or more superimposed semifinished textile sheets (12, 14), involves (a) laying upper sheet(s) (14) on a bottom sheet (12) and (b) determining the position and/or condition of the fibers, fiber bundles and/or filaments in the lower and/or upper sheet(s) using position and/or condition indicating element(s) (18) in the lower sheet(s) and/or indicating threads in the uppermost sheet.
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Methods for Graphene-assisted Fabrication of Micro- and Nanoscale Structures and Devices Featuring the Same

Methods for graphene-assisted fabrication of a surface on a substrate are disclosed herein. In an exemplary method, fabricating an etched surface on a substrate includes, depositing at least one layer of graphene on the surface on the substrate, patterning the deposited layer of graphene, and exposing the surface on a substrate to an acid to etch the surface on the substrate. The method can further include forming the layer of graphene from graphite. In some embodiments, the layer of graphene is
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Monolithic Polymer Crosslinked Composite Materials and Methods of Making

A bidentate free radical crosslinking initiator binds chemically to silica and silica rich surfaces and enables the free radical based polymerization of various materials such as styrene, divinylbenzene and methylmethacrylate onto silica and silica rich surfaces. When used in connection with aerogels, the resultant crosslinked aerogels exhibit greatly increased strength with only nominal increase in density.
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High Surface Area Carbon and Process for Its Production.

The present invention provides a high surface area porous carbon material and a process for making this material. In particular, the carbon material is derived from biomass and has large mesopore and micropore surfaces that promote improved adsorption of materials and gas storage capabilities.
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Methods and Systems for Synthesizing Iron-based Materials and Sequestering Carbon Dioxide

Methods and systems for sequestering carbon dioxide and generating hydrogen are disclosed. In some embodiments, the methods include the following: dissolving an iron based material that includes a carbonate-forming element into a solution including the carbonate-forming element and iron; increasing a pH of the solution to cause precipitation of iron oxide from the solution thereby generating a first source of Fe2O3; reacting the carbonate-forming element in the solution with a first source of ca
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Systems and Methods for Forming Defects on Graphitic Materials and Curing Radiation-Damaged Graphitic Materials

Systems and methods are disclosed herein for forming defects on graphitic materials. The methods for forming defects include applying a radiation reactive material on a graphitic material, irradiating the applied radiation reactive material to produce a reactive species, and permitting the reactive species to react with the graphitic material to form defects. Additionally, disclosed are methods for removing defects on graphitic materials.
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Bonding agent

Binder (11) comprises a particulate body (12), which forms a solid phase while contacting with a liquid medium (13), where each body is encapsulated with at least a first agent and then formation of solid phase can takes place, and the quantity of the encapsulated body (14) is so loaded that the encapsulation is destroyed.
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Magnetorheological Materials, Method for Making, and Applications Thereof

A magnetorheological material comprises a magnetic particle and a ceramic material, wherein the magnetorheological material is in a dried form and further wherein a portion of the ceramic material is in the form of a nanocrystalline coating over the entire exterior surface of the magnetic particle and another portion of the ceramic material is in the form of a free nanocrystal. A magnetorheological material comprises a magnetic particle having a ceramic material coating over an external surface
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Calcium and Lanthanum Solid Base Catalysts for Transesterification

In one aspect, a heterogeneous catalyst comprises calcium hydroxide and lanthanum hydroxide, wherein the catalyst has a specific surface area of more than about 10 m2/g. In another aspect, a heterogeneous catalyst comprises a calcium compound and a lanthanum compound, wherein the catalyst has a specific surface area of more than about 10 m2/g, and a total basicity of about 13.6 mmol/g. In further another aspect, a heterogeneous catalyst comprises calcium oxide and lanthanum oxide, wherein the ca
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Development of a High Strength High Toughness Bainitic Steel

A bainitic steel with simultaneous high yield strength and high fracture toughness includes at least 5 volume percent austenite as well as iron, carbon, and silicon. The silicon is present in an amount of at least 1.5 weight percent of total weight of the bainitic steel. A method of forming the steel by austempering is also provided.
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Highly Oxidized Graphene Oxide and Methods for Production Thereof

A highly oxidized form of graphene oxide and methods for production thereof are described in various embodiments of the present disclosure. In general, the methods include mixing a graphite source with a solution containing at least one oxidant and at least one protecting agent and then oxidizing the graphite source with the at least one oxidant in the presence of the at least one protecting agent to form the graphene oxide. Graphene oxide synthesized by the presently described methods is of a h
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Microporous Ceramics and Methods of Manufacture

Inorganic microporous metal oxide materials, such as aluminum-based microporous ceramic materials, useful for loop heat pipes, insulators, thermal management devices, catalyst supports, substrates, and filters, among others. An example method of manufacture includes heating a mixture of alumina (Al2O3) and aluminum carbonate (Al2(CO3)3) powders to a temperature of at least about 1400 degrees Celsius for a pre-selected time.
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Preparation and Use of Nano Size Peroxide Particles

Nano-size particles of calcium dioxide and magnesium dioxide for remediation of contaminated water or soil and processes for preparing and using nano-size particles of calcium dioxide and magnesium dioxide.
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Method for Inhibiting Decomposition of Metal Sulfide-containing Material

This invention provides methods of producing a crosslinked lipid coating on a metal sulfide-containing material using a chemical initiator. The crosslinked lipid coating attached to the surface of the material prevents dissolution or oxidation of the material. The methods may be useful to prevent oxidation and leaking of sulfide- containing material in the environment and may be used in the control of environmental pollution.
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Ternary Metal Transition Metal Non-oxide Nano-particles, Methods and Applications Thereof

The present invention is related to ternary metal transition metal non-oxide nano-particle compositions, methods for preparing the nano-particles, and applications relating in particular to the use of said nano-particles in dispersions, electrodes and capacitors. The nano-particle compositions of the present invention can include a precursor which includes at least one material selected from the group consisting of alkoxides, carboxylates and halides of transition metals, the material including
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Method of Making Mixed Metal Oxide Ceramics

A method of making dielectric ceramics containing mixed metal oxides is provided. The method comprises the steps of at least partially coating a metal oxide powder with a metal hydroxide or metal oxide, compacting the coated powder with one or more additional metal compounds or metal compound precursors, and directly sintering the compact in a single step. The method of the invention may be used to avoid occurrence of significant quantities of one or more undesired but thermodynamically or kinet
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Compositions and Methods for the Protection of Substrates from Heat Flux and Fire.

A flame or heat flux protective coating composition, which includes a fiberglass dispersion in silicone. A flame or heat flux protective sheet, which includes fiberglass and silicone in a sheet form, wherein the fiberglass is dispersed in the silicone or the fiberglass is a woven cloth coated with the silicone is also presented. Articles incorporating the flame or heat flux protective coating or sheet form and methods for coating an article with the flame or heat flux protective coating composit
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Compositions and Methods for the Protection of Substrates from Heat Flux and Fire

A flame or heat flux protective coating composition, which includes a dispersion of fiberglass, hollow glass spheres, or a combination of both in silicone. A flame or heat flux protective sheet, which includes hollow glass spheres dispersed in silicone in a sheet form or fiberglass and silicone in a sheet form, wherein the fiberglass is dispersed in the silicone or the fiberglass is a woven cloth coated with the silicone is also presented. Articles incorporating the flame or heat flux protective
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Flame-retardant Coating

A flame-retardant coating composition, which includes a cross-linked thermosetting polymer and a metal hydroxide. A precursor composition for use in preparing the flame retardant-coating is also presented, wherein the precursor composition includes a cross-linked thermosetting polymer varnish, a metal hydroxide, an alcohol, and water. A method for coating an article with a flame-retardant coating layer and articles incorporating the flame-retardant coating are also presented.
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Moldable and Low-temperature Cure High-temperature Composites

A method for preparing a high-temperature heat-resistant composite material by combining a mixture of submicron alumina powder and submicron silica powder, wherein the ratio of alumina to silica is from about 4:1 to about 5:1, submicron Group II metal oxide powder, and a Group I metal silicate solution to form a slurry, wherein the weight of the Group II metal oxide powder is an amount corresponding to about 5% to about 10% of the weight of the silicate solution; contacting reinforcing high-temp
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Low Temperature Metal Oxide Synthesis

A method for the decomposition of one or more metal oxide precursor compounds, at least one of which is a metal carboxylate salt, to a metal oxide or mixed metal oxide by contacting the metal oxide precursor compound or compounds with an aqueous reaction mixture at a pH, pressure and temperature effective to decompose all metal oxide precursor compounds, wherein the temperature is between about room temperature and about 350 DEG C. and the contact duration is effective to decompose all metal oxi
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Method of Hydrothermal Liquid Phase Sintering of Ceramic Materials and Products Derived Therefrom.

Provided here is a method of producing a monolithic body from a porous matrix, comprising: (i) providing a porous matrix having interstitial spaces and comprising at least a first reactant; (ii) contacting the porous matrix with an infiltrating medium that carries at least a second reactant; (iii) allowing the infiltrating medium to infiltrate at least a portion of the interstitial spaces of the porous matrix under conditions that promote a reaction between the at least first reactant and the at
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Methods of Increasing Toughness of Immiscible Polymer Blends

An immiscible polymer blend that includes an amount of poly(trimethylene terephthalate) (PTT) and an amount of poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA). A method for preparing an immiscible polymer blend by (a) identifying a first polymeric component and a second polymeric component as immiscible when blended; (b) combining the first polymeric component and the second polymeric component; and (c) mixing the first polymeric component and the second polymeric component to produce an immiscible polymer blen
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Device for Disinfecting Water By Means of Anodic Oxidation

The invention relates to a device for disinfecting water by means of anodic oxidation, wherein a reservoir (10) is provided for disinfected water, wherein a feed line (15) leads from the water to be disinfected into the reservoir (10), wherein a reactor (4) for the anodic reaction of the water is arranged in the feed line (15), wherein the reservoir (10) has a redox sensor (5) for measuring the redox potential, wherein the water feed from the feed line (15) into the reservoir (10) is intermitten
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Functionalized Substrates with Thin Metal Oxide Adhesion Layer

Polymer substrates including adhesion layers for activating the surface of the substrate are provided, thereby allowing the substrate to react with organic, inorganic, metallic and/or organometallic materials. The surface of the polymer substrate is coated with a metal oxide layer that is subjected to conditions adequate to form an oxide adhesion layer. Combining deposition techniques for formation of functionalized polymer surfaces with photolithographic techniques enables spatial control of RG
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Bridged Graphite Oxide Materials

The present invention is a bridged graphite oxide material, comprising at least two graphite oxide sheets in which a plurality of graphite oxide sheets are bridged to at least one other graphite oxide sheet by at least one diamine bridging group. The bridged graphite oxide is formed by the covalent reaction of one amino group of a diamine with a reactive group on the surface or edge of one graphite oxide sheet and the covalent reaction of another amino group of the same diamine with a reactive g
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Carrier Applied Coating Layers

Methods for bonding adherent phosphorous-containing coating layers to oxide surfaces on substrates wherein the substrates with oxide surfaces are selected from: (a) oxidized iron, titanium, silicon, tin and vanadium; (b) indium tin oxide; and (c) substrates with oxide layers deposited thereon, wherein the substrates on which oxide layers are deposited are selected from ceramics, semiconductors, metals, plastics and glass, and the method contacts the oxide surface with a carrier conveying an orga
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Method of Preparing High Density Metal Oxide Layers and the Layers Produced Thereby

A method for the production of an oxide layer, involving oxidizing a metal surface, wherein the metal surface is electrically connected to an electronic control unit (ECU); wherein the metal oxide layer produced has an amount of metal present in said metal oxide layer that is higher than that present in a metal oxide layer produced by oxidizing the metal surface in the absence of the ECU; or oxidizing an oxidizable non-metallic conductive surface, wherein the oxidizable non-metallic conductive s
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Barium-doped Bond Coat for Thermal Barrier Coatings

A metallic article for high temperature applications such as a turbine engine component is protected by a thermal barrier coating system on the article's metallic substrate. The thermal barrier coating system includes a bond coat layer of aluminum containing alloy on the metal substrate, an alumina layer on the bond coat layer and a ceramic thermal barrier layer on the alumina layer. The bond coat layer is doped with elemental barium that enhances the creep resistance of the alumina layer, thus,
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Nanocomposite of Graphene and Metal Oxide Materials

Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The nanocomposite materials exhibit a specific capacity of at least twice that of the metal oxide material without the graphene at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10C.
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Mesoporous Metal Oxide Graphene Nanocomposite Materials

A nanocomposite material formed of graphene and a mesoporous metal oxide having a demonstrated specific capacity of more than 200 F/g with particular utility when employed in supercapacitor applications. A method for making these nanocomposite materials by first forming a mixture of graphene, a surfactant, and a metal oxide precursor, precipitating the metal oxide precursor with the surfactant from the mixture to form a mesoporous metal oxide. The mesoporous metal oxide is then deposited onto a
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Post-Processing Treatment of Conductive Polymers to Enhance Electrical Conductivity

A method for enhancing electrical conductivity of a film which includes at least one conductive polymer. The method includes providing the film comprising the at least one conductive polymer and at least one polymer acid, agitating the film in at least one reagent; and, placing the film on a heated surface. The at least one reagent includes a reagent acid that is stronger than the polymer acid. The conductivity of the treated film is significantly greater than the conductivity of the untreated f
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Enhanced Bonding Layers on Titanium Materials

The present invention provides a dense-coverage, adherent phosphorous-based coating on the native oxide surface of a material. Disclosed phosphorous-based coatings include phosphate and organo-phosphonate coatings. The present invention also provides further derivatization of the phosphorous-based coatings to yield dense surface coverage of chemically reactive coatings and osetoblast adhesion-promoting and proliferation-promoting coatings on the native oxide surface of a titanium material.
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Coatings Containing Functionalized Graphene Sheets and Articles Coated Therewith

Coatings comprising functionalized graphene sheets and at least one binder. In one embodiment, the coatings are electrically conductive.
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Thermally Exfoliated Graphite Oxide

A modified graphite oxide material contains a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 m2/g to 2600 m2/g, wherein the thermally exfoliated graphite oxide displays no signature of the original graphite and/or graphite oxide, as determined by X-ray diffraction.
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Method and Apparatus for Depositing Material Using a Dynamic Pressure

A method of depositing organic material is provided. A carrier gas carrying organic material is ejected from a nozzle at a flow velocity that is at least 10% of the thermal velocity of the carrier gas, such that the organic material is deposited onto a substrate. In some embodiments, the dynamic pressure in a region between the nozzle and the substrate surrounding the carrier gas is at least 1 Torr, and more preferably 10 Torr, during the ejection. In some embodiments, a guard flow is provided a
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Cobalt Carbide-based Nanoparticle Permanent Magnet Materials

A composition of a crystalline ferromagnetic material based upon nanoscale cobalt carbide particles and to a method of manufacturing the ferromagnetic material of the invention via a polyol reaction are disclosed. The crystalline ferromagnetic cobalt carbide nanoparticles of the invention are useful for high performance permanent magnet applications. The processes according to the invention are extendable to other carbide phases, for example to Fe-, FeCo-carbides. Fe- and FeCo-carbides are reali
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Direct Chemical Synthesis of Rare Earth-transition Metal Alloy Magnetic Materials

A direct chemical synthesis scheme for the fabrication of isotropic and anisotropic rare earth (RE) -transition metal (TM)- based permanent magnets is disclosed. The method according to the invention permits the synthesis of, e.g., particles, films and coatings with controlled particle sizes, shapes, compositions and dispersion in one reaction process. The resulting particles have desirable hard magnetic properties such as high magnetic saturation induction and coercivity at room temperature.
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Angular Extrusion for Polymer Consolidation

Angular extrusion (AE) methods for creating monolithic polymers with high entanglement density, but small crystallite size, are disclosed. The methods involve consolidating granular polymer in an extrusion channel having at least one strain-imposing feature.
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Joining of Parts Via Magnetic Heating of Metal-Aluminum Powders

A method of joining at least two parts includes steps of dispersing a joining material comprising a multi-phase nanocrystalline magnetic metal-aluminum powder at an interface between the at least two parts to be joined and applying an alternating magnetic field (AMF). The AMF has a magnetic field strength and frequency suitable for inducing magnetic hysteresis losses in the metal-aluminum powder and is applied for a period that raises temperature of the metal-aluminum powder to an exothermic tra
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Conjugated Polymers from Substituted 3,4-propylenedioxythiophene, Compositions, Method of Making, and Use Thereof

Polymers and copolymers having units derived from substituted 3,4-propylenedioxythiophene are disclosed. Also provided are methods of making and using the same.
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Pervaporation Composite Membrane for Aqueous Solution Separation and Methods for Using the Same

In one embodiment, a membrane comprises: a nonporous, hydrophobic selective layer configured to be on a feed solution side of the membrane and polyethylene layer configured to be on a permeate side of the membrane, wherein the membrane is configured to selectively separate an organic component from an aqueous solution. In some embodiments, the method for separating an organic component from an aqueous stream can comprise: contacting a nonporous, hydrophobic selective layer of a membrane with the
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Oxidation of Environmental Contaminants with Mixed Valent Manganese Oxides

Methods and compositions for reduction of contaminants using manganese-based octahedral molecular sieves.
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Protective Oxide Coatings for Sofc Interconnections

A dense and well adhered spinel coating such as CuMn1.8O4, when deposited on a stainless steel substrate by electrophoretic deposition, significantly reduces the oxidation rate of the steel compared to the uncoated steel at elevated temperature. The protective oxide spinel coating is useful for preparing solid oxide fuel cell interconnects having long term stability at 800 DEG C.
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Deoxybenzoin-derived Anti-flammable Polymers

The invention provides novel flame-retardant polymers and materials, their synthesis and use. More particularly, the flame-retardant polymers are deoxybenzoin-derived polymers.
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Polysaccharide-containing Block Copolmer Particles and Uses Thereof

The invention relates to new amphiphilic linear block copolymers of polysaccharides and polymers. The amphiphilic linear block copolymers do not form a true solution in water and are able to form micelles in selective solvents. Also disclosed are particles, each of which has a shell and a core, and a diameter of about 1 to 1,000 nanometers, and methods of delivering agents or removing substances, e.g., undesirable substances, from a subject or environment, by using these particles.
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Antimicrobial Polymers

The invention generally relates to novel polymers (SMAMPs) and their syntheses and use. The polymers exhibit promising properties of AMPs, In particularly, for example, a ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) platform was developed that allows syntheses of SMAMPs that employ a minimum number of norbornene-based building blocks and/or enable easy and independent variation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups in the monomer units and/or aiong the polymeric backbone to finetune and select
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Enzymatic Synthesis of Polymers

The invention relates to new methods of enzymatic synthesis of polymers such as polyorganosilicones and polyesters, and new polymers made by these methods.
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A System for Producing Patterned Silicon Carbide Structures

The invention is directed to methods of forming ceramic pattern structures of silicon carbide film. In one method, an electron-beam resist or a photo-resist is deposited onto a substrate. A portion of the resist is selectively removed from the substrate to form a resist pattern on the substrate. A film of pre-ceramic polymer that includes silicon and carbon is deposited onto the substrate and resist pattern and the pre-ceramic polymer film is cured. A portion of the cured pre-ceramic polymer fil
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Heating of Polymers-and Other Materials Using Radiation for Drug Delivery and Other Applications

The present invention generally relates to systems and methods for releasing a releasable species from an article using an external trigger, for example, using infrared or near-infrared radiation. Such systems and methods may be useful, for example, in biological applications (e.g., as an implant within a subject), industrial applications, commercial applications, or the like. One aspect of the invention is generally directed to an article containing a radiation-sensitive polymer or other radiat
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Procedure for Obtaining a Microporous Materia

Procedure for the obtainment of a microporous material having molecular sieve properties through the expansion of a starting titanosilicate with an amine, delamination and subsequent elimination of the amine through chemical extraction. Furthermore the invention relates to the microporous material obtainable through said procedure and to the applications thereof.
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Synthesis of Ordered Chiral Mesoporous Silica Using Amino Acids

The invention relates to a method for producing a material having an ordered mesoporous structure and enantioselective properties, using amino acids as chirality-inducing agents. The invention further relates to the mesoporous material that can be obtained by means of said method and to the uses thereof.
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Automated Machine for Performing Alternating Immersion Tests

The machine makes it possible to perform tests on test specimens of various materials in total or partial immersions in liquids of different compositions and concentrations not only simultaneously but also in differentiated, programmed tests under different conditions. The machine likewise allows exhaustive control of the test atmosphere for drying the elements, optionally allowing the simulation of air currents with controlled conditions for the forced drying of the test specimens, and at the s
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Method for Producing Metal-based Materials for Magnetic Cooling Or Heat Pumps

The method for producing metal-based materials for magnetic cooling or heat pumps comprises the following steps: a) reacting chemical elements and/or alloys in a stoichiometry which corresponds to the metal-based material in the solid and/or liquid phase, b) optionally converting the reaction product from step a) into a solid, c) sintering and/or tempering the solid from step a) or b), d) quenching the sintered and/or tempered solid from step c) at a cooling speed of at least 100 K/s.
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Ceramic Filter

Ceramic filter having open porosity 80 to 93 % are obtained by use of phylosilicate raw materials with limited content of iron oxides, alumina and pores-forming agent. The filter contains titanium in form of rutile or anatase to impart a possibility of self-purification from organic admixtures. There is pores-size of ceramic filter in the micron and/or nanometer limits. The filter could be used for improvement of drinking water's quality by assessment of decreasing chemical oxygen consumption an
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Material-mass for Production of Granular Claydite

Mass for production of expanded clay materials (claydite) contains clay proper for this purpose and as the gas forming combustible additive - a by-product of bio-fuel (biodiesel) production, particularly glycerol mixture. This additive provides obtaining granular claydite with reduced bulk density (0,253 g/cm3), and with increased swelling (volume exchange) coefficient (6,081).
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Composition and Method for Manufacturing of Glass-ceramic Products from Industrial Waste, Glass and Clay

The present invention relates to the direction of technology of materials, respectively, to the manufacturing process of glass-ceramic materials and composition of glass-ceramic materials produced from fly ash from electro filters, peat ash and from two different types of clay - lime-less clay and lime-rich clay. From investigation evaluating the data obtained by the studies of structure, physical, chemical and mineralogical composition as well as chemical durability of glass-ceramics, it could
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All Superelastic Pressure Sensor Element

The invention is related to the field of material science and composite materials and can be utilized for elaboration and production of new perspective active elements. The production method of all superelastic pressure sensor element is proposed. The method includes the obtaining of the piezoresistive polyisoprene - nanostructured black composite (PINOK) - with reduced percolation threshold, using solution method and dispersing the electroconductive filler with ultrasound. The acquired sensor e
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Thermally and Mechanically Resistent Ceramics

Invention is related to the high-temperature dense mullite-ZrO2 ceramic materials for using mainly in high-temperature (working temperature is greater or equal to 600 centigrade)technological equipment (as fire-resistant "backing" in high-temperature furnaces, in glass melting furnaces, spreaders, as plungers etc) as well as in technological equipment at temperatures lower than 600 centigrade (for instance, in technological lines for food technologies). Such ceramics possesses high mechanical an
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Material Comprising Finely Layered Heterostructures of Oxide Materials

A material comprises finely layered heterostructures of at least two oxide materials, wherein the layered structure allows coupling of polar and non-polar vibrational modes or structural distortions at interfaces enhancing properties of the oxide materials, especially polarization, transition temperature and strain-polarization coupling. The material comprises layered perovskite-like ABO3 structures, wherein A and B are cations of different sizes. Especially there are layers of ABO3 and A'BO3, w
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Amphiphilic Block Copolymer and Method for Preparing Same

L'invention concerne un copolymère amphiphile à blocs, sa préparation, et son utilisation sous forme de latex auto-stabilisé.Le copolymère répond à la formule R<6>-O-[-CH2CH2-O-]n-C(=O)-CR<3>R<4>-[CH2CR<5>]m-S-C(=S)-S-R<1> dans laquelle R représente un groupe alkyle linéaire ou ramifié, un groupe alkényle ayant une ou plusieurs liaisons -C=C-, ou un groupe alkynyle ayant une ou plusieurs liaisons -C=C-, lesdits groupes ayant de 8 à 18 atomes de carbone ; R<2> représente un groupe R<
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Multifunctional Coatings

New polyelectrolyte copolymer, composite material, multilayer film and substrate carrying such polyelectrolyte copolymer, composite and multilayer film wherein the polyelectrolyte copolymer comprises a) a first type of identical or different units (A) each comprising one or more dihydroxyphenyl groups such that sidechains are present along the backbone of the polyelectrolyte copolymer which contain at least one dihydroxyphenyl group each; and (b1) a second type of identical or different units (B
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Atomic Layer Deposition Powder Coating

A system and method are described for providing simultaneously conformal coating of a plurality of three dimensional objects using atomic layer deposition. The system comprises a dielectric tube adapted for maintaining the plurality of objects under vacuum and at least one inlet for providing a gaseous material in the dielectric tube. The dielectric tube used for comprising the objects is mounted rotatable so as to be able to rotate the plurality of objects under vacuum during atomic layer depos
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Method for fabricating a porous elastomer

A method is provided for fabricating a porous elastomer, the method comprising the steps of: providing a predetermined amount of a liquid elastomer and a predetermined amount of a liquid porogen, the liquid porogen having a lower viscosity than the elastomer; mixing the elastomer and the liquid porogen in vacuum until a homogenous emulsion is formed; curing the homogenous emulsion until polymerisation of the emulsion is reached, thereby forming a cured emulsion; and removing the porogen from the
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Spider Mite Silk Proteins

The present invention relates to silk proteins derived from spider mite, more specifically derived from Tetranychus urticae. More specifically, the invention relates to the use of these proteins to make fibers, or fiber composed material
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Membranes Filled with Porous Hollow Particles

The present invention provides a new composite material comprising a polymer matrix comprising dispersed molecular sieve porous particles of which at least part are hollow particles, meaning that the particles comprise a shell enclosing cavities, of which the volume is at least two times larger than the average volume of the pores comprised in the shell of such particle. The invention further relates to membranes comprising such materials as well as the use of such membranes.
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Improved Method for Making Cross-linked Polyimide Membranes

Improved methods for the preparation of cross-linked polyimide membranes are disclosed. The process comprises preparing a polyimide polymer cast solution, casting said polyimide polymer solution onto a suitable substrate and solidifying said film, whereby cross-linking occur before the membrane is fully solidified. More in particular, cross-linking agents are either added to the polyimide polymer cast solution or added to the phase inversion coagulation medium.
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Fabrication of porogen residue free and mechanically robust low-k materials

A method is disclosed to produce a porogen-residue-free ultra low-k film with porosity higher than 50% and a high elastic modulus above 5 GPa. The method starts with depositing a SiCOH film using Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (PE-CVD) or Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) onto a substrate and then first Performing an atomic hydrogen treatment at elevated wafer temperature in the range of 200 DEG C up to 350 DEG C to remove all the porogens and then performing a UV assisted thermal cur
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Process for Manufacturing a Crystalline Silicon Layer

A method for forming a crystalline silicon layer on a substrate is provided, said method comprising the steps of: performing a metal induced crystallization process, said process comprising: depositing a metal, e.g. aluminium, on said substrate at a first temperature, said metal having an external surface; oxidizing said external surface of said metal at a second temperature; depositing amorphous silicon on said oxidized external surface of said metal at a third temperature; annealing said metal
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Method for Electrochemical Processing of Non-flat Samples

The present invention provides a system for electrochemically processing non-flat samples (1) and/or samples that can change shape during the electrochemical processing. The system comprises a sample holder for providing an electrical contact to the sample (1) during electrochemical processing. The sample holder comprises a carrying element (4) and a fixing element (5) for clamping of the sample (1) in between the fixing element (5) and the carrying element (4), thus providing electrical contact
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Method for the Preparation of a Reinforced Thermoset Polymer Composite

The present invention refers to a method for the preparation of a reinforced thermoset polymer composite, said thermoset polymer composite comprising coated fibres, the coating being used as a vehicle for the introduction of carbon nanotubes into the thermoset polymer, the preparation of said reinforced thermoset polymer composite comprising the following steps: - providing fibres; - preparing a coating comprising carbon nanotubes and a polymeric binder; - applying said coating to said fibres to
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Method for Preparing Graphenes

The invention relates to a method for manufacturing a dispersion of graphene particles or flakes, including the following steps: (a) providing a carbon material; (b) dispersing said material in an aqueous or organic liquid so as to obtain a dispersion; (c) microwave heating said dispersion so as to obtain a dispersion containing graphene particles or flakes and carbon raw materials; and (d) separating said graphene dispersion from said carbon raw material so as to obtain a dispersion of graphene
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Preparation of Graphene By Mechanically Thinning Graphite Materials

The invention relates to a method for producing a dispersion of graphene particles or flakes in a liquid medium L, including the following steps: (a) providing a bar or block (5) of solid graphite material M; (b) rubbing said material M against the surface S (2) of a substrate so as to create a rubbing trace of said material M on said surface S (2) of said substrate; (c) dipping said substrate in a liquid medium L (6) and subjecting said liquid medium L (6) to ultrasounds so as to obtain a dispe
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Three-dimensional Foam Photocatalysts Structured with Carbon Or Carbonated Material

L'invention concerne un photocatalyseur comportant une mousse alvéolaire sélectionné parmi la mousse de carbone et la mousse d'un matériau carboné, tel qu'un polymère, et une phase photocatalytiquement active, déposée directement sur ladite mousse alvéolaire ou sur une phase intermédiaire déposée sur ladite mousse alvéolaire. La taille moyenne des alvéoles est comprise entre 2500 [mu]m et 5000 [mu]m. La mousse peut comporter des nanotubes ou nanofibres (notamment en TiO2).
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Hybrid Material, and Method for the Production Thereof

The invention relates to a material in the form of a cellular solid monolith consisting of an inorganic oxide polymer. Said monolith comprises macropores which have an average size dA of 4 [mu]m to 50 [mu]m, mesopores that have an average size dE of 20 to 30 AA, and micropores which have an average size dI of 5 à 10 AA, said pores being interconnected. The inorganic oxide polymer has organic groups R of formula -(CH2)n-R<1>, wherein 0=n=5, and R<1> is selected from among a thiol group, a pyrrol
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A Method for Producing a Polymer Film with an Array of Cavities Therein

A method for producing an array of cavities (2) in a polymer film (1) comprises preparing a polymer/solvent solution and drop casting a thin film (6) of the solution on a substrate. The film solution (6) is subjected to three gas flows. An initial gas flow of a relatively low relative humidity is passed over the film solution (6) to evaporate solvent from the polymer/solvent solution (6) to reduce the surface temperature of the film solution (6) below the dew point temperature of the next gas fl
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Imaging Dyes and Use Thereof

Use of a metal complex having the formula: [M(L1)a(L2)b(L3)c]-Xd-Pepe wherein M is a metal selected from osmium, ruthenium, rhodium, rhenium or copper; L1, L2, L are bidentate or tridentate heterocyclic ligands containing O and/or N and may be the same or different; a, b, c are integers between 0 to 3 and may be the same or different and wherein the sum of a+b+c is 2 or 3; X is a functional group for directly or indirectly covalently binding to Pep wherein the functional group for directly coval
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Small Scale Solid State Screening

The present invention relates to screening of solid material. In particular the present invention relates to an apparatus and a method for screening of crystalline or amorphous material during secondary manufacturing. Accordingly the invention relates to a method for solid state screening by simulating secondary manufacturing of at least one solid material; wherein said solid state screening combines small scale crystallization in a receptacle and the evaluation of induced solid state changes in
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Improvements in Magnesium Diboride Superconducting Materials and Methods of Synthesis

Improved magnesium diboride superconducting materials and methods of synthesis are disclosed. Embodiments of the superconducting material comprise at least two starting materials capable of forming MgB2 and at least one dopant compound comprising silicon, carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The starting materials and the at least one dopant compound are heated and mixed at an atomic level to produce a silicon-doped MgB2 superconducting material. Examples of the dopant compound include silicone oil, Tri
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Method of Synthesis of a Superconducting Material

A method of synthesizing a superconducting material, comprising mixing starting materials comprising magnesium, boron, silicon and carbon; heating the mixture of starting materials to a temperature in the range between 650 DEG C. and 2000 DEG C. to produce a material comprising magnesium boride doped with silicon carbide; and cooling the resulting material to a temperature below the critical temperature of the material to render the material capable of superconducting.
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Separation and recovery of precious metals using polymer materials.

A method of separation and/or recovery of a precious metal from a solution containing said precious metal in ionic form, optionally in the presence of impurities, including the step of contacting a solution containing said precious metal in ionic form with a conducting polymer. The method is generally applicable to precious metals including platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd) and more particularly gold (Au). The ionic species may be anionic (for example [AuC14]<->) or cationic. The polymer may be for
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Process for the Preparation of Graphene

The present invention relates to a process for the preparation of graphene which can be used in the development of graphene paper or films, graphene-based composites and articles for nanoelectronics, nanocomposites, batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage and bioapplications. This process comprises reducing purified exfoliated graphite oxide in the presence of a base.
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Molecularly Imprinted Polymers

The present invention provides methods of designing molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) which have applications in extracting bioactive compounds from a range of bioprocessing feedstocks and wastes. The present invention is further directed to MIPs designed by the methods of the present invention.
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A Ceramic Casting Method for Shape Forming of a Ceramic Green Body

A ceramic casting method for shape forming of a ceramic green body including the steps of: a) dispersing fine ceramic particles in a polymerizable solvent to form a colloidal ceramic suspension, b) casting the ceramic suspension into the required shape, and c) polymerizing the solvent to solidify the ceramic suspension and form the ceramic green body.
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Hydrogels Derived from Biological Polymers

The invention relates to elastin-based hydrogels that are formed under pressurised conditions
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Vesiculated polymer particles

The invention provides a method of preparing an aqueous dispersion of vesiculated polymer particles, the method comprising: preparing a dispersion of polymerisable particles within a continuous aqueous phase, the polymerisable particles having a structure that is defined by an outer organic phase that comprises one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomers and surrounds an inner aqueous phase, said inner aqueous phase defining a single void within the polymerisable particle, wherein a RAFT agen
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Polymer Particles

The present invention relates to a method of forming polymer on the surface of polymer particles, the method comprising: (i) providing a dispersion comprising a continuous aqueous phase, a dispersed organic phase comprising one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomers, and a RAFT agent as a stabiliser for said organic phase; (ii) polymerising the one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomers under the control of the RAFT agent to form an aqueous dispersion of seed polymer particles; (iii) cro
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Aqueous Dispersions of Polymer Particles

The invention provides a method for preparing an aqueous dispersion of polymer particles comprising the following steps: (i) preparing a dispersion having a continuous aqueous phase, a dispersed organic phase comprising one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomers, and an amphiphilic RAFT agent as a stabiliser for said organic phase, and (ii) polymerising said one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomers under the control of said amphiphilic RAFT agent to form said aqueous dispersion of poly
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Surface polymerisation process and polymer product using RAFT agent

A method of polymerising monomer to form polymer at the surface of particulate material, said method comprising: providing a dispersion of said particulate material in a continuous liquid phase, said dispersion comprising a RAFT agent as a stabiliser for said particulate material, and said continuous liquid phase comprising one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomers; and polymerising said one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomers under the control of said RAFT agent to thereby form poly
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A Method of Fabricating a Material

The present disclosure provides a method of fabricating a material. The material comprises first and second material components. The method comprises the steps of providing a source of a first material component. Further, the method comprises providing a substrate comprising a second component material in which a third material component is incorporated in a manner such that a surface of the substrate is at least partially composed of the third material component. The second material component i
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Novel Block Copolymers, Methods of Preparation and their Use in Heterojunction Devices

The invention relates to novel block copolymers having both electron donor and electron acceptor monomer units and to methods for their preparation. A further aspect of the invention relates to the use of the novel block copolymers in the fabrication of polymer film based heterojunction devices. In one form the devices display high conversion efficiencies in solar cell applications.
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Formulation Coated Self-cleaning Wool

The present invention relates to methods of making articles, and systems for providing wool article have self- cleaning properties. The self-cleaning properties are brought about coating the wool articles with a photocatalyst formulation. The formulation contains titanium compounds, stabilizers, catalysts, and water.
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Plasma Etching of Chalcogenides

A process for etching a thin glass film comprising at least one chalcogen, the process comprising the step of etching the thin glass film with a plasma comprising substantial amounts of free hydrogen sufficient to effect etching. In particular arrangements, the plasma is derived from a hydrogen rich mixture. Prior to etching the thin glass film, the process may further comprise the steps of: forming the thin glass film on a substrate; forming a mask layer on the thin glass film; mounting the sub
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Methods for Radiolabelling Synthetic Polymers

The present invention relates to a method for preparing a radiolabeled synthetic polymer, the method comprising contacting a synthetic polymer with a carbon encapsulated nanoparticle composite having a radioactive particulate core in an aqueous medium comprising an electrolyte concentration or pH selected to promote short-range attractive forces between the nanoparticles and the synthetic polymer by attenuating long- range electrostatic repulsive forces.
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Fibrous Assembly

A fibrous assembly comprises two components, the first component providing a visual indication of when a pre-determined tensile load is applied to the assembly or when the fibres of the assembly have been over-extended. The first and second components are movable relative to each other, the visual indication being provided by the first component being substantially concealed by the second component and becoming at least partially exposed when the pre-determined tensile load is applied to the ass
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Liquid Crystalline Interpenetrating Polymer Networks

A photovoltaic cell is provided. The photovoltaic cell can be an interconnecting liquid crystalline polymer network. Reactive mesogens of the formula B-S-A-S-B wherein A is a chromophore, S is a spacer and B is an end group susceptible to polymerization are used in the manufacture of the interconnecting liquid crystalline polymer network.
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A Gradiator Reformer

A desulfurizer-reformer reactor system comprising a gradient assembly having a de- sulfurizing material and a reforming catalyst material arranged in a sequential manner and methods of generating energy are disclosed.
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A Method of Making a Patterned Dried Polymer and a Patterned Dried Polymer

A method of making a patterned dried polymer from a polymer solution or polymer dispersion, the method comprising the step of placing a mask above the polymer solution/dispersion so that there are exposed areas of polymer solution/dispersion and unexposed areas of polymer solution/dispersion, and irradiating the masked polymer solution/dispersion with infrared radiation.
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Encapsulating resin composition and light-emitting device

An encapsulating resin composition is provided, which gives a cured product having heat resistance, light resistance, and flexibility equivalent to those of silicone resins and having a refractive index of 1.57 or greater which is larger than that of epoxy resins. The encapsulating resin composition contains: a high refractive index acrylic-based or methacrylic-based monomer having a refractive index of 1.55 or greater; and a nonfunctional fluorene compound. In a preferred form, each of the high
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Pressure Bonding Device and Mounting Method

A compression bonding device 1 of the present invention has a dam member 24 so that when a pressing head 20 is pressed against an object to be pressed 10, the bonding part 22 is surrounded by the dam member 24. Thus, even if the surface of the bonding part 22 bulges by pressing, the bulging part is stopped by the dam member 24 and the surface of the bonding part 22 does not horizontally extend. As a result of the absence of horizontal extension of the bonding part 22, electric components 16, 18
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Contact-bonding Device

A compression bonding device capable of packaging electric components on both sides of a substrate is provided. A compression bonding device 1 includes first and second pressing rubbers 15, 25. Electric components 32, 33 can be simultaneously packaged on the front face and the rear face of a substrate 31 by sandwiching the substrate 31 between the first and second pressing rubbers 15, 25. The electric components 32, 33 are not subjected to a force for horizontally moving them because the first a
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Composite Material Comprising Regenerated Cellulose Fibers

A composite material comprising a 3D woven fabric embedded in a resin matrix, wherein at least a portion of the yarns in the fabric comprise regenerated cellulose fibres, such as one or more of rayon, viscose rayon, lyocell, regenerated bamboo fibres or cellulose acetate.
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Colour Change Material and Method of Manufacture Thereof

Metal nanovoids are grown on a stretchable plastic film. The fabrication proceeds by assembling the template of a single layer of close packed silica spheres on a conducting substrate. A conducting layer is then electrochemically grown on top to form a master. An elastomeric precursor is then coated on the master (e.g. by spinning) and is cured before removal. The resulting plastic film is then coated with a thin (e.g. 20nm) layer of noble metal (e.g. Au, Ag or Cu), to produce a flexible film. A
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Method and apparatus for combining particulate material

A method of selectively combining particulate material, for example plastics material by sintering, comprises providing a layer of particulate material, providing radiation, for example using a radiation source over the layer, and varying the absorption of the provided radiation across a selected surface portion of the layer to combine a portion of the material of the layer. The method may comprise varying radiation absorption by varying the intensity of the radiation incident on the surface por
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Protection of Plastics

There are disclosed plastics materials (110; 520; 640) that include one or more phosphors (210) for absorbing ultraviolet (UV) light (170, 420) and re-radiating (160, 410) the light at a longer wavelength, for example the red wavelengths at 680nm and 700nm used by a plant (130) for photosynthesis. Such plastics materials may be used to protect the plastic (110, 500) from UV-induced degradation. In another embodiment, a light source (600) is provided with an encapsulant (640) that contains a phos
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Latent curing agent

An aluminum chelating agent-based latent curing agent is provided that can rapidly cure thermosetting epoxy resins at relatively low temperatures. A method for producing the aluminum chelating agent-based latent curing agent is also provided that enables relatively facile control of the curing conditions therefor. The latent curing agent holds an aluminum chelating agent in a porous resin obtained by the interfacial polymerization of a polyfunctional isocyanate compound, and when the latent cur
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Wide Temperature-range Smectic Liquid Crystal Materials

A method of making a wide temperature-range smectic liquid crystal material comprises taking a wide temperature-range nematic mixture and doping this with a mesogenic silicon-containing material. Aspects of the invention provide wide temperature-range smectic materials and devices using the smectic materials.
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Materials Based on Filamentous Peptide - Or Protein-based Structures

A material comprising elongate filamentous peptide- or protein-based nanostructures. The nanostructures are assembled to be connected together and aligned substantially parallel with respect to each other. The alignment of the nanostructures (at least within one domain) is nematic alignment. The individual nanostructures are formed by self- assembly. After formation of the nanostructures, the nanostructures are self-assembled to form the material. The material therefore has a first scale of orde
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Producing reactive semi-finished product for soldering process, comprises producing reactive layer arrangement, which contains reactive material system with two exothermic reaction partners reacted wi

The method comprises producing a reactive layer arrangement (2), which contains a reactive material system with two exothermic reaction partners reacted with one another, by galvanic deposition. The reactive layer arrangement is galvanically deposited on a workpiece (1) to be joined. The reactive layer arrangement is galvanically deposited as a component of a semi-finished film on a carrier substrate and then the semi-finished film is detached from the carrier substrate. The reactive layer a
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Fine Particle of Crystalline Polyol and Preparation Method for the Same

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a carrier that supports an anionically charged reagent stably and effectively on delivering the reagent to a target cell or tissue. ; SOLUTION: A preparation method for fine particles of crystalline polyol having a cationic polymer fixed on the surface thereof comprises a step of freeze-drying an aqueous solution in which the crystalline polyol and the cationic polymer coexist. ; COPYRIGHT: (C)2011,JPO&INPIT
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Polyion Complex Comprising PHD2 Expression Inhibiting Substance

Disclosed is a safer and more sustainable gene delivery system or the like, which is effective for treatment of ischemic diseases and the like. Specifically disclosed is a pharmaceutical composition which contains, as an active ingredient, a polyanionic substance that inhibits the expression of PHD2, and which contains a polyion complex of the polyanionic substance and a polycationically charged polymer.
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Copolymer Including Uncharged Hydrophilic Block and Cationic Polyamino Acid Block Having Hydrophobic Group in Part of Side Chains, and Use Thereof

The present invention relates to a block copolymer containing an uncharged hydrophilic polymer chain block and a cationic polyamino acid chain block, wherein the hydrophilic polymer chain block is covalently bound to one end of the main chain of the polyamino acid chain block, and the hydrophobic group is covalently bound to the side chains of not less than 10% and not greater than 70% of amino acid repeating units in the polyamino acid chain block. This block copolymer forms a stable aggregate
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Charge Conversional Ternary Polyplex

Disclosed is a polymer composite (polyplex) that contains nucleic acid, a cationic polymer, and an anionic polymer. The anionic polymer covers the surface of the composite comprising the cationic polymer and nucleic acid, has a negative charge at neutral pH, and can change so as to have a positive charge at mildly acidic pH. The present invention relates to a polymer complex (polyplex) containing a nucleic acid for use as a nonviral synthetic vector capable of delivering the nucleic acid to a
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Liquid Composition of Cisplatin Coordination Compounds

Disclosed is a liquid composition. The liquid composition is characterized by comprising a polymer micelle, wherein the polymer micelle comprises a coordinate compound comprising a block copolymer of polyethylene glycol and polyglutamaic acid and cisplatin attached to the block copolymer through a coordinate bond. The liquid composition is also characterized by having a pH value of 3.0 to 7Ö. Although cisplatin (cis-diamine-dichloroplatinum (II)) is an extremely useful anticancer drug used i
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Magnetic Material

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a magnetic material at a high practical value capable of adjusting the extremely high coercive force Hc of an [epsilon]-Fe<SB>2</SB>O<SB>3</SB>crystal within a range capable of being used for the various magnetic applications of a magnetic recording medium or the like. ; SOLUTION: A magnetic pulverulent body has an ferrous-oxide phase equalizing the [epsilon]-Fe<SB>2</SB>O<SB>3</SB>crystal and a space group, and having a crystal having a structure substituting Al
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Magnetic Iron Oxide Particle, Magnetic Material, and Radio Wave Absorber

Disclosed is a magnetic material having high Hc and High Curie point, which is capable of controlling such magnetic characteristics without requiring rare or expensive raw materials. Specifically disclosed is a magnetic material composed of particles of a magnetic iron oxide which is represented by the following general formula: [epsilon]-AxByFe2-x-yO3 or [epsilon]-AxByCzFe2-x-y-zO3 (wherein A, B and C each represents a metal excluding Fe and different from each other, satisfying 0<x, y, z<1), w
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Process for Production of Magnetic Thin Film, Magnetic Thin Film, and Magnetic Material

Disclosed are: a process for producing a magnetic thin film having an insulating property, capable of acting as a permanent magnet, and capable of exhibiting improved remanent magnetization compared to the conventional magnetic thin films; a magnetic thin film; and a magnetic material. Specifically disclosed are: a process for producing a magnetic thin film (3), which comprises applying an external magnetic field having a predetermined intensity to a coating solution containing magnetic particle
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Photocatalytic Material Exhibiting Activity to Visible Light and Its Manufacturing Method

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a photocatalytic material which can be obtained at a low cost without using platinum and can particularly be responsive even to visible light and to provide a method for manufacturing the photocatalytic material. ; SOLUTION: The photocatalytic material comprises tungsten oxide and tungsten carbide and, particularly, comprises the tungsten oxide being in contact with the tungsten carbide. The method for manufacturing the photocatalytic material is also provided. ;
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Photocatalytic Material, Method for Decomposing Organic Material, Interior Component, Air Cleaner, Oxidizing Agent Manufacturing Apparatus

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a tungsten trioxide type photocatalytic material which exhibits a high oxidative decomposition activity by irradiation with visible rays. ; SOLUTION: The photocatalytic material is comprised of having a bivalent salt of copper carried on the surface of tungsten trioxide fine particles. The high oxidative decomposition activity can be developed from tungsten trioxide under the irradiation with visible rays by utilizing the action of the bivalent salt of copper as
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Photocatalytic Material, Method for Decomposing Organic Matter, Interior Material, Air Cleaner, and Oxidizing Agent Production Apparatus

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a metal ion-doped titanium oxide type photocatalyst material which shows high oxidation decomposition activity by visible light radiation. ; SOLUTION: The photocatalyst material includes a metal ion-doped titanium oxide, which is made to have a potential of the valence band of 3 V (vs. SHE, pH=0) or higher and a band gap of the level of electrons excited from the valence band (including the conduction band lower end potential and lone pair potential) from valence
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Photocatalytic Materials and Process for Producing the Same

The present invention relates to a photocatalytic material having a visible light activity which includes a tungsten-doped titanium oxide or a tungsten/gallium-codoped titanium oxide, and a divalent copper salt and/or a trivalent iron salt supported on a surface of the doped or codoped titanium oxide, and a process for producing the photocatalytic material. The photocatalytic material of the present invention includes a tungsten-doped titanium oxide prepared by doping tungsten into titanium o
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Very high permittivity dielectric component used at high frequencies

The composition is expressed by La ( 2 - X )Sr XNiO 4, in which X lies in the range 0 to 0.5 and the relative permittivity epsilon ris no less than 8000 above 10 MHz. Alternatively or in addition, X lies in the range 0 to 0.3 and the relative permittivity epsilon ris no less than 15000. Further variant relative permittivites are quoted, up to 25000. High values of relative permittivity are quoted for frequencies ranging from 10 MHz up to 3 GHz. Values of x are specified in the range 0.05 to 0.3.
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Electrolytic Copper Foil and Copper-clad Laminate

To provide an electrodeposited copper foil having flexibility and bending property equivalent to or better than that of rolled copper foil, an electrodeposited copper foil wherein regarding a crystal structure after heat treatment is applied to the electrodeposited copper foil wherein LMP defined as formula 1 is 9000 or more, either color tone of a red system or a blue system occupies 80% or more in a surface in the EBSP analysis is provided. LMP = T + 273 * 20 + Log t wherein 20 is a material c
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Identification device

An identification device comprises a semi-conductor chip 2 mounted on a substrate 4 forming an antena 6 extending from opposite sides of the chip and a yarn 10 disposed over the substrate such that the chip is between the substrate and the yarn. Preferably a UV light curable resin adhesive 12 bonds the yarn and substrate. The yarn may be mono or multi filament and the substrate may have a lateral dimension equal to the yarn thickness. The substrate may be trimmed to its lateral dimension by retr
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'Dry Oil'

Background Fluid dispersed systems, such as emulsions and foams are widely used in the food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, ink or paints industries, and wherever else it may be desirable to encapsulate one fluid within another, immiscible fluid. Some fluid dispersed systems are more difficult to prepare than others. In particular, oil-in-air and air-in-oil materials are much more challenging to prepare than water-based fluid dispersed systems (foams and dry water). However, researchers have dev
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Processes impart lowcost engineered properties for nonwovens, films, and laminates; enhance performance and use less of lowcost material

Processes impart lowcost engineered properties for nonwovens, films, and laminates; enhance performance and use less of lowcost material. "A suite of nonwoven technologies proven on realworld manufacturing lines offers lowcost/lowcapital mechanical processes to impart specific engineered properties to commodity priced nonwovens, films, and laminates, and even to nonpolymeric materials. A wide range of textures, controllable permeability, aperturing, multilayer composites, elasticity without e
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UV-absorbers

Two patents These patents include methods for making tosylate quaternary ammonium salts of cinnamidoalkylamines and/or benzamidoalkylamines. These inventions particularly relate to the synthesis of non-hydrolyzable, non-irritating UV-absorbers having substantivity to cotton, wool, skin and hair. These UV-absorbers are useful in making fabric care products and personal care products. The patents lists other methods from the prior art involving the creation of UV-absorbing tosylates. However
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Scratch Resistant Polymer Blends

This invention relates to polypropylene-based polymer blends exhibiting enhanced scratch resistance. Polypropylene-based materials such as TPO’s are used in a broad range of applications, including automotive parts, appliances, and construction materials. One critical deficiency of these materials vs. more expensive engineering plastics is their poor scratch resistance. A polymer blend having enhanced scratch resistance is disclosed comprising: (a) A major amount of a thermoplastic
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Brighter Organic Light Emitting Diodes

BACKGROUND: Triplet emitters are promising materials for creating bright organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Iridium (Ir) organometallic complexes are especially attractive because of their high quantum yield of phosphorescence and their tunability over a broad emissive spectral range. However, at high carrier injection rates, saturation of emissive states and triplet-triplet quenching limits OLED performance. Thus, there is a need to accelerate Ir radiative decay in OLEDs while keeping other
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Nanoparticle Assembled Hollow Spheres

BACKGROUND: Nanoparticles with very small diameters (<100 nm) can be produced from a variety of compositions, such as metals, metal oxides, metal non-oxides, and polymers. The physical, chemical, and electronic properties of nanoparticles differ from those of bulk materials and molecules, which makes them desirable for preparing macroscopic, functional materials and devices. Directed nanoparticle assembly requires highly specific interactions between nanoparticles and organic molecules to achiev
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Modular Adhesives and Energy-Dissipating Materials

BACKGROUND: Natural materials are renowned for their strength and toughness. Spider dragline silk has a breakage energy per unit weight two orders of magnitude greater than high tensile steel, and is representative of many other strong natural fibers. The abalone shell, a composite of calcium carbonate plates sandwiched between organic material, is 3,000 times more fracture resistant than a single crystal of the pure mineral. The organic component, comprising just a few percent of the composite
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Novel Self-Doped Polymers

PATENT ABSTRACT: A self-doped conducting polymer having along its backbone a .pi.- electron conjugated system which comprises a plurality of monomer units, between about 0.01 and 100 mole % of the units having covalently linked thereto at least one Bronsted acid group. The conductive zwitterionic polymer is also provided, as are monomers useful in the preparation of the polymer and electrodes comprising the polymer.
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Novel Conductive Polymers

POLYISOTHIANAPHTENE, A NEW CONDUCTING POLYMER UC Case No. 1984-044-2 U.S. Patent 4,640,748 Patent Abstract: A polymer having an isothianaphthene structure represented by the formula (Ia) and/or Ib): wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 each represents a hydrogen atom or a hydrocarbon residue having 1 to 5 carbon atoms such as methyl, methoxy and thiomethyl, with the proviso that R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 may link together to form, along with the benzene ring, a fused ring which is naphthalene; X is su
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Thermo-elastic acrylic

This acrylic is consistency-controllable, heat-sensitive at a low threshold and can be shaped into any form, then repeatedly re-molded into a more desirable shape and by applying heat again, its memory will relentlessly bring back the original shape. Developed in the dental business, the acrylic boasts more than 60 applications in the dental field. It is available strictly for dental use at 'versacryl.net'. What can it do? Its inherent qualities allow the user: • to pre-determine th
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Biofuel Cell with Switchable and Tunable Electrodes

Highlights Biofuel cell that uses blood glucose as fuel source The food consumed by a human being each day contains as much energy as a thousand AA batteries Enzymes are used as catalysts that lead to oxidation of fuel and production of electricity To prevent all glucose in blood being turned into electricity, need to be able to switch the cell on and off and modulate the rate of activity Can be used in implantable devices such as insulin pumps, pacemakers, hearing aids Our Innovation A tu
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Copolymer self-assemblies for synthesis of inorganic-organic nanoparticulate compositions

The present invention relates to a method for the production of particles of nano-materials being transition metals and alloys; metal oxides; and ceramic compositions having a small nanosize, i.e. about 1-6 nm. The method comprises a synthesis in the solutions of complex liquids from suitable precursors, which precursors are selected from suitable surfactants and alkoxides, by a suitable chemical reaction under mild conditions; and preparing from said materials fine colloids dispersed in various
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A polysaccharide-based bioadhesive hydrogel

Highlights Proprietary adhesive patches for novel drug delivery with improved patch-skin adhesion and biocompatibility. Work in a range of pHs, provide better adhesion and higher permeation than commercial patches. Proof of concept was shown in several in-vivo and in-vitro models. These novel patches will serve as a platform for transdermal and topical drug delivery. Our Innovation The patches are adhesives based on chemically and physically modified polysaccharides, which are partially depo
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Nanoemulsion that Improves Light Fastness of Ink

Highlights Hinders the photodegradation of colorant in ink and inkjet ink in sunlight or artificial light Submicron particles do not cause nozzle clogging on the orifice plate of inkjet cartridges Preparation also suitable for water-based industrial inks, pad inks, paints and coatings Our Innovation Oil-in-water nanoemulsion improves the light-fastness of inkjet ink Provides a method for producing nanoemulsions/nanodispersion using high-pressure homogenization Comprised of at least one w
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A Process for the Epoxidation of Alkenes and Polyoxofluorometalates for Use therein

The invention provides a process for the catalytic epoxidation of an alkene comprising contacting a transition metal substituted polyoxofluorometalate and molecular oxygen with said alkene.
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A Unique Approach to the Design and Production of Photochemical Sensors

Highlights Enables the preparation of stable, multi-use remote sensors for detection systems for environmental impurities Based on the introduction of indicator dyes into a novel composite glass film from which sensitive waveguides are fabricated Uses a plurality of nanopores sized between 20 and 200 angstrom for the detection of analyte entry Our Innovation Provides a process for the preparation of an indicator-dye, nanoporous, photochemical-sensor composite glass Allows monitoring in s
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A Process for Preparing a Solid State Dye Laser

The invention provides a process for preparing a solid state dye laser in a composite glass matrix, without the use of polymerization initiators, comprising preparing a porous silica gel, effecting thermal treatment thereof at a temperature of at least 500.degree. C. to produce a glass with improved mechanical properties, impregnating a solid state laser dye dissolved in methylmethacrylate into the silicon gel glass in a closed container and effecting heat polymerization of the methylmethacrylat
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Topical Pediculicidal Compositions

Topical arthropod ectoparasite treatment - containing a synergistic combination of a pyrethrin and piperonyl butoxide, and cationic polymer to increase uptake of active agents
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New Method and Compositions for Improvement of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Highlights New methodology creates ability to easily examine molecular structure of complex mixtures Uses easily available materials as well as novel formulations of specifically tailored solvent mixtures and/or modified chromatographic media Unique application of known molecular chemical principles Our Innovation (facts and advantages) Solves the problem of examining the molecular structure of complex mixtures Enhances separation in the diffusion dimension while maintaining full resolutio
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Electro-chromic Effects for Window Glasses

Highlights Application for both building and automotive glass Sol-gel method provides simplified application procedure Optimum conditions for the electro-chromic device operation were established Darkens within seconds, blanches within 1-2 minutes No deterioration of the glass’ optical properties Our Innovation Electro-chromic effect allows the change of window-glass transparency under low-voltage current Photo-chromic effect allow change of degree of glass transparency upon exposure to
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Surface Chemistry, Colloids and Emulsions Laboratory

Objective/function The laboratory is active in the fields of synthetic organic chemistry of surfactants; physical chemistry; surface and colloid science - emulsion technology, crystallization phenomena, extraction processes; nutraceuticals; drug delivery vehicles - nanosized self-assembled liquid (NSSL) vehicles; lyotropic liquid crystals (LLC) – related to cubosomes and hexosomes; novel liquid micellar discontinuous phases - the QL phase; bioavailability of nutraceuticals and drugs; and co
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The Center for Process Development

Objective/function The Center for Process Development of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem is the leading independent contract R&D facility of its kind in Israel. Its areas of activities are process development, scale-up, and custom synthesis specifically focused to the pharmaceutical, fine chemicals and biotech fields. During its 25 year history the Center has cultivated expertise in developing processes for companies. Its commitment to client service is exemplified by its excellent trac
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Synthetic Spider Silk

Highlights Spider silk is about three times as strong and twice as elastic as silkworm silk but spider behaviour precludes its production by spiders in captivity. Dragline silk, the strongest spider silk, is one of seven types produced by orb-weaving spiders, is 25 times as tough as high-tensile steel and three times tougher than Kevlar, the strongest synthetic fiber ever made. The genes that encode the two dragline silk proteins (ADF3 and ADF4) were introduced into an insect-infecting baculo
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Catalysts for the Production of Small Molecules

Highlights Method for the general synthesis of robust C(sp3)-metalated transition metal complexes as catalysts for transfer hydrogenation of ketones Catalysts enable hydrogen-free hydrogenation Efficient catalysts for the production of small molecule building blocks for the chemical industry Our Innovation Method for the general synthesis of metal complexes that act as catalysts for hydrogenation. Electron-rich C(sp3)-cyclometalated complexes of transition metals have been synthesized whic
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Advanced Functional Nylon Fibers

Highlights The textile industry is seeking advanced functional fabrics that exhibit additional features such as pleasant scents or the ability to deodorize or kill microorganisms. Current methods for imparting functional properties are limited in their ability to incorporate and maintain active materials There is a need for a mechanism for incorporating significant loads of active additive and then releasing the additives during normal human activity Our Innovation Polymeric nano-structure
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CVD or PVD Diamond Coating on HTHP PCD Diamond

Polycrystalline diamond (PCD) is a class of super hard materials made by high temperature and high pressure consolidation (HTHP) of synthetic diamond grains. It has many industrial applications such as rock drilling, metal cutting, mining operations, construction, demolition tools and wood working. Diamond has an extremely high wear resistance, which makes it useful for all the above applications. Increasing demand in productivity has generated a strong need for further improvement in cutter and
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Method of Producing Nano-Grained Composites or High-Melting Intermetallics

This technology describes the direct production of nano-grained composite materials by extrusion of the reactants into a reactor in which a temperature gradient is maintained. A condensed-phase (solid or liquid phase) mixture of precursor is used to produce nano-grained product that may take the form of a porous sponge to be further processed into bulk forms. This process provides a convenient means for incorporating additive carbides for property improvement. The resulting product is expected t
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Magnetic Separation and Flotation Technique for the Production of High Quality Trona Concentrate

The technology utilizes a combination of magnetic separation and flotation techniques to produce trona concentrate with high grade of 98% trona and recovery of 83.6%. The magnetic and non-magnetic products are separated using a high intensity magnetic roll. This is followed by flotation of the non-magnetic product using a conventional flotation cell. Our technology would substantially improve the flowsheet of trona beneficiation by replacing all chemical treatment of trona with physical separa
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Rapid prototyping for Microfluidic Channels

Traditional rapid prototyping for microfluidics application typically use integrated circuit fabrication steps and micro-molding in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). These methods require chemical intensive photolithographic processes, which are expensive as well as time and labor intensive. Other prototyping methods, such as laser ablation and stereo lithography, can be used but require expensive specialized fabrication facilities and are limited in the materials used. The inventors propose a nov
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Methods for Processing Textured and Single Crystal FeZn Alloys

The addition of Zn to Fe enhances the magnetostrictive properties of Fe and the alloy has the potential for use in many magnetostrictive applications. However the low boiling point of Zn makes the preparation of the alloy difficult. This technology describes a novel approach involving explosive compaction of powders containing Fe and Zn. The resulting alloy is annealed to ensure chemical heterogeneity. The technology also offers a method for obtaining Fe-Zn single crystal alloy from liquid m
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Method for Obtaining a Desired Texture in Polycrystalline FeGa Based Magnetostrictive Alloys

The technology describes a feasible and inexpensive thermomechanical processing approach to obtain FeGa alloys with a preferred [001] texture. The approach involves sequences of rolling with annealing to obtain [001] texture in polycrystalline alloys containing NbC. <i>Benefits</i> Magnetostrictive materials with high mechanical strength, good ductility, large magnetostriction at low saturation fields and high imposed stress levels, and low associated cost are of interest in actuator, senso
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Shape Change and Prestressing of Columns with FRP Composites

Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites are widely used for strengthening/rehabilitation of existing structures. It is also known that FRP jackets can provide efficient lateral confinement to concrete columns that can enhance their compressive strength and ultimate axial strain. However, the effectiveness of FRP confinement decreases due the presence of 90 degree corners when compared to rounded corners. In order to increase the effectiveness of FRP confinement in rectangular or square colum
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Electrochemical Method of Selective Metal Removal from Aqueous Media

Numerous waste streams, typically the products of chemical processing, such as metal extraction or manufacturing process such as electronic component manufacturing or acid mine drainage, are produced by industries. Most of these waste streams contain dissolved metal ions that must be removed to preserve the environment. Often, such wastes are complex, toxic, and involve multiple metal ions. Current technologies for metal ion removal such as ion exchange and/or precipitation require several proce
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Methods for Making Cellular and Porous Metals with Controlled Pore Structure

Porous materials with controlled pore structure are in high demand for many industrial applications. Cellular metals are metal foams with periodic cells. The periodic cells comprise either micro-truss lattices or prismatic materials. Manufacturing of porous and cellular materials with pre-designed topologies for optimum properties presents tremendous challenges. Inexpensive manufacturing methods that enable control of the topology are needed. This technology describes a new method for the manufa
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FRP Composite Wall Panel with Enhanced Action and Method of Manufacture

Preformed concrete panels are a popular and economic method of constructing a variety of structures. Of particular interest are composite concrete panels. Composite concrete panels are often manufactured and used for thermal insulation purposes. Typically, a composite panel is comprised of three layers, a middle insulation layer and two outer concrete layers which �sandwich� the middle insulation layer. This technology describes a composite panel to provide true composite action between two
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Ferric Reduction in the treatment of Copper Electro Winning Electrolytes

The use of certain compounds such as hydrogen sulfide, polysulfides, and organics that release thioacetamide can be used to reduce ferric to ferrous ions in copper electrowinning electrolyte. These solutions typically have the following compositions: Copper-38.0 gpl; Ferric-2.4 gpl; Ferrous- 27.6 gpl; Sulfuric acid- 160.0 gpl This technology describes conditions from solution chemistry analysis for ferric reduction without the formation of copper and the subsequent recycle of the electrolyte.
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Sensors, Actuators and Micro-Electromechanical Devices using High Magnetostriction, High Strength Iron-Gallium Alloys

Magnetostrictive materials exhibit reversible strains and changes in elastic properties in the presence of an applied magnetic field. Novel Iron (Fe) � Gallium (Ga) alloys have been developed with large magnetostriction that are based on low cost Iron and inexpensive processing. Large magnetostriction was observed in these alloys at Ga contents of 15, 20 and 27.5 weight percent Gallium. This technology provides lower cost alloys with both high magnetostriction and high strength and used for
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Industrially Rugged Ultrasonic Sensing, Signal Analysis and Control System

This technology describes an industrially rugged ultrasonic sensing, signal analysis, and control system. It contains two ultrasonic pulser/receiver channels connected to high speed analog to digital converters that are controlled by a digital signal processor. Two additional high speed analog to digital channels are available as well as two digital to analog channels and digital I/O. The stand alone system will acquire ultrasonic data, process the data, and output an analog or digital signal fo
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Control of Engineering Processes Using New Magnetostrictive Alloy Compositions

Nickel-Palladium (Ni-Pd) alloy based catalysts play an important role in chemical and petroleum industries. So do other ferromagnetic alloy based catalysts. Some of these metals, that form the catalysts, have magnetic characteristics, which when favorably used, could have a huge impact in their catalytic activities. Magnetostriction is a phenomenon of deformation of ferromagnetic materials when subjected to a magnetic field. This technology describes how magnetostriction can be used to increase
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Use of Magnetic Fields to Control Diffusion and Hydrogen Embrittlement in Iron and its Alloys Containing Hydrogen and its Isotopes

The application of magnetic field will cause different magnetostrictive stains in iron (and its alloys including steels) when hydrogen (H) or deuterium (D) or tritium (T) is dissolved in iron lattice compared when no dissolved H, D, or T is present in iron. The resulting differences in the dimensions of the lattice can be used to control diffusion/leakage of atomic species (including hydrogen) through steel. <i>Benefits</i> This technology can be used in the following applications: 1) contr
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Dual Drive Planetary Mill

There are many industrial fields today that require finely ground powder. The production of sub-micron size powder is receiving increased attention because of the increasing demand for structural ceramics, magnetic materials, electronic packing materials and metal-ceramic composites. At present, such fine powders may be generated using, for example, ball mills, stirred ball mills and vibration mills. Such mille are typically only capable of producing a powder having a minimum particle size of ab
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Magnetostrictive Composites and Process for Manufacture by Dynamic compaction

Magnetostrictive alloys change in dimension in response to an applied magnetic field, and have been used in sonar transducers, actuators, vibration control and sensors. Of particular interest are alloys of iron and rare earth elements that have large magnetostriction constants. These include alloys of iron, usually with terbium and dysprosium. The alloys that have to date shown the best magnetostrictive properties are known as `Terfenol-D�. In order to increase the toughness of shapes of Terfe
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Self Encapsulating Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor

A new type of organic transistor – Self-Encapsulating Metal-semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (SEMFET) is under development at the University of British Columbia which promises to be the first one to offer quality performance and low cost at low gate voltages (~ 3 V). Self-encapsulation of the SEMFET eliminations a significant number of issues associated with traditional organic semiconductors - electrical instability when exposed to air and moisture; as well as cost and space requirements
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Polyphosphaalkenes –New Phosphorus Containing Polymers

Researchers at The University of British Columbia have developed synthetic routes to an entirely novel family of polymer compositions in which phosphorus atoms are incorporated into the polymer backbone. The synthetic methodology involves the polymerization of P=C bonds in phosphaalkenes and is analogous to the polymerization of C=C bonds in olefins. However, the presence of phosphorus in the main chain imparts unique chemical functionality and properties to the polymer as compared to polyolefin
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Advanced 3D Braiding Machine

The Universal Braiding Control System is a rotary 3-D braiding machine for preparing braided materials from filaments such as fibers, threads, yarns etc. The machine possesses a unique arrangement of the rotary cams to provide for additional degrees of freedom of movement relative to conventional rotary braiders. This allows for smaller incremental movements of the fiber carriers during the braiding process, providing for less torsional strain on the fiber material, as well as the ability to pro
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High Organic Content Periodic Mesoporous Organosilicas

Background Periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) materials with well-defined pores and morphologies exhibit unique catalytic, sensor, optical, magnetic, or electrical properties, whereby the organic functionalization of an inorganic porous host can play an important role. A diversity of organics has been incorporated into these PMOs, leading to a functional mesostructures allowing for powder and support films. Technology A novel PMO material consisting of cyclic siliconorganic units a
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SOIL CENTRIFUGAL PERMEAMETERTM System"

Municipal solid and hazardous waste landfill sites are commonly constructed utilizing engineered hydraulic barriers (often compacted clay liners) that minimize the transport of hazardous contaminants from the waste mass into the natural environment. Typically, legislative guidelines require that compacted soil liners have a hydraulic conductivity that does not exceed 1 x 10 -7 cm/sec. Current state-of-the-art laboratory testing techniques for materials with such a low hydraulic conductivity invo
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Accumulator Cap Collar

Moving any gas accumulator under high pressure is dangerous, however, it is sometimes a requirement of the job. Many of the accumulators offered today do not provide a method to protect the valve body. The valve is the weak point on the accumulator. If the valve body is hit hard enough to cause it to shear off while under pressure, the results can be catastrophic. The Researchers at The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory have invented an accumulator cap collar which will allo
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Nanoparticle Taggants for Explosive Precursors

Aggressive Homeland Defense initiatives may force foreign or domestic terrorists to construct explosive devices from commercial sources such as ammonium nitrate fuel oil (ANFO). As seen in the case of the Oklahoma City bombing, such low technology munitions have the potential for inflicting severe damage to unprotected assets. Exacerbating this problem, a large number of chemicals and commercial sources are available to formulate improvised explosives. Once devices are detonated, sophisticated f
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Kinetic Energy Absorbing Aerogel Composite Structures for Use in Crash of Impact Protection and Body or Vehicle Armor

Materials absorb kinetic energy by various mechanisms including plastic deformation, elastic deformation, the dynamics of fluid flow (gases or liquids) within the material and brittle fracture. Most energy absorbing materials in use today exhibit elastomeric or plastic deformation. They are typically organic materials such as polyurethanes, polyethers, polyethylene, and expanded polystyrene. Silica or silicon dioxide aerogels, on the other hand, are inorganic materials and they are prone to brit
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Three-Position Heavy Object Lift Handle for Two-Person Use

According to the U.S. Department of Labor, lifting heavy objects is one of the leading causes of injuries in the workplace. In 2001, the Bureau of Labor and Statistics reported that over 36% of injuries involving missed workdays were the result of shoulder and back injuries. Overexertion and cumulative trauma were the biggest factors in these injuries. Heavy equipment is generally supplied with only one lifting handle per side. This type of lifting mechanism doesn't take into account varying hei
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Active Electronic Security Cloth and Webbing

There is an increasing concern about detection and prevention of tampering with such articles as computers, sensors, special materials, equipment cabinets, vehicles, and with facility entrances. Existing measures include anti-tamper circuits, locks, seals, and closed circuit monitoring. However, the first several of these can be countered and the third requires human involvement. The invention is a material such as cloth or webbing with wired and wireless electronic circuits, accelerometers,
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Monitoring the Integrity of a superstructure under heat loads

Detection of imminent structural failure during emergency high heat load conditions is critical to potentially saving the structure or the lives of firefighters. Metallic structural members installed in new building construction are protected by insulation. If this insulation is physically damaged then the structural member could be exposed to high heat loads during a fire or explosion. Excessive heat will cause the integrity of metal structural members to loose their ability to support the load
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Strain Rate Sensitive Flexible Armor with Laminated Composite Elements

Current soft armor must have ceramic plates inserted to protect against high velocity projectiles such as AK-47 bullets. This armor is bulky and does not allow ease of movement. The ideal body amour of the future will be lightweight and flexible, able to accommodate a wearer's movement, but also extremely rigid and stiff enough to stop bullets. These opposing traits have finally been realized in the JHU/APL invention which provides a lightweight, flexible solution. Our technology combines dis
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Tree Fork

In a 1998 US Department of Agriculture Survey of urban forestry professionals found that tree health monitoring, and hazard tree evaluation were among the strategies the group deemed to be critical to the health and preservation of urban forests as well as areas most requested for training and information. The Tree Fork, designed by JHU/APL will aid in early detection of mechanical problems and prevention of public injury due to tree or structural failure. The APL Tree Fork is designed to mea
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An Embeddable Corrosion Rate Meter for Remote Monitoring of Infrastructures

Corrosion of infrastructure and fluid containing vessels and pipelines is a continuing situation if the United States for both government agencies and industry. Existing methods, which include implied monitoring techniques and sacrificial coupons are both costly and labor intensive. The need is for a direct reading sensor, which emulates the actual corrosion occurring to the metal surfaces. The sensor needs to be long life, miniature, wireless and accessible to periodic readout techniques. Th
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Surface Preparation of Metals to Adhere Polyethylene Molding

An improved method for adhering a solid polymer component to a substrate is provided. An intermediate polymer adhesion promoting coating of metal oxide is applied to the substrate which enhances the adhesion of the subsequently applied solid polymer component to the substrate.
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Method for Metal Object Identification Using Three-dimensional Steerable Magnetic Field Antenna

Most electromagnetic induction (EMI) metal detectors use a loop antenna to create a magnetic field in the vicinity of a metal target for the purposes of detection and identification. One of the most important functions of a magnetic field antenna is to project a strong magnetic field at the site of the target. One of the consequences of the loop antenna’s complex spatial field strength is the fact that a metal target is excited with a complex magnetic field. When a buried target of unknown dep
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Pilot Identification System

There are no existing devices or technologies that alert authorities when an unauthorized person has taken control of an aircraft. This pilot identification technology employs a combination of radio-frequency identity tag (RFID) technology and a small programmable system integrated into the radio and aircraft systems. The system consists of a pair of unique ID tags located on the pilot and copilot. When the air craft is being properly operated, the tags will be in close proximity to a transmi
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Planar Optical Penetration Sensor (POPS)

An optical sensor and method for detecting a projectile velocity vector includes optically detecting the arrival of a projectile. The sensor includes a sandwich of a transparent layer within two reflective layers, which in turn are within two opaque layers. An optical sensor structure includes a set of sensors positioned in respective planes, wherein at least two non-parallel optical sensors are used for each trajectory dimension of interest that differs from the primary direction of motion of t
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Environmental Nitrate Pollution Removal Using a Selectively Permeable Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Membrane

The ability to remove a specific component from its environment has immediate and profound applicability on environmental and medical fronts. Currently, filtering devices that can selectively and completely remove environmental phosphate and nitrate do not exist. Present systems are able to achieve level of 1 mg of phosphorus per liter of water and about 80% nitrogen free. The system described below has the potential to reduce contaminant concentrations to any arbitrary level through staging. Ph
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Environmental Phosphate Pollution Removal Using a Selectively Permeable Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Membrane

The ability to remove a specific component from its environment has immediate and profound applicability on environmental and medical fronts. Currently, filtering devices that can selectively and completely remove environmental phosphate and nitrate do not exist. Present systems are able to achieve level of 1 mg of phosphorus per liter of water and about 80% nitrogen free. The system described below has the potential to reduce contaminant concentrations to any arbitrary level through staging. Ph
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Telescoping Wind Turbine Buoy for Electrical Power Generation

The use of alternative renewable energy sources of electrical power is critical in the US and world. Environmental pressure not to use fossil fuel and nuclear energy are some of the leading caused for the current power shortages. Wind power has been demonstrated to have the capacity to produce 1000's of megawatts of power through out the world. The use of windmills on sore has the disadvantages of being visible and there fore causing visual pollution, and is less efficient than wind power offsho
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A Non-contact Optical Technique to Monitor Surface Stress in Sapphire Windows

The present invention provides a non-contact method for evaluating stress in a substrate. The method includes non-uniformly introducing at least one impurity into the crystalline substrate. The crystalline substrate is subjected to physical stress. Fluorescence producing energy is directed at the crystalline substrate. A fluorescence produced by the crystalline substrate is measured. The fluorescence spectrum is correlated with the stress on the crystalline substrate. The present invention al
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Electroless Gold Plating for Use in Wirebonded Chip-on-Board (COB) and Multichip Module (MCM) Applications

Multi-layer printed circuit boards commonly include conductively plated through holes to provide interconnection between conductive traces on the various layers of the board. Such through holes may run completely through the PCB assembly from one surface to the opposite surface and, thus, be open at both ends. However, techniques are now well established for providing blind vias in multi-layer printed circuit boards. Blind vias are open at one end but terminate short of the opposite surface of t
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Smart Aggregates: Distributed Sensor Suite for Remote Infrastructure Monitoring

Physical and analytical sensors need the ability to communicate via wireless connections to various forms of readout systems. Many applications for sensors are in remote and embedded locations where wired or optical connections are not practical or economical. Sensors in these applications need to be small, rugged and long life. Support platforms need to be able to adapt to a large variety of sensors including pressure, temperature, conductivity and analytical. The Johns Hopkins University Ap
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An Application of Rapid Prototype Manufacturing Technology to the Design and Fabrication of Wind Tunnel Models

According to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), rapid prototyping technologies being developed for the space program have many uses in the commercial industry. When a concept is in the “selling” stage, a plastic model can be produced to serve as a visual aid. Wind tunnel models, used to provide performance test, can be produced at lower cost than traditional methods. Most wind tunnel models are CNC machined from aluminum (for low speed) or steel (for high speed) and ev
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Ce(III) Cation and Sulfate Anion Mixture as Inhibitor of Pitting Corrosion in 17-4 PH Stainless Steel

High alloy metals such as stainless steel and others are utilized in environments subjected to corrosion from the fluids, which they are in constant contact. Applications include heat exchangers, desalination plants, pipelines, tankers etc. which carry or in contact with seawater, acid, chloride and salt containing fluids etc. After time pitting corrosion is possible. This will lead to more serious forms of corrosion and eventual failure of the metal therefore it is important to inhibit the pitt
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Improved Thermal Control Body Armor

The present invention uses high thermal-conductivity materials to act as heat pipes around or through a soft body armor vest to transfer heat away from the body of the wearer. A moisture wicking layer is also incorporated and used to pull moisture from the body of the wearer and disperse the moisture to the outer surface where it can evaporate. An evaporative cooling effect, which is a one-way phase change process that is similar to that of the human body, removes thermal energy from the high th
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"CellStructs"; Hollow Polymer Spheres Used to Form Solid Structure

The present invention provides a structure that includes a plurality of cells of a cured resinous material. Each cell is joined to at least one other cell. Additionally, the present invention provides a method of forming a structure. According to the method, a plurality of individual cells are formed. Each cell includes a mass of uncured resin. Some of the cells are contacted with others. The resin is cured. Furthermore, the present invention provides an apparatus for creating a structur
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In-Line Filter for Fiber Optic SMA Terminations

There is a current trend toward the use of fiber optics in various pieces of equipment, and towards miniaturization of such equipment, e.g. to develop handheld devices. Such bench top devices are sufficiently large in size, e.g., approximately three inches by six inches by two inches, to be unsuitable for use in typical hand-held devices. The optical component is typically relatively large, e.g., greater than one-half inch square or approximately one inch round to account for inaccuracies in pos
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Compressed Gas Manifold

It has been demonstrated that compressed gasses such as hydrogen, propane, methane or natural gas are viable alternatives to petroleum as a fuel source for motor vehicles. Such vehicles have been restricted to fleet trucks, delivery vans, buses and taxis due to their limited range. The restrictions and limitations are caused by the space required for existing compressed gas fuel systems. This space penalty results in lost truck bed volume, automobile trunk volume and range. Furthermore, higher i
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Apparatus and Methods for Embedding a Biocompatible Material in a Polymer Bone Implant

Problems with current implant designs originate from the difference in mechanical properties between the materials used in the implant system and the bone itself. In a first embodiment, a biocompatible material, such as a titanium coil, is initially wrapped around a polymer bone implant, as described and claimed in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 08/742,733, filed Nov. 1, 1996, which is incorporated herein by reference. The combined coil-implant is then placed in a manifold comprising a hot
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Orthopedic Polymer Implant

Problems with current implant designs stem from the difference in mechanical properties between the materials used in the implant system and the bone itself. The isoelastic bone-implant system of the invention minimizes, if not eliminates, the stress shielding effect created by a metal implant, thus, leading to a longer implant lifetime in the body. In one embodiment, a thermoplastic polymer with an elastic modulus approximating the modulus of bone is used for the implant. Since bone is a
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Heat Sink for Increasing Through-Thickness Thermal Conductivity of Organic Matrix Composite Structures

Polymer matrix composites have a through-thickness-thermal conductivity whose value is realized in applications such as composite spaceborne electronics enclosures where heat disposition is entirely dependent on thermal conduction to a heat sink. The technique involves interlaminating a high thermal conductivity pitch fiber/epoxy and a low thermal conductivity carbon fabric epoxy within a sandwich of copper foil outer plies. Once the copper is laminated on the surface, it is etched from areas no
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Thin Film Vanadium Oxide Spatial Light Modulators and Methods

disclosed: (1) A VO2 thin film is deposited on a planar diode array. Each diode constitutes a "pixel" of the SLM. Power provided to a diode permits accurate thermal control about the thin film's hysteresis. Initial biasing of the diode array is required to the base of the VO2's hysteresis curve. (2) & (3) VO2 is deposited on a thermoelectric array, which can be an array of doped lines of p and n type material or a conductive material between two electrical contacts. The pixels have the ability t
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Novel Method of Preparation of Vanadium Dioxide Thin Films

Thin films of stoichiometric vanadium dioxide are not easily prepared. In chemical vapor deposition and vacuum deposition processes, precise control of the deposition atmosphere is needed to maintain the proper chemical composition. In processes requiring post reduction of higher oxides, the films tend to be inhomogeneous and porous. According to the invention, vanadium dioxide is prepared from a tetravalent vanadium compound using a sol-gel process. The tetravalent compound is dissolved in a
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Nano-Encapsulated Aerogels (MSC-23563)

Abstract: Aerogel is the lightest and lowest-density solid known to exist, composed of up to 99.8 percent air. However, it can hold 500 to 4,000 times its weight in applied force. Aerogel is 39 percent more insulating than the best fiberglass insulation, but without proper care it can break or crumble if handled roughly. Coating the aerogel would protect it from disintegrating as well as shield it from the hazards of humidity or other gases, which can bind to the substance and change its proper
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Polymer Cross-Linked Aerogels (X-Aerogels) (TOP3-176)

Abstract: The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) seeks to transfer technology for the development and production of polymer cross-linked aerogels (X-Aerogels). These are mechanically robust, highly porous, low-density materials, which are 3 times denser than native aerogels, but more than 300 times stronger.
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High Quality Optically Polished Aluminum Mirror and Process for Producing (GSC-14147)

Abstract: Researchers at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center have developed a revolutionary process for precision optical polishing of bare aluminum to an unprecedented smoothness. GSFC’s process begins by using a single-point diamond turning machine. Grinding cannot be used on bare aluminum—it leaves behind particles that scratch the surface during polishing. Diamond turning alone, typically produces a 30- to 80-angstrom finish on standard aluminum materials. Therefore, additional polishing i
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Super Miniaturized Addressable Reconfigurable Technology (SMART) (GSC-SMART)

Abstract: Super Miniturized Addressable Reconfigurable Technology (SMART) is the objective of a three-tiered effort to develop a new kind of structural material that can change its for to optimize its function...
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Double-Vacuum-Bag Process for Composite Fabrication (LAR-16877)

Abstract: The traditional single-vacuum-bag (SVB) assembly inherently hinders and/or retards the volatiles depletion mechanisms during composite fabrication because a vacuum-generated compaction force is applied to the laminate during volatile depletion. An innovative DVB assembly was designed to overcome such a deficiency. The DVB process eliminates the compaction force generated by vacuum suction while maintaining the vacuum effectiveness for the volatile depletion. This invention has been pr
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Cooking Utensil with Improved Heat Retention

A cooking utensil with improved heat retention includes an inner pot received within an outer pot and separated in a closely spaced-apart relationship to form a volume or chamber therebetween. The chamber is evacuated and sealed with foil leaves at the upper edges of the inner and outer pot. The vacuum created between the inner and outer pot, along with the minimum of thermal contact between the inner and outer pot, and the reduced radiative heat transfer due to low emissivity coatings on the in
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Compact Vacuum Insulation

Improved compact insulation panel is provided which is comprised of two adjacent metal sheets spaced close together with a plurality of spherical, or other discretely shaped, glass or ceramic beads optimally positioned between the sheets to provide support and maintain the spacing between the metal sheets when the gases therebetween are evacuated to form a vacuum. These spherical glass beads provide the maximum support while minimizing thermal conductance. In its preferred embodiment; these two
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Compact Vacuum Insulation

An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially "point" or "line" contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form "line"
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An Auto-Calibrated Refractometer for Single-Shot Measurement of Ultra-Fast Phenomena

Background Materials index of refraction (IOR) is a sensitive measure to variations of density, charge-state, conductivity, temperature, chemical composition, and microscopic structure. IOR measurements are common in a wide range of industrial and research applications, including materials processing, biological membrane development, pollution detection, semiconductor manufacturing, glucose monitoring, and nanofabrication. Invention Description This invention is offers an ultra-fast (femtose
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Highly Efficient Transistors for Low-Cost Organic Circuitry

The Johns Hopkins University seeks a partner to commercialize a highly efficient and novel method for fabricating multiple types of organic field effect transistors (OFETs) from one organic semiconductor (OSC) thin film. OFETs show promise as building blocks for low-cost, large-area, and flexible electronics for applications such as displays, smart cards, radiofrequency identification (RFID) tags, and sensors. Click here to view high-quality marketing materials. Description (Set) • Comp
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High Performance Nanocrystalline Materials and Methods of Making the Same

Under certain conditions, nanostructured materials have been found to exhibit improved mechanical properties over corresponding, coarse-grained materials. However, most methods for creating nanostructured materials typically involve sacrificing one or more desirable properties in favor of another (e.g., ductility is often compromised in favor of tensile strength). Hopkins inventors have made such compromise unnecessary with the introduction of new nanostructured materials - and methods for prepa
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Copper Metallization Structure and Method of Construction

This novel invention addresses the need for fast, reliable, performance-oriented interconnects and vias in today's and tomorrow's smaller, faster circuit systems. Specifically, it is a process for producing an interconnect layer of continuous copper, with excellent step coverage and superior adhesion characteristics. An interconnect system made of copper, as compared to aluminum which is widely used today in the semiconductor industry, has electromigration effects and, therefore, can carry a hig
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Method for Electrochemical Conditioning Polymeric Electrodes

The present invention relates to a method of fabrication of polymeric electrodes for use in a battery or electrochemical storage cell, in particular secondary cell. Moreover this invention provides a method of conditioning polymeric electrode materials so as to improve their charge capacities and enhance their abilities to undergo multiple doping and undoping cycles with high cycling efficiency and chemical stability. The manufacture of these polymeric electrodes, including the conditioning step
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Ceramic Oxide Powders and the Formation Thereof

The invention is concerned with ceramic oxide powders, formed from one or more ceramic oxide precursors, which have utility as ceramic oxides of high strength and low thermal expansion coefficient. The ceramic oxide powders are formed in a counterflow diffusion flame burner using a fuel stream comprising a gaseous fuel and an inert gas diluent, and an oxidizing gas stream comprising oxygen and an inert gas diluent. The gaseous fuel may be, for example, hydrogen, methane, ethane, ethylene, acetyl
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Production of Very Fine Powders by Electromagnetic Vaporization

The Electromagnetic Vaporization Process developed at Rice uses an alternating magnetic field to generate molten metal into fine droplets that can be used to produce metal powders or to deposit metal into microscopic, ordered patterns on a substrate. Rice�s EV Process enables a far greater range of particle sizes and eliminates the problems of containment and contamination. Additional information available upon request.
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Electromagnetic Levitation for Containerless Processing and Refining of Metals

In response to the growing need to handle high temperature reactive metals and alloys in today�s manufacturing industry, Rice has developed an advanced method for refining pure or precious metals and alloys by a new, more powerful electromagnetic levitation technique. This containerless method for processing allows high-purity metals and alloys to be zone-refined free from the presence of contaminants from crucibles. This novel technology is comprised of a horizontal levitator capable of susp
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The Fluorinated Nanodiamond as a Precursor for Solid Substrate Surface Coating Using Wet Chemistry

A wet chemistry method for coating surfaces with nanocrystalline diamond Advantages . More cost-effective than existing chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods . Low-temperature process . Adaptable to large scale processes . Compatible with a variety of different substrates Technology The process of this invention produces nanodiamond surface coatings using a linker species to covalently bond fluorinated diamond crystallites to a surface. The technique can be applied to surfaces suc
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Compositions Accelerating the Setting Time of Cements

Portland cement has long been used as a component in various endodontic filling procedures. Newer Portland-type cements such as Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) have been developed specifically for clinical applications but their long setting times a re viewed as a clinical shortcoming. As a result, many attempts have been made to develop an accelerator that will significantly reduce the setting time while maintaining and/or enhancing the biological and mechanical properties of such cements. Den
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New Chiral Catalysts for use in enantioselective synthesis

A series of chiral dirhodium catalysts was previously developed and were found to be very effective in enantioselective transformation of donor/acceptor carbenoids (a class of intermediates). Though those catalysts have braod utility, they require t hat the acceptor group is a methyl ester for best results. The present invention is a group of new catalysts that have been found to be exceptional for a range of other acceptor groups thereby greatly enhancing the range of this chemistry. Catego
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Resorbable Laminated Repair Membrane for Accelerated and Sustained Wound Repair

Tracheal epithelial cells were cultured in vitro to yield a model that near-perfectly replicates naturally epithelialized tracheal lumen vide technology no. 5413. Technologies no. 5546 and 5558 studied how bio-degradable polymers and degradation proc esses could be used in replanting tracheal epithelial tissue. Technology no. 5764 showed choreographed releases of two or more proteins from degradable biopolymers integrating epithelial cells post-implantation. This invention combines all of the ab
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Choreographed, Active Protein Delivery from Biodegradable Devices

Tracheal epithelial cells were earlier cultured in vitro to yield a model that near-perfectly replicates naturally epithelialized tracheal lumen vide technology no. 5413. Technologies no. 5546 and 5558 studied how bio-degradable polymers and degradat ion processes could be used in replanting tracheal epithelial tissue. To implant and successfully integrate epithelial cells within tracheal lumen, the nature and delivery kinetics of participant proteins from degradable biopolymers need to be under
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Novel breakable crosslinkers and pH-responsive star-shaped and gel polymers

This invention describes a method for the preparation of novel crosslinkers and their application to star-shaped or branched polymers and polymer gels. The polymers can be easily changed to linear co-polymers and exhibit different properties in acid ic or basic media. These polymers and polymer gels may be useful for controlled drug delivery and release. The crosslinkers are bifunctional monomers such as ethylene glycol di (1-methcryloyloxy) ethyl ether and ethylene glycol (1-acryloyloxy) et
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Synthesis and Processing of degradable Fluorocarbon End-Capped Polymers and their uses as Biomaterials

Tracheal epithelial cells were earlier cultured in vitro to yield a model that near-perfectly replicates naturally epithelialized tracheal lumen vide technology no. 5413. This technology describes the synthesis of bio-degradable polymers and study of degradation processes to replant tracheal epithelial tissue in real and for use in drug delivery systems. This new series of surface modified biodegradable polyester polymers allow a small presence of a fluorocarbon surface modifier whose chemistry
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Method of Testing the Degradation of Polymeric Biomaterials

TA model that mimics epithelialized tracheal luminal surface as it exists was earlier described in technology no. 5413. Using the said model, this invention studies the reaction kinetics of bio-degradable polymers (Poly (Glycolic) Acid) using “Time o f Flight (ToF) Secondary Ion Mass (SIMS) spectrometry”. The values are: 1) Static compositions as well as reaction products on the surfaces of materials during the degradation process are detected dynamically. 2) Reaction rates and other kine
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Composite Culture on in Vitro Model (3-dimensional) of Tracheal Lumen

Tracheal epithelial cells are currently not replenishable, if lost through chemical (drug) action, intubations or other means. This invention is the first model that mimics the tracheal lumenal surface as it exists and can be used as a research tool to develop implantable tissue in future. Possible studies using this are: airway mucosal surface repair, interactions of synthetic polymers with chondrocytes and epithelial cells, roles of compounds like cytokines, transforming growth factors (TGF),
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Compositions Accelerating the Setting Time of Cements

Portland cement has long been used as a component in various endodontic filling procedures. Newer Portland-type cements such as Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) have been developed specifically for clinical applications but their long setting times a re viewed as a clinical shortcoming. As a result, many attempts have been made to develop an accelerator that will significantly reduce the setting time while maintaining and/or enhancing the biological and mechanical properties of such cements. Den
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Methodology for the Synthesis of fluoride (NaYF4) nanophosphors co-doped with Gd3+ and other rare-earth ions and its applications in security printing and bimodal (optical and MRI) imaging

Methodology for the Synthesis of fluoride (NaYF4) nanophosphors co-doped with Gd3+ and other rare-earth ions and its applications in security printing and bimodal (optical and MRI) imaging Categories: Materials & Chemicals, Imaging: Medical Imaging
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Chalcogenoxanthylium Dyes as Photosensitizers for Photoinduced Charge Transfer

A major reason why the commercialization of organic dye-sensitized solar cells (organic-DSSCs) has been slow is because of their low global energy conversion efficiencies, especially when compared to inorganic dye-sensitized solar cells such as those incorporating polypridyl ruthenium sensitizers. The organic dyes that are the subject of this invention offer the potential to overcome that limitation due to two important factors. First, the absorption spectra of these dyes are red-shifted rela ti
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Pentacene Derivatives as Organic Semiconductors for Electronic Applications

Organic semiconductors are increasingly replacing silicon-based materials in many nanoimprinted integrated electronic and photonic devices such as flat-panel and flexible displays, solar cells, microsensors for medical devices, and the like. New deve lopments in these fields require substances that are much more flexible, robust, easy to manufacture, and less costly than traditional silicon. Pentacene is the most frequently used organic semiconductor based on these attributes, but it suffers fro
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New Chiral Catalysts for use in enantioselective synthesis

A series of chiral dirhodium catalysts was previously developed and were found to be very effective in enantioselective transformation of donor/acceptor carbenoids (a class of intermediates). Though those catalysts have braod utility, they require t hat the acceptor group is a methyl ester for best results. The present invention is a group of new catalysts that have been found to be exceptional for a range of other acceptor groups thereby greatly enhancing the range of this chemistry. Catego
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Ultra-fast synthesis of a hydrogen storage material Li2NH

The invention enables hydrogen storage in the most effective manner. Hydrogen storage is critical for the development of a hydrogen-based energy. The invention is pertaining to the preparation of Lithium Imide (Li2NH), which is considered as the most promising one for hydrogen storage with a reversible absorption of 6.85 weight % hydrogen, the ideal goal of Department of Engineering, USA. Categories: Materials & Chemicals
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Novel 4-Substituted Indole compounds and methods for making same

The basic indole structure has been a structure of great interest to synthetic and medicinal chemists because of its presence in a large number of biologically active agents. For the most part, the current methods for producing substituted indole mo lecules rely upon cyclization of a suitably substituted precursor. More recently, research has been investigating asymmetric functionalization of the indole core itself by taking advantage of the relatively nucleophilic 3-position. While the 3- p
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Erogorgiaene derivatives and method for making

Marine-derived bioactive compounds hold great promise as therapeutics in the treatment of human disease. One particular family of marine-derived diterpene compounds has demonstrated anti-cancer, anti-tubercular and anti-inflammatory activities. How ever, the complete evaluation of such compounds and the development of new medications derived from them have been restricted by limited supplies, low yields and inefficient methods for synthesis. Using a patented chiral catalyst, a method has been de
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Controlled synthesis of nanowires, nanotubes and nanostructured materials using liquid crystalline and microemulsion templates

This technology describes novel, comprehensive techniques for efficient synthesis of monodisperse, consistently-shaped and uniform-sized II-VI Compound Semiconductor (CS) nanoparticles like ZnSe & CdSe. Different shaped nanocrystals constitute an im portant research tool in several emerging areas in Opto-electronics, Medical Devices and Diagnostics, Bioinformatics, Research in Biomolecular Interactions, Sensors and Detectors, National Security, Energy and Environment, Materials and Manufacturing
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High Reversible-Hydrogen Storage Capacity with Ultra-fast Kinetics of LiNH2/Li3N

This set of inventions describes novel matter a procedure to employ a combination of Lithium Oxide (Li2O) and Lithium Nitride (Li3N) to store (and release) hydrogen for use in hydrogen-based engines and fuel cells in vehicles. Lithium Nitride (Li3N) is known for lightness, high hydrogen capacity and fast kinetics, but also possesses disadvantages such as high heat generation, low stability and a propensity to sinter. The basic invention tides over these deficiencies by stabilizing Lithium Nitrid
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Synthesis and Stabilization of Metal Nanoparticles

Most state-of-the-art solution based techniques to synthesize uniformly sized and distributed nanoparticles use reduction reactions of metal ions consisting of multiple complex steps that use organic solvents, produce undesirable by-products and requ ire additives to protect and stabilize the colloid. The few existing single step processes require exotic polymers, high temperatures and a protective agent. This technology describes a simple, single step process using Hydrogen TetraChloroAurate (I
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Two-photon absorbing materials with quenched emission

This invention describes a method of making materials to dramatically increase storage capacities of optical storage (holographic) devices to levels proportional to higher orders of the intensity. Non-linear optical materials that exhibit 2-photon ab sorption, a known phenomenon proportional to the square of the intensity of light and absorption cross-section (a trait) of the material, are employed. Resultant emissions are quenched to heat. The heat is retained (stored) in a specific location of
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Novel Chalcogenoxanthylium Dyes for Purging Blood Pathogens

Researchers at the University at Buffalo and the American Red Cross have developed a suite of chemical compounds to be used to purge pathogens found in the blood supply. There is a dire need to increase the blood supply. At current rates of donat ion, there is barely a three-day supply in many areas of the country, which restricts most types of blood to the “transfuse only” status thus effectively limiting much elective surgery. Concomitant with low donation rates, with each new pathogen
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Method for the Preparation of Semiconductor Nanocrystal Cores, Core-Shell, Core-Buffer-Shell and Multiple Layer Systems in a Noncoordinating Solvent Utilizing in-situ Surfactant Generation

An earlier disclosure (technology no. 5824) revealed an in situ surfactant generation method to synthesize core semiconductor III – V nanocrystals (Indium Phosphide, Gallium Phosphide and Indium Arsenide). Those nanocrystals exhibited excellent surfa ce characterization and used a non-coordinating solvent (Benzene, Toluene). This invention adds layers atop the nanocrystal core, to aid in creating compounds with improved optical properties as well as in forming protective shells around useful-y
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Highly Effective Li2O /Li3N with ultra-fast Kinetics for H2 Storage

This invention describes a novel product and procedure to store (and release) hydrogen as an energy source in fuel cells; it is a new material based on a combination of Lithium Nitride (Li3N) and Lithium Oxide (Li2O). Li3N leads as a solid state abso rber and releaser of Hydrogen (11.4 % by weight). Adding Li2O lends stability and protects against sintering. Other values are: a) It absorbs and releases hydrogen from 180 degrees Celsius upwards, a significant improvement over other materials t
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Protein-protein interaction antagonist screening libraries based upon 1,4-disubstitued napthalenes and related scaffolds

Combinatorial screening libraries with high “hit rates” for challenging protein-protein interaction drug targets are extremely difficult to obtain. This invention describes a novel seed compound (the 1,4-disubstituted naphthalene privileged scaffold ), the process of synthesizing it in stable form and methods to make targeted libraries based on this compound as well as its modifications. To arrive at this optimal compound, the inventors selected certain compounds that participate in a wi
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Resorbable Laminated Repair Membrane for Accelerated and Sustained Wound Repair

Tracheal epithelial cells were cultured in vitro to yield a model that near-perfectly replicates naturally epithelialized tracheal lumen vide technology no. 5413. Technologies no. 5546 and 5558 studied how bio-degradable polymers and degradation proc esses could be used in replanting tracheal epithelial tissue. Technology no. 5764 showed choreographed releases of two or more proteins from degradable biopolymers integrating epithelial cells post-implantation. This invention combines all of the ab
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Hybrid Anti-Fouling Films

A novel coating is described by this invention for ships, rigs and other marine vessels that are exposed to marine organisms in oceans. The coating reacts with components that are available naturally in the ocean to produce an antifouling agent (hyp ohalous acids). The hypohalous acid diffuses from the xerogel film and serves as a barrier to species prone to adhere to the surface. The invention has a longer coating life, is environmentally friendly, and shows better efficacy than the currently m
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Process for Enhancing Material Properties and Materials so Enhanced

Most thermal insulation loses its effectiveness when compressed. Syntactic foam does not compress much, and is relatively stiff, making it unsuitable for insulation when flexibility is required - such as for insulating contours, clothing and underwa ter diver thermal protection. The invention describes a process that increases flexibility without compromising insulation effectiveness or durability and is not limited to syntactic foam or thermal insulation. Diving suit or syntactic foam man u
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Choreographed, Active Protein Delivery from Biodegradable Devices

Tracheal epithelial cells were earlier cultured in vitro to yield a model that near-perfectly replicates naturally epithelialized tracheal lumen vide technology no. 5413. Technologies no. 5546 and 5558 studied how bio-degradable polymers and degradat ion processes could be used in replanting tracheal epithelial tissue. To implant and successfully integrate epithelial cells within tracheal lumen, the nature and delivery kinetics of participant proteins from degradable biopolymers need to be under
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Recoverable Solid Supported Catalyst for Asymmetric Synthesis

The “chirality” of molecules often determines the effectiveness of reaction constituents in several chemical, biochemical and industrial processes. An earlier technology (# 5722) described a catalyst, viz., a coordination polymer with a metallic (Rho dium) center that could be employed to synthesize chiral molecules in an accelerated manner. The catalyst exhibited high selectivity, required low energy and created minimal waste. This invention extends the catalyzing chemistry above in that it
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High Turnover Chiral Catalysts for Asymmetric Synthesis

The “chirality” of molecules often determines the effectiveness of reaction constituents in several chemical, biochemical and industrial prcesses. The search for efficient catalytic processes that synthesize chiral molecules with high selectivity, lo w energy requirements and minimal waste is an ever-continuing one. This invention describes a coordination polymer with a metallic (Rhodium) center for use as a catalyst in accelerated cyclopropanation reactions of styrene (and other olefins).
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High Turnover Chiral Catalysts for Asymmetric Synthesis

The “chirality” of molecules often determines the effectiveness of reaction constituents in several chemical, biochemical and industrial prcesses. The search for efficient catalytic processes that synthesize chiral molecules with high selectivity, lo w energy requirements and minimal waste is an ever-continuing one. This invention describes a coordination polymer with a metallic (Rhodium) center for use as a catalyst in accelerated cyclopropanation reactions of styrene (and other olefins).
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Bicyclic Scaffold for Combinatorial Libraries

A new reaction for preparing a largely unexplored bicyclic scaffold is incorporated in a novel solid-supported combinatorial library synthesis. The compounds prepared with combinatorial synthesis are useful for screening in various applications such as drug lead discovery. This particular bicyclic scaffold is compact and contains up to eleven diversity sites so that many focused sub-libraries can be prepared using this new combinatorial synthesis technology. There are a maximum of six chiral cen
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An Improved Process for the Preparation of a Symmetrical Thiopyrylium Pentamethine Dye Useful in Graphic Arts Imaging

Pyrylium based compounds are ideal as sensitizing dyes in the world of lasers. Earlier methods of manufacturing thio- and seleno-pyrylium based compounds did not take off due to the high costs and difficulties of synthesis. Pyrylium compounds functio n in the infra region and are valued for use with organic matter. This invention describes a novel method of synthesizing thiopyrylium and seleno-pyrylium pentamethine compounds. The method includes the following values: a)Ease and low cost of ma
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Novel breakable crosslinkers and pH-responsive star-shaped and gel polymers

This invention describes a method for the preparation of novel crosslinkers and their application to star-shaped or branched polymers and polymer gels. The polymers can be easily changed to linear co-polymers and exhibit different properties in acid ic or basic media. These polymers and polymer gels may be useful for controlled drug delivery and release. The crosslinkers are bifunctional monomers such as ethylene glycol di (1-methcryloyloxy) ethyl ether and ethylene glycol (1-acryloyloxy) et
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Synthesis and Processing of degradable Fluorocarbon End-Capped Polymers and their uses as Biomaterials

Tracheal epithelial cells were earlier cultured in vitro to yield a model that near-perfectly replicates naturally epithelialized tracheal lumen vide technology no. 5413. This technology describes the synthesis of bio-degradable polymers and study of degradation processes to replant tracheal epithelial tissue in real and for use in drug delivery systems. This new series of surface modified biodegradable polyester polymers allow a small presence of a fluorocarbon surface modifier whose chemistry
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Method of Testing the Degradation of Polymeric Biomaterials

TA model that mimics epithelialized tracheal luminal surface as it exists was earlier described in technology no. 5413. Using the said model, this invention studies the reaction kinetics of bio-degradable polymers (Poly (Glycolic) Acid) using “Time o f Flight (ToF) Secondary Ion Mass (SIMS) spectrometry”. The values are: 1) Static compositions as well as reaction products on the surfaces of materials during the degradation process are detected dynamically. 2) Reaction rates and other kine
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Macroporous Chitin Affinity Membranes for Wheat Germ Agglutinin Purification from Wheat Germ

This invention describes a method of wheat germ agglutination purification using a macroporous chitin membrane of high porosity and good mechanical properties. The preparation method of the membrane is described in detail in another UB patent (see d ocket R-5378 entitled "Macroporous Chitosan and Chitin Membranes"). Due to high porosity, the chitin membrane has a high adsorption capacity for wheat germ agglutination. Chitin membranes are chemically stable (insoluble in both acidic and line s
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Composite Culture on in Vitro Model (3-dimensional) of Tracheal Lumen

Tracheal epithelial cells are currently not replenishable, if lost through chemical (drug) action, intubations or other means. This invention is the first model that mimics the tracheal lumenal surface as it exists and can be used as a research tool to develop implantable tissue in future. Possible studies using this are: airway mucosal surface repair, interactions of synthetic polymers with chondrocytes and epithelial cells, roles of compounds like cytokines, transforming growth factors (TGF),
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Macroporous Chitin Affinity Membranes for Wheat Germ Agglutinin Purification from Wheat Germ

This invention describes a method of wheat germ agglutination purification using a macroporous chitin membrane of high porosity and good mechanical properties. The preparation method of the membrane is described in detail in another UB patent (see d ocket R-5378 entitled "Macroporous Chitosan and Chitin Membranes"). Due to high porosity, the chitin membrane has a high adsorption capacity for wheat germ agglutination. Chitin membranes are chemically stable (insoluble in both acidic and line s
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Composite Culture on in Vitro Model (3-dimensional) of Tracheal Lumen

Tracheal epithelial cells are currently not replenishable, if lost through chemical (drug) action, intubations or other means. This invention is the first model that mimics the tracheal lumenal surface as it exists and can be used as a research tool to develop implantable tissue in future. Possible studies using this are: airway mucosal surface repair, interactions of synthetic polymers with chondrocytes and epithelial cells, roles of compounds like cytokines, transforming growth factors (TGF),
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Macroporous Chitosan and Chitin Membranes

This invention describes a novel method to prepare macroporous chitosan and chitin membranes with high porosity and satisfactory mechanical strength. These membranes are hydrophilic and chemically reactive, and contain a large number of active group s. Hence, these are easily activated by common activation methods without the need to amplify the number of active groups. They could be excellent affinity membranes/ion exchange membranes for bio-separation (of enzymes, proteins) or could be used a
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Mixed Phase Thin Film Capacitor

This invention describes a method for the fabrication of a thin-film capacitor with high dielectric constant and low leakage. It relies on special methods of depositing the dielectric material to achieve both a high dielectric constant and low leaka ge current and is useful in applications that require large capacitances with small size. It combines PZT with BaTiO3 layers to take advantage of the superior electrical properties of the BaTiO3 structure, while enhancing the electrical properties of
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In-Situ Stress-Strain Sensor

This invention describes a technology that provides a new class of strain/stress sensors. The sensors are short fiber composites. They provide a reversible electrical response to strain/stress application. The sensing material can function as the structure material at the same time, so no embedding or attaching of sensors to or on a structure is needed. The sensing material is low cost and durable. Categories: Sensors, Materials & Chemicals Patents Issues: 5,817,944
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Method for the Preparation of Semiconductor Nanocrystal Cores, Core-Shell, Core-Buffer-Shell and Multiple Layer Systems in a Noncoordinating Solvent Utilizing in-situ Surfactant Generation

An earlier disclosure (technology no. 5824) revealed an in situ surfactant generation method to synthesize core semiconductor III – V nanocrystals (Indium Phosphide, Gallium Phosphide and Indium Arsenide). Those nanocrystals exhibited excellent surfa ce characterization and used a non-coordinating solvent (Benzene, Toluene). This invention adds layers atop the nanocrystal core, to aid in creating compounds with improved optical properties as well as in forming protective shells around useful-y
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Two-photon absorbing materials with quenched emission

This invention describes a method of making materials to dramatically increase storage capacities of optical storage (holographic) devices to levels proportional to higher orders of the intensity. Non-linear optical materials that exhibit 2-photon ab sorption, a known phenomenon proportional to the square of the intensity of light and absorption cross-section (a trait) of the material, are employed. Resultant emissions are quenched to heat. The heat is retained (stored) in a specific location of
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An Improved Process for the Preparation of a Symmetrical Thiopyrylium Pentamethine Dye Useful in Graphic Arts Imaging

Pyrylium based compounds are ideal as sensitizing dyes in the world of lasers. Earlier methods of manufacturing thio- and seleno-pyrylium based compounds did not take off due to the high costs and difficulties of synthesis. Pyrylium compounds functio n in the infra region and are valued for use with organic matter. This invention describes a novel method of synthesizing thiopyrylium and seleno-pyrylium pentamethine compounds. The method includes the following values: a)Ease and low cost of ma
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Novel 4-Substituted Indole compounds and methods for making same

The basic indole structure has been a structure of great interest to synthetic and medicinal chemists because of its presence in a large number of biologically active agents. For the most part, the current methods for producing substituted indole mo lecules rely upon cyclization of a suitably substituted precursor. More recently, research has been investigating asymmetric functionalization of the indole core itself by taking advantage of the relatively nucleophilic 3-position. While the 3- p
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Design of Active Materials and Structures based on Composites of Shape Memory Alloy and Shape Memory Polymer

Introduction Shape memory alloys (SMA) and shape memory polymers (SMP) have shown tremendous promise for a wide variety of applications because of their ability to “remember” a previous state when heated. However, they can only remember a single shape. The ability to remember two shapes would make these materials much more useful as morphing or “smart” materials in which the change of shape is reversible between the two “remembered” states. Technology Description Professor Taya at
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Novel Adsorbent Systems for Water Purification Using Metal Oxide Bound to Substrate and Heated Metal Oxide Particles

Introduction There is an ever increasing need for potable water. Improvements in conventional purification technologies allow for savings in both time and money and ensure that clean water is available in areas that need it. Technology Description Professor Benjamin at the University of Washington has developed a device and process for enhancing water decontamination whereby either standard membrane filtration or slow sand filtration is coupled to metal oxide particles, which adsorb many common
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Tissue-Engineered Urinary Bladder Using Autologous Cells

Introduction There is a variety of reasons that a person’s bladder may fail or require removal, including bladder acontractility, cancer, and cystitis. Unfortunately, conventional artificial bladders tend to suffer from critical complications, such as inadequate performance, infection, and adverse host response. Ideally, a new bladder could simply be formed from the patient’s own cells. Technology Description Professor Ratner at the University of Washington has developed a technique to creat
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Nanocellular Foaming of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene using Ultrasound

Introduction Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a thermoplastic consisting of molecules of incredibly long chains with molecular weights of several million. It has the highest impact strength of any thermoplastic, has a high resistance to corrosion, moisture, and abrasion, and has a friction coefficient similar to that of Teflon. The ability to create nano-structured UHMWPE materials could yield many useful and unique properties, including mechanical and optical properties, and
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Solution Processable n-Type polymers

Introduction Conjugated polymers and organic semiconductors promise great advances in electronics because of the benefits they offer over silicon, including being cheaper with less demanding manufacturing requirements and allowing for larger, more flexible, and more robust materials that are more responsive to chemical and biochemical stimulus. A critical roadblock in developing this technology, however, is the lack of easily synthesized n-type polymers and, subsequently, the lack of effective p
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Advanced Biomimetic Surfaces for Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS)

Introduction Raman spectroscopy characterizes molecules by their Raman scattering. As incoming light scatters off a molecule, most does so elastically, neither gaining nor losing energy, and this is known as Rayleigh scattering. Some of this light, however, about 1 in 10 million photons, is the subject of an energy exchange with the molecule and scatters inelastically, possessing more or less energy than it started with, and this is known as Raman scattering. Raman scattering acts as a vibration
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Continuous Production of Microcellular Fibers

Introduction In microcellular plastic foams, inert gas is dissolved in thermoplastic under high pressure. The forced evacuation of this gas during processing creates pores (or cells) within the final plastic. The pores are small enough that clarity of the plastic is unaffected, and because of the pores, much less starting material is required in microcellular plastics than in conventional plastics, greatly reducing weight and cost. As a wide range of pore densities is achievable, this technology
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Microcellular Foaming of Cyclic Olefin Copolymer (COC)

Introduction Cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) is a commercially available thermoplastic. It possesses exceptional clarity in its natural form, similar to that of glass, and it has high moisture resistance and low absorption rates. This thermoplastic’s many qualities make it an exceptional candidate for many applications, ranging from optics to packaging. The ability to create microcellular plastic foams using COC would further increase its range of applications with a significant reduction in mat
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A New Protocol of Diels-Alder Lattice Hardening for Highly Efficient Electro-optic Materials Showing Outstanding Temporal Stability over

Introduction Organic electro-optic (EO) materials have attracted much interest in the past two decades because of their extensive potential applications in various fields, ranging from waveguides, switches, emitters, and detectors. Though EO materials have a huge potential in Photonics and Electronics devices, the fact that chromophores are not thermally robust enough to survive the device fabrication steps (short-term excursions to the order of 250oC) limits their application range. Technology
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3-D Tissue Culture Chamber

Introduction Many of the seminal findings in cell and molecular biology have come from cultures of cells grown in two dimensions but the limitations of biology in just 2D are becoming clear. Cells in tissue are not just autonomous masses but consist of many interdependent cell types and their surrounding extracellular materials in which the complex and dynamic interplay between them determine of affect the tissues’ function, development and physiological balance. Researchers at the University
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Nanometer patterning with Ice

Summary Harvard Cases 2331 and 2440 These inventions involve the use of gases directly solidified onto cryogenically cooled substrates to form conformal thin films as resists for lithographically patterning the substrates. Examples of such gases are water vapor and rare gases such as argon. Water as a resist is placed on the substrate directly from the gas phase, patterned with an energetic beam (electron, ion or light), and then the rest is removed by sublimation. This has numerous advantage
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Patterning Multiple Aligned Self-Assembled Monolayers Using Light

Summary A method for patterning different types of surface chemistry is described. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on noble metal substrates are converted photochemically into a mixed SAM that contains the original SAM and two distinct types of SAMs. The multiple SAMs are patterned on the substrate when light is passed through a photomask that acts as an area-selective filter for multiple wavelengths of light. The ability to pattern surfaces using molecules is important for developing arrays of
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A Microconcentrator and Microfilter for Suspensions such as Blood

Summary Background: In healthcare, chemical analysis, environmental testing and other fields it is useful to separate particulate substances that are suspended in a fluid. For example separating cells from body fluids. So far, these techniques have typically required substantial capital equipment that can be both expensive and bulky, thus limiting where and when the separation can take place. Novel technology: The technology provides a microfluidic filter and concentrator that is cap
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Generation of Monodisperse Particles using Microfluidics: Control over Size, Shape and Composition

Summary The invention constitutes microfluidic methods of forming particles that are substantially monodisperse. The technology builds on the technology disclosed in Harvard Case: 2215 – "Method and Apparatus for Fluid Dispersion", which creates monodisperse fluid droplets in a microfluidic flow focusing device. The present invention expands that invention by: a) showing that monodisperse solid particles can be made from liquid droplets of material above its melting point by lowing the te
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"'Armored"' Bubbles and Droplets

Summary Background: Colloidal particles absorbed on liquid interfaces have long been reported to stabilize emulsions and foams. Recently, individual droplets densely covered with small particles have been proposed as a possible means of obtaining a variety of composite particles and hollow locked shells. Such interfacially structured and protected materials offer new opportunities in many fields as diverse as optics, encapsulation, biomedicine, non-wetting droplets, stabilizing gas bubbles, m
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Lift-off Patterning Processes Using Solid-Condensed-Gas Layers As Resists

Summary Harvard Cases 2310 and 2440 These inventions involve the use of gases directly solidified onto cryogenically cooled substrates to form conformal thin films as resists for lithographically patterning the substrates. Examples of such gases are water vapor and rare gases such as argon. Water as a resist is placed on the substrate directly from the gas phase, patterned with an energetic beam (electron, ion or light), and then the rest is removed by sublimation. This has numerous advantage
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Engineering 3D and Free Standing Tissue Structures

Summary Background: Efforts to build biosynthetic materials or engineered tissues that recapitulate the structure-function relationships of natural processes often fail because of an inability to replicate the proper in vivo conditions. For example, engineering a functional muscle tissue requires that the sarcomere and myofibrillogenesis be controlled at the micron length scale, while cellular alignment and formation of contiguous tissue requires organizational cues over the millimeter to centim
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Array of Micro Differential Scanning Calorimeters for Combinatorial Studies

Summary Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a primary technique for measuring the thermal properties of materials. A typical DSC system requires relatively large amounts of test material, making thermal measurements on nano-scale samples difficult if not impossible. Thus, while traditional DSC has proved a very useful technique, its application in nanotechnology is rather limited. Since the properties of materials on the nano-scale may differ significantly from their bulk counterparts, a
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General Approach to Large Area, Controlled Density, Aligned Films of Nanowires and Carbon Nanotubes via Bubble Expansion

Summary Background Central to many proposed electronic device-based applications of nanowires and carbon nanotubes is the development of methods that enable organization over large areas with controlled orientation and density. While progress has been made in studies of individual or small numbers of nanowire and nanotube devices prepared by directed assembly and centimetre scale assembly of nanowire field effect transistor arrays by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique, it is unclear if these can be
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Uniform Non-Spherical Colloidal Particles with Tunable Shapes

Summary Background: Non-spherical colloidal particles are useful in advanced applications beyond those that regular spherical colloidal particles exhibit. For example they are useful for modifying optical properties, controlling suspension rheology, and engineering colloidal composites. However current methods of making uniform sized particles with a controllable non-spherical shape are generally not scaleable to commercial quantities, which limits their practical application. The current inv
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Native Anti-corrosion Coatings for Metals

Summary The need: Corrosion of metals hamper the performance and safety of products ranging from medical implants to large-scale naval vessels, aircraft, bridges, and oil pipeline structures. A 2002 study of the US Federal Highway Administration estimated the cost of corrosion of metallic materials to be $276 billion, approximately 3.1% of national Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Developing novel approaches to mitigate corrosion is of great scientific and technological importance. Applications
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Systems and Methods for Assembly via Contact Electrification

Summary Taking advantage of a newly discovered mechanism for contact electrification of insulators the inventors have invented a new method of patterning insulator surfaces with particles. By assembling a surface with patterned areas composed of materials having different zeta-potentials one can, by contact electrification, make the different materials take on different surface charges. Then bringing charged particles to the surface will result in the particles preferentially sticking to one of
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Water-Soluble Sacrificial Layers for Surface Micromachining

Summary Sacrificial layers are temporary structures used as substrates on which other permanent structures are formed and then the layer is etched away freeing the permanent structure. They are ubiquitous in surface micromachining and the microfabrication of MEMS. Sacrificial layers currently in use are almost exclusively inorganic materials such as silica which are etched with corrosive substances such as hydrofluoric acid. Such etchants severely limit the types of substrates and materials one
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Engineering 3D and Free Standing Tissue Structures

Summary Background: Efforts to build biosynthetic materials or engineered tissues that recapitulate the structure-function relationships of natural processes often fail because of an inability to replicate the proper in vivo conditions. For example, engineering a functional muscle tissue requires that the sarcomere and myofibrillogenesis be controlled at the micron length scale, while cellular alignment and formation of contiguous tissue requires organizational cues over the millimeter to centim
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Array of Micro Differential Scanning Calorimeters for Combinatorial Studies

Summary Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a primary technique for measuring the thermal properties of materials. A typical DSC system requires relatively large amounts of test material, making thermal measurements on nano-scale samples difficult if not impossible. Thus, while traditional DSC has proved a very useful technique, its application in nanotechnology is rather limited. Since the properties of materials on the nano-scale may differ significantly from their bulk counterparts, a
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"MoleProbe": a Real-Time Molecular Diagnostic Device

Summary A novel engineering method for generation of freestanding 2-D and 3-D tissue structures. Biopolymers (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids or combinations thereof) are deposited onto a transitional polymer surface with a patterning technique that allows for nanometer-to-millimeter-scale spatial positioning. In one example, the transitional polymer layer dissolves or switches states to release the biopolymer structure(s). The free-standing biopolymer structure(s) is then seeded
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Complex particle fabrication by chemically-directed contact electrification

Summary Background: Micro- and nanoscale particles are an area of intense research and commercial activity. They have many potential uses, for example in drug delivery, electronics and material applications. The current invention is a method of fabricating complex core/shell particles in a controllable, inexpensive and industrially scaleable way. Novel technology: Core shell microspheres composed of smaller particles layered on a larger core particle and bound by opposite electrical cha
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Native Anti-corrosion Coatings for Metals

Summary The need: Corrosion of metals hamper the performance and safety of products ranging from medical implants to large-scale naval vessels, aircraft, bridges, and oil pipeline structures. A 2002 study of the US Federal Highway Administration estimated the cost of corrosion of metallic materials to be $276 billion, approximately 3.1% of national Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Developing novel approaches to mitigate corrosion is of great scientific and technological importance. Applications
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Systems and Methods for Assembly via Contact Electrification

Summary Taking advantage of a newly discovered mechanism for contact electrification of insulators the inventors have invented a new method of patterning insulator surfaces with particles. By assembling a surface with patterned areas composed of materials having different zeta-potentials one can, by contact electrification, make the different materials take on different surface charges. Then bringing charged particles to the surface will result in the particles preferentially sticking to one of
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A novel bioplastic

Summary A novel bioplastic, poly ((3R,5R)-3,5-dihydroxyhexanoic acid (poly(3,5-DHH), has been discovered. This molecule may be manufactured biosynthetically and offers significant advantages over current bio-plastics standards, such as high solubility and ease of chemical modification. Bioplastics based off of poly(3,5-DHH) may be used as a thermoplastics in injection molding techniques in addition to uses in the medical, surgical, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics fields. Applications A biodegra
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Deposition of nanoscale materials using structured surfaces

Summary The ability to precisely localize and control deposition of materials at the nanoscale is extremely important for a wide variety of emerging technologies. Many unique physical properties emerge only at the nanoscale and it is very useful to be able to control the formation of these materials. Control over the nucleation, growth, and assembly of nanomaterials is critical to advanced applications and complex device structures. While it is difficult to manipulate materials at such small siz
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"Teabag" Processing: an Automated, High Throughput Method for Affinity Purification

Summary A high throughput system for protein purification has been developed, whereby a “tea-bag” structure is used to house microspheres for targeted protein binding and elution. The microspheres are compatible with any solid-phase protein purification, which includes coupling of Ni++/Histidine, Glutathione/Glutathione-S-transferase, avidin/biotin, and immunoprecipitation (beads with either protein A or G). From an efficacy perspective, the system has demonstrated equivalent purifie
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Atomic Layer Deposition Using Metal Amidinates

Summary This invention relates to materials and processes for d eposition of conformal films containing metals on solid substrates. Examples include copper, cobalt and iron metals or their oxides or nitrides. Suitable applications include electrical interconnects in microelectronic and magnetoresistant layers in magnetic information storage devices. Applications Atomic Layer Deposition, semiconductors For Further Information Please Contact the Director of Business Development Bob Benson Emai
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Using Electro-magnetically Induced Transparency in Photonic Crystal Cavities to

Summary This invention describes a photonic crystal system which uses electro-magnetically induced transparency (EIT) as the non-linear medium in photonic crystal cavities to obtain devices of unprecedent non-linear sensitivity, with operating power requirements many orders of magnitude smaller than in most non-linear optics devices. Implementation is not limited to EIT and can use any kind of cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). This invention also describes a method of forming a microcavit
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Elucidating Novel Protein Interactions Using MALDI-MS and a Self-Assembled Monolayer Chip

Summary The ability for real-time identification of protein binding from whole cell lysates is a challenge for protein microarrays. This invention uses MALDI-MS to analyze complex biological mixtures using a protein or small molecule microarray, which is characterized by a self-assembled monolayer on gold contacts. Specialized surface chemistry enables efficient creation of both small molecule and protein microarray chips. For protein attachment to the chip, self-assembled monolayers of alkaneth
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Method and Apparatus for Forming Multiple Emulsions

Summary Everyday emulsions have drops of one liquid dispersed in an immiscible continuous liquid. A multiple emulsion has immiscible droplets dispersed in drops dispersed in an immiscible continuous liquid (double emulsion). The IP describes a simple apparatus that can make multiple emulsions with a high degree of control - such as the ability to make emulsions of one droplet in one drop and to control the relative sizes of each. The IP claims a platform for making double emulsions, which have m
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Lift-off Patterning Processes Using Solid-Condensed-Gas Layers As Resists

Summary Harvard Cases 2310 and 2440 These inventions involve the use of gases directly solidified onto cryogenically cooled substrates to form conformal thin films as resists for lithographically patterning the substrates. Examples of such gases are water vapor and rare gases such as argon. Water as a resist is placed on the substrate directly from the gas phase, patterned with an energetic beam (electron, ion or light), and then the rest is removed by sublimation. This has numerous advantage
...

Array of Micro Differential Scanning Calorimeters for Combinatorial Studies

Summary Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a primary technique for measuring the thermal properties of materials. A typical DSC system requires relatively large amounts of test material, making thermal measurements on nano-scale samples difficult if not impossible. Thus, while traditional DSC has proved a very useful technique, its application in nanotechnology is rather limited. Since the properties of materials on the nano-scale may differ significantly from their bulk counterparts, a
...

General Approach to Large Area, Controlled Density, Aligned Films of Nanowires and Carbon Nanotubes via Bubble Expansion

Summary Background Central to many proposed electronic device-based applications of nanowires and carbon nanotubes is the development of methods that enable organization over large areas with controlled orientation and density. While progress has been made in studies of individual or small numbers of nanowire and nanotube devices prepared by directed assembly and centimetre scale assembly of nanowire field effect transistor arrays by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique, it is unclear if these can be
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General Synthesis and Properties of Hetero-Branched Nanostructures

Summary The bottom-up assembly of nanostructures from individual building blocks offers distinct advantages over traditional top-down fabrication techniques including greatly simplified and cost-effective fabrication and the enablement of unique properties only available at the nanoscale. There is a need for the development of nanostructures of increased compositional complexity to serve as building blocks for more advanced nanostructures and nanodevices. For the first time branched nanowire str
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Method and Apparatus for Forming Multiple Emulsions

Summary Everyday emulsions have drops of one liquid dispersed in an immiscible continuous liquid. A multiple emulsion has immiscible droplets dispersed in drops dispersed in an immiscible continuous liquid (double emulsion). The IP describes a simple apparatus that can make multiple emulsions with a high degree of control - such as the ability to make emulsions of one droplet in one drop and to control the relative sizes of each. The IP claims a platform for making double emulsions, which have m
...

Patterning Multiple Aligned Self-Assembled Monolayers Using Light

Summary A method for patterning different types of surface chemistry is described. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on noble metal substrates are converted photochemically into a mixed SAM that contains the original SAM and two distinct types of SAMs. The multiple SAMs are patterned on the substrate when light is passed through a photomask that acts as an area-selective filter for multiple wavelengths of light. The ability to pattern surfaces using molecules is important for developing arrays of
...

Creating Nano-Wrinkles of Virtually any Design on the Surface of Polymers

Summary Creating Nano-Wrinkles of Virtually any Design on the Surface of Polymers Elevator pitch: A new method has been developed at Harvard to design and create virtually any type of nano-wrinkle patterns on the surfaces of polymers. Anticipated applications for these hard-skin nano-wrinkled surfaces include tissue engineering, where the wrinkles can create custom-designed scaffolds for optimizing cell growth, and microfluidics, where customized wrinkle patterns can enable complex fluidic
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General Approach to Large Area, Controlled Density, Aligned Films of Nanowires and Carbon Nanotubes via Bubble Expansion

Summary Background Central to many proposed electronic device-based applications of nanowires and carbon nanotubes is the development of methods that enable organization over large areas with controlled orientation and density. While progress has been made in studies of individual or small numbers of nanowire and nanotube devices prepared by directed assembly and centimetre scale assembly of nanowire field effect transistor arrays by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique, it is unclear if these can be
...

Uniform Non-Spherical Colloidal Particles with Tunable Shapes

Background: Non-spherical colloidal particles are useful in advanced applications beyond those that regular spherical colloidal particles exhibit. For example they are useful for modifying optical properties, controlling suspension rheology, and engineering colloidal composites. However current methods of making uniform sized particles with a controllable non-spherical shape are generally not scaleable to commercial quantities, which limits their practical application. The current invention i
...

A novel bioplastic

Summary A novel bioplastic, poly ((3R,5R)-3,5-dihydroxyhexanoic acid (poly(3,5-DHH), has been discovered. This molecule may be manufactured biosynthetically and offers significant advantages over current bio-plastics standards, such as high solubility and ease of chemical modification. Bioplastics based off of poly(3,5-DHH) may be used as a thermoplastics in injection molding techniques in addition to uses in the medical, surgical, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics fields. Applications A biodegra
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Improved Metal Complex Chemical Precursors for Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) and Chemical Vapor Depostion (CVD) using Bicyclic Guanidines

Summary Continued improvements in semiconductor technologies rely heavily on advanced material compositions such as high-k dielectrics, low-k dielectrics, and electrically conductive metal nitrides. These materials enable the continued progression of Moore’s Law, allowing ever-smaller components to be integrated onto a microelectronic chip. In current device fabrication facilities, vapor deposition is a preferred method for making these materials, allowing precise control over material un
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Process for Structural Alteration of Selected Material ("Micro-Engraving")

Summary This invention is comprised of methods and apparatus required to record and read-out a two- or three- dimensional, information-bearing image (pattern) inside a transparent material, with sub-micron features. The technique involves using an ultra-fast (100 femtosecond) laser to induce localized, high-contrast changes in the material's refractive index, without causing damage to the surrounding material. The method has been demonstrated using various glasses, fused silica, sapphire, ionic
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Fabrication of Electroninc and Microfluidic Structures on Elastomeric Materials

Introduction It has long been desired to have microfabrication techniques that enable the construction of integrated electromechanical devices for such things as reagent handling, temperature control, and pumping. Commercially available microfluidic devices are predominantly fabricated in expensive materials such as silicon and glass. However, due to cost limitations, the use of these devices has been limited. In addition, while there is considerable experience in building devices of complex fun
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Novel Methods of Creating a True Smart Structure for Stress Monitoring and Active Mechanical Support on Footwear

Introduction Investigation of strain sensing has been an active research area for the past 60 years and has the potential to affect a large number of industries and disciplines. The characteristics of all strain sensors depend, to some degree, on the properties of the deformable contact materials. Each material has its advantages and disadvantages, depending on physical properties and manufacturing concerns. Technology description Researchers at the University of Washington have developed a poly
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Toughening Structural Adhesives Using Novel Core-Shell Thermoplastic Nanoparticles

Introduction Structural Adhesives are increasingly replacing traditional fastening methods such as welding, bolts and rivets, in industrial applications. They are used to bond many different material types including ceramics, metals, glass, plastics and composites, and are designed for high strength, creep resistance, and resistance to harsh service environments such as high temperatures and chemicals. Several methods are available to toughen thermosetting resins, such as epoxies, commonly used
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Methods for Production of Thick Microcellular Sheets and Composite Structures

Introduction Microcellular manufacturing processes have been developed largely for production of thin films (thickness <3 mm) in applications such as packaging. Attempts to date to produce thick flat microcellular sheets using conventional batch microcellular process have resulted in specimens with surfaces that are curved and grossly distorted. Technology description Researchers at the UW have developed novel methods to create thick microcellular thermoplastic sheets and composite structures us
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Microcellular Poly (vinyl Chloride) Structures

Introduction A novel process for continuous production of microcellular foams has been developed and applied to make microcellular profiles from PVC. Technology description Researchers at the UW have developed microcellular poly (vinyl) chloride polymeric structures made in an extrusion or injection molding process. The articles have an average cell size of less than 100 microns and specific tensile strength ranging from 15 MPa to 20 MPa. Specific tensile modulus ranges from 2 GPa to 3 GPa. The
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A novel graded-modulus-interphase material for polymeric composites

Introduction Filler- (e.g., particulate or fiber) reinforced structural polymers or polymeric composites have changed the way things are made. Today, they are found, for example, in air/ground transportation vehicles, sporting goods, ballistic barrier applications and weapons, electronic packaging, musical instruments, fashion items, and more. As the demand increases, so does the desire to have not only well balanced mechanical properties, but also light weight and low cost. This leads to a cons
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Ferromagnetic Shape Memory Alloys

Introduction Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) are metals which return to their original shape after deformation. Conventional SMAs are thermally activated, requiring heat to change the metal’s crystal structure and allow it to resume its pre-deformation shape. Technology description Material scientists at the University of Washington have developed magnetically activated shape memory alloys, thus allowing a magnetic field to be used instead of heat to restore the original shape of a deformed SMA. Lin
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Electroactive Polymer Using Shape Memory Alloy

Introduction Shape memory polymers have shown tremendous promise for a wide variety of applications for their ability to “remember” a previous state when heated. Unfortunately, they have been slow to develop commercial availability. Many of these polymers also have small compression ratios. However, many of the same properties desired in shape memory polymers can be mimicked using shape memory alloys (SMA) in a polymer framework. This technique has many advantages over shape memory polymers,
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Super-low Fouling Zwitterionic-based Materials

Introduction Tin-based antifouling paints are being phased out due to marine pollution concerns. Non-toxic silicone and fluorinated coatings are under development, but these are easy release coatings rather than antifouling. PEG is the most commonly used antifouling polymer coating, but its susceptibility to oxidation damage may reduce its utility in the marine industry. A more stable super-low fouling material is desirable for marine coating applications. Technology description This invention r
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Nanocellular, Microcellular, and Macrocellular Foams from TPU’s and TPE’s and their Method of Manufacture

Introduction Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPE’s) are a class of flexible materials with a wide range of applications. To date TPE’s, and a subclass of these materials, Thermoplastic Urethanes (TPU’s), have been difficult to foam by conventional means. Technology description Researchers at the UW have developed a new solid-state foaming process that allows creation of uniform cellular structures at length scales from nano to macro. The material cell size distribution is narrow and the microstr
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Production of Thick Microcellular & Thermoplastic Sheets and Components

Introduction Thick microcellular plastics for lightweight, energy efficient building materials and other applications have been developed. Up to 70% reduction in relative density of the materials has been achieved. Technology description Researchers at the UW have developed a process to make thick, lightweight plastic sheets. A key aspect of the invention is production of flat sheets that could provide a new basic construction material. Business opportunity This technique reduces the density of
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Superlow Fouling Materials and Surfaces Comprising Molecular-Scale Mixed Charged Species

Introduction Superlow fouling materials and surfaces that can resist protein adsorption, cell adhesion, biofilm formation, and microorganism settlement are needed for the improvement of a variety of health-related products. Ideallly, any synthetic surface that comes into contact with body fluids or cells would be superlow fouling. Until now, only a very small number of materials were both biocompatible and superlow fouling. Technology description Researchers at the University of Washington have
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Electrochromic Smart Window

Introduction Electrochromic materials change color in response to changing voltage. Used in conjunction with glass or plastic, this property allows for complete control over light transmission, easily converting between transparent and opaque and all shades in between. This technology could have a profound impact on lighting and heating, and recent advances have made electrochromic polymers a reality. These polymers are inexpensive, are easily controlled, and have fast response times, and they s
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Fluid flow assisted dielectrophoretic alignment and sorting of Nano/bio materials

Introduction The accurate and precise sorting and deposition of nano/bio materials within a nano- or micro-environment is critical for the functionality of devices such as biochips. Fluid flow in a microchannel is one method of controlling long-range transport and electric fields may be employed to control short-range positioning of nano/bio materials. Technology description Researchers at the University of Washington have developed an alignment and sorting method of nano/bio materials using flu
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Efficient Loading of Hollow Polymeric Particles

Introduction The encapsulation of active materials in colloidal particles has enabled a variety of new, high value products to be developed; such as controlled release drugs, cosmetics, pigments, and chemical reagents. Introducing functional material into hollow polymeric particles is typically limited by the diffusion of the functional material across the closed particle shell. The efficiency of loading would be enhanced if the functional material could be added directly into the hollow sphere.
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Extrusion of Solid State Polymer Foams and Foam Composites

Introduction Microcellular polymers are plastic foams with cell size on the order of 10 um in diameter. Technology description Researchers at the University of Washington have developed methods for continuous production of solid-state foamed plastics and composites. These methods are based on processing of pre-foamed or unfoamed powder or pellets in a specially designed screw extruder. Cell growth is controlled during extrusion to produce a foam with a uniform 10um cell size. The microcellular f
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Microcellular Electrical Wire Coatings

Introduction In microcellular plastic foams, inert gas is dissolved in thermoplastic under high pressure. The forced evacuation of this gas during processing creates pores (or cells) within the final hardened plastic. These cells are small enough that clarity of the plastic is unaffected, and because of the cells, much less starting material is required for creating low-density microcellular plastics than for conventional plastics, greatly reducing weight and cost. These plastics also have a gre
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A Method of Selective Foaming for Porous Polymeric Material

Introduction The ability to create porous polymeric material has a wide diversity of applications ranging from commercial packaging to Lab-on-a-Chip devices due to its ability to create material with reduced weight and tunable pore sizes and its ability to realize utility from different polymers—including biodegradable ones. The well-defined, interconnected pores are especially suited to mimicking biological structures and make excellent scaffolds for tissue engineering to support the restorat
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Manufacture of Hollow Metal Nanostructures

Introduction Nanostructures with hollow interiors offer several advantages over their solid counterparts in terms of lower weight, decreased use of materials, and a reduction in cost. Other methods that are used to synthesize hollow nanostructures of gold result in low yields and the resulting particles often have rough surfaces, are polycrystalline, or have a non uniformity in shell thickness and composition. Technology description Our researchers have developed a new method and technique to sy
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High-Energy Absorbing, Superelastic Structure Made of Porous NiTi and NiTi Springs

Introduction Nitinol (NiTi) is a shape memory alloy (SMA) that possesses the ability to “remember” a specific shape and revert to it upon heating. In addition, it has a large flow stress and demonstrates superelastic qualities. These qualities make this material an exceptional candidate for structural applications, and porous NiTi especially has recently come under scrutiny for a wide range of applications. Technology Description Professor Taya at the University of Washington has developed a
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Production of Novel Human Collagens

BACKGROUND A powerful new platform technology for the production of human collagens is being developed in the Kadler Centre for Cell-Matrix Research within the Department of Life Sciences at the University of Manchester. The collagens most closely mimic human collagen structure, giving a far superior product to that produced by the harsh conditions necessary to extract animal collagens and can be tailored to incorporate binding sites for growth factors and cell attachment to promote integration
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Ultra High Bulk 3D Spacer Fabric Technology for Orthopaedic, Sports and Personal Protective Equipment Applications

BACKGROUND A new process for the development of a three dimensionally knitted, high bulk, flexible spacer fabric has been developed by the University of Manchester. 3D spacer structures are already being used in many applications including orthopaedic supports, protective clothing, car seats, mattresses and outdoor wear. The spacer structure gives numerous desirable properties which can be tailored for specific applications. THE TECHNOLOGY A 3D knitted spacer structure technology has been develo
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Advanced 3d Flexible Fibre Material for Wound Management, Orthopaedic, Sports & Personal Protective Equipment Applications

BACKGROUND Spacer structures find applications is many areas. These include automotive, sports wear, medical, mattresses and protective clothing such as gloves and body armour. Spacer structures could provide a replacement for foam. These structures can be specifically tailored to meet the needs of unique applications. THE TECHNOLOGY Research in the William Lee Innovation Centre (School of Materials, University of Manchester) has lead to the formulation of a 3D knitted spacer fabric with a high
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Knitted Switches 'K-switch' Technology

BACKGROUND Touch and proximity sensing E-Textiles are being developed by a number of research groups. Several methods have been explored including printing electroconductive materials onto a textile substrate, the use of piezoresistive coatings, embroidering electroconductive fibres and attaching woven electrodes on to a textiles substrate. The disadvantages with such approaches include • aging of electrodes (piezoresistive materials), • damage with washing • variable performance (time
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Functional Knitted Gloves

BACKGROUND Knitted gloves are predominantly manufactured using speciality glove-knitting machines, or in certain instances circular-knitting equipment. Seamless gloves are already well-known, but can only be produced with simple plain-knitted structures. In the technical textiles sector, innovation has centered on development of new materials or modification of existing products through speciality coatings (e.g. dip-coating). The William Lee Innovation Centre (School of Materials, University of
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Kenaf plants with elevated fiber content

The Invention Transgenic Kenaf plants (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) have been developed by modifying the endogenous concentration of gibberellins using anti-sense technologies. These novel Kenaf plants have elevated fiber content. Furthermore, the fibers in these plants are of higher quality, substantially exceeding those of the methods used today. Potential Applications Paper Cordage (cords and rope) Textiles Advantages Kenaf is a fast growing annual closely related to cotton (Gossypiu
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Localized Drug Delivery to Ablate Fat Tissue

Researchers at the University of Michigan we have developed a novel drug delivery application, the ablation of fat tissue by the sustained, localized release of anti-fat drugs. The central premise of this technology is that fat tissue mass can be destroyed by sustained, targeted delivery of drugs affecting fat tissue development and regulation. It was developed to provide drug delivery systems capable of targeted and controlled ablation of fat at sites of adipose issue accumulation and provide a
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Lithographically Patterned Nanowire Electrodeposition

Background: Electron beam lithography (EBL), invented in the early 70's, provides a means for patterning polycrystalline metal nanowires as small as 20 nm in diameter onto surfaces. The applicability of EBL, however, has been limited to research and development applications because it is a serial patterning technology. In 1990, a parallel version of EBL was developed, but space charge "blurring" has prevented this technique from approaching the resolution of direct-write EBL. By using, as a tem
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Electroplating of Hard Glassy Metals (MFS-31377)

Although it yields a high quality coating, electroless deposition does not allow for much process control, requires high processing temperatures, and has a slower deposition rate than with electroplating. Better process control is available through electroplating, which involves placing a voltage across a nickel electrode (i.e., anode) and the part in a solution (i.e., cathode) and thus driving the nickel to coat the part via electrolytic processes. NASA Marshall¿s technology enables stress-fre
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Low-Cost Layered Structure for High Temperature Electrochemical Devices

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Solid oxide fuel cells Oxygen generators Electrochemical reactors ADVANTAGES: Offers less expensive manufacturing Displays excellent mechanical bonding between layers and a robust structure Expands the choice of electrode catalysts Applies to planar or tubular cells geometries ABSTRACT: Berkeley Lab researchers Mike Tucker, Grace Lau, and Craig Jacobson have invented a novel layered structure for preparing a high-operating temperature electrochemical ce
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Low Cost Fabrication of Thin-Film Ceramic Membranes for Nonshrinking Substrates

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Tubular solid oxide fuel cells Ceramic membrane fabrication Electrolytic separation ADVANTAGES: Produces high quality films on non-shrinking substrates Scalable for low cost industrial production Minimum number of processing steps Enables sintering at lower temperatures by increasing the green (pre-sintered) density of the film ABSTRACT: Certain fuel cell manufacturing specifications require deposition of a thin ceramic membrane onto a substrate that d
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High Quality, Dense Thin Films Using Metal/Metal Alloy Additives

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Solid oxide fuel cells Gas separation Mixed ionic electronic thin film devices Sensors Magnetic films Various barrier coatings Potentially LaCrO3 interconnects ADVANTAGES: Produces high quality, gas-tight, dense films in a single step Net zero volume change in film during sintering allows for firing a broad range of films onto non-shrinking substrates Because co-firing is unnecessary, the sintering profiles of the substrate and film need not match Works with
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Fail-Safe, Inexpensive Electrochemical Device Stack Design

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Small scale fuel cell applications (auxillary power units) Small scale syngas production Small scale gas separation ADVANTAGES: Improved stack efficiency (10% more power output than a single cell of the same active area) Potentially over ten times less expensive to manufacture than existing stack designs Redundancy is built into the system so that it continues to function despite cell failures ABSTRACT: Craig Jacobson, Steven Visco, and Lutgard DeJong
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Easy Joining of Dissimilar Materials in Concentric Tubes

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Electrochemical devices, e.g. solid oxide fuel cells Filter elements Gas sparger/bubbler/fluid manifold Wear coatings Thermal barrier layers Chemical resistance coatings Current collection ADVANTAGES: More robust than current methods Promises easier manufacturing Allows inspection of the outside of an internal layer ABSTRACT: Steven Visco, Mike Tucker and colleagues have invented an efficient method for joining concentric tubes of dissimilar materials t
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Durable Joining of Dissimilar Materials

APPLICATIONS: Metal/ceramic joints in SOFCs Thermal barrier coatings Metal/ceramic bonding ADVANTAGES: Survives rapid thermal cycling Thinner than graded joint Eliminates the need to introduce a third material into the joint High strength over a wide range of joint porosities Unlike graded joints, preserves contrast in material properties at the interface ABSTRACT: One barrier to solid oxide fuel cell manufacturing is forming robust joints between materials that don’t chemically
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Injectible Hydrogel-Based Biodegradable Bone Replacement Materials

Microstructure of a FlexBone hydrogel/HA composite (the white dots are HA particles). APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: - Bone implants - Dental implants - Injectable bone cements - Drug delivery - Scaffolds for bone tissue engineering ADVANTAGES: - Promotes natural bone growth as it biodegrades - Improves mechanical performance and tissue-implant interactions of orthopedic materials - Simplifies application with injectable slurry that solidifies at target site - Exhibits unusually high r
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Graded Bioactive Glass and Glass/Ceramic Coatings for Metal Bone Implants

Bioactive glass can be tuned to the same thermal expansion coefficient as the titanium (Ti) alloy it coats, avoiding the generation of thermal stresses. Processing at 800°C results in a 100-nm-thick adhesive interface layer between the coating and the Ti alloy. - Bone implants - Dental implants - Medical reconstruction ADVANTAGES: - Enables metal implants to bond with bone without cement - Extends the useful life of artificial teeth, hips, knees, and other medical reconstructive d
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Composites with Graded Microstructures for Orthopedic Implants and Bone Tissue Engineering

An inorganic scaffold with a strong, dense core and graded porosity is infiltrated with different polymers to provide a gradient in solubility. Porosity is greatest at the surface, promoting cell attachment and formation of new tissue. APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: - Orthopedic implants with bone-like mechanical properties - Scaffolds for bone tissue engineering - Scaffolds for in vitro cell growth ADVANTAGES: - Allows fabrication of materials with tailored properties never before pos
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Heat Shrinkable Sheathing

IB-2475 APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Strapping and bundling objects together tightly ADVANTAGES: • Enabling of multiple assemblies to be fitted and then tightened as a group with one application of heat • Fitting shrinkable tubing to endless or looped structures without disassembly of structures by having a seam in the tubing which is closed on installation (by a zipper for example) • Quicker, more secure installation than stretching tape ABSTRACT: Berkeley Lab researchers ha
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Super Rich Hydrogen Storage Nanomaterials with Intermediate Bond Strength

The quest for vehicles powered by alternative sources of fuel such as hydrogen has led to an explosion of research into new materials for storing and releasing hydrogen. Currently, one of the main challenges in the large scale development of hydrogen as a fuel is that a convenient and economical storage system does not exist. Hydrogen storage technologies face a number of key challenges: 1) they must be able to store enough hydrogen for a vehicle to have a reasonable driving range; 2) they mu
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Improved Method for Fabrication of Microfluidic Devices Allowing Functional Tuning

Miniaturization of analytical methods and instrumentation for clinical applications is an area of burgeoning interest. Microchips have been developed for many applications in order to minimize both the time and space required to perform processes such as drug delivery and clinical diagnostic procedures. Microchips have thus been developed for a number of different applications including solid phase extraction, PCR amplification of purified DNA, and electrophoretic separations. However, the range
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Fluorescent Boron Difluoride Diketone Polymers

Fluorescence technology is an integral part of new scientific assays and imaging methods in addition to its omnipresence in our everyday lives. The inventors have designed a novel polymer that coordinates boron difluoride with diketone ligands which results in a highly fluorescent compound. The applications of this technology are virtually limitless and are unique in that the polymer has high quantum yields in the 400-550 nm range. Furthermore, this innovative polymer acts as a chromophore that
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Ductile Bulk Amorphous Steel Alloys

Iron-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are being studied as a potentially new types of structural materials because of their high strength, good corrosion and wear resistance coupled with relatively low materials cost. Among these Fe-based BMGs are the previously reported amorphous steels based on Fe-Mn-Cr-Mo-C-B and Fe-(Mn,Cr)-(Ln,Y)-Mo-C-B (Ln=Lanthanides), known as DARVA-Glass 1 and DARVA-Glass 101, respectively. The fracture and yield strengths of amorphous steels are found to be three time
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