Engineering - Electrical Patents for Sale or License

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Quick-connect Interface for Alarm Systems

It dims installation times, captures sensors and peripherals automatically, simplifies work and lowers plant costs. The patent consists of a PCB electronic board that connects to standard anti-theft powerhouses for residential or commercial premises, simplifies and speeds up work. Converting wire...
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Systems and Methods for Determining a Cardiovascular Condition of a Subject

The present invention provides a Diversity Coding--Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (DC-OFDM) system and method that applies diversity coding to OFDM-based systems and provides improved probability of successful reception at the receiver and transparent self-healing and fault-tolerance. Di...
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Passive Electric Field Focus System for In Vivo and In Vitro Applications

The present invention provides a system and method of directing, focusing, or concentrating electrical charges within a defined electric field so that these charges can be used to exert forces on cells and tissues in vivo and/or cell cultures in vitro. The present invention reduces and/or eliminates...
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Digitally Controlled Wide Range Pulse Width Modulator

The present invention provides a digitally controlled, current starved, pulse width modulator (PWM). In the PWM of the present invention, the amount of current from the voltage source to the ring oscillator is controlled by the proposed header circuit. By changing the header current, the pulse width...
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Alloy Nanoparticles for Metal-enhanced Luminescence

The present invention provides a digitally controlled, current starved, pulse width modulator (PWM). In the PWM of the present invention, the amount of current from the voltage source to the ring oscillator is controlled by the proposed header circuit. By changing the header current, the pulse width...
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Electric Drive Vehicle and the Procedure of Use

Our patent is a breakthrough in the electric car charging technology and in the electric mobility. Today's electric cars have a very big problem: the charging of the batteries is too slow, and the driver has to stop even while "fast charging", wasting her/his time. Our patent is about FAST CHARGING ...
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Automatic Local Electric Management System

This invention automates a key component of local electric power distribution system, a traditional circuit breaker panel into an intelligent service panel and to enable it to function as an intelligent gateway to the power grid, an automatic local power distribution system, and an automatic local e...
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Electric Generator with efficiency more 100% and electricity production without input energy

This invention is an electric generator which can produce electricity by filter of magnetic field and input energy. In other words it is motor which moves without needing for input energy (electricity or any other energy). The period of ending the project is for a year and we need an investor to pro...
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Modern connector by melt aluminium for electric cables

The continuity electricity feeding at customers it is an important performance indicator for power system. Many faults becomes from electric contacts in cables. Using classical solution by pressing aluminium, the contact resintance it is about 10-4 - 10-5 Ω. At normal function network, the conta...
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Modern solution to improve electric contacts

The continuity electricity feeding at customers it is an important performance indicator for power system. Many faults becomes from electric contacts. Using classical solution by pressing aluminium, the contact resintance it is about 10-4 - 10-5 Ω. At normal function network, the contacts assure...
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Protection Ground Electrodes

PROTECTION GROUND ELECTRODES WITH INJECTION OF BENTONITE EMULSION UNDER PRESSURE Earthing sockets are classically built and assembled in different standard types, depending on soil resistivity to ohm electrical resistance value imposed by the technical rules in force. The reduction of the earthin...
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Mechanical Protection of Aerian Electric Lines at Rime and Wind

Aerian electric lines, in hard winter weather conditions, at sediment rime, are working at mechanical limit parameters. If in the same time, with rime on conductors, the wind is very strong, the mechanical forces which working to conductors and poles could be over design force limit and the electric...
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Absorbent Water Battery set up in the Vat of Oil Transformers

At oil transformer coils made by paper insulation, the present of water in paper lead to insulation demotion and electric faults. In the vat of transformers, at ambient temperature, the water migrates from oil in the isolation paper. The water in paper is distributed uniformly. At present times, for...
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Variable Z0 Antenna Device Design System and Method

Variable Z0 (VZ0) antenna technology is a new design or optimization methodology applicable to any antenna on any platform designed or optimized with any procedure. It is especially useful for wireless devices populating the Internet of Things (potential 10-year market - 7 TRILLION machines!), i...
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Method and apparatus for measuring physical parameters

Remote sensing with two wires and daisy chained sensors History Sequential sensing was developed to fill a need to read the temperature of a heating pad using a microprocessor with a single pair of wires connecting remote sensors within the pad. The sensors were placed at strategic locations c...
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Multifunctional Composite Sandwich Element with Embedded Electronics

This patent describes composite sandwich or panel structure having electronic components located within the core region. The core structure is porous or made up of truss elements. Truss elements may be angled or perpendicular to the outer facesheets of the sandwich structure and may extend the ent...
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Light Activated Input Panel

Touch display is standard display of smart phones and pad-type electronics and is gaining popularity for laptop computers. However, it is not suitable for TV or large size display because user is normally farther than arm-length from the display. Remote operation of touch panel is needed in order fo...
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Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) capacitive sensing circuit

The present invention discloses a Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) capacitive sensing circuit wherein two input nodes of a fully differential amplifier are separately connected to a MEMS capacitive sensing device and a matching capacitor, which both contain similar capacity value and connect ...
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Sample and hold circuit and method for maintaining unity power factor

An AC electrical system has a source voltage and current interconnected through an energy storage device with a load. A unity power factor control circuit maintains unity power factor incorporating the steps of producing a sample and hold voltage related to the input voltage and an output voltage wh...
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Wideband Transducer for Measuring a Broad Range of Currents in High Voltage Conductors

This patent describes an instrument that can measure currents almost anywhere but was invented primarily for electrical power systems. This instrument is called a magnetic field current sensor (MFCS). A website at www.frsconsulting.biz describes the instrument in detail and covers the development ...
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Modular Power Distribution and Control System

The invention describes apparatus for designing and installing power distribution systems for: residential, commercial and industrial applications, as well as for power distribution within electro-mechanical devices. The invention transforms existing labor-intense installations into practically plug...
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System, apparatuses, methods, and computer program products for electric motor testing and analysis

Systems, apparatuses, methods, and computer program products (i.e., software) for electric motor testing and analysis. Electric motor winding resistance and motor temperature are measured. The resistance measurement is normalized to a common temperature and electronically displayed in a resistance v...
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Self Starting Method and an Apparatus for Sensorless Commutation of Brushless DC Motors

Brushless DC (BLDC) motors have been gaining popularity in the Appliance, Automotive, Aerospace, Consumer, Medical, Computer and Industrial Automation industries and possess many advantages over other motors. Some of these advantages are: (a) High power density, low inertia and high torque to i...
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Safety (flashover prevention) Devices for Insulative Tools

The embodiments of the invention in which an exclusive property or privilege is claimed are defined as follows: 1. A safety device in combination with an elongated insulative tool of a certain length extending between a user end arranged to be contacted by a worker and a working end arranged for o...
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Hydraulic Omnidirectional Eolian Transducer with Carousel Movement

The present discloses a hydraulic omni-directional eolian transducer with carousel movement, with propellant paddles design easy and simple so it can produce a pair of forces at little rotation speed, depending on the area of its paddles and of the arm length in which there are mounted and the numbe...
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Method and System of Optical Guidance of Mobile Body

The invention proposes to guide a robot by projecting a laser light, image processing and communication to improve the accuracy of guidance. The method spans areas of robotics, computer vision, user interface, video games, communication and smart home technologies. The key idea is to show goal p...
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Active Cooling System for LED Fixtures/ Electronics

MP Lighting's patented Active Cooling System (ACS) uses a thermal sensor, known as an NTC Thermistor Array, to detect changes in temperature and control speeds of a cooling fan. The system helps to regulate airflow through high-watt LED fixtures and other electronics, ensuring that the product opera...
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Droplet Actuators, Systems and Methods

A droplet actuator with arrays of electrodes electrically coupled to a number of controllable voltage sources that is less than the number of electrodes. A method of defining partitions for pin layouts in a droplet actuator for a specific assay, the method including: defining droplet traces for the ...
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Method for electrochemical treatment of electrode for electrochemical measurements, involves heating electrode, and applying negative or positive potential to electrode

The method involves heating an electrode (1), and applying a negative or a positive potential to the electrode. A potential of less than minus 1 volt or more than 1.5 volt, particularly less than minus 2 volt or more than 2.5 volt is applied to the electrode. A saturated calomel electrode is applied...
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Metamaterials for Surfaces and Waveguides

Complementary metamaterial elements provide an effective permittivity and/or permeability for surface structures and/or waveguide structures. The complementary metamaterial resonant elements may include Babinet complements of "split ring resonator" (SRR) and "electric LC" (ELC) metamaterial elements...
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Methodology and apparatus for reduction of soft errors in logic circuits

The present invention includes a circuit-level system and method for preventing the propagation of soft errors in logic cells. A radiation jammer circuit in accordance with the present invention, including an RC differentiator and a depletion mode MOS circuit, when inserted at the output of a logic ...
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Method of controlled delivery for use of electrochemical power source

A system and method for improving electrochemical power sources through the dispensing encapsulation and dispersion into galvanic chambers of an electrochemical cell. Features of the method include the optimization of the concentration levels of chemicals involved in desired energy producing reactio...
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Electrochemical power source using halogenated organic compounds

Halogenated organic compounds that are inexpensive and are readily available have been used to present the examples of the invention. These chemicals, when in contact with water experience a reaction that releases oxy-halogenated acid. These compounds are weak acids and release hydrogen ions accordi...
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Plasma-deposited Electrically Insulating, Diffusion-resistant and Elastic Layer System

A multilayer system on a substrate, the multilayer system being applied to the substrate by plasma deposition, characterized in that the multilayer system is configured such that it has substantial diffusion resistance to ions in an aqueous solution, wherein the current produced by the diffusion of ...
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Device and Method for Stimulating Nerves By Way of Magnetic Field Pulses

The invention relates to a device for generating brief, strong current pulses in a coil, wherein the coil generates magnetic field pulses with a duration of 20 to 3000 microseconds and a strength of 0.1 to 5 tesla, which cause electric stimulation currents in the body tissue according to the princip...
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Plasmonic Electricity

The present invention relates to detection systems and methods that detect fluorescence, luminescence, chemiluminescence or phosphorescence signatures in the form of an electrical signal conducted and emitted from metallic containing surfaces. Thus, the present invention provides for detecting fluor...
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Generating Electrical Power By Coupling Aerobic Microbial Photosynthesis to an Electron-harvesting System

The present invention relates to an aerobic single-chamber photosynthetic microbial fuel cell (PMFC) that does not depend on organic substrate as an energy source but instead powered only by the energy of light. Its operation is CO2-free and does not require buffers or exogenous electron transfer sh...
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Thin Flexible Rechargeable Electrochemical Energy Cell and Method of Fabrication

A thin, rechargeable, flexible electrochemical energy cell includes a battery cell, or a capacitor cell, or a battery/capacitor hybrid cell that can be stackable in any number and order. The cell can be based on a powdery mixture of hydrated ruthenium oxide particles or nanoparticles with activated ...
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Polymer Solid Electrolyte for Flexible Batteries

A flexible polymer solid electrolyte material useful in battery technology is described. The flexible solid electrolyte comprises a first block that has the ability to solvate alkali metal salts. The flexible solid electrolyte comprises a second block that has the ability to incorporate lithium ions...
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Nanodevice Arrays for Electrical Energy Storage, Capture and Management and Method for their Formation

An apparatus, system, and method are provided for a vertical two-terminal nanotube device configured to capture and generate energy, to store electrical energy, and to integrate these functions with power management circuitry. The vertical nanotube device can include a column disposed in an anodic o...
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Vibrating Substrate for Haptic Interface

A haptic device is provided having a substrate with a touch surface and one or more actuators for vibrating the substrate in a multiplicity of higher resonant modes, each of which has a high enough frequency to be inaudible and high enough amplitude to create a friction reduction effect at a plurali...
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Electrode Material Comprising Graphene-composite Materials in a Graphite Network

A durable electrode material suitable for use in Li ion batteries is provided. The material is comprised of a continuous network of graphite regions integrated with, and in good electrical contact with a composite comprising graphene sheets and an electrically active material, such as silicon, where...
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Microelectromechanical Device and System

A microelectromechanical device for electromechanical testing a specimen having a nano-scale dimension is formed on a multi- layered semiconductor substrate (chip) and includes an electrothermal or electrostatic actuator for applying a displacement load (force) to the specimen, a load sensor for sen...
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Electron Injection-controlled Microcavity Plasma Device and Arrays

An embodiment of the invention is a microcavity plasma device that can be controlled by a low voltage electron emitter. The microcavity plasma device includes driving electrodes disposed proximate to a microcavity and arranged to contribute to generation of plasma in the microcavity upon application...
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Method of Dispersion Controlled X-ray Amplification in Laser System

A method for controlling amplification of coherent tunable radiation in the x-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum through dispersion control has a step of generating pulsed laser radiation having a selected power, pulse width, wavelength, and leading edge velocity of propagation v?. The metho...
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Microchannel Laser Having Microplasma Gain Media

The invention provides microchannel lasers having a microplasma gain medium. Lasers of the invention can be formed in semiconductor materials, and can also be formed in polymer materials. In a microlaser of the invention, high density plasmas are produced in microchannels. The microplasma acts as a ...
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Interwoven Wire Mesh Microcavity Plasma Arrays

Embodiments of the invention provide for large arrays of microcavity plasma devices that can be made inexpensively, and can produce large area but thin displays or lighting sources Interwoven metal wire mesh, such as interwoven A1 mesh, consists of two sets of wires which are interwoven in such a wa...
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Electrically Small Antenna Devices, Systems, Apparatus, and Methods

The utilization of small antennas for mobile devices and for low frequency (long wavelength) applications is desired. Further, efficient use of transmission power is desirable, especially in mobile applications. For this purpose, a system is provided that includes one or more of: a multiple-resonato...
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Microcavity and Microchannel Plasma Device Arrays in a Single, Unitary Sheet

An array of microcavity plasma devices is formed in a unitary sheet of oxide with embedded microcavities or microchannels and embedded metal driving electrodes isolated by oxide from the microcavities or microchannels and arranged so as to generate sustain a plasma in the embedded microcavities or m...
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Tunable Radio-Frequency Coil

A radio frequency (RF) coil comprising a plurality of electrically uninterrupted conductive legs, each leg having a first end and a second end, and at least one continuous conductor electrically connected to the first ends of the legs. Frequency tuning of the coil is achieved by translating, along t...
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Ellipsoidal Microcavity Plasma Devices and Powder Blasting Formation

Microcavity plasma devices and arrays are formed in layers that also seal the plasma medium, i e, gas(es) and/or vapors A microcavity plasma device includes first and second thin layers that are joined together A half ellipsoid microcavity or plurality of half ellipsoid microcavities is defined in o...
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Displacement Actuation and Sensing for an Electrostatic Drive

An electrostatic drive includes a first electrode and a second electrode responsive to a drive signal. The drive signal includes an actuation signal constituent and a sensing signal constituent. The sensing signal constituent is at a frequency higher than a natural mechanical resonant frequency of t...
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Microcavity Plasma Devices with Non-uniform Cross-section Microcavities

An embodiment of the invention is an array of microcavity plasma devices having microcavities of non-uniform cross-section. The array includes a first electrode that is a thin metal foil or film including a plurality of non-uniform cross-section microcavities therein that are encapsulated in oxide. ...
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Variable Electric Field Strength Metal and Metal Oxide Microplasma Lamps and Fabrication

Preferred embodiments of the invention provide microcavity plasma lamps having a plurality of metal and metal oxide layers defining a plurality of arrays of microcavities and encapsulated thin metal electrodes. Packaging encloses the plurality of metal and metal oxide layers in plasma medium. The me...
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Ions accelerating method for e.g. ion beam- and tumor therapy, involves accelerating ions penetrating titanium foils, at high energy, and decelerating ions that are not penetrating titanium foils, at

The method involves time-correlated high intensive laser impulse irradiation of thin titanium foils (2) and electrical fields between the titanium foils and behind electrons (5) separated from the titanium foils. Ions provided in the electrical fields and penetrating the titanium foils, of ion beams...
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RF Coil for MRI which Can Be Switched Between Different Operational Modes

An RF coil system for magnetic resonance applications includes a multi-channel RF coil transceiver and a multi-channel RF coil. The RF coil system is structured for reconfiguration between a plurality of operational modes, e.g. from a quadrature coil mode to a phased array mode or from a single-reso...
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Magnetic Resonance Contrast Using Fictitious Field Relaxation

A system includes a signal generator and a processor. The signal generator is configured to couple with a magnetic resonance transmitter coil. The processor is configured to execute instructions to control the signal generator. The instructions include forming a sequence of waveforms. The sequence i...
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High Magnetic Moment Particle Detection

A device includes a sensor surface and a pair of electrodes. The sensor surface includes a first conductive layer separated from a second conductive layer by an intermediary layer, a magnetization direction of the first conductive layer and a magnetization direction of the second conductive layer ha...
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Method for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

A method of magnetic resonance imaging based on rapid acquisition by sequential excitation and refocusing is provided. The method comprises turning on a first time-encoding gradient and applying an excitation pulse in the presence of the first time-encoding gradient. The excitation pulse excites mag...
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Frequency Swept Excitation for Magnetic Resonance

A method of magnetic resonance is provided that uses a frequency swept excitation wherein the acquired signal is a time domain signal is provided. In one embodiment, the method comprises, applying a sweeping frequency excitation and acquiring a time domain signal. The sweeping frequency excitation h...
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Electromagnetic Wave Detection Methods and Apparatus

Methods and apparatus for detecting an electromagnetic wave are provided. A device for use in an electromagnetic wave detector includes a first device layer having a first contact, a second device layer having a second contact, and a tunnel barrier layer and a resonating magnetic layer formed betwee...
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Methods and Apparatus Using Hierarchical Priority and Control Algorithms for Grid-integrated Vehicles

A method and apparatus for managing system energy flow. The apparatus includes an energy storage unit to store energy to be used by a system and a power conversion unit configured to be coupled between the energy storage unit and a utility grid. The apparatus also includes a controller to selectivel...
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Power Converter and Power Combiner for Power-limited Power Sources

This invention relates to a hysteretic input-regulating high-output impedance power converter for converting the energy output of power-limited power sources such as solar cells to provide output current at voltages useful to operate electronics or charge batteries. This invention also relates to a ...
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Terahertz Emitter with High Power and Temperature Operation

Terahertz emitting devices are disclosed. The terahertz emitting device comprises a wafer and a current source. The wafer includes silicon carbide and a dopant. In particular, the wafer may consist of 6H silicon carbide; a nitrogen dopant having a concentration of approximately 1018 cm-3; a boron do...
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Non-aqueous Electrolyte Solution for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

Techniques, systems and materials are described for a rechargeable battery. For example, a battery material can include one or more ionic electrolyte salts. The battery material can also include a non-aqueous electrolyte solvent including one or more non-symmetrical sulfones. Further, the battery ma...
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Threshold Logic Element Having Low Leakage Power and High Performance

Embodiments of a threshold logic element are provided. Preferably, embodiments of the threshold logic element discussed herein have low leakage power and high performance characteristics. In the preferred embodiment, the threshold logic element is a threshold logic latch (TLL). The TLL is a dynamica...
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Counter-flow Membraneless Fuel Cell

A method for generating electrical current using a fuel cell includes flowing a first flow that includes a fuel and an electrolyte through a first channel. The fuel is oxidized at an anode to generate electrons for conduction to a load and oxidation products that remain in the first flow. The method...
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Electrical Devices Including Dendritic Metal Electrodes

The present invention relates generally to electrical devices. The present invention relates more particularly to electrical devices including dendritic metal electrodes. One aspect of the present invention is an electrical device comprising a first electrode comprising at least one dendritic metal ...
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Method of Preparing a Flexible Substrate Assembly and Flexible Substrate Assembly Therefrom

Some embodiments teach a method of preparing a flexible substrate assembly. The method can include: (a) providing a carrier substrate; (b) providing a cross-linking adhesive; (c) providing a plastic substrate; and (d) coupling the carrier substrate to the plastic substrate using the cross-linking ad...
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Electrode for a Charge Storage Device and Method of Manufacture

An electrode for a charge storage device and a method for forming the electrode. The electrode comprises an electrode body having an essentially continuous phase of an active material, an essentially continuous phase of an electroconductive material, and an essentially continuous phase of void space...
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Method and Apparatus for Making Electrical Connections

A device for making electrical connections is provided, along with a method of use. Other embodiments are also described herein....
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Flexible Identification Systems and Related Methods

Embodiments of flexible identification systems are described herein. Other embodiments and related methods are also disclosed herein....
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Electric Current-Producing Device Having Sulfone-Based Electrolyte

Electrolytic solvents and applications of such solvents including electric current-producing devices. For example, a solvent can include a sulfone compound of R1-SO2-R2, with R1 being an alkyl group and R2 a partially oxygenated alkyl group, to exhibit high chemical and thermal stability and high ox...
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Integrated Optoelectrochemical Sensor for Nitrogen Oxides in Gaseous Samples

A gas-phase detection system based on detecting optochemical and optoelectrochemical signals. The sensing platform is particularly powerful for detection of nitrogen oxides at low ppbV concentrations. The optochemical analysis is based on the color development due to a chemical reaction taking place...
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Metal-air Low Temperature Ionic Liquid Cell

The present application relates to an electrochemical metal-air cell in which a low temperature ionic liquid is used....
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Porous Metal Catalysts for Oxygen Reduction

A porous metal that comprises platinum and has a specific surface area that is greater than 5 m2/g and less than 75 m2/g. A fuel cell includes a first electrode, a second electrode spaced apart from the first electrode, and an electrolyte arranged between the first and the second electrodes. At leas...
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Piezoelectric Polymer Fibers

Piezoelectric fibers include a polypeptide wherein molecules of the polypeptide have electric dipole moments that are aligned such that the piezoelectric fiber provides a piezoelectric effect at an operating temperature. A piezoelectric component provides a plurality of piezoelectric fibers, each co...
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Thin-layer thermocouple arrangement useful in thermo-generator to generate electrical energy from thermal energy, comprises thermocouple arranged on base layer with connection point and measuring poin

The thin-layer thermocouple arrangement useful in a thermo-generator for generating electrical energy from thermal energy, comprises a thermocouple arranged on a base layer (1) with a connection point (3) and a measuring point (4) for generating an electrical voltage at the connection point with a t...
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Multi-Input Multi-Output Time Encoding and Decoding Machines

Methods and systems for encoding and decoding signals using a Multi-input Multi-output Time Encoding Machine (TEM) and Time Decoding Machine are disclosed herein....
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Electromechanical Devices and Methods for Fabrication of the Same

A fabricated electromechanical device is disclosed herein. An exemplary device includes, a substrate, at least one layer of a high-transconductance material separated from the substrate by a dielectric medium, a first electrode in electrical contact with the at least one layer of a high-transconduct...
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Real-time Time Encoding and Decoding Machines

Methods for decoding a signal encoded by a Time Encoding Machine (TEM) include defining a plurality of time-windows, each time-window corresponding to a portion of a TEM-encoded signal and made up of a plurality of trigger values, at least two of the time-windows overlapping, decoding each of the ti...
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Self-Diagnosing Transducers and Systems and Methods Therefor

A transducer system that includes a piezoelectric transducer and a self-diagnosis system electrically connected to the transducer. In one embodiment, the self-diagnosis system is configured to detect when a debonding defect has occurred in the bond between the transducer and a host structure and to ...
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Procedures for Development of Specific Capacitance in Carbon Structures

The present disclosure describes a carbon electrode having a high specific capacitance and method for forming an electrode. The electrode includes a graphitic carbon material having porous nanographene structures with edge-on topology to a plurality of formed pores, dispersed in an amorphous carbon ...
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Method for parameterized model order reduction of integrated circuit interconnects

The present invention is a method and apparatus for creating a reduced-order IC interconnect model, which incorporates variations in interconnect process parameters, and models both on-chip and off-chip interconnects. The method is based on mathematically representing an IC interconnect system, incl...
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Sodium Ion Based Aqueous Electrolyte Electrochemical Secondary Energy Storage Device

A secondary hybrid aqueous energy storage device includes an anode electrode, a cathode electrode which is capable of reversibly intercalating sodium cations, a separator, and a sodium cation containing aqueous electrolyte, wherein an initial active cathode electrode material comprises an alkali met...
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Electromagnetic Emissions Stimulation and Detection System

A system and method for detecting and identifying electronic devices based on their unintended electromagnetic emissions ("UEE") signals is presented. During device classification, UEE signals are measured from a plurality of test devices and characteristic data is obtained from the UEE signal emitt...
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Microwave and Millimeter Wave Resonant Sensor Having Perpendicular Feed, and Imaging System

A switched-slot sensor for use in a sensor array for microwave and/or millimeter wave imaging. The locations of a plurality of sensors in the array define a spatial domain away from an object for detecting an electric field from the object. Each of the sensors has an out-of-plane transmission line a...
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Circuit and Method to Suppress the Parasitic Resonance from a Dc/dc Converter

A snubber circuit for use with a DC/DC converter broadly comprises a snubber resistor connected in parallel with a snubber inductor. The DC/DC converter may include a voltage source, a first switching element, a second switching element, an output inductor, and an output capacitor. The voltage sourc...
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High Frequency Analysis of a Device Under Test

Analyzing a device under test ("DUT") at higher frequencies. A phase shifter varies the phase of a standing wave on a transmission line coupled to the DUT. The standing wave magnitude is sampled at each of the phase shifts and one or more DUT characteristics are determined as a function of the sampl...
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Convection Battery Configuration for Connective Carbon Matrix Electrode

Electrode compositions and devices (100) that incorporate the electrode compositions are provided. More specifically, electrode compositions that include carbon that provide a connective network to which metal and/or metal derivatives are deposited are provided. Convection battery devices (100) that...
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Microwave and Millimeter Wave Imaging

A sensor array having a plurality of modulated slots for microwave and/or millimeter wave imaging. The locations of the slots in the array define a spatial domain away from an object for detecting an electric field from the object. Each of the slots outputs a signal representative of the measured fi...
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Sensor Electrode and Method for the Electrochemical Detection of Nucleotides

A sensor electrode for the detection of nucleotides in a biological sample is described. The sensitivity of the electrode is enhanced by the nanostructured sensor architecture that increases the available surface area of the electrode. The electrode detects nucleotides using standard electrochemical...
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Ion Deflector for Two-dimensional Control of Ion Beam Cross Sectional Spread

An ion deflector, for deflecting a beam of charged particles along an arc in a deflection plane, includes a pair of non-spherical deflection electrodes adapted for being charged with different voltages. The pair of deflection electrodes are configured to control, in both the deflection plane and in ...
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Methods for fabricating nanoscale electrodes and uses thereof

The present invention relates to methods for fabricating nanoscale electrodes separated by a nanogap, wherein the gap size may be controlled with high precision using a self-aligning aluminum oxide mask, such that the gap width depends upon the thickness of the aluminum oxide mask. The invention als...
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Systems and Methods for Non-Periodic Pulse Sequential Lateral Solidification

The disclosed systems and method for non-periodic pulse sequential lateral solidification relate to processing a thin film. The method for processing a thin film, while advancing a thin film in a selected direction, includes irradiating a first region of the thin film with a first laser pulse and a ...
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Lightweight wood-based board and process for producing it

The invention relates to a process for producing a sandwich board, comprising the following steps: providing an upper covering layer, providing a lower covering layer, providing an intermediate layer arranged between the upper and lower covering layers, compressing the upper and lower covering layer...
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Reactant Delivery to a Reactive Surface in a Channel

The present invention provides geometric arrangements for channels through which liquids or other fluids can be made to flow, for enhanced performance of fuel cells or other chemical or biochemical reactors or analyzers. Systems and methods including these improved geometries are described herein fo...
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Detection Circuit for Use in Various Types of Capacitive Transducers and a Transducer Including Such a Circuit

A detection circuit for detecting changes in capacitance. The detection circuit includes a tuned ratio circuit and an alternating current (AC) source AC-coupled to the tuned ratio circuit. The tuned ratio circuit includes first and second tuned circuits that are tuned to, or close, to the frequency ...
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Piezoelectric Vibrational Energy Harvesting Systems Incorporating Parametric Bending Mode Energy Harvesting

Vibrational energy harvesting (VEH) structures that include resonant beams each having a fundamental resonance frequency and a parametric mode frequency and including at least one piezoelectric layer for generating electrical charge in response to each of fundamental-resonance excitation and paramet...
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Zero-Order Energy Smart Antenna and Repeater

The invention is a new device that will improve the radio link quality for low power wireless devices. An example application is for low power, miniaturized wireless sensor nodes that are statically deployed in a slowly varying environment or that have limited mobility. The device is a reconfigurabl...
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Complex half-band finite impulse response filter and method of making same

An electrical signal filter for processing a discrete-time real signal having a length N. In one embodiment, the filter comprising a delay line having N taps and a corresponding respective N filter coefficients. Values for the filter coefficients are determined by first shifting an impulse function ...
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Method of Forming Gated, Self-aligned Micro-structures and Nano-structures

Methods of forming a gated, self-aligned nano-structures for electron extraction are disclosed. One method of forming the nano-structure comprises irradiating a first surface of a thermally conductive laminate to melt an area across the first surface of the laminate. The laminate comprises a thermal...
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Composition for Energy Generator, Storage, and Strain Sensor and Methods of Use Thereof

Compositions and devices for harvesting electrical energy from mechanical and thermal energy, storing such produced energy, and sensing strain based on low cost materials and processes. In embodiments, the compositions are flexible and include a flexible polymer embedded and coated with a nanostruct...
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Ultra Low Loss Waveguide for Broadband Terahertz Radiation

An apparatus comprising a parallel plate waveguide (PPWG) comprising two plates separated by a distance that supports a multimode wave, and a transmitter configured to emit a wave having a frequency from about one hundred Gigahertz (GHz) to about ten terahertz (THz) and to couple to one mode of the ...
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Resonant Cavity Integrated into a Waveguide for Terahertz Sensing

A method comprising polarizing and coupling an electromagnetic beam to a first-order transverse electric (TE1) mode with respect to a parallel plate waveguide (PPWG) integrated resonator comprising two plates and a cavity, sending the electromagnetic beam into the PPWG integrated resonator to excite...
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Dual-ring Silicon Electro-optic Modulator

A device, system, and method for the electro-optic modulation of light. The device includes a substrate having a first ring waveguide and a second ring waveguide on the surface. The device includes a first p-doped region inside the first ring waveguide and a second p-doped region inside the second r...
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High-voltage Impulse Amplifier

A circuit includes a first transistor in a common-collector configuration and a heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) in a common-emitter configuration. The first transistor has a base coupled to an input node for receiving a pulsed signal. A collector of the first transistor is coupled to a first...
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Gallium Nitride-based Device and Method

A gallium nitride-based device has a first GaN layer and a type II quantum well active region over the GaN layer. The type II quantum well active region comprises at least one InGaN layer and at least one GaNAs layer comprising 1.5 to 8% As concentration. The type II quantum well emits in the 400 to...
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ABBREVIATED EPITAXIAL GROWTH MODE (AGM) METHOD FOR REDUCING COST AND IMPROVING QUALITY OF LEDs AND LASERS

The use of an abbreviated GaN growth mode on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire substrates, which utilizes a process of using 15 nm low temperature GaN buffer and bypassing etch-back and recovery processes during epitaxy, enables the growth of high-quality GaN template on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire. The...
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Nitride Based Quantum Well Light-emitting Devices Having Improved Current Injection Efficiency

A III-nitride based device provides improved current injection efficiency by reducing thermionic carrier escape at high current density. The device includes a quantum well active layer and a pair of multi-layer barrier layers arranged symmetrically about the active layer. Each multi-layer barrier la...
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Surface Plasmon Dispersion Engineering Via Double-metallic Au/ag Layers for Nitride Light-emitting Diodes

A double-metallic deposition process is used whereby adjacent layers of different metals are deposited on a substrate. The surface plasmon frequency of a base layer of a first metal is tuned by the surface plasmon frequency of a second layer of a second metal formed thereon. The amount of tuning is ...
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Conductive Doped Metal-glass Compositions and Methods

Provided herein are conductive glass-metal compositions, as well as methods of making and using such compositions. In one example, the compositions include gold (Au) doped lithium-borate glasses shown to exhibit a transition from ionic to electronic conduction within the same sample. This is achieve...
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Vaporization Device and Method for Imaging Mass Spectrometry

Methods and apparatus for analyzing samples are disclosed. The samples are analyzed by vaporizing molecules from a sample in a sample area with a femtosecond laser beam under ambient conditions, ionizing the vaporized molecules wit h electrospray ionization under the ambient conditions to form ions;...
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Multiple Antenna Energy Harvesting

Energy harvesting circuits and associated methods are provided that employ multiple antennas to optimize the amount of energy that is harvested while at the same time making efficient use of tag space. In some embodiments, matching networks are chosen in a manner that optimizes the DC energy that is...
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Recharging Method and Apparatus

The present invention provides apparatus and an associated method for remotely energizing power storage devices. Energization may preferably be effected through the use of RF energy from a base station, ambient energy or ultra-wide band energy. The remote station preferably has at least one antenna ...
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Method for Producing a Magnetic Resonance Image of an Object Having a Short T2 Relaxation Time

A method for producing a magnetic resonance image using an ultra-short echo time. The method includes applying a pulse sequence to an object, detecting a spirally encoded and phase encoded magnetic resonance signal associated with the object, and reconstructing the magnetic resonance image based on ...
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Hand-held Electrical Stimulation Device

Apparatuses and methods for the safe and efficient electrical stimulation of tissue. The apparatuses of the present invention are preferably hand-held and are capable of providing electrical waveforms that are effective in promoting wound healing, improving circulation, stimulating peripheral nerves...
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Wireless Energy Transfer System

A wireless energy transfer system includes a first energy transfer unit having at least one resonant frequency, a second energy transfer unit having the at least one resonant frequency, and a load. The first wireless energy transfer unit includes a first coil magnetically coupled to a first wireless...
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Piezoelectric Powered Vehicles and Motors

One or more piezoelectric elements are employed to generate electrical energy from one or both of the mechanical energy of a moving part of a conventional engine or vehicle or the combustion energy of an internal combustion engine. The generated electrical energy can be stored and used to power an e...
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Lead-free Piezoelectric Ceramic Films and a Method for Making Thereof

his invention relates to lead-free piezoelectric ceramic films and a method of making thereof. Specifically, the invention is directed to a method for fabricating lead-free piezoelectric free standing films having enhanced piezoelectric properties. The films may be used for a number of applications ...
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Plasma Reactor

A plasma reactor (10) is provided. The plasma reactor (10) includes a reaction chamber (12) formed by a wall (13). Proximate to the first end of the reaction chamber, the plasma reactor includes a feed gas inlet (14) for creating a reverse vortex gas flow (16) in the reaction chamber. The plasma rea...
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Freestanding Films with Electric Field-enhanced Piezoelectric Coefficients

A method to produce low-temperature sinterable powders which are then subsequently used to fabricate freestanding piezoelectric films with very large electric-field-enhanced piezoelectric response is provided. The -d31 coefficient for PMN-PT layers can be as high as 2000 pm/V, larger than that of co...
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Enhanced Detection Sensitivity with Piezoelectric Microcantilever Sensors

A method for enhancing the detection sensitivity of a piezoelectric microcantilever sensor. The method may involve providing a piezoelectric microcantilever and inducing a change in the Young's modulus during detection of a species of interest. The change in the Young's modulus may be induced or enh...
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Supercapacitor Compositions, Devices, and Related Methods

Disclosed are supercapacitor materials comprising compositions having pores that are optimally sized to maximize capacitance. Also disclosed are related methods for fabricating such supercapacitors....
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A Smooth-walled Feedhorn

A device for at least one of receiving and transmitting electromagnetic radiation includes a feedhorn having a substantially smooth, electrically conducting inner surface extending from an open end to a feed end, the inner surface being substantially rotationally symmetrical about a longitudinal axi...
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Iron Oxyfluoride Electrodes for Electochemcial Energy Storage

The present invention provides electrochemical energy storage systems comprising metallolyte composites, iron fluoride composites and iron oxyfluoride composites. The present invention further provides methods for fabricating metallolyte composites....
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Polyhydrogen Fluoride Based Battery

The described invention relates to primary and secondary electrochemical energy storage systems, particularly to such systems as battery cells, which use materials that take up and release ions as a means of storing and supplying electrical energy, and methods of fabrication thereof....
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System and Method for Measuring Consumption in a Residential Or Commercial Building Via a Wall Socket

A system and method to measure power usage within a residence having a plurality of electrical circuits electrically connected to an over-current protection device may include measuring, by a power measurement device electrically connected to one of the electrical circuits by which power loads draw ...
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Electrostatic Screen Device and Method for Emission Control

An electrostatic screen battery for emission control (ESBEC) system includes a plurality of screens. The screens are arranged in an alternating manner so that screens at a first electric potential are interposed with screens at a second electric potential. An ionizer is disposed upstream of the scre...
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Metal Fluoride Compositions for Self Formed Batteries

The described invention provides compositions related to an electronically insulating amorphous or nanocrystalline mixed ionic conductor composition comprising a metal fluoride composite to which an electrical potential is applied to form 1) a negative electrode, and 2) a positive electrode, wherein...
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Reactive-power-capable Inverter

In an inverter (1), comprising two input lines (22, 23) for connecting to a direct current source (2), two half bridges (4, 5) connecting the two input lines (22, 23), and two output lines (16, 17) for connecting an alternating current load or an alternating current grid (3), each half bridge (4, 5)...
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Buck Converter and Inverter Comprising the Same

A buck converter (5) for converting a DC voltage at input terminals into an output voltage at output terminals is disclosed. The buck converter (5) comprises a DC voltage link comprising a series-connection of at least two capacitors (C1 and C2) between the output terminals; and one subcircuit (A, B...
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Low Resistance Thin Film Organic Solar Cell Electrodes

A method which lower the series resistance of photosensitive devices includes providing a transparent film of a first electrically conductive material arranged on a transparent substrate; depositing and patterning a mask over the first electrically conductive material, such that openings in the mask...
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Post-Processing Treatment of Conductive Polymers to Enhance Electrical Conductivity

A method for enhancing electrical conductivity of a film which includes at least one conductive polymer. The method includes providing the film comprising the at least one conductive polymer and at least one polymer acid, agitating the film in at least one reagent; and, placing the film on a heated ...
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Flexible Piezoelectric Structures and Method of Making Same

A flexible piezoelectric structure and a method of making the structure are disclosed. A piezoelectric film having a relatively high piezoelectric coefficient is attached to a flexible substrate. The piezoelectric film is fabricated on a different substrate and transferred to the flexible substrate ...
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Increased open-circuit-voltage organic photosensitive devices

The invention relates to a photosensitive device comprising: an anode and a cathode; and a first organic material and a second organic material forming a donor-acceptor heterojunction electrically connected between the anode and the cathode, wherein the first and second organic materials, as arrange...
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Tunable Negative Permeability Based Devices

Negative permeability metamaterials and devices based on negative permeability metamaterials are described. The invention presents a new paradigm for realizing electromagnetic devices utilizing naturally available magnetic materials operating in their negative permeability spectrum. The superior adv...
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Anisotropic metal-dielectric metamaterials for broadband all-angle negative refraction and superlens imaging

A metamaterial comprises a plurality of metallic nanowires embedded in a dielectric matrix. The metamaterial composite media provide broadband all-angle negative refraction and flat lens, superlens and curved hyperlens imaging in specific spectral regions over a wide range of frequencies including, ...
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Dielectric and magnetic particles based metamaterials

RF-optical metamaterials with (+-epsilon, +-mu) figures-of-merit of interest are constructed from coupled magnetic and dielectric multi-resonant multi-disks (finite-size cylinders) or multi-sphere lattices arranged in a periodic or a random fashion to offer tailored magnetic and electric dipole mome...
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Dual Interleaved Flyback Converter for High Input Voltage

An integrated magnetic flyback converter includes interleaved phases that can be connected in series for an input stage and in parallel for an output stage. An integrated magnetic core has legs with gaps that may weaken a coupling between a primary and secondary of the associated transformer. The pr...
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Nanoscale Interconnects Fabricated By Electrical Field Directed Assembly of Nanoelements

The invention provides a fast, scalable, room temperature process for fabricating metallic nanorods from nanoparticles or fabricating metallic or semiconducting nanorods from carbon nanotubes suspended in an aqueous solution. The assembled nanorods are suitable for use as nanoscale interconnects in ...
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Pulse Electrothermal Deicing of Complex Shapes

A pulse electrothermal deicing apparatus comprises at least one complex shape characterized by a thickness profile configured to generate uniform power per unit area to melt an interfacial layer of ice. A method of optimizing thicknesses of complex shapes for a pulse electrothermal deicing system in...
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System and Method for Post-exposure Dosimetry Using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

An apparatus and method for triaging patients according to radiation exposure operates by measuring electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of fingernails, toenails, and/or teeth. When operating in vivo, radiation induced spectra are obtained from intact fingernails, toenails, or teeth placed within...
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System and Method Using Coupler-resonators for Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

A coupler-resonator for electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy in subjects has a wire loop formed into a coupling loop, a central transmission portion, and sensor loops. The sensor loops hold EPR sensor materials and are coated with biocompatible plastic. The coupler-resonator is implant...
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Multilayer Foil-wound Inductors Having Alternating Layers

A multilayer foil winding in a foil-wound magnetic circuit component (200) has conductors (202, 204, 402, 408) that alternate at various points such that the conductors share current more effectively than multiple non-alternating conductors. AC resistance of the multilayer winding is therefore decre...
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Systems and Methods for Windshield Deicing.

Cost efficient, lightweight and rapid windshield deicing systems and methods are disclosed. The systems utilize step-up converters or inverters, or dual-voltage batteries, to provide a voltage high enough to deice a windshield in less than thirty seconds....
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System and method for deicing of power line cables

A system and method for deicing power transmission cables divides the cable into sections. Switches are provided at each end of a section for coupling the conductors together in parallel in a normal mode, and at least some of the conductors in series in an anti-icing mode. When the switches couple t...
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Conductive Formulations for Use in Electrical, Electronic and Rf Applications

Metal flakes, an organic metal precursor, an organic solvent and either no binder, or a volatile or a thermally decomposable binder are combined to form a paste. The paste is deposited in a circuit pattern on a substrate and the circuit pattern is cured. While curing, the organic metal precursor dec...
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Chiral Metamaterials

A metamaterial includes a dielectric substrate and an array of discrete resonators at the dielectric substrate, wherein each of the discrete resonators has a shape that is independently selected from: an F-type shape; an E-type shape; or a y-type shape. A parameter of a chiral metamaterial is determ...
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Solar Thermoelectric Conversion

Systems and methods utilizing solar-electrical generators are discussed. Solar- electrical generators are disclosed having a radiation-capture structure and one or more thermoelectric converters. Heat produced in a capture structure via impingement of solar radiation can maintain a portion of a ther...
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Method and Apparatus for Generating Electricity While a User Is Moving

The present disclosure provides for systems and methods for generating electricity while a user is moving. More particularly, the present disclosure provides for improved systems and methods for generating electricity while a user is walking or running. In exemplary embodiments, the present disclosu...
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Detecting and Revoking Pirate Redistribution of Content

Disclosed are methods, systems and articles for tracing and disabling one or more unauthorized distributors of content originally transmitted by a distribution center. In some embodiments, a method includes receiving rebroadcast transmissions of a data segment previously transmitted by the distribut...
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Increased Activity of Catalyst Using Inorganic Acids

The present disclosure provides for improved electrochemical devices (e.g., fuel cells, metal air batteries, ultra capacitors, etc.) and components therefore. More particularly, the present disclosure provides for improved systems and methods for producing materials, membranes, electrode assemblies ...
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Reconfigurable Magnetic Logic-circuit Array and Methods for Producing and Operating Such Logic Devices

The invention relates to a reconfigurable magnetic logic-circuit array having at least two magnetoresistive elements, each composed of at least two magnetic layers, which are separated from one another by an intermediate layer, in each instance, whereby one of the magnetic layers, as a reference lay...
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Integrated Mems and Ic Systems and Related Methods

An integrated MEMS and IC system (MEMSIC), as well as related methods, are described herein. According to some embodiments, a mechanical resonating structure is coupled to an electrical circuit (e.g., field-effect transistor). For example, the mechanical resonating structure may be coupled to a gate...
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Electro-mechanical Oscillating Devices and Associated Methods

Electro-mechanical oscillating devices designed to convert the frequency of electrical signal(s) and methods associated with the same are described. One example of such a frequency converting device is a mixer....
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Positive Peak Detector

The invention relates to a positive peak detector (1') that has been specially designed to operate at high frequencies with low power consumption, formed by a cell Gm (2'), a current mirror (3') formed by two CMOS transistors (M'6 and M'7) and a capacitor assembly (4'), in which a capacitor (C) stor...
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Method for Protecting Human Beings Against Electric Discharges

The present invention relates to a method for protecting human beings against electric shocks. The method is used to detect power being passed through a human body that is insulated from the earth or has no earth connection, said method comprising the following steps consisting in: applying a train ...
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Device for Generating Electric Power from Small Movements

The present invention relates to a device for generating electric power from small movements, comprising: a magnet in the form of a solid of revolution including at least one pair of poles (N, S) arranged about the axis of rotation thereof; and a duct with a cross-section that complements the shape ...
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A Piezoelectric Drive Assembly

A piezoelectric drive assembly (10) comprises a frame (11) supporting at least two piezoelectric actuator stacks (12), the frame (11) including a plurality of frame elements (13, 16, 19) and the actuator stacks (12) protruding from a first said frame element (13) in adjacent relation to one another ...
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Oscillator Circuit for Generating an Alternating Voltage

Oscillator circuit for generating an alternating voltage (VAC), comprising an oscillator according to a micro-electromechanical system (MEMS-oscillator) to be manufactured as integrated circuit and comprising at least a substrate on which are arranged - a first strip of a thin film of an electricall...
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Inductor Type Ac Generator

This invention presents inductor generator with multiphase armature and excitation winding. Generator consists of toothed, non-wound rotor 1 and toothed stator 2 with coils of basic multiphase armature windings 3, additional armature micropower windings 4, basic excitation windings 5 and additional ...
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Radial Electric Distribution Line with Branches

The invention refers to the field of electrical engineering and could be applied for electric network supply out of cities. The purpose of the invention is to improve the electic power indices in the branched electric distribution lines. A radial electric distribution line with branches includes con...
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Diagnostic System for Determination of Railway Switch Fault Probability

The invention relates to electrical engineering, particularly to transportation sector. Its goal is to create a diagnostic system to be capable from actual measured runtime parameters conclude about technical condition of railway switch and rise warning in case of fault probability. Goal is achived ...
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Asynchronous Motor Drive

The invention refers to electrical engineering and it could be used in electric drives. Its purpose is to stabilize the electromagnetic torque in the case of power supply network voltage and frequency deviation. The power supply network is connected to the induction motor stator windings 1, 2, 3 con...
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Dc Electrical Drive of Ac Electrical Train

Invention corresponds to electrical engineering and more precisely to electrical drives of AC electrical trains. Target of invention is to improve energetic parameters of AC electrical trains DC electrical drives in respect to the supply contact network. Target is reached to introduce in system of m...
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The Distance Determinig Method of the Single-phase Earth Fault in Electric Distribution Networks

The invention relates to the electrical power sector protective relaying and automation, used for determining the location of earth fault in power line networks with isolated neutral and compensated neutral. For determining the distance from the busbar till the single-phase earth fault, then an emer...
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Bar Inductor Machine

The invention is devoted to contactless electric machines and can be applied on alternative power engineering. Its goal is to increase the generated power at low rotation frequencies and to decrease the starting torque. The offered bar-type inductor machine contains magnetic circuit (1) of the stato...
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Method for Verification of Electrical Coreless Coils

The invention applies to electrical engineering and more specifically to the electrical coils insulation research. Its aim is to create a verification system, in which the coreless coil shortly is exposed to high voltage, and high frequency sinusoidal voltage in resonant chain, recognizing the fact ...
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Multipolar Synchronous Generator with Permanent Magnets

The multipolar synchronous generator with permanent magnets has been proposed. The generator contains a stator having Zs number of evenly placed teeth with a pitch distance between teeth ts, which are embraced by winding of an armature. Rotor of the generator is toothed, without winding and has perm...
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Device for Control Parameters of Magnetically Linked Windings

Invention relates to electrical engineering and can be used for diagnostics. Its aim is to extend the control equipment functionality. The equipment contains a unipolar pulsed power generator 1, switch 2, magnetically linked primary winding 3, magnetically linked secondary windings 5, and core 4. Fi...
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Autonomous Invertor of Current

Invention relates to electrical engineering, and it can be used for the electrical drive. Its aim is to improve the current form factor. Invention contains two autonomous dc sources 1 and 9, each connected in a series with controlled switches 2 and 10. At least two controlled frequency generators 5,...
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Device for Control of Magnetically Connected Windings

The invention is devoted to electrical engineering, and it can be applied in diagnostics. The goal of the invention is to extend functional possibilities of control devices. The device contains single-pole pulse generator 1, switch 2, magnetically connected with primary winding 3, magnetically conne...
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Electromechanical Generator

Invention relates to mechanical human motion energy converter to the electric energy. It is proposed the electromechanical generator which operates on the principle of electromagnetic induction and consists of a flat coil and magnet. The mechanical energy of the periodic motion of human body that oc...
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System of Bidirectional Dc Power Flow At the Electric Transport Track Substations

The invention is related to electrical engineering and to the supply systems of electric transport network in particular. The goal of the invention is to simplify the realization of bidirectional DC power flow at the electric transport track substations. The basic idea of the invention is that in th...
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Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter

Disclosed is ground fault circuit interrupter comprising a summation current transformer (RK, W, SC) for lines (L1, N) that are to be monitored and are led across the contacts of a first multipole switch (S1) which is retained by a breaker mechanism (SC) in the closed position thereof. The breaker m...
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Blue light emmiting polythriphenylene dendrimers, methods of preparation and uses thereof

The present invention relates to novel blue light emitting polytriphenylene dendrimers, methods of preparation and uses thereof. The present polytriphenylene dendrimers comprise a core unit with linked diphenyltriphenylene repeating units of the following formula (1) The present invention further pr...
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A Flexible Patch Antenna

According to a first aspect of the present invention, a flexible patch antenna is provided. The flexible patch antenna comprises a first dielectric layer of a flexible elastomer material, the first dielectric layer having a first surface and a second surface. It furthermore comprises a first flexibl...
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Sensorless Control of Salient-pole Machines

A controller (100) for controlling a salient-pole machine (200) is disclosed. The controller (100) is adapted to determine at least one operational parameter of the salient-pole machine (200), such as for example a rotor position, a rotor angle or a steady-state voltage. The controller (100) compris...
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Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Machine

Permanent magnet synchronous machines (100) are described having good efficiency, as well as corresponding methods for making a stator (110) or stator teeth (114) for such machines. A method for fabricating a stator (110) for an axial flux permanent magnet synchronous machine is for example describe...
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Resonance-based Rotor Position Estimation

The present invention relates to sensorless rotor position estimation of a salient machine, such as a switched reluctance machine or a salient brushless DC machine. The invention relates to a test system (200) for a salient machine (230) to be driven using an inverter (220). Periods of zero current ...
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Circuit for Converting a Pulsed Input Voltage to a DC Voltage

The present disclosure presents a circuit for converting a pulsed input voltage to a DC output voltage. The circuit comprises input nodes for receiving the pulsed input voltage and output nodes for outputting the DC output voltage. The circuit further comprises a first transistor and a second transi...
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Circuit for End-of-Burst Detection

A circuit for end-of-burst detection in a portion of a received bit stream is disclosed. The circuit comprises: a first counter for counting the number of bits in the portion, a second counter for counting the number of bit value transitions in the portion, and a circuit for comparing the counted nu...
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Stepping Actuator and Method of Fabrication

The current invention provides a stepping actuator, achieving large range up to +-35 mum with low operating voltages of 15V or lower and large output forces of up to +-110 muN. The actuator has an in-plane-angular deflection conversion which allows achieving step sizes varying from few nanometers to...
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Solution Processing Method for Forming Electrical Contacts of Organic Devices

The present invention relates to a method for forming, on an organic semiconductor layer, an electrical contact layer comprising a metal, the method comprising the steps of: (a) providing a charge collecting barrier layer on the organic semiconductor layer; (b) providing a liquid composition compris...
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Triplet Excitation Scavenging in Solid-state Organic Materials

The present invention is directed to solid state organic light emitting devices and to methods for triplet excitation scavenging in such devices. More particularly, the present invention relates to a method for substantially reducing a triplet population in a solid state organic material, the method...
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Electrostatically actuatable MEMS device

Electrostatically actuatable MEMS device comprising: a substrate (103) of which at least a top layer (106) comprises a dielectric material; a first conductor (102) fixed to the top layer of the substrate, forming a fixed electrode of the device; and a second conductor (100) fixed to the top layer of...
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Patterning and Contacting of Magnetic Layers

A method according to embodiments of the present invention comprises providing a magnetic stack comprising a magnetic layer sub-stack comprising magnetic layers (41) and a bottom conductive electrode (43) and a top conductive electrode (44) electrically connecting the magnetic layer sub-stack at opp...
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Two Layer Transformer

One aspect of the invention relates to a symmetrical transformer with a stacked coil structure comprising two coils each having at least two turns, said coils being located in two conductive planes. The structure comprises four identical basic elements, each basic element providing a conductive path...
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Organic light-emitting device with field-effect enhanced mobility

A two-terminal organic light-emitting device structure is presented with low absorption losses and high current densities. Light generation and emission occur at a predetermined distance from any metallic contact, thereby reducing optical absorption losses. High current densities and thus high emitt...
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Method and Device for Reducing Power Consumption in Application Specific Instruction Set Processors

A method and device for converting first program code into second program code, such that the second program code has an improved execution on a targeted programmable platform, is disclosed. In one aspect, the method includes grouping operations on data for joint execution on a functional unit of th...
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Method and Device for Producing and Storing Energy

The invention relates to a method and a device for producing and storing electrical energy using iron complexes, using a molecular complex of iron + III as well as a photoreduced iron +II complex, both complexed chemically by a ligand of the benzoic hydrazide type....
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Energy Conditioner

Electrical circuitry comprising a load (3) able to be powered by an electricity network (2), said electrical circuitry comprising an energy conditioner (1) positioned between said electricity network (2) and said load (3), characterized in that said conditioner (1) comprises a first converter (6), c...
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Radiation Detectors and Autoradiographic Imaging Devices Comprising Such Detectors

The invention relates to a radiation detector through which flows a gas mixture of rare gas and carbon dioxide and which comprises an amplifying structure (7) including an input electrode (8) and an output grid (9) separated from one another by at least 500 [mu]m....
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Intermetallic Compounds, their Use and a Process for Preparing the Same

The present invention relates to new intermetallic compounds having a crystalline structure of Ni3Sn2 type for the magnetic refrigeration, their use and a process for preparing the same. The present invention further relates to new magnetocaloric compositions for the magnetic refrigeration and their...
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New Intermetallic Compounds, their Use and a Process for Preparing the Same

The present invention relates to new intermetallic compounds having a crystalline structure of Ni3Sn2 type for the magnetic refrigeration, their use and a process for preparing the same. The present invention further relates to new magnetocaloric compositions for the magnetic refrigeration and their...
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Sensor for Non-contact Electric and Magnetic Field Measurements

The present invention relates to a probe and a sensor for measuring electric fields, more specifically to a probe that in combination with an electrometer allows measurement of an electric field with high sensitivity, large bandwidth and low frequencies without making electrical contact. Thereto the...
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Programmable Gate Array, Switch Box and Logic Unit for Such an Array

A switch box (2) for a programmable gate array including input ports grouping a plurality of inputs (I, I') and output ports grouping a plurality of outputs (O, O'), with the inputs and the outputs being connected to a downstream connection tree structure from the inputs toward the outputs and inclu...
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Device for Generating Clock Signals for Asymmetric Comparison of Phase Errors

The invention relates to a device for generating clock signals, comprising a phase locked loop (100) including: - a controlled oscillator (101) capable of outputting a clock signal, - a plurality of phase comparators (102.1-102.4) capable of comparing a clock signal output by the controlled oscillat...
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A Power Amplifier

A switched mode class- S power amplifier comprises a sigma-delta modulator with a digital input, a power switch connected to the output of the sigma-delta modulator providing the power amplifier output, and a feedback mechanism. The sigma-delta modulator has a high-pass transfer function and uses an...
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Microelectromechanical System Tunable Capacitor

The present invention provides a new type of microelectromechanical capacitor, that allows ' a first selective deflection of a movable capacitance electrode to form an arched shape over a fixed capacitance electrode upon the application of an electrostatic force between the movable capacitance elect...
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A system level power evaluation method

This invention relates to a system level power evaluation method in which detailed power macro-models (PMM) are created for operations of modules. These PMMs are stored in memory. A system level circuit description (SLCD) is evaluated using the PMMs stored in memory that are relevant to that SLCD an...
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Electroluminescent Device

The present invention relates to an electroluminescent device (1). The device comprises a transparent substrate (6), formed from a mouldable material. The device also comprises a transparent electron transport layer (4) on the substrate and at least one inorganic semiconductor light-emitting compone...
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Adaptive clocking system for a packet classifier

An adaptive clocking system 100 for a packet classifier is described. The system provides for control of the clocking frequency of the packet classifier dependent on the traffic within the packet based network. By operating the packet classifier at a frequency commensurate with the traffic encounter...
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Power Splitter

A power splitter comprising a transmission line and having at least one secondary winding(s) arranged about the transmission line, the transmission line operably providing a magnetic field which inductively couples power into the secondary winding(s) to provide a splitting of the power from the tran...
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System for analysing plasma

A system 400 for analysing plasma comprises at least one sensor 125 which is co-operable with a plasma generator for sensing a characteristic of plasma generated by the plasma generator and generating an analogue signal representative thereof. The system also includes an analogue-to-digital converte...
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An Optical Wavelength Comb Generator Device

The present application relates to comb frequency generator devices generally and more particularly to the use of comb generators for use in fibre optic communications. More particularly, the application provides a frequency comb generator device. The device comprises a laser, a biasing circuit 26 f...
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Electrode for Electrochemical Cells

The invention relates to an electrode for oxygen reduction comprising a porous organic material and at least one inherently conducting polymer such as a charge transfer complex or a conductive polymer, optionally combined with a non-conducting polymer. A current conductor may be located intermediate...
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An Imaging Detector for a Scanning Charged Particle Microscope

The present disclosure provides a component for an imaging detector of a scanning charged particle microscope. The scanning changed particle microscope has a column for providing a scanning beam of the charged particles. The imaging detector is arranged for detecting off-axis electrons at a position...
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Improved Method and Apparatus for Dimming a Lighting Device

The present invention relates to a method and an apparatus for controlling illumination of a light device such as a high power light emitting diode. Electrical power is alternately switched to the HP-LED via an energy storage arrangement, such as an inductor, and away from the HP-LED. Energy is cons...
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A Single Photon Emission System

The present disclosure provides a method of forming a single photon emission system and a single photon emission system. The method comprises providing a single photon source arranged for single photon emission at a predetermined wavelength in response to a suitable excitation. The single photon sou...
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Method of Forming an Electrical Circuit Using Fullerene Derivatives

The present invention resides in a method of forming an electrical circuit, comprising forming on a substrate a non-conducting film having as its major constituent one or more fullerene derivatives, followed by exposing a selected region of said film to actinic radiation whereby to cause said select...
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Integrated Cell Voltage Measurement and Equalization System for Series-connected Batteries and Method for Operating Same

A battery pack management system comprises a power supply adapted to be connected to a battery pack. The battery pack includes a plurality of cells, where each cell is interconnected in a series arrangement to other cells in the battery pack. Each cell has a cell charge characteristic and a voltage ...
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System for Selectively Filling Pin Holes, Weak Shunts And/or Scribe Lines in Photovoltaic Devices and Photovoltaic Cells Made Thereby

A system for selectively filling pin holes, weak shunts and/or scribe lines in photovoltaics devices and photovoltaic cells made thereby is described....
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System and Method for High Yield Deposition of Conductive Materials Onto Solar Cells

A system for reducing damage to solar cells during a process for depositing a conductive material on a solar cell is disclosed where an electrical bias or floating potential is applied to the solar cell; and/or an electrical bias is applied to an external electrode(s) so that charged particles of a ...
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Method and Device for Controlling the Operation Op Power Sources At the Point of Maximum Power

Provided herein are a control method and a control device for controlling a supply unit, which enable supply of the maximum power that can be delivered by a power source, said method being characterized by the presence of an absolute maximum on1 the curve of the power as a function of the voltage at...
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Method for Controlling an Electric Power Generation System Based on Energy Sources, in Particular Renewable Energy Sources, and Related Controller Device

The present invention concerns a method, and the related controller device, for controlling an electric power generation system, based on at least one energy source, in particular a renewable energy source, preferably a photovoltaic or fuel cell source, said system operating according to operating p...
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Enhancing Signals

A method of testing a sample comprising the steps of: applying an excitation to the sample; detecting a response signal from the sample; processing a first part and a second part of the response signal; and determining from the second part of the response signal information with which to enhance the...
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Light emitting diode

AC LED according to the present invention comprises a substrate (51), and at least one serial array having a plurality of light emitting cells connected in series on the substrate. Each of the light emitting cells comprises a lower semiconductor layer consisting of a first conductive compound semico...
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Light emitting diode having well and/or barrier layers with superlattice structure

A light emitting diode (LED) having well and/or barrier layers with a superlattice structure is disclosed. An LED has an active region between an N-type GaN-based semiconductor compound layer and a P-type GaN-based semiconductor compound layer, wherein the active region comprises well and/or barrier...
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Transmission Cable

A transmission cable has multiple signal lines 2 formed on one side of an insulation layer 1 and a ground line 3 between the signal lines 2. The ground line 3 is electrically connected to a shield layer 4 formed on a back surface side of the insulation layer 1 and to a noise suppressing layer 6 havi...
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Mounting Method

A mounting method is provided for mounting electric components on both faces of a substrate. Because the electric components 32, 33 on a front face and a rear face of the substrate 31 are simultaneously pressed with first and second pressing rubbers 15, 25, the electric components 32, 33 can be conn...
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Mounting Method, Board with Electrical Component, and Electrical Apparatus

An electric device having high reliability is to be produced. An adhesive layer 20 includes a thermosetting resin and a radiation-curable resin, and a portion of the adhesive layer 20 is protruded outwardly from an edge of the electric part 15. Radiation rays 29 do not pass through the electric part...
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Method for Manufacturing Substrate Having Electric Component

A simple method of producing an electric component-mounted substrate having a cavity structure is provided. Because a supporting substrate 20 and electric components 31 and 32 are connected together to a first face of a base substrate 10, the number of steps for the connection is reduced to shorten...
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Light emitting diode and method for manufacturing the same

Provided are a light emitting diode (LED) and a method for manufacturing the same. The LED includes an n-type semiconductor layer, an active layer, and a p-type semiconductor layer. The active layer includes a well layer and a barrier layer that are alternately laminated at least twice. The barrier ...
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Thermocompression Bonding Head and Mounting Device Using the Same

The present invention provides a thermocompression bonding head capable of mounting an electric component on a wiring board in a short time with high connection reliability, and provides a mounting device using the same. A thermocompression bonding head 3 includes a heatable metal head body 5 having...
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Mounting Method Using Thermocompression Head

The present invention provides a mounting method using a thermocompression head which can mount an electric component in a short time with high connection reliability. The method is provided for mounting an electric component (20) on a wiring board (10) by using a thermocompression head (3) having a...
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Method and Apparatus for Mounting Electric Component

Provided is an electric component mounting apparatus for greatly reducing a quantity of electric component warpage generated at the time of mounting a thin electric component having a thickness of 200&mgr;m or less on a wiring board by using a nonconductive adhesive which does not contain conductive...
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Method and Apparatus for Mounting Electric Component

Provided is an electric component mounting apparatus for greatly reducing a quantity of electric component warpage generated at the time of mounting a thin electric component having a thickness of 200&mgr;m or less on a wiring board by using a nonconductive adhesive which contains conductive particl...
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Hexacyanoferrate Modified Electrode

An electrode comprising a modified electrically conductive element comprising an electrically conductive element having a surface and a coating of a polyelectrolyte on said surface, and a transition metal hexacyano transition metallate derived material contained within the polyelectrolyte coating....
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Electrical Tomography Apparatus and Method and Current Driver

Electrical tomography apparatus comprises: a first electrode; a second electrode; and current driving means for driving an electrical current between the first electrode and the second electrode through a medium, wherein the current driving means comprises: a first transformer having a first winding...
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High voltage insulation monitoring sensor

A sensor for condition monitoring the high voltage insulation of an electrical, generation, transmission or distribution system and/or an item of plant is described. The sensor comprises an impedance measurement unit that connects directly, via a single point of connection, to the electrical system ...
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Electrode, Decontamination Apparatus and Method

An electrode comprises a surface region, in which at least a first portion of the surface region has been changed to generate a roughened surface profile, and in which the roughened surface profile satisfies a constraint on the variability of the roughened surface profile....
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Plasma Generation and Use of Plasma Generation Apparatus

A plasma generating apparatus comprises a first, powered electrode and a second electrode structure located in front of the first electrode. An insulating layer is interposed between the first electrode and the second electrode structure. The second electrode structure has a plurality of second elec...
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Ultrasound Transducer Array

An ultrasonic transducer array and method of making an ultrasonic transducer array. The array comprising a plurality of individual array elements made from a piezoelectric composite which is made from a plurality of individual piezoelectric segments; a passive filler between the piezoelectric segmen...
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Protective Element

The present invention provides a protective element capable of stopping heat generation of a heat generation resistor after all of fuse elements are surely blown out in a case where the power is distributed from a specific power distribution path. The protective element can be configured to control ...
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Electric Devices and Methods of Manufaturing the Same

A process for manufacturing an electrical device, the process comprising the steps: providing a substrate; bringing a stamp into contact with the substrate whereby areas of the substrate contacted by the stamp have decreased wettability; and depositing a liquid comprising an electrically active mate...
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Terahertz Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs)

Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs), and methods of manufacture of QCLs, comprising an active portion. In some embodiments, the active portion can comprise: a plurality of tensiley strained quantum barrier layers, each comprising Ga y In1- y As; and a plurality of compressively strained quantum well layer...
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High temperature superconductors

A high temperature superconductor composition includes a matrix of a high temperature superconductive oxide. Non-superconductive particles are distributed in the matrix. At least some of the non-superconductive particles comprise either a rare earth transition metal oxide or a barium or strontium tr...
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Semiconductor Material

A semiconductor device which comprises a channel layer formed from a semiconductor channel component material in the form of crystalline micro particles, micro rods, crystalline nano particles, or nano rods, and doped with a semiconductor dopant....
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Solid Imaging Device and X-ray Ct Device Including the Solid Imaging Device

The present invention relates to a solid-state imaging device, etc. having a structure for capturing a high-resolution image even when any row selecting wiring is disconnected. The solid-state imaging device (1) comprises a photodetecting section (10), a signal reading-out section (20), a row select...
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Terminal device and base station device

A base station (50) measures a signal to interference power ratio using a control signal received from a terminal device (10) through wireless communication, and decides an MCS value indicating a combination of a modulation scheme and a channel code rate. The base station (50) includes the decided M...
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Semiconductor Device, Light Emitting Device and Method of Manufacturing the Same

Disclosed are a semiconductor device, a light emitting device, and a method of manufacturing the same. The semiconductor device includes a substrate, a plurality of rods aligned on the substrate, a metal layer disposed on the substrate between the rods, and a semiconductor layer disposed on and betw...
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Light emitting device, light emitting device package, and lighting system

Provided are a light emitting device, a light emitting device package, and a lighting system. The light emitting device comprises a first semiconductor layer comprising a plurality of vacant space parts, an active layer on the first semiconductor layer, and a second conductive type semiconductor lay...
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Method for Forming an Electronic Device in Multi-layer Structure

A method for forming an organic or partly organic switching device, comprising: depositing layers of conducting, semiconducting and/or insulating layers by solution processing and direct printing; defining microgrooves in the multilayer structure by solid state embossing; and forming a switching dev...
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Wide band gap semiconductor device including junction field effect transistor

A wide band gap semiconductor device has a transistor cell region, a diode forming region, an electric field relaxation region located between the transistor cell region and the diode forming region, and an outer peripheral region surrounding the transistor cell region and the diode forming region. ...
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Blended Polymer Fets

A method for forming a semiconductor body, the method comprising: forming a mixture of an organic semiconducting material and a binder material; causing the semiconducting material to at least partially solidify; and causing the binder material to crystallize in such a way as to cause the semiconduc...
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Aligned Polymers for an Organic TFT

A method for forming an electronic device having a semiconducting active layer comprising a polymer, the method comprising aligning the chains of the polymer parallel to each other by bringing the polymer into a liquid-crystalline phase....
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Self-calibrating multiplication circuit for stationary reference current - produces most significant bit currents from parallel current cells switched to comparison and correction current rails

Each circuit cell (A1-An) includes a FET (1) gated from a control amplifier (4), whose noninverting input is connected to a capacitor (5) and current switch (6), and the inverting input to an equalising current source (2) and to the source electrode of the FET (1). The drain electrode is switched (7...
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Finely-crystalline soldered joint for joining semiconductor chips to support - using solder foil, temp. of which is held just below the liquids after wetting support

A process is disclosed for mfg. a mechanically stable, finely crystalline soldered joint, particularly for power electronics components. Amorphous, finely-crystalline or conventional solder materials are used. Soldering is carried out using a solder foil inserted between the metallic or metallised s...
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Operating discharge lamps esp. HP lamps for large spaces - superimposing wide band of higher frequencies on basic drive frequency to give smooth running of discharge lamps

The wide band of higher frequencies is self generated by a resonance alternating effect between the discharge lamp and a resonant circuit tuned externally related to its parameters. The circuit for operating the discharge lamps, consists of a mains connection device coupled with the discharge lamp (...
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Generating gas discharge for sputter process - extending electron paths using permanent magnet set into cylindrical cathode to generate field cutting field lines of anode

The method involves using a magnetic cylindrical cathode (1) with an aperture (4) which is axially aligned with the anode (2). Within the cylindrical cathode body is a permanent magnet (5), again axially aligned and fixed to the end wall. The geometry is selected such that the permanent magnet field...
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Light-emitting semiconductor devices having variable emission wavelengths

An inventive semiconductor device for emitting light when applying a voltage comprises: a first semiconductor region ( 3 ) whose conductivity is based on charge carriers of a first type of conductivity, e.g. electrons; a second semiconductor region ( 5 ) whose conductivity is based on charge carrier...
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Electrophoretic separation of particle fractions, especially protein fractions, in microfluid system with independently controllable flow of auxiliary buffer in control channel and sample buffer in sa

Electrophoretic separation of a particle fraction in a microfluid system with microchannels involves: (i) passing an auxiliary buffer (AB) through a control channel (CC) (22); (ii) passing a sample medium (SM) (i.e. sample buffer (SB) plus sample particles (SP)) through a sample channel (SC) (21), r...
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Semiconductor Device for Emitting Light

A semiconductor device according to the invention for emitting light when a voltage is applied includes a first ( 3 ), a second ( 5 ) and a third active semiconductor region ( 7 A- 7 C). While the conductivity of the first semiconductor region ( 3 ) is based on charge carriers of a first conductivit...
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Electrical filter i.e. electromagnetic compatibility line filter, for supply arrangement at power terminal for supply of electrical system, has coordinated circuit arrangement influencing filter chara

The filter (101) has a main filter circuit filtering unwanted frequency portions e.g. electromagnetic compatibility relevant disturbances, and a coordinated circuit arrangement (102) e.g. resonant circuit, influencing a filter characteristic of the filter circuit. The circuit arrangement is fixed in...
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Electronic device

The device has a cooling body (2) for removing heat from an electronic component (1) e.g. processor, during operation of the device. Air ducts are arranged in a conical form or a hyperboloid form above the cooling body and are made of non heat-retaining material. The air ducts have a cross section w...
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Method and device for measuring the electric current supplied by a high-voltage line to a railway vehicle

The present invention relates to a device of measurement of the electric current provided by a line high voltage to a railway vehicle as well as a process implementing the aforementioned device and such as according to the invention the aforementioned device of measurement comprises means of connect...
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Device indicating a radiofrequency field and manufacturing method

The invention relates to a device including/understanding an electric/electronic component (8, 2,12a, 13) connected to at least an antenna radio frequency (3, 19,20) likely to be traversed by a current generated in the circuit of antenna and an indicator of generated current; The device is distingu...
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Multi-wire Electron Discharge Machine

A multi-wire electron discharge machine includes a first wire electrode for creating an electrical discharge between the first electrode wire and a semiconductor ingot, a second wire electrode for creating an electrical discharge between the second electrode wire and the semiconductor ingot, and a w...
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Electret and Electrostatic Induction Conversion Device Comprising the Same

To provide an electret whose surface potential is improved and an electrostatic induction conversion device comprising the same, an electret is formed by spin-coating a fluorine-containing polymer composition for coating which contains a fluorine-containing polymer having a ring structure in its mai...
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Image Forming Apparatus and Image Forming Method

Provided is an image forming apparatus which, even after the print speed thereof has been switched, correctly determines the necessity for cleaning of corona wire. When printing, the image forming apparatus (20) determines, on the basis of a threshold voltage based on a print speed in the printing, ...
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Electrolytic Copper Foil and Copper-clad Laminate

To provide an electrodeposited copper foil having flexibility and bending property equivalent to or better than that of rolled copper foil, an electrodeposited copper foil wherein regarding a crystal structure after heat treatment is applied to the electrodeposited copper foil wherein LMP defined as...
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Insulating Medium and Its Use in High Voltage Devices

An insulating composition for use in high voltage devices is formed from a soft dielectric casting compound, such as a silicone gel, comprising ferroelectric particles such as barium titanate dispersed within it. Low levels of particles, from 1% to 20% by volume of the insulating composition, are hi...
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3-dimentional advertising means

Signage in forms letter, digit or other sign having inside ligts and connected to outside clamps installed on bars as electrical connectors. We built prototype as pre-manufactured LED channel letters with self installation by buyers. Letter is light, compact, good quality, consuming power 1.5-...
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Extremely High Voltage DC Electric Energy Storage System - Seamless Power for the National Grid!

A patented soft-switching inverter designed especially for de-energizing high-voltage, high-energy capacitors is revealed in US Patent 7,157,884 (Hacsi) and used in conjunction with a very large in-ground conventional capacitor (a PIT capacitor) to convert high-voltage AC electricity from a nearby g...
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Digital Watermarking

2 patent pending digital watermarking systems for sale....
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Electronic Device for Communication with Living Cells (Golden Brain)

Highlights Electrical and chemical communication (functional linking) between cells such as neurons and the surfaces of substrates that are part of electronic devices Generic technology can serve as the basis for the construction of biomedical devices that can, for example, be used to link nerves...
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Use of Surfactants to Control Unintentional Dopant Incorporation in Semiconductors

The surface properties of semiconductors can be controlled by the use of surfactants. Our technology shows the use of surfactants that lead to a decrease in concentration of harmful impurities incorporated into the semiconductors during the organometallic vapor phase epitaxial growth. In particula...
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Precision Machining of Shaped Semiconductor Boules for Minimization of Surface Microcracking

Boule-shaping, wafer sawing, slicing and grinding are some of the processes involved in the specialty semiconductor manufacturing process. Non-silicon materials used as substrates in specialty semiconductor applications are mechanically very sensitive to aggressive (abrasive) machining techniques, r...
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A Virtual Electrochemical Laboratory

This software-based invention simulates a laboratory environment that enables students to understand how common electrochemical experiments are performed. Easily installed on a Microsoft Windows platform, the virtual lab allows students to explore a research environment, conduct experiments by tria...
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Conductive and Magnetic Phases in an Electron Trapping Semiconductor Array

Nanotechnology is a rapidly evolving field where the race is on to develop self-organizing structures that can be used as active circuit elements. This technology describes a semiconductor array that can be configured so as to exhibit a number of distinct physical phases, each of which has its own d...
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A Current Steering Folding Amplifier

The analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is a key functional building block in most analog/digital VLSI systems. Most applications require high-speed ADC�s with low power consumption. Our technology provides a novel current steering folding amplifier that significantly reduces the power dissipation of...
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Formation of AIFeCu Quasicrystalline Thin Films by Solid State Diffusion

This technology describes the fabrication and coating of quasicrystalline films (less than about 3000 A� thick) of AlCuFe on different substrate materials such as strontium titanate, and sapphire by radio-frequency sputtering and subsequent anneal. The applications of this technology are quite broad...
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Quantitative Inversion of Scanning Capacitance Microprobe (SCM)

With the shrinkage of semiconductor devices to the sub-micron level, a great need exists for direct, quantitative, two dimensional dopant profile measurements on a nanometer scale. Direct measurement of 2-dimensional dopant profile provides a means for improving very large scale integrated process a...
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Improvements to the Quasi-1D SCM AC to Dopant Density Conversion Algorithm and a New Quasi-3D SCM AC Bias to Dopant Density Conversion Algorithm

State of the art integrated circuit technology demonstrates that it is possible to create active and passive electrical and electronic components on a semi-conductive substrate at the sub-micron level. This ability requires accurate knowledge of the spatial extent of dopant impurities that are inco...
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Lab-On-A-Chip: Microfluidic Flow Cytometry

Seemingly identical cells are often quite heterogeneous in their chemical composition and biological activity, and in the timing and magnitude of their responses to external stimuli. Determining the chemical composition of individual cells and measuring how that composition changes in response to ...
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Real Time Monitoring of Power Grid Stability

This technology provides a novel method to estimate power grid stability by measuring in real time, with a single time-point, instabilities and drift at a power grid node, such as a power substation. The algorithm allows an estimation of the Thevenin equivalent of the grid as seen from local substat...
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High Throughput μ-Electro-Discharge Machining

Researchers at the University of British Columbia have developed a novel method for high throughput micro-electro-discharge machining (μEDM). This method eliminates the need for numerical control (NC) machines to control the EDM process and enables parallel micro-machining, dramatically reducing cos...
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Tandem Mass Spectrometry Filter with Improved Resolution

Researchers at the University of British Columbia have developed a method of operating a mass spectrometer with multiple mass analysis stages operating in tandem to provide improved resolution. The multiple mass filters can be individually operated at relatively low resolution, yet such that the com...
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Real Time Monitoring of Power Grid Stability

This technology provides a novel method to estimate power grid stability by measuring in real time, with a single time-point, instabilities and drift at a power grid node, such as a power substation. The algorithm allows an estimation of the Thevenin equivalent of the grid as seen from local substat...
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Imaging Objects in a Dissipative Medium by Nearfield Electromagnetic Holography--3D Metal Detector

A unique time-domain electromagnetic system and data processing technique which, using low frequency electromagnetic fields, can localize, in three-dimensions, the position of buried metallic objects is disclosed. The measurement system uses time-domain electromagnetic techniques on a scanning frame...
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Magnetometer Based on an Oscillator Made with Magnetorestrictive Material

There is an increasing need for miniature magenetometers for mapping magnetic fields in space and in industrial and environmental applications. The trend has been constantly toward smaller size, lower power consumption, and lower cost models having similar or better performance. Recent developments ...
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Various Networked and Distributed Configurations for Power Distribution Protection System

The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab has developed technology for protective systems for power switchboards. It continuously monitors the physical environment of the switchboards for arcing faults. Should a protective system detect an arc, it trips the circuit breaker that supplies power...
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Battery Health Monitor

Existing methods of battery health monitoring often rely on periodic testing and therefore miss long time intervals when a battery’s health can be degraded. Many battery systems are connected together, so when one battery in the chain malfunctions the entire system is made non-functional. Finding th...
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Laser Serration of Envelopes for Efficient Liberation of Enclosed Pathogens and Directed Release into Collectors

The U.S. mail system has proved to be a vulnerable target for sabotage by including a toxic substance in a plain envelope. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory has a concept for the efficient extraction of toxic substances from envelopes to increase the probability of detection. ...
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Advanced Thin Flexible Microelectronic Assemblies and Methods for Making Same

Reseachers at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) have developed advanced processes to produce thin, flexible microelectronic assemblies that are 100-mm (0.004-inch) thick, only slightly thicker than the diameter of a human hair. These processes are highly reliable, high-yi...
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Data analysis software for data collected by Driver Monitoring System

According to the Administration on Aging, persons 65 years or older numbered 35.6 million in 2002. They represented 12.3% of the U.S. population and are expected to grow to be 20% of the population by 2030. In the last twenty years, the percentage increase in older drivers has been three times great...
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Efficient Ultra Low Voltage Regulation Electronics

Rad-hard Ultra Low Power (ULP) flight components operate at voltages as low as 0.5VDC, significantly reducing system dynamic power losses which are proportional to power supply voltage squared. Dedicated power conditioning electronics for ULP based spacecraft systems and instruments must provide reg...
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Rad Hard, Low Power Galvanically-Isolated Signal Buffer

Inventors have designed and fabricated a 4-channel digital isolation buffer in a 0.5pm Silicon-on-Saphire (SOS) technology, by taking advantage of the isolation properties of the SOS substrate. The individual isolation channels can operate in the excess of 100 Mbps using a differential transmission ...
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Long Coherent Integration of Deep-fade GPS Signals During the Handover Word (HOW) Portion of the GPS Message

The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab has developed an invention that uses the predictability of the GPS Handover Word (HOW) to simplify prediction of GPS message bits. It allows long, coherent correlation of GPS signals in deep-fade environment....
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Authentication of Injection Molded Epoxy-Based Electronics Packages Using Molecularly Imprinted Taggants

The international market place has been flooded with a variety of counterfeit merchandise. The use of counterfeit can compromise the function of a critical piece of equipment and result in failure and possible loss of life. This places a responsibility on manufacturers to provide a means of authenti...
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Driver Monitor System

According to the Administration on Aging, persons 65 years or older numbered 35.6 million in 2002. They represented 12.3% of the U.S. population and are expected to grow to be 20% of the population by 2030. In the last twenty years, the percentage increase in older drivers has been three times great...
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Method and Apparatus for Accurate, Digital Monitoring a Receiver Frequency via Telemetry without the Need for Calibration of Analog Components

The novel feature of this invention is that it uses digital hardware that is added to the receiver for the specific purpose of monitoring the frequency and then it produces a calibrated value of the receiver frequency. Present methods for monitoring the frequency of a phase-locked receiver require c...
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Lorentz Force Assisted MEMS-based Microwave Switch

A Lorentz force assisted microelectromechanical switch is provided which is configured to have a capacitive switch and an electrical conductor placed in transversely extending electric and magnetic fields to generate the Lorentz force sufficient to operate the capacitive switch....
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Bit Depth Reduction for Analog to Digital Conversion in Global Positioning System Receivers Operating in High Jamming Environments

Disclosed is a system and method for reducing a bit-depth requirement for an A/D converter in a GPS receiver having an antenna for receiving an analog input signal and a low noise amplifier for amplifying the input signal, comprising a filter for filtering about a bandwidth B the amplified signal; a...
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Weak Signal and Anti-jam GPS Receiver Using Full Correlation Grid

Global Positioning Systems (GPS) are widely utilized in both commercial and military applications. Along with the increased reliance upon the GPS comes a growing need to provide more accurate and reliable GPS positioning. GPS signals can be adversely affected by various factors including, for exampl...
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The Time of Flight System on a Chip (TOF Chip)

This single mixed analog-digital, low-power, precise time interval measurement chip will be a valuable enabling technology for next-generation small spacecraft, particularly for spacecraft constellations, for spectrometry, imaging and range-finding instruments. The remote input/output (RIO) smar...
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Optimal Ensembling of Ultrastable Crystal Oscillators

Conventional systems, such as satellite systems, disadvantageously use complex and expensive atomic oscillators, such as rubidium or cesium oscillators, to provide precise and stable reference frequencies. In such systems, there is a need to provide reference frequencies approaching the accuracies a...
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Universal Adapter for Integrated Circuit

A semiconductor die adapter assembly includes a semiconductor die cut from a wafer, the die having an active surface including bond pads. A die adapter, also having bond pads, is bonded to the semiconductor die. Die-to-adapter connectors electrically connect the die bond pads to the adapter bond pad...
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Ka-Band Digital Phase MMIC

broadband, 4-bit MMIC phase shifter for use in a phased array antenna is provided. The four bit selectable phase shifter for use in a phased array antenna of the present invention, which selectably causes an input signal to be shifted in phase, includes a first bit for selectively providing a 180.d...
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Digital Video Authenticator

Researchers at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) have developed a system that can accurately detect digital video that has been tampered with. The JHU/APL system is designed to attach to, rather than be embedded in a video system due to the rapid obsolescence of camco...
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Area of Interest Selection Circuit for Image Sensor and/or Position Sensing Detector

Many proposed missions depend on the use of “micro-satellite” constellations to make simultaneous measurements at different orbital locations. Numerous new technologies are required to make the micro-satellite concept viable from a mass and power standpoint. The apparent position of the sun is an im...
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Single Event Upset Immune Logic Family

The JHU/APL technology contains a collection of circuits implementing static CMOS logic gates that provide Single Event Upset (SEU) immunity. SEU immunity is obtained by building each logic element with a redundant set of inputs (each input is duplicated), and using two copies of each such logic ele...
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Dual Frequency Scanning Harmonic Radar for Detection and Identification of Concealed Metallic Weapons and Electronics

A radar system that can rapidly detect and reliably identify targets such as concealed weapons and electronics. Persons either walking through a fixed portal/doorway or walking or congregating in a foyer, entranceway or other open area can carry the targets. The systems needs to be able to achieve a...
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Micro-Machined Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MISFET) with an Air-Gap Insulating Layer

A process for fabricating a semiconductor device having, for example, a MISFET transistor, is provided which comprises the steps of (a) providing a partially fabricated semiconductor device comprising a substrate and a first and second polysilican layer insulatively spaced from the substrate by an i...
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Electronic Safety for Semi-Automatic Handgun

Nearly all Semi-Automatic Handguns use a slide to load a round into the chamber from the magazine. If this action can be stopped, the gun cannot be fired. This invention discusses an automatic systems which senses the proximity of a unique RF tag and controls a lever into the slide making it impo...
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Anti-Backfeed Circuit Breaker

External circuit breaker boxes and associated wiring, while allowing the user to select circuits to be powered by the generator using existing circuit breakers and existing house wiring, are costly. As is the needed power company rental collars or other rental devices. An easily installed device ...
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Rechargeable Shoe

The invention comprises a means for generating energy while walking or running for storage in a rechargeable battery. One embodiment uses lever arm movement in the heel of a shoe resulting from normal walking or running to generate energy from a built-in generator. The linear or rotational motion of...
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Chip Technology

The ability to perform in situ testing and characterization of both integrated circuits and their interconnecting substrates in complex multi-chip packaging structures is becoming increasingly important as the packages become smaller. An electro-optic probing instrument makes point-to-point electric...
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Automatic Battery Power Switch

An automatic battery power switch circuit that switches from n to n+m cells, where n and m are integers, in a battery. The circuit delivers a relatively constant voltage over a wide range of load current conditions. One-embodiment switches are based on load current. Another embodiment of switches is...
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Microelectromechanical (MEMS)-Based Magnetostrictive Magnetometer

A microelectromechanical (MEMS)-based magnetostrictive magnetometer that uses, as an active element, a commercial (001) silicon microcantilever coated with an amorphous thin film of a giant magnetostrictive alloy Terfenol-D and a compact optical beam deflection transduction scheme. A set of Helmholt...
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Integrated Power Source

self-contained, small, lightweight, portable, renewable, modular integrated power source. The power source consists of solar cells that are laminated onto a solid-state polymer battery, which in turn is laminated onto a substrate containing circuits that manage the polymer battery charging. Chargin...
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Video-Centroid Chip

An analog, single integrated circuit for providing centered video images. A light detector array that can be, a CCD or an array of phototransistors or silicon retinas, is scanned out to provide a video signal. Current summing lines along each row and column of the array are used as inputs to x and y...
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Optical-Digital Method and Processor for Pattern Recognition

An automatic battery power switch circuit that switches from n to n+m cells, where n and m are integers, in a battery. The circuit delivers a relatively constant voltage over a wide range of load current conditions. One embodiment switches based on load current. Another embodiment switches based on ...
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Adaptable Multiport Test Fixture System

During the process of manufacturing an electric circuit or before placing the circuit in operation, the circuit usually is tested. Typically, the circuit is mounted in a custom fabricated test fixture with each different type circuit to be tested requiring its own custom fixture. Given the immense v...
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Electron Density Storage Device and Method Using STM

An apparatus and method were developed that permit the transmission of secure communications. The invention uses quantum mechanical effects to establish nonlocal correlations between a pair of photons. This is analogous to an automatic encryption code that exists at only one location and is immediat...
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Short-Circuit-Proof DIP Test Clip

The invention consists of a connector clip, particularly useful in testing a dual in-line packaged (DIP) integrated circuit (IC), comprising a plurality of connector elements which are in contact with and serve to extend corresponding terminals of the IC, wherein at least one connector element inclu...
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Accumulating Arithmetic Memory Integrated Circuit

An accumulating arithmetic memory (AAM) integrated circuit or AAM chip that includes a set of accumulators or registers was developed. Once an accumulator is selected, e.g., by using a look up table, a multiplexer retrieves the data from the selected accumulator. Then, as input data are presented to...
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Method for Detection of Weak Links in the Current Path of Electrically Continuous Superconductors

Weak links in superconductors are detected by observing the effect of magnetic field modulation on the microwave resistance of superconductors. The phase-detected response to the magnetic modulation can show a peak at Tc. The presence of peak(s) at temperatures below Tc indicates the presence of wea...
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Discrete Automatic Gain Control with High Stability, High Speed and Low Distortion

High-speed automatic gain control (AGC) circuitry, capable of use in pulse of CW systems, incorporates hysteresis for improving the stability and distortion characteristics of the AGC. After a gain setting is selected, the built-in hysteresis feature prevents an adjustment in that gain setting until...
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Computer Aided Design for TE01 Mode Circular Waveguide

Prior work cannot be directly extrapolated to compact, optimized bends, structures with less overmoding, and limited dielectric material selection for high power application in radar and radio communications. Accordingly, the need exists for practical circular overmoded waveguide of optimum design a...
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Phase Sensitive Differential Polarimetry Technique and Apparatus

A differential polarimeter is disclosed for detecting changes in optical rotation between a test cell and reference cell. The test cell contains a fluid sample exposed to an analyte specific enzyme; the reference cell contains a fluid sample not exposed to the enzyme. To enhance the sensitivity of t...
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Overmoded Waveguide Elbow and Fabrication Process

The invention provides a process for fabricating a sheathed-helix circular overmoded waveguide bend comprising an inner helical wound insulated wire, a dielectric lining, and an outer conductor layer surrounding the dielectric lining. The inner winding is wound on a removable hollow rigid core, the ...
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Apparatus for Winding Wire Onto an Arbor

The invention is a wire-winding apparatus for winding wire about an arbor having a straight or curved center line and having either a circular or nearly circular cross-section. The wire-winding apparatus includes a frame having two parallel spaced-apart triangular shaped ends, a spool holder dispose...
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Air Inlet for Internal Cooling for Overmoded Waveguide

For high power application of overmoded waveguide, applying airflow to the overmoded waveguide either directly or indirectly, through an air inlet, which does not significantly disturb the internal electromagnetic field, provides air-cooling....
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Multiport Rectangular TE10 to Circular TE01 Mode Transducer Having Pyrimidal Shaped Transducing Means

The invention provides a method and device for transducing multiple rectangular TE10 modes to circular TE01 mode. Multiple TE10 modes are transitioned into an intermediate mode, which is transitioned into a circular TE01 mode and vice versa. Unique pyramidal structure provides overmoded high power o...
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Reconfigurable Induction Coil for Metal Detection

With an estimated 100 million mines and countless millions of acres of land contaminated with unexploded ordnance (UXO) world- wide there is a need for a sensor system and methods that can detect and identify large and small metal objects buried in the soil. In addition, during armed conflict, there...
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Variable Damping Induction Coil for Metal Detection

Pulse induction metal detector (PIMD) antennas come in two basic types. First is a single transmit and receiver coil. The second use separate transmitter and receiver coils. Two basic problems exist with existing PIMD’s. First is the high kickback voltage of the transmitter coil, which temporally bl...
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L and N can not be a member of the same team.

Pulse induction metal detector (PIMD) antennas come in two basic types. First is a single transmit and receiver coil. The second use separate transmitter and receiver coils. Two basic problems exist with existing PIMD’s. First is the high kickback voltage of the transmitter coil, which temporally bl...
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An Embeddable Corrosion Rate Meter for Remote Monitoring of Infrastructures

Corrosion of infrastructure and fluid containing vessels and pipelines is a continuing situation if the United States for both government agencies and industry. Existing methods, which include implied monitoring techniques and sacrificial coupons are both costly and labor intensive. The need is for ...
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Breakthrough in Voltage-to-Thrust Technology ()

Abstract: In the past, inductive technology has been needed to create thrust, rotational motion, or step an actuator using electricity. This new technology accomplishes these tasks and more by using high potential, low current asymmetrical capacitor modules. The dielectric material of a capacitor u...
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Low-Cost Brushless DC Motor Rate Sensor (MFS-31143)

Abstract: The new brushless DC motorbased rate sensor addresses the drawbacks associated with other rotation sensor technologies. The mechanical brushes on brush-type tachometers produce electrical arcing and wear out relatively quickly, requiring that the device be replaced. Although prior technol...
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Large Area Vacuum Ultra-Violet Sensors (GSC-14777)

Abstract: This is, to the best of our knowledge, a first time report of Pt/n-type GaN Schottky diodes with very large active areas, up to 1cm x 1cm, which exhibit extremely low leakage current at low reverse biases. Very large area Pt/n-GaN Schottky diodes of size 0.25cm2 and 1cm2 have been fabrica...
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Foil Wound Inductors

Foil windings for magnetic circuit elements such as chokes, coils, transformers, and inductors are used in a wide variety of power conversion applications. Foil-wound magnetic devices are particularly useful in high-efficiency switching power supplies operating at frequencies between 20 kHz and 1 M...
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Photonic Switching Devices Using Light Bullets (TOP1-477)

Abstract: A unique ultra- fast, all-optical switching device or switch is made with readily available, relatively inexpensive, highly nonlinear optical materials, which includes highly nonlinear optical glasses, semiconductor crystals and/or multiple quantum well semiconductor materials. At the spe...
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Radiant Temperature Nulling Radiometer ()

Abstract: Developed at NASA Stennis Space Center, the radiant temperature nulling radiometer provides high-accuracy, self-calibrating temperature measurement. NASA Stennis’ enhanced technology offers significant advantages over current infrared (IR) radiometers that often are imprecise and costly t...
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High-Efficiency RF Power Amplifier (MFS-0012)

Abstract: Researchers at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have developed a new power amplifier to convert direct current (DC) electrical power to a radio frequency (RF) signal. By increasing the DC-to-RF conversion efficiency, this innovation dramatically reduces power consumption, thus dec...
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Environmental Barrier Coatings (EBCs) for Ceramic Gas Turbine Components (TOP3-00165)

Abstract: In gas turbine engines, EBCs protect engine components from the volatilization and the resulting recession caused by water vapor....
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A Process for Preparing 'Melt-Textured Growth' YBCO High Temperature Superconductors at Temperatures Below the Melting Point of Silver

Description A low temperature melt-textured growth (MTG) process for bulk Yttrium-Barium-Copper-Oxide (YBCO) below the melting point of silver (960 degC). The inventors have been able to melt starting precursors at 950 degC with the resulting product being YBCO with silver addition (using techniques...
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Silicon Chip Color Spectrometers: Integrated Microspectrometers for Optical Spectroscopy and General Wavelength Division Management Applications

Description These optical systems span diverse optical microspectrometer and wavelength-division applications. The spectrometers separate optical energy according to wavelength in a manner enabling of general spectroscopy, general wavelength division demultiplexing applications and optical system in...
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Method of Using DC Photocurrent Measurements to Sense Wavelength or Color of Light or to Characterize Semiconductor Materials

Description Figure 1. Absorption coefficient versus wavelength for amorphous silicon. The data points were established using the invented method and the dashed line represents approximate values reported in literature. Figure 2. Depletion width versus reverse bias. Shown are the results of b...
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High-Efficiency RF Power Amplifier (MFS-0012)

Abstract: NASA Marshall Space Flight Center developed this technology to reduce the power consumed by S-band microwave power amplifiers, which typically are the largest consumers of the limited power available aboard NASA spacecraft. Prior S-band microwave amplifier biasing arrangements, such as Cl...
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Production of Fullerenes Using Concentrated Solar Flux

Technology Description The refrigeration system includes a compressor-pump unit and/or a liquid-injection assembly. The refrigeration system is a vapor-compression refrigeration system that includes an expansion device, an evaporator, a compressor, a condenser, and a liquid pump between the condense...
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Electrochromic Projection and Writing Device

Technology Description A display and projection apparatus includes an electrochromic material and a photoconductive material deposited in tandem used in conjunction with a light filtering means for filtering light transmitted through the electrochromic material. When an electric field is applied acr...
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Combined Refrigeration System with a Liquid Pre-Cooling Heat Exchanger

Technology Description A compressor-pump unit for use in a vapor-compression refrigeration system is provided. The compressor-pump unit comprises a driving device including a rotatable shaft. A compressor is coupled with a first portion of the shaft for compressing gaseous refrigerant within the vap...
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A New Method of Trapping Ions Injected into the Quadrupole Ion Trap and Construction

Abstract (Set) This is a method in which ions formed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and other methods which form ions outside an ion trap mass spectrometer are then transmitted into and held by the ion trapping field. The method involves a dynamic trapping field in which the...
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Space Division Multiple Access with a Sum Feedback Rate Constraint

Background For a multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) communication system, by exploiting the spatial degrees of freedom, space division multiple access (SDMA) supports simultaneous uplink/downlink communication between a base station and multiple users in the same time and frequency slots. This te...
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RICE: Rapid Interconnect Circuit Evaluator

Background Existing software being used for timing analysis falls into two cateqories: 1) extremely slow and very accurate (e.g., SPICE) or 2) verv fast, inaccurate, and topology-limited. RICE bridges this problem, in that it is very fast while retaining accuracy comparable to SPICE. Additionallv, i...
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Multiple Via Structures for Reliability Improvement of Copper Damascene Interconnects

Background The semiconductor industry is actively developing copper (Cu) damascene structures for on-chip interconnects. Electromigration (EM) is a major reliability concern for copper damascene interconnects. Statistical studies have revealed multi-mode failures in the copper oxide dual damascene s...
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Method for Low-Temperature Deposition of Boron Carbo-Nitride as a Barrier and Etch Stop for Copper Interconnect Manufacturing

Invention Description A method of forming boron carbo-nitride layer for use as a barrier and etch stop layer in copper interconnect structures used in integrated circuit manufacturing has been developed. The boron carbo-nitride films are deposited by a thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process...
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Improved Oxide Cathodes for Rechargeable Batteries

Background Cordless portable electronic devices are proliferating in our mobile, fast-paced world, and they need better batteries. One way to enhance a rechargeable battery?s capacity, cycle life, and rate of charge is to develop improved oxide battery cathodes. While attempts have been made to use ...
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Hetero-barrier Tunnel Field-Effect Transistor (HetTFET) for Low Voltage Logic

Background A great challenge facing CMOS is power consumption. Increased energy efficiency is not only important for its own sake but also to allow continued transistor scaling and an associated increase in computational power. As device densities increase, the power used by each transistor must dec...
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Electrostatic Electrochemistry

Background Electrostatic charges produced by the contact of two dissimilar insulator or dielectric materials have been studied for a thousand years. The principles of electrostatics have been instrumental in the development of semiconductors, biomaterials, charged insulators, etc. By combining tradi...
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Analog-to-Digital Conversion Methods and Apparatus Enabled by Active and/or Passive Variable Delay Transmission Lines

Background Technology scaling adversely affects most parameters relevant to analog design, and ADCs are no exception. To achieve a high linearity, high sampling speed, and high dynamic range with low supply voltages and low power dissipation in ultra-deep submicron silicon technology is a major chal...
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Mutual Inductance Force Sensor – “MIFS” (20084)

Consumers operate numerous devices and machines to assist in daily activities. This requires some form of contact with an interface sensor as to translate the human intent into an electronic response. Typical interface or input sensors range from simple push buttons to highly sensitive strain gauge ...
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Thin Membrane Transducer (22102/23074)

Northwestern´’´s Thin Membrane Transducer (TMT) invention is an ultra sensitive biosensor. The TMT has significant advantages over the cantilevered biosensor – another approach that has been previously implemented: Highly Sensitive: The TMT detection sensitivity is on the order of a picomolar (1...
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Biochip Detection System (23072)

The “BioChip” invention electronically detects biomolecules and toxic agents. When a target species chemically binds to the surface of a tiny cantilever probe, the probe deflects and the BioChip electronically measures and reports that deflection. The BioChip presents the following advantages over c...
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VOC Sensor (26062)

The invention is a low power light assisted sensor to detect Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC’s). BACKGROUND: Metal oxide gas sensors must normally operate at high temperatures. This is undesirable in applications where safety and power consumption are primary concerns. Moreover, sensors operati...
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Rare Earth Doped Barium Titanate Thin Film Optical Working Medium for Optical Devices ( 94001)

Rare Earth Doped Barium Titanate Thin Film Optical Working Medium for Optical Devices ( 94001) Patent No-6122429...
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n-Type Thiophene Semiconductor Devices (20024

This invention demonstrates the use of n-type thiophene semiconducting films in the construction and operation of organic light-emitting diodes (OLED), thin film transistors (TFT), field effect transistors (FET) and related devices. Thiophene oligomers (nTs) and polymers (PTs) are known that operat...
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Commercial-Scale Synthesis of p-type Transparent Conductors (21006

A new process affording a single step route to polycrystalline samples of any delafossite-like (ABO2) material with phase purity has been developed. These materials exhibit luminescence, catalysis, and p-type conducting properties. These materials can be employed as sputtering targets in thin film f...
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Superconducting Mg-MgB2 and Related Metal Composites and Methods of Preparation (21029)

This invention provides superconducting magnesium diboride (MgB2) materials and methods for their production that overcome present day synthesis limitations. Magnesium diboride has recently been found to be superconducting at the critical temperature Tc of 39°K, much higher than the best low-tempera...
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Organic Light-Emitting Diodes and Methods for Assembly and Enhanced Charge Injection (22012)

The integrity of electrode/organic interfacial contact is crucial to the performance and stability of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). This invention addresses the problem by employing a well defined self-assembly strategy that improves the ITO anode / hole transport layer (HTL) interface morp...
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Group III-V Diluted Magnetic Semiconductor Materials and Related Methods of Formation (22025)

The present invention provides a growth technique to achieve epitaxial, single-phase films of III-V diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs) with large Mn concentrations that exhibit ferromagnetic order at room temperature. The III-V DMS compositions and/or methods of this invention are suitable for d...
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Enhanced Performance of Blue Light Emitting Polymer Diodes via Anode Modification (22103)

Researchers at Northwestern University invented a process that significantly improves Blue polymer light emitting diode (PLED) performance, efficiency, and stability. Blue PLED devices generally require anode coating with a conductive polymer hole transport layer (HTL), which can adversely impact de...
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New Hole Transport Layer Materials for Polymer Light Emitting Diodes (23071

Northwestern University researchers invented a new hole transport system for polymer light emitting diodes (PLEDs) with negligible visible light absorption, stability to ITO, solvent resistance and tunable electronic properties. ADVANTAGE: Superior PLED performance and efficiency is observed ver...
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III-V Ferromagnetic/Nonmagnetic Semiconductor Magnetodiodes for Use in Magnetic Field Sensors, Gaussmeters, and Other Magnetoresistive Devices (25014)

A novel "spintronic" magnetodiode based on a III-V ferromagnetic semiconductor and a III-V nonmagnetic semiconductor heterojunction has been created by Northwestern researchers. The diodes exhibit a large junction magnetoresistance that is linearly dependent on the applied magnetic field at room tem...
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Semiconducting Aerogels from Chalcogenido Clusters with Broad Applications (27012)

Northwestern chemists have created a novel family of chalogenide based hydrogels which readily afford a wide range of new aerogels. The materials exhibit high surface area, broad porosity range and narrow band gap properties with significant environmental, catalytic, electronic and sensor applicatio...
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Method of Making Silver Vanadium Oxide Material Useful as a Battery Cathode (27115/27058)

Ag2V4O11 (SVO) and Ag4V2O6F2, (SVOF) are important cathode materials for medical battery applications such as defibrillators. A one-step process has been developed affording crystalline SVO and SVOF by reaction under ambient conditions, eliminating the need for superambient pressure and temperature...
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SMOFC Battery Cathode (27151/27059

A novel battery cathode composition having a higher discharge capacity available from silver reduction at a potential above 3V compared to that of the current standard medical battery cathode SVO material. ADVANTAGES: Batteries incorporating the new cathode exhibit a potential above 3 V for exte...
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Controlled Nanoscale Doping of Transparent Conducting Oxides by Focused Ion Beam Implantation (28091)

An effective method for the spatially-controlled writing of embedded, optically transparent, electrically conducting oxide nanowires and other patterns via focused ion beam implantation into highly resistive transparent metal oxide thin films. ADVANTAGES: Nanoscale, spatially-controlled doping o...
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Nonlinear Muscle-Like-Compliant Controller ( 97068

This controller can provide compliance capability without using force sensors. It also possesses non-linear damping property and adapts to a wide range of loads without having to adjust the gain. U. S. Patent No. 6,243,624...
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Simulated Environment to Prototype Manufacturing Concepts & to Train Personnel (20023

This invention presents a uniquely simulated environment to prototype manufacturing concepts, to train personnel, to design new systems, and to secure operator feedback concerning prototype design. The invention offers significant advantages when compared to existing systems on the market. The inven...
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Electrical Damping for Haptic Displays (24093/24111

The invention applies electrical damping in order to improve haptic display performance. A challenge of virtual environments is that a haptic system can become unstable near the "virtual walls," where high frequency oscillations result. The invention uses electrical damping to damp over a range of h...
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Programmable Parts Feeder (25111)

The invention is a vibratory device that programmably conveys, sorts, orients, and feeds multiple parts simultaneously, in parallel. To the best of our knowledge, it is the only commercially viable vibratory device that can perform this variety of functions without large numbers of actuators in an a...
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Method of Doping Barium Titanate Ferroelectric Oxide ( 94001A

In this invention, thin film modulators are made with ferroelectric materials that offer higher bandwidth and lower voltage operations compared to lithium niobate and indium phosphide. U. S. Patent No. 6,303,393...
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Oriented Niobate Ferroelectric Thin Films for Electrical and Optical Devices ( 94019DIV

Thse films can be used in electronic, electro-optic and frequency doubling components. U. S. Patent No. 6,208,453...
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Thin Film Electro-Optic Modulator for Broadband Applications ( 97028

This invention addresses thin film, BaTiO3 channel waveguide structures with the potential for traveling-wave electro-optic modulator applications. U.S. Patent No. 6,118,571...
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Optimizing Launch Points for Dispersion-Managed Solitons ( 97054)

: Researchers at Northwestern have developed an effective analytic tool for predicting the behavior of dispersion-managed solitons, and a dispersion map design configuration specially optimized for WDM systems. U. S. Patent No. 6,462,849...
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Tunable Fiber-Optic Parametric Oscillator ( 98091)

This invention relates to a tunable FOPO which employs a nonlinear-fiber Sagnac interferometer as a parametric amplifier. U. S. Patent No. 6,501,591...
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Oxide Thin Films and Composites and Related Methods of Deposition ( 99070/99020)

The synthesis of epitaxial functional oxide thin films on silicon is required for large-scale integration of microelectronic, microwave, and optical devices. This invention provides deposition techniques overcoming limitations of the prior art. Metal organic molecular beam epitaxy (MOMBE) is employe...
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Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembly of Large Response Molecular Electro-Optic Materials by a Desilylation Strategy (20010)

A new efficient "one-pot" synthesis of organic self-assembled superlattices having excellent electrooptic response properties. The method provides thermally and photochemically robust thin films that adhere to glass, silicon and ITO coated substrates. The technology is suited for the assembly of ph...
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High Performance Self-Assembled Electro-optic Materials and Modulating Devices (20042)

Electric field poled polymers are currently used to fabricate organic based modulators. The present invention provides a chemical process, employing self-assembly molecules to create the electro active layer in organic based modulators,without electric field poled polymers. This affords greater dev...
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Refractive Index Tuning of Siloxane-Based Electro-Optic Self-Assembled Superlattices (21001)

A “wet-chemical” process affording molecule-based electro-optic (EO) material refractive index tuning in self-assembled superlattice (SAS) organic structures. The process retains essential microstructural acentricity, without electric field poling. Application potential exists in a wide range of EO ...
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Commercial-Scale Synthesis of p-type Transparent Conductors (21006

A new process affording a single step route to polycrystalline samples of any delafossite-like (ABO2) material with phase purity has been developed. These materials exhibit luminescence, catalysis, and p-type conducting properties. These materials can be employed as sputtering targets in thin film f...
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A System to Prevent Power Outages in Optical Transmission Lines (21073)

This breakthrough method provides the only known practical means by which to predict power outage probabilities and bit-error rates in fiber optic lines caused by "polarization mode dispersion (PMD)." Today’s stringent standards permit only very infrequent power outages, so system designers need to ...
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Organic Light-Emitting Diodes and Methods for Assembly and Enhanced Charge Injection (22012)

The integrity of electrode/organic interfacial contact is crucial to the performance and stability of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). This invention addresses the problem by employing a well defined self-assembly strategy that improves the ITO anode / hole transport layer (HTL) interface morp...
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Efficient, Compact Device for All-Optical Processing (22091)

The invention is a series of devices, including an optical parametric oscillator, that are compact and efficient because they exploit phenomenon of a new kind of commercially available microstructure optical fiber. Competing all-optical devices require powerful sources and extremely long lengths...
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Enhanced Performance of Blue Light Emitting Polymer Diodes via Anode Modification (22103)

Researchers at Northwestern University invented a process that significantly improves Blue polymer light emitting diode (PLED) performance, efficiency, and stability. Blue PLED devices generally require anode coating with a conductive polymer hole transport layer (HTL), which can adversely impact de...
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Vapor Deposited Electro-Optic Films Self-Assembled Through Hydrogen Bonding (22107/22065)

Northwestern researchers created a new family of designed molecular chromophores that afford acentric films essential to non-linear electro-optic applications. These novel materials exhibit excellent physical and non-linear optical properties for waveguiding modulator applications. Intermolecular hy...
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New Hole Transport Layer Materials for Polymer Light Emitting Diodes (23071

Northwestern University researchers invented a new hole transport system for polymer light emitting diodes (PLEDs) with negligible visible light absorption, stability to ITO, solvent resistance and tunable electronic properties. ADVANTAGE: Superior PLED performance and efficiency is observed ver...
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Low-Voltage Organic Electro-Optic Modulators Using Transparent Conducting Oxides As Electrodes (23080)

A novel organic electro-optic modulator using transparent conducting oxide electrodes has been created by Northwestern University scientists. The modulator functions at significantly lower switching voltages than conventional metallic electrode modulators. Modulation frequencies of 10-20 GHz are pot...
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Individually Addressed Large Scale Patterning of Conducting Polymers by Localized Electric Fields (23097)

A new multiplexed and parallel polymer patterning process, with individual addressability, via electropolymerization within the gap of electrodes has been developed at Northwestern University. The technology permits the scaleable and controlled patterning of conducting polymer structures on the micr...
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Batio3 Thin Film Waveguides and Related Modulator Devices (24060)

A low-voltage, wide bandwidth, strip-loaded BaTiO3 thin film electrooptic amplitude modulator for use in high-speed optical communication networks has been created by Northwestern researchers. Broadband modulation out to 40 GHz has been demonstrated, offering the potential for low power electrooptic...
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Nanoscale Self-Assembled Organic Dielectrics for Ultra-Low Voltage High-Speed Electronic Devices (24062)

Self-assembling siloxane fabrication of extremely thin nanostructurally ordered, pinhole-free, ultra-high-capacitance/low leakage organic dielectrics has been achieved by Northwestern University scientists. These organic nanoinsulators can be efficiently integrated into large thin film transistor (T...
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FOCUS Focalized Carrier Augmented Sensor (25015

The invention is a novel avalanche-free single photon detector in the short infrared range that is suitable for ultra-sensitive high-density infrared imaging arrays. The pixel element is low voltage and operates at near room temperatures, does not depend on a large power supply/source, and has near ...
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Intercalated Metal Oxide Superlattice Dielectrics (25092)

A family of intercalated metal oxide self-assembled superlattice dielectrics providing extraordinary insulative and capacitance properties for thin film transistor and organic electronic devices. ADVANTAGE: Dielectric materials that enable low voltage operation of thin film transistors with wide ...
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Catalytic Synthesis of High Energy Density Nanocomposite Dielectric Materials (26136)

process affording homogeneously dispersed ceramic nanoparticles within the matrix of processable, high-strength polymers. The high energy density polymer-metal oxide composites provide effective high energy storage in capacitor and insulator applications. ADVANTAGES: Polymer-metal oxide composit...
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Organic Light-Emitting Diodes and Methods for Assembly and Emission Control (99027)

This invention presents a new route to the fabrication of multilayer heterojunction devices useful for large and small, multicolored display applications by means of molecular self-assembly techniques. The technology addresses major coating issues in organic light-emitting diode (OLED) construction...
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Scanning Near-Field Ultrasound Holography (SNFUH) (23061)

The invention is a revolutionary approach which provides non-invasive nanoscale imaging capabilities for deeply buried and embedded structures in physical sciences, engineering systems as well as biological structures under physiologically viable conditions. The invention has operated in near-contac...
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Diamond Probes and Method of Making (24098)

The invention is an ultra-hard, ultra-sharp diamond probe and tip for applications such as AFM and Nano-Lithography. A single stage fabrication process integrates tip and probe chip body as a single contiguous piece of diamond. The invention’s advantages over currently available methods include: ...
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Cryogenic Variable Temperature Scanning Tunneling Microscope (24108)

An advanced cryogenic variable temperature ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) scanning tunneling microscope (STM) has been developed at Northwestern University. Incorporation of a new design and materials provides a robust instrument capable of high atomic resolution at 8.2 to 300 K, critical for single molecul...
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FOCUS Focalized Carrier Augmented Sensor (25015)

The invention is a novel avalanche-free single photon detector in the short infrared range that is suitable for ultra-sensitive high-density infrared imaging arrays. The pixel element is low voltage and operates at near room temperatures, does not depend on a large power supply/source, and has near ...
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Controlled Nanoscale Doping of Transparent Conducting Oxides by Focused Ion Beam Implantation (28091)

An effective method for the spatially-controlled writing of embedded, optically transparent, electrically conducting oxide nanowires and other patterns via focused ion beam implantation into highly resistive transparent metal oxide thin films. ADVANTAGES: Nanoscale, spatially-controlled doping o...
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Carbon Dioxide Capture by Aqueous Piperazine

Background The conventional process for CO2 absorption/stripping uses aqueous amines such as monoethanolamine (MEA). Piperazine has previously been identified as a very reactive amine. It is an attractive alternative to MEA because it reacts with CO2 thirty times faster than MEA. However, piperazine...
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A Manual Scan Imaging Sonar

Background Sonar systems of similar application as this invention fall into three categories: single-beam mechanical scan, single-beam hand-held, and multiple-beam hand-held. Existing mechanically scanned single-beam sonars require a stable platform and stepper motor controls, which prevents their u...
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An Electrochemical Storage Cell Containing At Least One Electrode Formulated from a Fluorophenyl Thiophene Polymer

This present invention relates to a battery or a electrochemical storage cell, 'typically a secondary cell, containing as at least one electrode prepared fromat least one electrically conductive polymer. In charge storage, applications such as electrochemical secondary cells, electrode materials sho...
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Carbon/Ceramic Composite Electrodes for Charge Storage Units

The present invention relates to charge storage devices, such as electrochemica supercapacitors and lithium ion intercalation batteries, and the method of preparation thereof. In particular, the invention relates to carbon/ceramic composites produced by sol-gel technology wherein composites pretreat...
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Polarization Phase-Based Method and Apparatus for Material Classification

This novel invention is an important advance for two distinct environments in which it is necessary to differentiate between electrically conducting and nonconducting materials - - inspection processes such as quality assurance, and high-level object recognition. As an example of the inspection appl...
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A Completely Polymeric Charge Storage Device and Method for Producing Same

This invention relates to the fabrication of a quasi-solid state charge storage device capable of being repeatedly charged and discharged to yield high capacities. The storage device has one or more electrochemical cells comprised entirely of a layer of ionically conducting polymer gel electrolyte s...
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Ultra low loss waveguide for broadband terahertz radiation

This invention is a device which transports terahertz radiation over long distances with much less attenuation than current technology allows. The device incorporates a new concept for guiding THz radiation, which exploits the properties of the lowest-order transverse electric mode of a parallel pla...
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Metal Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles (MCMNP) and their application to chemical/biochemical detection

This technology is a new synthetic method for manufacturing MCMNP. MNMNP are an enabling component of optical spectroscopic techniques, which are currently limited because of their relative susceptibility to spectral interference from chemicals present in the sample matrix and/or from low detection ...
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Fast wavelength tuning technique for external cavity lasers

This invention is a novel external cavity – quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL) architecture. The current state of the art uses mechanical translation and rotation stages to synchronously control EC length and diffraction grating angle, which are the two factors that determine tuning speed. This inventio...
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Resonant optothermoacoustic detection of optical absorption

Technology This technology is an improvement to optothermal spectroscopy and photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS). The proposed method of resonant optothermoacoustic detection (ROTA) is based upon the following processes: (1) excitation of a fluid region or object under study by a modulated optical r...
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Modulation cancellation method (MOCAM) in modulation spectroscopy

Technology The invention is a new process to acquire analytical spectral data using two optical sources. It is based on balancing the optically excited response of the analyzed media for certain conditions. As a result, small deviations from these conditions (such as a chemical or isotopic composit...
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Piezo activated mode tracking system for widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity mid-IR lasers

Technology Rice researchers have developed a novel architecture of a widely tunable external cavity lasers (primarily in mid-Infrared), which allows performing continuous mode-hop free wavelength scans applicable for high resolution spectroscopy and trace-gas detection. It features a QC laser spect...
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Selectivity Enhancement in Photoacoustic Gas Analysis via Phase-sensitive Detection at High Modulation Frequency

This invention is a new spectroscopic method of distinguishing molecular species with overlapping absorption spectra. Spectroscopic distinguishing between two species having overlapped optical absorption spectra is difficult and at times impossible. However, photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) allows t...
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Synchronized Computer Control for Pulsed Quantum Cascade Laser Frequency Scanning

Technology Professor Frank Tittel and Dr. Anatoliy Kosterev, at Rice’s Quantum Institute, have developed a tool for flexible and reproducible control of pulsed quantum cascade (QC) laser frequency scans for laser absorption spectroscopy. A pulsed mode of operation for QC lasers is used to enable th...
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A Method for Measurement of Pipe Wall Thickness using Magnetic Flux Leakage Signals

The proposed technique uses magnetostatic Maxwell's equations to model the magnetic fields associated with the magnetizing device and the magnetized pipe. Given certain geometric and magnetic parameters of the magnetizing device and the pipe, the proposed technique yields reference plots of the simu...
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Sensor Elements for Aqueous Samples (SEAS)

Chemical sensor arrays are low cost, compact, robust and versatile alternatives to large analytical tools and hence drive the need to rapidly fabricate reusable chemical sensor arrays for simultaneous multi-analyte quantification. This invention includes the rapid fabrication of reusable chemica...
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Temporally Addressable Biochemical Sensor Arrays

Chemical sensor arrays are low cost, compact, robust and versatile alternatives to large analytical tools and hence drive the need to rapidly fabricate reusable chemical sensor arrays for simultaneous multi-analyte quantification. This invention includes the rapid fabrication of reusable chemica...
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CMOS Optical Detectors and Lock-In Amplifiers Used for Detection of Emission from Sensor Array Platforms

Chemical sensor arrays are low cost, compact, robust and versatile alternatives to large analytical tools and hence drive the need to rapidly fabricate reusable chemical sensor arrays for simultaneous multi-analyte quantification. This invention includes the rapid fabrication of reusable chemica...
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Low Power Solid-State Sensor Device

This invention describes the design of a novel sensor to quantify molecular Oxygen (O2) based entirely on solid-state electronics. A derivative compound of Ruthenium II has been found to exhibit luminescence of a very specific quality. Upon reacting with molecular O2, the characteristics of the lumi...
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Novel Polarimetry Scheme to Monitor Phase-polarization Characteristics of Light Under Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensing

Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) sensor technology has been commercialized rapidly as a tool for bimolecular interaction analysis, drug discovery and life science research. However, phase detecting technology has not been utilized in commercial produc ts although it offers higher sensitivity. One of ...
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Holographic formation of periodic polymeric photonic bandgap structures for visible to IR wavelengths

Chemical and biological sensor developers have held an interest in nanoscale construction of periodic structures. Numerous optical fiber products that utilize nanoscale periodic etching are available for stress/strain sensing. Chemical sensing usi ng affinity coatings on optical fibers is still an e...
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Diversified Chemical Responses from a Single Chemical Sensor

Chemical sensor arrays are low cost, compact, robust and versatile alternatives to large analytical tools and hence drive the need to rapidly fabricate reusable chemical sensor arrays for simultaneous multi-analyte quantification. This invention includes the rapid fabrication of reusable chemica...
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Chemically Responsive Nanosensors with Integrated Light Sources

Employing xerogel based sensor arrays in microdot form, wherein recognition chemicals (luminophores) are sequestrated, for detection and quantification of multiple analytes is described earlier in technology no. 5729. Till date, determining concentra tions of multiple target analytes within a sample...
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Tailored Pins for High Density Microarray Production

Chemical sensor arrays are low cost, compact, robust and versatile alternatives to large analytical tools and hence drive the need to rapidly fabricate reusable chemical sensor arrays for simultaneous multi-analyte quantification. This invention includes the rapid fabrication of reusable chemica...
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Diverisfied Xerogel-Based Sensors to Improved Analyte Detection and Quantification

Chemical sensor arrays are low cost, compact, robust and versatile alternatives to large analytical tools and hence drive the need to rapidly fabricate reusable chemical sensor arrays for simultaneous multi-analyte quantification. This invention includes the rapid fabrication of reusable chemica...
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In-Situ Stress-Strain Sensor

This invention describes a technology that provides a new class of strain/stress sensors. The sensors are short fiber composites. They provide a reversible electrical response to strain/stress application. The sensing material can function as the structure material at the same time, so no embedding ...
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Calibrated Low-Loss Phase Shifter with Negative Resistance Circuit and Sigma-Delta PLL for Multiple-Antenna Receivers

Introduction Variable Phase Shifters are used in many applications such as adaptive smart-antenna receivers. In adaptive antenna receivers, antenna paths are linearly combined in an RF stage after being adjusted in both amplitude and phase. Variable-gain low-noise amplifiers and variable phase shift...
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Application of Grating Light Reflection Spectroscopy in Analytical Sensors

Introduction There are a number of methods for measuring bulk fluid compositions in statics and flow by visible light reflection characteristics from the optically inhomogeneous wall of a vessel. Surface Plasmon Spectroscopy (SPS) on gratings and randomly rough surfaces has proven to be especially s...
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Method of Detecting, Characterizing, and Quantifying Bulk, Light-Element Materials Using High-Energy, Penetrating X-Rays

Introduction X-rays have long been used in the characterization of a wide variety of materials. However, conventional techniques for dealing with light-element (or low-Z) materials, such as those containing nitrogen and carbon, are too low in energy to penetrate significant distances into enclosing ...
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Crosslinkable Hole Transporting Materials for Organic Lightemitting Diodes

Introduction High-performance organic or polymer light-emitting diodes comprise multilayer configurations having hole-transporting, emissive and electron-transporting layers to balance the injection and transport of both holes and electrons. In general, holetransporting material is the first applied...
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Design of Thermal Interface Material Based on High Temperature Shape Memory Alloy for Connecting Two Thermoelectric Legs

Introduction Efficient heat management is crucial for electronics to optimize performance and to avoid premature component deterioration. An area of primary concern is at the interface of adjoining thermal components, such as with heatsink interfaces and with connections between thermoelectric legs....
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Design of Active Materials and Structures based on Composites of Shape Memory Alloy and Shape Memory Polymer

Introduction Shape memory alloys (SMA) and shape memory polymers (SMP) have shown tremendous promise for a wide variety of applications because of their ability to “remember” a previous state when heated. However, they can only remember a single shape. The ability to remember two shapes would make t...
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Smart Ladder

Introduction A leading cause of worker injury in the fruit tree industry involves orchard ladder stability and the level of awareness of the user when climbing and dismounting the ladder. Due to cultural and economic reasons, industry acceptance of all-new designs has been low. Rather than radically...
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Application of Grating Light Reflection Spectroscopy in Analytical Sensors

Introduction There are a number of methods for measuring bulk fluid compositions in statics and flow by visible light reflection characteristics from the optically inhomogeneous wall of a vessel. Surface Plasmon Spectroscopy (SPS) on gratings and randomly rough surfaces has proven to be especially s...
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Safe last step

Introduction A common cause of injury among orchard workers in Washington state occurs when the user dismounts the ladder. The user often cannot accurately gauge the last step of the ladder because the line of sight is obscured by the apple bag when descending the ladder, with their back facing the ...
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Microscale Electromagnetic Device

Summary This invention concerns devices and methodology to control the positioning and movement of magnetic and non-magnetic nanoparticles in a fluid with nanometer precision. The devices allow for the independent and simultaneous control of many particles. The devices utilize a grid of current carr...
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Active Optical Antennas

Summary Background Optical antennas are single or coupled metallic nanoparticles in which optical excitation of surface plasmons can produce very high intensities in the optical near field. The field enhancement relative to the incident field is maximum when the wavelength is suitably matched to the...
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Using Electro-magnetically Induced Transparency in Photonic Crystal Cavities to

Summary This invention describes a photonic crystal system which uses electro-magnetically induced transparency (EIT) as the non-linear medium in photonic crystal cavities to obtain devices of unprecedent non-linear sensitivity, with operating power requirements many orders of magnitude smaller than...
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Production of Digitized Stereoscopic Polarizing Images by Inkjet Printing

Summary The Technology The Stereo Imaging Research Group developed methods, materials and applications for stereoscopic hardcopy. The group's StereoJet process forms polarizing images by inkjet printing, using commercial desktop printers without modification. Key inventions include specialized su...
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An Ultra Low Power System Architecture for Sensor Network Applications

Summary Ultra-low-power chip for sensor network applications Application and Benefits: Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are used in a wide variety of applications including environmental monitoring, vehicle tracking, health-care, and business supply-chain management. Often such networks must prov...
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Portable and Inexpensive Chemical and Biological Sensors

Summary The broadly tunable quantum cascade laser (QCL) described in this invention enables the production of a small, portable chemical and biological sensor that can detect a range of molecules within a single, compact device. Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs) are intraband semiconductor lasers that c...
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Production of Digitized Stereoscopic Polarizing Images by Inkjet Printing

Summary The Technology The Stereo Imaging Research Group developed methods, materials and applications for stereoscopic hardcopy. The group's StereoJet process forms polarizing images by inkjet printing, using commercial desktop printers without modification. Key inventions include specialized su...
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Coating Methods and Compositions for Production of Digitized Stereoscopic Polari

Summary The Technology The Stereo Imaging Research Group developed methods, materials and applications for stereoscopic hardcopy. The group's StereoJet process forms polarizing images by inkjet printing, using commercial desktop printers without modification. Key inventions include specialized su...
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Portable and Inexpensive Chemical and Biological Sensors

Summary The broadly tunable quantum cascade laser (QCL) described in this invention enables the production of a small, portable chemical and biological sensor that can detect a range of molecules within a single, compact device. Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs) are intraband semiconductor lasers that c...
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Spatial Light Modulator

Summary This is a fluidic all-optical switch that alters the path of a light beam by controlling the geometry of a reflective surface that is defined by the interface between two fluids. The device has also been described as a "deformable mirror," since it employs conducting polymers and fluids. ...
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A method for Fabricating Optical waveguides and other Optical Devices in Three D

Summary This invention describes a method to directly write optical elements in three dimensions inside a transparent material using an unamplified femtosecond laser. Ultrashort pulses from a laser oscillator are tightly focused into the material, causing localized heating and subsequently producing...
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Using Electro-magnetically Induced Transparency in Photonic Crystal Cavities to

Summary This invention describes a photonic crystal system which uses electro-magnetically induced transparency (EIT) as the non-linear medium in photonic crystal cavities to obtain devices of unprecedent non-linear sensitivity, with operating power requirements many orders of magnitude smaller than...
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Keyboard Having Touch Sensor Keys for Conveying Information Electronically

Summary This invention uses an array of sensors, which enable a human to use his fingers or tongue to convey information electronically. The sensors are arranged to produce signal patterns by responding to the positioning of the finger or tongue within the action area, with finger or tongue pressure...
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Magneto-Luminescent Transducer

Summary This invention provides a one step process for reading magnetic data and converting the magnetic digital signal directly into an optical signal. This invention enables an electronic system, which includes a three terminal device having a light emitting portion and a magnetically sensitive po...
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Fully-integrated 2D microelectromagnet coil arrays in silicon for magnetic manipulation and RF imaging of cells and magnetic particles

Summary The invention comprises a novel method and an apparatus to manipulate, segregate, detect and analyze biological samples on a microfluidic CMOS chip. This technique offers sub-micrometer precision and fast processing speeds for a cheap, easily accessible lab-on-a-chip system. The technology i...
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Asynchronous Circuit Techniques for Memory Error Correction

Summary This invention describes a circuit technique for rapidly and efficiently correcting for read and write data errors in a digital semiconductor memory. More specifically, it involves the design of an error-correcting circuit (ECC) as applied to high density and low latency memories, especially...
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A Self-sustained Soliton Oscillator Utilizing Nonlinear Transmission Lines and Spectrum-preservice Nonlinear Amplification

Summary Background Conventional traveling wave oscillators that require high-speed clock signals generally employ a linear transmission line over which sinusoidal waves are propagated. In such systems, linear amplifiers are employed to overcome resistive losses present in the transmission line so...
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Active Optical Antennas

Summary Background Optical antennas are single or coupled metallic nanoparticles in which optical excitation of surface plasmons can produce very high intensities in the optical near field. The field enhancement relative to the incident field is maximum when the wavelength is suitably matched to the...
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Microscopy Methods and Apparatus for Manipulation and/or Detection of Biological Samples and Other Objects

Summary Invention The invention is an integrated circuit(IC)/microfluidic hybrid system that combines the biocompatibility of microfluidic systems with the programmability of IC chips. The hybrid system consists of an IC and a microfluidic system fabricated on top of the IC. Biological cells atta...
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Strain Measuring Transducer

Summary A strain-sensing transducer designed for detecting small forces in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) and nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS) has been reduced to practice and awarded a patent. Because it is fabricated with piezoelectric semiconducting materials, this transducer achieve...
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Error Correcting Sigma-Delta Modulation Decoding

Summary Conventional sigma-delta analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) systems may be significantly enhanced by using a recently developed novel design approach. The technique involves instrumenting an ADC’s modulator subsystem with an observation circuit to provide quantized estimates of the modulat...
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Spatial Light Modulator

Summary This is a fluidic all-optical switch that alters the path of a light beam by controlling the geometry of a reflective surface that is defined by the interface between two fluids. The device has also been described as a "deformable mirror," since it employs conducting polymers and fluids. ...
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A method for Fabricating Optical waveguides and other Optical Devices in Three D

Summary This invention describes a method to directly write optical elements in three dimensions inside a transparent material using an unamplified femtosecond laser. Ultrashort pulses from a laser oscillator are tightly focused into the material, causing localized heating and subsequently producing...
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Compressed Bloom Filter

Summary A Bloom filter is a simple space-efficient randomized data structure for representing a set in order to support membership queries. Compressed Bloom filters improve performance when the Bloom filter is passed as a message; its transmission size is a limiting factor. Bloom filters have been s...
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Microscale Electromagnetic Device

Summary This invention concerns devices and methodology to control the positioning and movement of magnetic and non-magnetic nanoparticles in a fluid with nanometer precision. The devices allow for the independent and simultaneous control of many particles. The devices utilize a grid of current carr...
...

Production of Digitized Stereoscopic Polarizing Images by Inkjet Printing

Summary The Technology The Stereo Imaging Research Group developed methods, materials and applications for stereoscopic hardcopy. The group's StereoJet process forms polarizing images by inkjet printing, using commercial desktop printers without modification. Key inventions include specialized su...
...

Using Electro-magnetically Induced Transparency in Photonic Crystal Cavities to

Summary This invention describes a photonic crystal system which uses electro-magnetically induced transparency (EIT) as the non-linear medium in photonic crystal cavities to obtain devices of unprecedent non-linear sensitivity, with operating power requirements many orders of magnitude smaller than...
...

Keyboard Having Touch Sensor Keys for Conveying Information Electronically

Summary This invention uses an array of sensors, which enable a human to use his fingers or tongue to convey information electronically. The sensors are arranged to produce signal patterns by responding to the positioning of the finger or tongue within the action area, with finger or tongue pressure...
...

Magneto-Luminescent Transducer

Summary This invention provides a one step process for reading magnetic data and converting the magnetic digital signal directly into an optical signal. This invention enables an electronic system, which includes a three terminal device having a light emitting portion and a magnetically sensitive po...
...

Asynchronous Circuit Techniques for Memory Error Correction

Summary This invention describes a circuit technique for rapidly and efficiently correcting for read and write data errors in a digital semiconductor memory. More specifically, it involves the design of an error-correcting circuit (ECC) as applied to high density and low latency memories, especially...
...

A Self-sustained Soliton Oscillator Utilizing Nonlinear Transmission Lines and Spectrum-preservice Nonlinear Amplification

Background Conventional traveling wave oscillators that require high-speed clock signals generally employ a linear transmission line over which sinusoidal waves are propagated. In such systems, linear amplifiers are employed to overcome resistive losses present in the transmission line so as to m...
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A Microconcentrator and Microfilter for Suspensions such as Blood

Summary Background: In healthcare, chemical analysis, environmental testing and other fields it is useful to separate particulate substances that are suspended in a fluid. For example separating cells from body fluids. So far, these techniques have typically required substantial capital equipment...
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Generation of Monodisperse Particles using Microfluidics: Control over Size, Shape and Composition

Summary The invention constitutes microfluidic methods of forming particles that are substantially monodisperse. The technology builds on the technology disclosed in Harvard Case: 2215 – "Method and Apparatus for Fluid Dispersion", which creates monodisperse fluid droplets in a microfluidic flow f...
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Correlated Mutation Analysis-assisted Chimeric-Engineering/Directed-Evolution of Novel Portein/Enzyme Function

Summary Chimeric protein engineering and directed-evolution are increasingly popular methods to obtain enzymes with desired activities and substrate specificities. Chimeric-engineering goes about this by grafting select components of two homologous enzymes together (preserving activity while combina...
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Scanning Dielectrophoretic Tweezers for Particle Manipulation and Sensing

Summary Invention This invention is capable of positioning and sensing particles with intense localized electric fields. In one implementation of the invention, closely spaced electrodes on a tip generate a local radio frequency (RF) electric field at the end of the tip. In one aspect, the tip can b...
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Active Optical Antennas

Summary Background Optical antennas are single or coupled metallic nanoparticles in which optical excitation of surface plasmons can produce very high intensities in the optical near field. The field enhancement relative to the incident field is maximum when the wavelength is suitably matched to the...
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Microscopy Methods and Apparatus for Manipulation and/or Detection of Biological Samples and Other Objects

Summary Invention The invention is an integrated circuit(IC)/microfluidic hybrid system that combines the biocompatibility of microfluidic systems with the programmability of IC chips. The hybrid system consists of an IC and a microfluidic system fabricated on top of the IC. Biological cells atta...
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Fastlock Integer/Fractional-N Hybrid PLL Frequency Synthesizer

Summary Settling time is an important performance metric in the phase-locked loop (PLL) frequency synthesizers. To achieve a fast settling time, the PLL loop bandwidth should be increased. In the widely used charge pump PLLs, however, the loop bandwidth cannot be undoubtedly large, but rather, is li...
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An Ultra Low Power System Architecture for Sensor Network Applications

Summary Ultra-low-power chip for sensor network applications Application and Benefits: Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are used in a wide variety of applications including environmental monitoring, vehicle tracking, health-care, and business supply-chain management. Often such networks must prov...
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A Low Cost and Versatile Microbial Fuel Cell

Summary A novel, low-cost microbial fuel cell (MFC) capable of delivering high power, high-efficiency energy. The MFC takes advantage of an easily accessible and ubiquitous carbon source. The organic carbon source can be metabolized by a wide number of microbial types and the Girguis laboratory has ...
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Creating Nano-Wrinkles of Virtually any Design on the Surface of Polymers

Summary Creating Nano-Wrinkles of Virtually any Design on the Surface of Polymers Elevator pitch: A new method has been developed at Harvard to design and create virtually any type of nano-wrinkle patterns on the surfaces of polymers. Anticipated applications for these hard-skin nano-wrinkled s...
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A Framework for Wavelet-Based Analysis and Processing of Color FIlter Array Images

Summary Background In digital imaging applications, data are typically obtained via a spatial subsampling procedure implemented as a color filter array (CFA). CFA assigns a separate primary color to each pixel by placing a filter of that color over the pixel. The most well known CFA is the Bayer ...
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A Novel Color Filter Array Design

Summary Background In digital imaging applications, data are typically obtained via a spatial subsampling procedure implemented as a color filter array (CFA). CFA assigns a separate primary color to each pixel by placing a filter of that color over the pixel. The most well known CFA is the Bayer ...
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Portable and Inexpensive Chemical and Biological Sensors

Summary The broadly tunable quantum cascade laser (QCL) described in this invention enables the production of a small, portable chemical and biological sensor that can detect a range of molecules within a single, compact device. Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs) are intraband semiconductor lasers that c...
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Biological Computers: in Vivo Autonomous Doctors that Diagnose and Treat Disease

Summary Background: The promise of computers made from biological molecules lies in their potential to operate within the biochemical environment of a living organism and to interact with that environment through inputs and outputs with other biological molecules. For example, a biomolecular compute...
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A Device for Allocation of Frozen Biological Samples Such as Blood and Tissues

Summary The frozen sample aliquotting instrument will extract aliquots from frozen samples such as plasma and serum without thawing the sample. This represents a new approach for biorepositories that will ensure that samples will experience only one freeze/thaw cycle, and dramatically reduce the lab...
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Novel and Efficient Algorithm for Analyzing Large Genotypic and Phenotypic Data Sets in Clinical Trials

Summary Background: Recent technologies such as genotype sequencing and gene expression arrays result in datasets that typically have many more variables than data points. As a consequence, these variables have a complex, high-dimensional dependency structure that is most likely unknown. As such, pr...
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DNA Nanotube Liquid Crystals for NMR Structure Determination

Summary Scientists at the Harvard Medical School and the Dana-Farber Cancer institute have discovered how to make DNA nanotubes of a uniform length that will self-assemble into liquid crystals. A solution comprising liquid crystalline DNA nanotubes is resistant to detergent and enables liquid-crysta...
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Microfabricated, Chip-Based, Low-Power Optical Tweezers

Summary Since they were first demonstrated over twenty years ago, optical tweezers have been widely used for the manipulation and measurement of many microscale particles, particularly in the biological sciences. However, many of these systems require large, high-powered laser systems along with bul...
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Slowing Down Light for Enhanced Detection of Biomolecules

Summary Allows for optical sensing and chemical and biological detection using extremely small and highly-sensitive devices. Also allows for fabrication of exceptionally small lasers for applications in displays and telecommunications, quantum optical devices, and barcoding. Applications The phot...
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Method of Thick Specimen Imaging

Summary Conventional light microscopy can be used to visualize fine details of complex structures at or within microns of the surface of histological specimens. To see below the surface of a specimen, histologists currently slice it into thin sections to bring deeper structures to the surface. The p...
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Microfabricated, Chip-Based, Low-Power Optical Tweezers

Summary Since they were first demonstrated over twenty years ago, optical tweezers have been widely used for the manipulation and measurement of many microscale particles, particularly in the biological sciences. However, many of these systems require large, high-powered laser systems along with bul...
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HBPA Photoaffinity Probe

Summary This invention describes a photolabeling reagent p-(4-hydroxybenzoyl)phenylalanine (HBPA) which overcomes many difficulties associated with BPA. Patent protection includes this compound's synthesis and use in photolabeling. Harvard's intellectual property portfolio includes the following ...
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Techniques for high yield synthesis of macrocyclic compounds

Summary Many useful pharmaceuticals, including natural products, have a macrocyclic structure that can be a challenge when exploring synthesis methods. The Walsh Laboratory has discovered a new process using of a solid-phase resin to synthesize macrocycle compounds, including polyketide synthase (PK...
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Production of Digitized Stereoscopic Polarizing Images by Inkjet Printing

Summary The Technology The Stereo Imaging Research Group developed methods, materials and applications for stereoscopic hardcopy. The group's StereoJet process forms polarizing images by inkjet printing, using commercial desktop printers without modification. Key inventions include specialized su...
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Production of Improved Digitized Stereoscopic Polarizing Images

Summary The Technology The Stereo Imaging Research Group developed methods, materials and applications for stereoscopic hardcopy. The group's StereoJet process forms polarizing images by inkjet printing, using commercial desktop printers without modification. Key inventions include specialized su...
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Coating Methods and Compositions for Production of Digitized Stereoscopic Polari

Summary The Technology The Stereo Imaging Research Group developed methods, materials and applications for stereoscopic hardcopy. The group's StereoJet process forms polarizing images by inkjet printing, using commercial desktop printers without modification. Key inventions include specialized su...
...

A Microconcentrator and Microfilter for Suspensions such as Blood

Summary Background: In healthcare, chemical analysis, environmental testing and other fields it is useful to separate particulate substances that are suspended in a fluid. For example separating cells from body fluids. So far, these techniques have typically required substantial capital equipment...
...

Generation of Monodisperse Particles using Microfluidics: Control over Size, Shape and Composition

Summary The invention constitutes microfluidic methods of forming particles that are substantially monodisperse. The technology builds on the technology disclosed in Harvard Case: 2215 – "Method and Apparatus for Fluid Dispersion", which creates monodisperse fluid droplets in a microfluidic flow f...
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"'Armored"' Bubbles and Droplets

Summary Background: Colloidal particles absorbed on liquid interfaces have long been reported to stabilize emulsions and foams. Recently, individual droplets densely covered with small particles have been proposed as a possible means of obtaining a variety of composite particles and hollow locked...
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Array of Micro Differential Scanning Calorimeters for Combinatorial Studies

Summary Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a primary technique for measuring the thermal properties of materials. A typical DSC system requires relatively large amounts of test material, making thermal measurements on nano-scale samples difficult if not impossible. Thus, while traditional DS...
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Process for Structural Alteration of Selected Material ("Micro-Engraving")

Summary This invention is comprised of methods and apparatus required to record and read-out a two- or three- dimensional, information-bearing image (pattern) inside a transparent material, with sub-micron features. The technique involves using an ultra-fast (100 femtosecond) laser to induce localiz...
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Cooling System for High Power Diode Laser Bar

Introduction There are currently a number of approaches being used to package (cool) high power laser diode bars. The most standard is a simple copper heat spreader below the diode. For high power laser diodes, this is problematic due to thermally induced stresses that result in a short lifetime. Te...
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Miniaturized Fluorescence Analysis System

Introduction Fluorescent dyes are widely used in biological assays to measure the concentration of DNA, RNA, and whole cells, and to measure other properties such as enzyme activity and cell health. As PCR and other molecular diagnostics methods become the standard of care in the diagnosis and monit...
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Three-Dimensionial Imaging System for Three-Dimensional Velocity and Temperature Measurement

Introduction Turbulent convective heat and mass transfer is one of the most frequently encountered physical processes in applied engineering, and can be inherently difficult to study and to predict. These flows are a combination of turbulent fluid dynamics, heat or mass transfer, and their int...
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Multilevel Modulation for Free Space Optical (FSO) Communications and Error Correction Methodology

Introduction Wireless optical links, or free space optics (FSO), enable point-to-point, high-speed communication with low installation costs and high levels of security, and they are especially useful in situations where fiberoptics are impractical. Unfortunately, this technique suffers from signal ...
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Influencing the orientation of chromophores to increase the opticelectric effect

Introduction The electro-optic effect, important for optical communications and quantum optics, occurs in materials that alter their refractive index in the presence of an electrical field. One of the more important specific electro-optic effects is known as the Pockels effect. Materials exhibiting ...
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Inductive Salinometer with Data Logging Capabilities and Toroidal Sensor

Introduction Salinity levels in seawater are not constant and can vary dramatically both temporally and spatially due to phenomena such as temperature, precipitation, deep-water upwelling, and tidal action. These variations are especially pronounced in coastal and estuarine waters where seawater int...
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Crosslinkable Hole Transporting Materials for Organic Lightemitting Diodes

Introduction High-performance organic or polymer light-emitting diodes comprise multilayer configurations having hole-transporting, emissive and electron-transporting layers to balance the injection and transport of both holes and electrons. In general, holetransporting material is the first applied...
...

Application of Grating Light Reflection Spectroscopy in Analytical Sensors

Introduction There are a number of methods for measuring bulk fluid compositions in statics and flow by visible light reflection characteristics from the optically inhomogeneous wall of a vessel. Surface Plasmon Spectroscopy (SPS) on gratings and randomly rough surfaces has proven to be especially s...
...

Electrospray Evaporative Spray Cooling (EESC)

Introduction As electronic devices get increasingly more powerful and more compact, there are an increasing number of semiconductor components that emit an increasing amount of heat. In order to ensure that these devices remain long-lived and reliable, more efficient methods of dissipating heat buil...
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Self-Assembled, Fixed Heterojunctions in Organic Semiconducting Polymers

Introduction Polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) are experiencing increasing scientific and industrial interest as solid-state sources of luminescence, thanks to their good electroluminescence efficiency, low driving voltages and ease of fabrication. While LECs as initially proposed ...
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Self-Bias and Digitally Tunable Conduction Angle Circuits for Differential RF Non-linear Power Amplifier Employing Low-Voltage Transistors

Introduction Transistor feature sizes are scaling to smaller and smaller dimensions in order to maximize the level of integration and operating speed of system-on-chip solutions. Unfortunately, lower breakdown voltages of the transistors accompany the smaller physical dimensions. This is problematic...
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Connector-Nut Driver

Introduction With the growing importance placed on compactness, it becomes increasingly difficult to install and maintain necessary equipment. This can be especially problematic with connectors, such as with electrical tubing connectors and nuts, that require hands-on tightening. The connector’s loc...
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Charge-based frequency measurement BIST

Introduction Analog and mixed-signal testing is an important issue that affects both the time-to-market and product cost of many modem electronic systems. One key to the success of products with these properties is Built-In Self-Test (BIST) of circuits and systems. Although BIST for digital integrat...
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An Electrochromic Smart Window Based on a Three-electrode Configuration

Introduction Electrochromic (EC) polymer films in an electrolyte solution are generally electrochemically switched between states using a standard three-electrode configuration. Devices made from these films, however, are operated using a twoelectrode configuration. When the potential drop between t...
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Auto-Tuning Amplifier

Introduction In wireless communications and wireless products, architectures can be complex and space-consuming due to the need for circuitry that receives signals from multiple bands. System complexity and increased size leads to higher costs; thus, design improvements that save space and decrease ...
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Low-Gain Double-Sampling Switched-Capacitor Circuitry

Introduction In the electronic circuit industry, there is a continuing effort to increase circuit speeds as well as decrease circuit device sizes. As circuit designs become more advanced, circuits become faster, smaller and are able to operate with less voltage and power. In switched-capacitor circu...
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Design of Thermal Interface Material Based on High Temperature Shape Memory Alloy for Connecting Two Thermoelectric Legs

Introduction Efficient heat management is crucial for electronics to optimize performance and to avoid premature component deterioration. An area of primary concern is at the interface of adjoining thermal components, such as with heatsink interfaces and with connections between thermoelectric legs....
...

Solution Processable n-Type polymers

Introduction Conjugated polymers and organic semiconductors promise great advances in electronics because of the benefits they offer over silicon, including being cheaper with less demanding manufacturing requirements and allowing for larger, more flexible, and more robust materials that are more re...
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Self-Assembly of Hybrid Components for OLED and Flexible Displays

Introduction The market for flat panel displays is projected to reach $125 billion by 2012. Flexible displays are a fast-growing segment of this market, forecast to reach $120 billion by 2020. Cost-effective methods for low cost, high volume production of these displays at increasingly larger ...
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Projection Display for Small Handheld Devices

Introduction At present, the size of the display screen in handheld electronic devices is limited by the overall size of the device itself. With continuing miniaturization of cellphones, MP3 video players, PDAs, bar code scanners and similar mobile devices, display of legible information and useful ...
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Method of Detecting, Characterizing, and Quantifying Bulk, Light- Element Materials Using High-Energy, Penetrating X-Rays

Introduction X-rays have long been used in the characterization of a wide variety of materials. However, conventional techniques for dealing with light-element (or low-Z) materials, such as those containing nitrogen and carbon, are too low in energy to penetrate significant distances into enclosing ...
...

Electrospinning of Hollow Nanofibers

Introduction One of the problems associated with nanoscale fabrication is the ability to manufacture hollow nanofibers made of polymers, ceramics, and composite materials. Other challenges include making the hollow nanofibers at varying lengths and aligning the completed fibers into specific orienta...
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Design and Fabrication of Optical Probes that use Photo- Chemical Neural Stimulation or Inhibition

Introduction Stimulation of neural tissue is typically done with electrodes inserted into or in close proximity to the neurons. Excitation or inhibition of a neural pathway is accomplished by electrically stimulating the neighboring neurons. The lack of longterm functionality of these electrodes is ...
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Neutral Conjugated Surfactants as Electron Injection Layer in Polymer Light-emitting Diodes

Introduction Significant improvements have been made in polymer light-emitting diode (PLED) technology, including improved efficiency, high brightness, and low drive voltage. Despite advances, operational stability remains a challenge for PLED technology. There still remains a need for an efficient...
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Electrochemical Printing for 2 & 3 Dimensional Rapid Fabrication

Introduction Electrochemical Fabrication is the process of manufacturing a wide array of devices by either electrodeposition of pure metal/alloys on substrates or by selectively producing and/or removing material from the substrate through the use of spatially controlled electrochemical reactions. M...
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Carbon Nanotube-based Thermal Interface Material

Introduction Thermal management is an increasingly serious challenge for the semiconductor device industry as the density of circuit elements continues to increase in accordance with Moore’s Law. Effective methods to remove heat are essential to proper packaging and operation of next generation inte...
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Mechanosensor Based on Arrayed Dome-shaped Flemion

Introduction Mechanosensors are found throughout nature, for example, in both plant and animal tissue, specific cells are capable of sensing mechanical movement. Remarkably, some cells sense mechanical forces in three dimensions. Mimicking these types of sensors with human-made materials represents ...
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Improved Design of FSMA Inchworm Actuator

Introduction There is great demand for new, compact, but powerful actuators in a variety of industries which can replace heavy actuators, such as the hydraulic actuator and the electrical motor with gear box. Technology description Researchers at the UW have developed an improved design of a ferroma...
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Electrochromic “Smart” Windows

Introduction Coatings for optical glass and vision products have been on the market for several decades. The older coatings change from transparent to colored under the effect of ultra-violet radiation. Newer coatings have been developed whose transparency can be changed electrically. But these inor...
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A New Protocol of Diels-Alder Lattice Hardening for Highly Efficient Electro-optic Materials Showing Outstanding Temporal Stability over 200 Degrees C

Introduction Organic electro-optic (EO) materials have attracted much interest in the past two decades because of their extensive potential applications in various fields, ranging from waveguides, switches, emitters, and detectors. Though EO materials have a huge potential in Photonics and Electroni...
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Method of High-Performance CMOS Design

Introduction Dynamic circuit families such as domino are commonly used in today’s highperformance microprocessors for obtaining timing goals that are not possible using static complimentary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuit. Their increased performance is due to reduced input capacitance, low...
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Thermo-reversibly Crosslinked Cladding Materials with Highly Tunable Conductivity for Nonlinear Optical Polymer-based Devices

Introduction A typical electro-optic waveguide device includes a lower electrode layer, a lower cladding layer, an active guiding layer, an upper cladding layer, and an upper electrode layer. The purpose of the cladding layers in an electro-optic device is to confine light in the active guiding laye...
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Microcellular Electrical Wire Coatings

Introduction In microcellular plastic foams, inert gas is dissolved in thermoplastic under high pressure. The forced evacuation of this gas during processing creates pores (or cells) within the final hardened plastic. These cells are small enough that clarity of the plastic is unaffected, and becaus...
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High-efficiency Light-emitting Diodes Using Neutral Surfactants and Aluminum Cathode

Introduction Light emitting diodes (LED) are desirable for displays due to their high energy efficiency, as compared to more traditional technologies like liquid crystal displays (LCD), which require a backlight. However LEDs are expensive to manufacture. Organic light emitting diodes (OLED), are a...
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Stabilized Plasma Light Source for EUV Lithography

Introduction Researchers at the UW have developed a novel technique to produce a gas discharge plasma with a lifetime up to 2000 times longer than conventional methods. The plasma can serve as a stable light source for extreme ultraviolet lithography processing of microelectronic devices. Technology...
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Micro-Fabricated Heat Exchanger for High-Power Diode Laser

Introduction Diode bars, a type of high-power semiconductor laser, are finding increasing use due to their decreasing costs and high output power. However, they produce a significant amount of heat, and this can cause degradation and early failure of the laser and its mount and can complicate integr...
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Advanced Thermoelectric Materials of High Efficiency

Introduction Efficient heat management takes the form of both energy harvesting and cooling, and both are crucial in many applications, such as with electronics in order to optimize performance and to avoid premature component deterioration. In order to ensure that the constantly evolving electronic...
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Bright white electroluminescent (EL) devices

Introduction Solid state lighting technologies are being used in both specialized lighting applications and as a replacement for incandescent and fluorescent bulbs within the $12 billion lighting market. Polymer-based solid state lighting devices promise a number of key advantages including high ene...
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Energy Based Stability Control of Haptic Devices

Introduction Humans interact with their world through the five senses, but the sense of touch is primarily used in the manipulation of objects. The word haptic refers to the sense of touch, and a haptic device is one that uses the sense of touch to convey information to the user. These devices provi...
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Design of Energy Harvestor Based on Piezo-shape Memory Alloy Composites

Introduction Shape memory alloy (SMA) materials act as an energy harvestor in locations where temperature fluctuates between high and low readings (e.g. 0C – 150C for TiNi SMA). Stress change in the piezo-phase generates a voltage change and electrical power. Technology description Researchers at th...
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Development of Large Bandgap Host Materials for Phosphorescent Emitters

Introduction The performance of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) has improved dramatically over the past decades. However, the efficiencies of conjugated polymer-based phosphorescence devices usually are much lower than those of small-molecule based devices. Although external efficiencies of gr...
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Tubular Electronics

Introduction As the demand for smaller and more portable consumer electronics increases, new designs and fabrication techniques must constantly be developed in order to accommodate and take advantage of the changes. Power supplies and adapters, for instance, are now often larger than the devices for...
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Implementing Mimo in Mobile Devices By Means of Virtual Receive Antennas

BACKGROUND MIMO (Multiple-Input Multiple-Output) technology is increasingly viewed as a solution to the ever increasing data rates required in mobile devices and its use is taking off, particularly in wireless LAN networks and future cellular communication systems. Among the existing MIMO schemes, s...
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High Power Transistors for Use At High Frequencies

BACKGROUND Prof. Mo Missous at the School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, the University of Manchester has developed a family of prototype high power high frequency transistors with high breakdown voltage (>20V). They are InP-InGaAs/InAlAs. pseudomorphic High Electron Mobility Transistors ...
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Three-dimensional (3-D) Thin-Film Microbattery

The Invention The 3-D Thin-film Microbattery is a, lithium or lithium-ion battery conformally formed on all exposed surfaces of a perforated substrate. The extended area provides an increase of 1-2 orders of magnitude in specific energy (per volume and weight) and capacity vs. conventional planar t...
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A novel system for rapid fluorescence detection of non-amplified nucleic acid sequences

The Invention A new homogeneous technique which utilizes fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to directly detect and distinguish specific DNA sequences without requiring either an amplification step or a separation step has been developed. The detection system is capable of detecting very ...
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Transparent X-ray Beam Diagnostics

BACKGROUND Today X-ray beams are used in many areas in science and engineering. Their unique properties give a wealth of information in a non-destructive manner. Research with highly collimated beams such as produced by synchrotron and electron laser facilities provide powerful probes for microscopi...
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Electroluminescent Yarns

BACKGROUND The concept of electroluminescent (EL) materials is based on the exposure of an electroluminescent substance to a high frequency electrical field, in contrast to photoluminescence in which a light source is needed to provide stimulation. EL polymer sheets are created using micro-encapsula...
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Photonic Devices Having Degenerate or Split Spectral Band Edges

Background: The manipulation of electromagnetic energy can be advantageous to numerous applications within many industries. For instance, much effort has been focused on reducing the velocity of electromagnetic energy, such as light and microwave pulses. The reduced velocity of electromagnetic ener...
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Concurrent Mode Antenna System

Background: With advances of radio communication technology, various radio communication services available using wireless terminals such as mobile phones, personal digital assistants, personal computers, and notebook computers are under development. For example, Global System for Mobile communicat...
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Compact Atomic Magnetometer and Gyroscope

Background: Magnetometers are used for sensing magnetic fields. Applications include geophysical surveying, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magneto-encephalography and perimeter surveillance. Gyroscopes sense rotation. Together, these instruments are used in inertial navigation and platfo...
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Integrated Biomedical Multimodality Imaging Probe - Optical Coherence Tomography/Ultrasound/Photoacoustics Imaging System

Background: In clinical applications for the examination of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, leg and other vessels, ultrasound imaging (USI) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are two of the most widely used imaging modalities. USI and OCT both measure cross-sectional tissue profile. OCT measur...
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Method and System of Elasto-Optical Tomography for Breast Cancer Imaging

Background: Currently, X-ray mammography is the widely accepted method for the detection of changes in the breast that may be cancer. However, this screening technique lacks specificity to determine whether detected abnormalities are either benign or malignant. A significant number of suspicious ma...
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Environment to Environment Connection

Background: Most common communication involves interaction directly from a person to another person. When technology started mediating communication, devices started playing a more important role and much device to device (D2D) communication was introduced. For example, a telephone, land or mobile,...
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Methods of Manufacturing Microdevices in Laminates, Lead Frames, Packages, and Printed Circuit Boards

Background: Microelectrical-mechanical systems (MEMS) are miniature mechanical devices intended to perform non-electronic functions such as sensing or actuation. These devices are typically built from silicon using lithographic techniques borrowed from the semiconductor industry. This manufacturing...
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Rescanning Laser Scanning Confocal Microscope

Background: The laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) is widely used as a confocal microscopy technique for imaging fluorescent objects in a manner that removes out of focus fluorescent light and thus provides increased axial resolution and better imaging compared to a standard fluorescence mic...
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A New Analog Hardware-Efficient Multi-Antenna Receiver Architechtur for Spatial Multiplexing, Spatial Diversity and Beamforming

Background: Multi-antenna communications have demonstrated remarkable performance improvements in wireless systems and hold a promising future for applications that demand higher data rate, enhanced quality of service, and better reliability. However, in systems where multiple transmit and multiple...
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Optimizing Sound to Suppress Tinnitus

Background: Tinnitus is the perception of sound in the absence of corresponding external sounds. Although known for its high-pitched ringing, tinnitus is an internal noise that varies in pitch and frequency. Tinnitus affects approximately 50 million people in the United States. Treatments such as d...
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A Multi-Band, Inductor Re-Use Low Noise Amplifier

Background: In recent years, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems have proven to enhance data rate and provide robust signal reception under a variety of environmental settings. However, its employment of multiple antennas in turn require multiple branches of RF front ends resulting in inc...
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Eco Wireless Sensor Node

Background: Many wearable wireless sensor systems have similar looking architectures. To reduce unnecessary redundant design effort, modular, expandable platforms have been proposed. They include features such as snap-on connectors to make the interface pins accessible. End users can then customize...
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Integrated Direct Electron Imaging Sensors

Background: Conventional charged particle imaging sensors use film and charged couple device (CCD). CCD has poor radiation tolerance and records images indirectly while the film is an analog recorder, unsuitable for high throughput digital imaging. What is needed then, is a direct, digital imaging ...
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High-Velocity, Ion-Driven Wind Generator

Background: A fluid can be accelerated to high velocities using electrostatic forces and no moving parts. This concept, termed "ion-driven", "ionic", "Chattock", "electrohydrodynamic", "electrokinetic" or "corona" wind, has been known for over a hundred years. However, only a few meters per second ...
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Novel Distributed Direct Conversion Receiver for UWB Systems

Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) wireless broadcasts are capable of carrying huge amounts of data up to 250 feet with extremely little transmit power and high immunity to interference and multipath fading. The spread spectrum characteristics of UWB wireless systems, and the ability of UWB wireless receivers to...
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Distributed RF Front-End for UWB Receivers

Background: Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) wireless broadcasts are capable of carrying huge amounts of data up to 250 feet with extremely little transmit power and high immunity to interference and multipath fading. The spread spectrum characteristics of UWB wireless systems, and the ability of UWB wireless...
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Real-Time Electrochemical Detection of Targets Using Phage-Displayed Polypeptides

Background: With up to 10^12 unique members, phage-displayed libraries provide a vast pool of candidate receptors to essentially any target. Despite this tremendous potential of phage-displayed libraries for universal molecular recognition, the technique has found only limited application in biosen...
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Transmit Beamforming for a Large Reconfigurable Antenna Array

Background: Many space-time transmission schemes have been proposed recently to exploit the high channel capacity of MIMO communication systems. However, algorithms for a large antenna array (LAA) remain an open research problem. The standard channel estimation and space-time modulation schemes are...
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Wafer-Level Micro-Glass Blowing

Background: Large scale confinement chambers have been created in the past using traditional glass-blowing techniques. However, conventional glass-blowing can only be used to create large components and requires the components to be made one at a time. Micro-glass spheres have previously been fabri...
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Universal Gain Cells for Broadband Amplifiers

Background: Designing distributed amplifiers by using heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) is a great challenge compared with using field effect transistors. The reasons causing this challenge are a) the input capacitance, C?, of HBT is typically an order of magnitude larger than input capacit...
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Successive Transmit Beamforming Algorithms for Multiple-Antenna OFDM Systems

Background: In this paper, we focus on the design and evaluation of new transmit beamforming algorithms for the multiple-input single-output (MISO) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. The OFDM technique is very effective in combating frequency selective fading since it conver...
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Novel Successive Beamforming Schemes for Multiple Antenna Systems

Background: A new trend in wireless communications is to use multiple transmit and receive antennas such as those found in MIMO wireless systems, to attain higher data rate, better signal quality, and superior system flexibility. Transmit beamforming has been widely adopted for wireless systems wit...
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Single-Mask Fabrication Process for Linear and Angular Piezoresistive Accelerometers

Background: Piezoresistive accelerometers are traditionally fabricated by doping selected areas of wafer to achieve isolated pn-junctions. Often, two separate doping steps are employed to obtain both highly-doped conductors as well as lightly-doped piezoresistors. Once the piezoresistors and conduc...
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Broadband Power Amplifier with a Novel Tunable Output Matching Network

Background: In the past decade, InGaP/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) have been the key technology in delivering solutions for both high efficiency and high linearity monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) power amplifiers in various wireless communication systems, such as GS...
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Environmentally-Sensitive Reconfigurable Antenna

Background: With the exception of light-based sensors, that change their light interaction properties, all sensors require some power in order to operate and provide a signal to a remote source. Light-based systems are readily blocked by typical obstructions such as buildings, trees, and vegetation...
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Applications of Photonic Crystals with Degenerate Spectral Band Edge

In a vacuum, light propagates with a constant velocity, while in an optically transparent non-dispersive media, the speed of light propagation can be different. At optical frequencies, the refractive index of transparent materials usually does not exceed several units, and the speed of light propaga...
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Method and Apparatus of Using 3D Conductive Structures in Dielectrophoretic Separation Applications

Background: Researchers estimate that 80% of all machine failures are due to wear and that 1.3~1.6% of the GNP is lost to degradation of machinery due to friction-related wear. The abnormal abrasive wear due to lubricant contamination in marine diesel engines eclipses that of normal wear and the ga...
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Methods for Making 2D Nanoscale PN Junctions and Junction Arrays

Background: Silicon-based device structures capable of laser emission are highly desirable since they allow realization of integrated opto-electronic circuits. Unfortunately, it is generally believed that silicon's inherent bandgap prevents its use, alone, as lasing media. Numerous approaches to ov...
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New Multiphase LLC Resonant Voltage Regulators for Next Generation Microprocessors

Background: Recent developments in semiconductor manufacturing technology have resulted in unprecedented density of transistor elements per silicon area. This new technology facilitates a dramatic increase in circuit complexity of the modern computer and communication hardware. With transistors dim...
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Composite Transistors for Compensation of HBT Self-heating Effect and Enhancement of HBT Linearity

Background: Heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBT's) are the key components in the high output power densities circuits at microwave frequencies and are increasingly being utilized for large signal applications such as power amplifiers, oscillators, and mixers. These high power densities in HBT c...
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A Broadband Amplifier with Huge Gain-bandwidth Product and Low Power Consumption

Background: Without a distributed amplifier, most broadband amplifier bandwidths can be achieved around 1/10 to 1/3 of their fT only. Therefore, a high bandwidth amplifier requires high fT (at least 3-10 times of the amplifier bandwidth) transistors in order to achieve high bandwidth. Unfortunately...
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Immunoassay Apparatus and Method Using Flow Induced Electrical Admittance

Background: There remains a need for new immunoassay techniques and related devices for performing immunoassays with improved simplicity, efficiency and/or accuracy. The present invention provides for a new immunoassay method, namely, a flow induced electrical admittance immunoassay (FIEAI). This p...
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Microfluidic Flow Transducer Based on the Measurement of Electrical Admittance

Background: The development of multifunctional, high throughput lab-on-a-chip depends heavily on the ability to measure flow rate and perform quantitative analysis of fluids in minute volumes. Traditionally, there have been many microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based flow sensors for gaseous fl...
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Optimal Spatial Sub-channel Resources Allocation Mechanism for Sustainable Bit Rate Wireless Conduits

Background: The latest video compression standard (MPEG-4) has moved the wireless industry one step closer to the world of high quality multimedia services. Commercial wireless MPEG-4 video codec systems can already support up to Level 3 of the MPEG Simple Visual Profile. However, the issue of how ...
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Photonic Slab with Axially Frozen Mode

Background: A unidirectional gyrotropic photonic crystal allows electromagnetic wave propagation in a certain direction at a certain frequency and at the same time, impedes electromagnetic wave propagation in the opposite direction. The electromagnetic wave with impeded propagation, called the "fro...
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RF MEMS Technology for Fabricating RF MEMS Switches

University researchers have invented a low-cost, high performance, and substrate independent RF MEMS technology for RF MEMS switch fabrication with high yield and reliability. It is compatible with well established printed circuit board (PCB) technology and allows the choice of any substrate with de...
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Ion Optical Element for Use in Controlling Charged Particle Beams

Background: Previously, reflectrons consisted of stacks of discrete electrodes. These stacks can be expensive to manufacture and contain inherent imperfections - the field over the assembly of electrodes is not precisely linear. Technology: UC researchers have devised a solution that replaces th...
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A Laser System for the Generation of Pulses with Duration in the Pico-second Range and a Narrow Bandwidth

UCI researchers have developed a laser system for the generation of pulses with duration in the picosecond range and a narrow bandwidth. The laser system produces pulses with a duration of about 25 ps. The radiation can be tuned between 410 nm and 2000nm. The bandwidth of the radiation is spectrally...
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Gyrotropic Phontonic Crystals and their Applications in Microwave Technology

By proper spatial arrangement of magnetic and dielectric components, one can construct a magnetic photonic crystal with strong spectral asymmetry (nonreciprocity). The spatial asymmetry, in turn, results in a number of interesting phenomena, in particular, one-way transparency when the magnetic phot...
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High Speed Circuit Board Writing

A method of printing lines on circuit boards from computer information in a manner similar to using an inkjet printer. Utilizing capillary stream break-up of molten metal droplets, this novel approach is capable of printing very fine lines on the order of 10 microns wide and many centimeters long at...
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A General Constant Frequency Pulse-Width Modulator and Its Applications

Background: Switching converters are commonly used to provide DC to DC, DC to AC, AC to DC, and AC to AC conversion of electrical waveforms. These converters are often categorized by applicable circuit configuration and/or capabilities, and include buck converters (where the load voltage is less th...
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One Cycle Control of Bipolar Switching Power Amplifiers

Researchers at the Power Electronics Laboratory at University of California, Irvine, received a U.S. patent for a device that uses one cycle control for controlling DC-to-AC switching converters. This is achieved by forcing the average of a controlled switched variable to be exactly equal to the con...
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Data Compression of Time-Varying Images

Background: Current methods of transmitting time-varying images involve encoding the digital image information into a set of still frames. To reduce the bandwidth necessary to transmit the full image, compression techniques are used to eliminate statistically redundant information in the pixel inte...
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Fail-Safe, Inexpensive Electrochemical Device Stack Design

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Small scale fuel cell applications (auxillary power units) Small scale syngas production Small scale gas separation ADVANTAGES: Improved stack efficiency (10% more power output than a single cell of the same active area) Potentially over ten times less expensiv...
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Control System for a Power Supply

FEATURES Power supplies are used in numerous devices and applications as sources for voltage and/or current. In some devices, such as mass spectrometers, the accuracy of the voltage output of a power supply is a consideration in the overall performance of the device. Voltage drift and noise can ad...
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