Engineering - Electrical Patents for Sale or License

Quick-Connect Interface for Alarm Systems

The patent consists of a PCB electronic board that connects to standard anti-theft powerhouses for residential or commercial premises, simplifies and speeds up work. It dims installation times, captures sensors and peripherals automatically, simplifies work and lowers plant costs.
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Quick-connect Interface for Alarm Systems

It dims installation times, captures sensors and peripherals automatically, simplifies work and lowers plant costs. The patent consists of a PCB electronic board that connects to standard anti-theft powerhouses for residential or commercial premises, simplifies and speeds up work. Converting wire / wire connections to RJ11 / data connections. Decreasing working times and labor costs. Making the system expandable immediately after inserting the new connector of the new sensor or peripheral, wi
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Systems and Methods for Determining a Cardiovascular Condition of a Subject

The present invention provides a Diversity Coding--Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (DC-OFDM) system and method that applies diversity coding to OFDM-based systems and provides improved probability of successful reception at the receiver and transparent self-healing and fault-tolerance. Diversity coding is well suited for OFDM-based systems because of its spatial diversity nature (parallel links). DC-OFDM provides the best performance when the probability of link error is high or when
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Passive Electric Field Focus System for In Vivo and In Vitro Applications

The present invention provides a system and method of directing, focusing, or concentrating electrical charges within a defined electric field so that these charges can be used to exert forces on cells and tissues in vivo and/or cell cultures in vitro. The present invention reduces and/or eliminates the damage at a target site that would normally be caused by an electrode that acts as a current source or sink to accomplish the same task.
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Digitally Controlled Wide Range Pulse Width Modulator

The present invention provides a digitally controlled, current starved, pulse width modulator (PWM). In the PWM of the present invention, the amount of current from the voltage source to the ring oscillator is controlled by the proposed header circuit. By changing the header current, the pulse width of the switching signal generated at the output of the ring oscillator is dynamically controlled, where the duty cycle can vary between 50% and 90%. A duty cycle to voltage converter is used to ensur
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Alloy Nanoparticles for Metal-enhanced Luminescence

The present invention provides a digitally controlled, current starved, pulse width modulator (PWM). In the PWM of the present invention, the amount of current from the voltage source to the ring oscillator is controlled by the proposed header circuit. By changing the header current, the pulse width of the switching signal generated at the output of the ring oscillator is dynamically controlled, where the duty cycle can vary between 50% and 90%. A duty cycle to voltage converter is used to ensur
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Electric Drive Vehicle and the Procedure of Use

Our patent is a breakthrough in the electric car charging technology and in the electric mobility. Today's electric cars have a very big problem: the charging of the batteries is too slow, and the driver has to stop even while "fast charging", wasting her/his time. Our patent is about FAST CHARGING AT MOTION, that means, we have found a technical solution in that the electric car user don't have to stop and wait while electrically charging his/her electric car. Due to our patent the electric car
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Automatic Local Electric Management System

This invention automates a key component of local electric power distribution system, a traditional circuit breaker panel into an intelligent service panel and to enable it to function as an intelligent gateway to the power grid, an automatic local power distribution system, and an automatic local energy management center. Through integrated monitoring and controlling, the intelligent service panel can automatically control the power consumption and energy storage of local electric system accord
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Electric Generator with efficiency more 100% and electricity production without input energy

This invention is an electric generator which can produce electricity by filter of magnetic field and input energy. In other words it is motor which moves without needing for input energy (electricity or any other energy). The period of ending the project is for a year and we need an investor to produce the first sample. We will hostile acts to assure investor including putting any letter of guarantee and security, the possibility of termination of contract and paying establishment changes if we
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Modern connector by melt aluminium for electric cables

The continuity electricity feeding at customers it is an important performance indicator for power system. Many faults becomes from electric contacts in cables. Using classical solution by pressing aluminium, the contact resintance it is about 10-4 - 10-5 Ω. At normal function network, the contacts assure the continuity of electricity feeding. At faults network, when the shortcut curents are about 10 kA, the contacts made by pressing are heating at hight temperature and finality break the c
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Modern solution to improve electric contacts

The continuity electricity feeding at customers it is an important performance indicator for power system. Many faults becomes from electric contacts. Using classical solution by pressing aluminium, the contact resintance it is about 10-4 - 10-5 Ω. At normal function network, the contacts assure the continuity of electricity feeding. At faults network, when the shortcut curents are about 10 kA, the contacts made by pressing are heating at hight temperature and finality break the circuits.
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Protection Ground Electrodes

PROTECTION GROUND ELECTRODES WITH INJECTION OF BENTONITE EMULSION UNDER PRESSURE Earthing sockets are classically built and assembled in different standard types, depending on soil resistivity to ohm electrical resistance value imposed by the technical rules in force. The reduction of the earthing sockets electrical resistance can be achieved by installing additional electrodes, if adjacent land surfaces available, or by adding bentonite around the electrodes and connecting links which also l
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Mechanical Protection of Aerian Electric Lines at Rime and Wind

Aerian electric lines, in hard winter weather conditions, at sediment rime, are working at mechanical limit parameters. If in the same time, with rime on conductors, the wind is very strong, the mechanical forces which working to conductors and poles could be over design force limit and the electric lines goes to large demages. The Romanian energy history, in the last decade’s, record hard demages in LV, MV, HV aerian electric network in many regions with sediment rime and strong wind. The
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Absorbent Water Battery set up in the Vat of Oil Transformers

At oil transformer coils made by paper insulation, the present of water in paper lead to insulation demotion and electric faults. In the vat of transformers, at ambient temperature, the water migrates from oil in the isolation paper. The water in paper is distributed uniformly. At present times, for extracting the water from the isolate paper of coils conductors, with transformers in function, most used method consist in heating oil at 60-70 Celsius degrees, and after, when the water migrate fro
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Variable Z0 Antenna Device Design System and Method

Variable Z0 (VZ0) antenna technology is a new design or optimization methodology applicable to any antenna on any platform designed or optimized with any procedure. It is especially useful for wireless devices populating the Internet of Things (potential 10-year market - 7 TRILLION machines!), in particular improving bandwidth. VZ0 expands the design or decision space by adding another degree of freedom invariably leading to better antennas. VZ0 has been the subject of several papers
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Method and apparatus for measuring physical parameters

Remote sensing with two wires and daisy chained sensors History Sequential sensing was developed to fill a need to read the temperature of a heating pad using a microprocessor with a single pair of wires connecting remote sensors within the pad. The sensors were placed at strategic locations chosen so the average temperature could be read and any dangerous hot spot temperatures sensed. Microprocessors are able to easily and accurately read time intervals so a method of converting temper
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Multifunctional Composite Sandwich Element with Embedded Electronics

This patent describes composite sandwich or panel structure having electronic components located within the core region. The core structure is porous or made up of truss elements. Truss elements may be angled or perpendicular to the outer facesheets of the sandwich structure and may extend the entire structure or be made up of smaller discrete truss elements. The composite sandwich structure may have redundant electronic components or circuitry, which is activated if equivalent components or c
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Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) capacitive sensing circuit

The present invention discloses a Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) capacitive sensing circuit wherein two input nodes of a fully differential amplifier are separately connected to a MEMS capacitive sensing device and a matching capacitor, which both contain similar capacity value and connect to a bias node, and two resistors separately connect the MEMS capacitive sensing device and the matching capacitor to ground (zero voltage). Thus, the present invention could effectively eliminate the
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Sample and hold circuit and method for maintaining unity power factor

An AC electrical system has a source voltage and current interconnected through an energy storage device with a load. A unity power factor control circuit maintains unity power factor incorporating the steps of producing a sample and hold voltage related to the input voltage and an output voltage where the sample and hold voltage maintains constant values between pulses of a clock signal. A modulated signal at each clock pulse fall produces a current feedback voltage proportional to the source c
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Wideband Transducer for Measuring a Broad Range of Currents in High Voltage Conductors

This patent describes an instrument that can measure currents almost anywhere but was invented primarily for electrical power systems. This instrument is called a magnetic field current sensor (MFCS). A website at www.frsconsulting.biz describes the instrument in detail and covers the development work done in a test laboratory, installation of a three phase power loss measuring system in a transformer manufacturing plant that has been in operation since mid 2013, and a 115 kV high voltage curr
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Modular Power Distribution and Control System

The invention describes apparatus for designing and installing power distribution systems for: residential, commercial and industrial applications, as well as for power distribution within electro-mechanical devices. The invention transforms existing labor-intense installations into practically plug-and-power type modular systems. For a specific project, pre-designed, fabricated and tested kit, including factory assembled and tested: power and control enclosures, power outlets and junction boxes
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System, apparatuses, methods, and computer program products for electric motor testing and analysis

Systems, apparatuses, methods, and computer program products (i.e., software) for electric motor testing and analysis. Electric motor winding resistance and motor temperature are measured. The resistance measurement is normalized to a common temperature and electronically displayed in a resistance versus time graph including one or more previously normalized resistance values from previous resistance and temperature measurements. Based on information from the graph, a prediction or estimation ca
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Self Starting Method and an Apparatus for Sensorless Commutation of Brushless DC Motors

Brushless DC (BLDC) motors have been gaining popularity in the Appliance, Automotive, Aerospace, Consumer, Medical, Computer and Industrial Automation industries and possess many advantages over other motors. Some of these advantages are: (a) High power density, low inertia and high torque to inertia ratio and high dynamic response due to the small size, low weight and high flux density neodymium-iron-boron permanent magnet rotor. (b) High efficiency due to the low rotor losses as a res
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Safety (flashover prevention) Devices for Insulative Tools

The embodiments of the invention in which an exclusive property or privilege is claimed are defined as follows: 1. A safety device in combination with an elongated insulative tool of a certain length extending between a user end arranged to be contacted by a worker and a working end arranged for operation near energized equipment and having a substantially circular cross section defining a cross sectional diameter and an outer circumference, the device being arranged to substantially modify an
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Hydraulic Omnidirectional Eolian Transducer with Carousel Movement

The present discloses a hydraulic omni-directional eolian transducer with carousel movement, with propellant paddles design easy and simple so it can produce a pair of forces at little rotation speed, depending on the area of its paddles and of the arm length in which there are mounted and the number of said paddles; said transducer operates in two movements: general turn of the vertical axis in carousel in which the propellant paddles arms and particular alternate turn of the paddles around the
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Method and System of Optical Guidance of Mobile Body

The invention proposes to guide a robot by projecting a laser light, image processing and communication to improve the accuracy of guidance. The method spans areas of robotics, computer vision, user interface, video games, communication and smart home technologies. The key idea is to show goal positions to the robot optically instead of communicating them numerically. This intuitive interface simplifies directing the robot while visual feedback improves the positioning accuracy and allows fo
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Active Cooling System for LED Fixtures/ Electronics

MP Lighting's patented Active Cooling System (ACS) uses a thermal sensor, known as an NTC Thermistor Array, to detect changes in temperature and control speeds of a cooling fan. The system helps to regulate airflow through high-watt LED fixtures and other electronics, ensuring that the product operates at an optimal temperature. The addition of cool air can increases a fixture's efficiency by up to 30%. The NTC Thermistor Array is thermally attached to the heat sink and will detect changes i
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Droplet Actuators, Systems and Methods

A droplet actuator with arrays of electrodes electrically coupled to a number of controllable voltage sources that is less than the number of electrodes. A method of defining partitions for pin layouts in a droplet actuator for a specific assay, the method including: defining droplet traces for the assay; and defining a guard ring along the traces. Other methods, systems, droplet actuators, and algorithms are also provided.
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Method for electrochemical treatment of electrode for electrochemical measurements, involves heating electrode, and applying negative or positive potential to electrode

The method involves heating an electrode (1), and applying a negative or a positive potential to the electrode. A potential of less than minus 1 volt or more than 1.5 volt, particularly less than minus 2 volt or more than 2.5 volt is applied to the electrode. A saturated calomel electrode is applied as reference electrode. An independent claim is included for a sensor device comprises an electrode and an electrical heating element.
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Metamaterials for Surfaces and Waveguides

Complementary metamaterial elements provide an effective permittivity and/or permeability for surface structures and/or waveguide structures. The complementary metamaterial resonant elements may include Babinet complements of "split ring resonator" (SRR) and "electric LC" (ELC) metamaterial elements. In some approaches, the complementary metamaterial elements are embedded in the bounding surfaces of planar waveguides, e.g. to implement waveguide based gradient index lenses for beam steering/focu
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Methodology and apparatus for reduction of soft errors in logic circuits

The present invention includes a circuit-level system and method for preventing the propagation of soft errors in logic cells. A radiation jammer circuit in accordance with the present invention, including an RC differentiator and a depletion mode MOS circuit, when inserted at the output of a logic cell, significantly reduces the propagation of transient glitches. The radiation jammer circuit is a novel transistor-level optimization technique, which has been used to reduce soft errors in a logic
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Method of controlled delivery for use of electrochemical power source

A system and method for improving electrochemical power sources through the dispensing encapsulation and dispersion into galvanic chambers of an electrochemical cell. Features of the method include the optimization of the concentration levels of chemicals involved in desired energy producing reactions.
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Electrochemical power source using halogenated organic compounds

Halogenated organic compounds that are inexpensive and are readily available have been used to present the examples of the invention. These chemicals, when in contact with water experience a reaction that releases oxy-halogenated acid. These compounds are weak acids and release hydrogen ions according to their ionization constant keeping a constant level of oxy-halogenated ion. These ions are capable of reacting with catalytic cathodes and can be coupled with anode materials to fabricate galvani
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Plasma-deposited Electrically Insulating, Diffusion-resistant and Elastic Layer System

A multilayer system on a substrate, the multilayer system being applied to the substrate by plasma deposition, characterized in that the multilayer system is configured such that it has substantial diffusion resistance to ions in an aqueous solution, wherein the current produced by the diffusion of the ions with the connection of an electric field gradient of more than 10<4>V/m, preferably more than 10<5>V/m, most preferred more than 10<7>V/m is IIon < 6,5X10<-8> A/cm<2>, preferably IIon < 6,5X1
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Device and Method for Stimulating Nerves By Way of Magnetic Field Pulses

The invention relates to a device for generating brief, strong current pulses in a coil, wherein the coil generates magnetic field pulses with a duration of 20 to 3000 microseconds and a strength of 0.1 to 5 tesla, which cause electric stimulation currents in the body tissue according to the principle of electromagnetic induction for stimulating nerve and/or muscle cells, wherein the device comprises at least one capacitor for storing and dispensing the energy required for the field pulses and a
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Plasmonic Electricity

The present invention relates to detection systems and methods that detect fluorescence, luminescence, chemiluminescence or phosphorescence signatures in the form of an electrical signal conducted and emitted from metallic containing surfaces. Thus, the present invention provides for detecting fluorescence digitally and directly without the need for expensive detectors.
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Generating Electrical Power By Coupling Aerobic Microbial Photosynthesis to an Electron-harvesting System

The present invention relates to an aerobic single-chamber photosynthetic microbial fuel cell (PMFC) that does not depend on organic substrate as an energy source but instead powered only by the energy of light. Its operation is CO2-free and does not require buffers or exogenous electron transfer shuttles to provide the electrical energy.
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Thin Flexible Rechargeable Electrochemical Energy Cell and Method of Fabrication

A thin, rechargeable, flexible electrochemical energy cell includes a battery cell, or a capacitor cell, or a battery/capacitor hybrid cell that can be stackable in any number and order. The cell can be based on a powdery mixture of hydrated ruthenium oxide particles or nanoparticles with activated carbon particles or nanoparticles suspended in an electrolyte. The electrolyte may contain ethylene glycol, boric acid, citric acid, ammonium hydroxide, organic acids, phosphoric acid, and/or sulphuri
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Polymer Solid Electrolyte for Flexible Batteries

A flexible polymer solid electrolyte material useful in battery technology is described. The flexible solid electrolyte comprises a first block that has the ability to solvate alkali metal salts. The flexible solid electrolyte comprises a second block that has the ability to incorporate lithium ions within microphase separated spherical domains, wherein the lithium ions are from a secondary lithium source. The flexible solid electrolyte further comprises a second lithium salt.
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Nanodevice Arrays for Electrical Energy Storage, Capture and Management and Method for their Formation

An apparatus, system, and method are provided for a vertical two-terminal nanotube device configured to capture and generate energy, to store electrical energy, and to integrate these functions with power management circuitry. The vertical nanotube device can include a column disposed in an anodic oxide material extending from a first distal end of the anodic oxide material to a second distal end of the anodic oxide material. Further, the vertical nanotube device can include a first material dis
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Vibrating Substrate for Haptic Interface

A haptic device is provided having a substrate with a touch surface and one or more actuators for vibrating the substrate in a multiplicity of higher resonant modes, each of which has a high enough frequency to be inaudible and high enough amplitude to create a friction reduction effect at a plurality of vibrating regions on the substrate touch surface.
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Electrode Material Comprising Graphene-composite Materials in a Graphite Network

A durable electrode material suitable for use in Li ion batteries is provided. The material is comprised of a continuous network of graphite regions integrated with, and in good electrical contact with a composite comprising graphene sheets and an electrically active material, such as silicon, wherein the electrically active material is dispersed between, and supported by, the graphene sheets.
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Microelectromechanical Device and System

A microelectromechanical device for electromechanical testing a specimen having a nano-scale dimension is formed on a multi- layered semiconductor substrate (chip) and includes an electrothermal or electrostatic actuator for applying a displacement load (force) to the specimen, a load sensor for sensing the load (force) experienced by the specimen. The specimen is disposed between first and second movable shuttles of the actuator and load sensor, which shuttles comprise electrically insulating l
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Electron Injection-controlled Microcavity Plasma Device and Arrays

An embodiment of the invention is a microcavity plasma device that can be controlled by a low voltage electron emitter. The microcavity plasma device includes driving electrodes disposed proximate to a microcavity and arranged to contribute to generation of plasma in the microcavity upon application of a driving voltage. An electron emitter is arranged to emit electrons into the microcavity upon application of a control voltage. The electron emitter is an electron source having an insulator laye
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Method of Dispersion Controlled X-ray Amplification in Laser System

A method for controlling amplification of coherent tunable radiation in the x-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum through dispersion control has a step of generating pulsed laser radiation having a selected power, pulse width, wavelength, and leading edge velocity of propagation v?. The method includes steps of generating high atomic clusters having a selected size and density, and directing the pulsed laser radiation into the clusters, such that rapid atomic excitation is generated to ha
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Microchannel Laser Having Microplasma Gain Media

The invention provides microchannel lasers having a microplasma gain medium. Lasers of the invention can be formed in semiconductor materials, and can also be formed in polymer materials. In a microlaser of the invention, high density plasmas are produced in microchannels. The microplasma acts as a gain medium with the electrodes sustaining the plasma in the microchannel. Reflectors are used with the microchannel for obtaining optical feedback to obtain lasing in the microplasma gain medium in d
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Interwoven Wire Mesh Microcavity Plasma Arrays

Embodiments of the invention provide for large arrays of microcavity plasma devices that can be made inexpensively, and can produce large area but thin displays or lighting sources Interwoven metal wire mesh, such as interwoven A1 mesh, consists of two sets of wires which are interwoven in such a way that the two wire sets cross each other, typically at pght angles (90 degrees) although other patterns are also available Fabrication is accomplished with a simple and inexpensive wet chemical etchi
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Electrically Small Antenna Devices, Systems, Apparatus, and Methods

The utilization of small antennas for mobile devices and for low frequency (long wavelength) applications is desired. Further, efficient use of transmission power is desirable, especially in mobile applications. For this purpose, a system is provided that includes one or more of: a multiple-resonator transmitter/receiver, a high bandwidth electrically small antenna, a resonator with a variable feed location, a resonator with a variable reactive component load, and a method for estimating a reson
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Microcavity and Microchannel Plasma Device Arrays in a Single, Unitary Sheet

An array of microcavity plasma devices is formed in a unitary sheet of oxide with embedded microcavities or microchannels and embedded metal driving electrodes isolated by oxide from the microcavities or microchannels and arranged so as to generate sustain a plasma in the embedded microcavities or microchannels upon application of time-varying voltage when a plasma medium is contained in the microcavities or microchannels.
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Tunable Radio-Frequency Coil

A radio frequency (RF) coil comprising a plurality of electrically uninterrupted conductive legs, each leg having a first end and a second end, and at least one continuous conductor electrically connected to the first ends of the legs. Frequency tuning of the coil is achieved by translating, along the legs, an electrically continuous tuning band that includes a capacitor closed about the axis of the coil in proximity to the conductive legs. Maintaining electrical symmetry of the coil results in
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Ellipsoidal Microcavity Plasma Devices and Powder Blasting Formation

Microcavity plasma devices and arrays are formed in layers that also seal the plasma medium, i e, gas(es) and/or vapors A microcavity plasma device includes first and second thin layers that are joined together A half ellipsoid microcavity or plurality of half ellipsoid microcavities is defined in one or both of the first and second thin layers, and electrodes are arranged with respect to the microcavity to excite a plasma within said microcavities upon application of a predetermined voltage to
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Displacement Actuation and Sensing for an Electrostatic Drive

An electrostatic drive includes a first electrode and a second electrode responsive to a drive signal. The drive signal includes an actuation signal constituent and a sensing signal constituent. The sensing signal constituent is at a frequency higher than a natural mechanical resonant frequency of the electrostatic drive. In response to the actuation signal constituent, displacement between the first electrode and the second electrode changes, which is evaluated by detecting a change in an elect
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Microcavity Plasma Devices with Non-uniform Cross-section Microcavities

An embodiment of the invention is an array of microcavity plasma devices having microcavities of non-uniform cross-section. The array includes a first electrode that is a thin metal foil or film including a plurality of non-uniform cross-section microcavities therein that are encapsulated in oxide. The invention provides for a continuous range of microcavity wall profiles to be fabricated, ranging from a linear taper to parabolic (bowl-shaped) cavities. A second electrode is a thin metal foil en
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Variable Electric Field Strength Metal and Metal Oxide Microplasma Lamps and Fabrication

Preferred embodiments of the invention provide microcavity plasma lamps having a plurality of metal and metal oxide layers defining a plurality of arrays of microcavities and encapsulated thin metal electrodes. Packaging encloses the plurality of metal and metal oxide layers in plasma medium. The metal and metal oxide layers are configured and arranged to vary the electric field strength and total gas pressure (E/p) in the lamp. The invention also provides methods of manufacturing a microcavity
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Ions accelerating method for e.g. ion beam- and tumor therapy, involves accelerating ions penetrating titanium foils, at high energy, and decelerating ions that are not penetrating titanium foils, at

The method involves time-correlated high intensive laser impulse irradiation of thin titanium foils (2) and electrical fields between the titanium foils and behind electrons (5) separated from the titanium foils. Ions provided in the electrical fields and penetrating the titanium foils, of ion beams (1) are accelerated at high energy at a rear surface of the titanium foils by effect of the electrical fields. Ions that are not penetrating the titanium foils at a time point, are decelerated at sma
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RF Coil for MRI which Can Be Switched Between Different Operational Modes

An RF coil system for magnetic resonance applications includes a multi-channel RF coil transceiver and a multi-channel RF coil. The RF coil system is structured for reconfiguration between a plurality of operational modes, e.g. from a quadrature coil mode to a phased array mode or from a single-resonant mode to a multi-resonant mode.
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Magnetic Resonance Contrast Using Fictitious Field Relaxation

A system includes a signal generator and a processor. The signal generator is configured to couple with a magnetic resonance transmitter coil. The processor is configured to execute instructions to control the signal generator. The instructions include forming a sequence of waveforms. The sequence is configured to generate spin relaxation in a fictitious field in a third rotating frame of reference based on at least one magnetic field component that arises based on an effective field in a second
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High Magnetic Moment Particle Detection

A device includes a sensor surface and a pair of electrodes. The sensor surface includes a first conductive layer separated from a second conductive layer by an intermediary layer, a magnetization direction of the first conductive layer and a magnetization direction of the second conductive layer having a ground state orientation of approximately 0 degrees. An electrical resistance between the pair of electrodes is determined by a magnetic field proximate the sensor surface.
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Method for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

A method of magnetic resonance imaging based on rapid acquisition by sequential excitation and refocusing is provided. The method comprises turning on a first time-encoding gradient and applying an excitation pulse in the presence of the first time-encoding gradient. The excitation pulse excites magnetization sequentially along one spatial axis. Thereafter, a first refocusing pulse is applied. A second time-encoding gradient is turned on followed by a second refocusing pulse. A third time-encodi
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Frequency Swept Excitation for Magnetic Resonance

A method of magnetic resonance is provided that uses a frequency swept excitation wherein the acquired signal is a time domain signal is provided. In one embodiment, the method comprises, applying a sweeping frequency excitation and acquiring a time domain signal. The sweeping frequency excitation has a duration and is configured to sequentially excite isochromats having different resonant frequencies. Acquisition of the time domain signal is done during the duration of the sweeping frequency ex
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Electromagnetic Wave Detection Methods and Apparatus

Methods and apparatus for detecting an electromagnetic wave are provided. A device for use in an electromagnetic wave detector includes a first device layer having a first contact, a second device layer having a second contact, and a tunnel barrier layer and a resonating magnetic layer formed between the first and second device layers. The resonating magnetic layer produces a spin current responsive to an electromagnetic wave that extends into the first and second device layers. A charge differe
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Methods and Apparatus Using Hierarchical Priority and Control Algorithms for Grid-integrated Vehicles

A method and apparatus for managing system energy flow. The apparatus includes an energy storage unit to store energy to be used by a system and a power conversion unit configured to be coupled between the energy storage unit and a utility grid. The apparatus also includes a controller to selectively control the power conversion unit to transfer energy between the utility grid and the energy storage unit based at least in part on an anticipated use of the system.
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Power Converter and Power Combiner for Power-limited Power Sources

This invention relates to a hysteretic input-regulating high-output impedance power converter for converting the energy output of power-limited power sources such as solar cells to provide output current at voltages useful to operate electronics or charge batteries. This invention also relates to a power combiner that combines the output of multiple power sources into a single output. The power combiner is comprised of multiple circuits, one for each power source. These circuits are either compl
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Terahertz Emitter with High Power and Temperature Operation

Terahertz emitting devices are disclosed. The terahertz emitting device comprises a wafer and a current source. The wafer includes silicon carbide and a dopant. In particular, the wafer may consist of 6H silicon carbide; a nitrogen dopant having a concentration of approximately 1018 cm-3; a boron dopant having a concentration of approximately 1016 cm-3; and an aluminum dopant having a concentration of approximately 1015 cm-3. The current source is electrically coupled to the wafer. The wafer emi
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Non-aqueous Electrolyte Solution for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

Techniques, systems and materials are described for a rechargeable battery. For example, a battery material can include one or more ionic electrolyte salts. The battery material can also include a non-aqueous electrolyte solvent including one or more non-symmetrical sulfones. Further, the battery material can include one or more additives.
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Threshold Logic Element Having Low Leakage Power and High Performance

Embodiments of a threshold logic element are provided. Preferably, embodiments of the threshold logic element discussed herein have low leakage power and high performance characteristics. In the preferred embodiment, the threshold logic element is a threshold logic latch (TLL). The TLL is a dynamically operated current-mode threshold logic cell that provides fast and efficient implementation of digital logic functions. The TLL can be operated synchronously or asynchronously and is fully compatib
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Counter-flow Membraneless Fuel Cell

A method for generating electrical current using a fuel cell includes flowing a first flow that includes a fuel and an electrolyte through a first channel. The fuel is oxidized at an anode to generate electrons for conduction to a load and oxidation products that remain in the first flow. The method includes flowing a second flow that includes an oxidizer and an electrolyte through a second channel that is open to the first channel. A cathode receives electrons from the load and the oxidation pr
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Electrical Devices Including Dendritic Metal Electrodes

The present invention relates generally to electrical devices. The present invention relates more particularly to electrical devices including dendritic metal electrodes. One aspect of the present invention is an electrical device comprising a first electrode comprising at least one dendritic metal structure; a second electrode; and an electrically active structure disposed between the dendritic metal structure and the second electrode.
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Method of Preparing a Flexible Substrate Assembly and Flexible Substrate Assembly Therefrom

Some embodiments teach a method of preparing a flexible substrate assembly. The method can include: (a) providing a carrier substrate; (b) providing a cross-linking adhesive; (c) providing a plastic substrate; and (d) coupling the carrier substrate to the plastic substrate using the cross-linking adhesive. Other embodiments are disclosed in this application.
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Electrode for a Charge Storage Device and Method of Manufacture

An electrode for a charge storage device and a method for forming the electrode. The electrode comprises an electrode body having an essentially continuous phase of an active material, an essentially continuous phase of an electroconductive material, and an essentially continuous phase of void space. The active material is oxidized by applying a potential to the electrode body in the charge storage device so as to transform the active material to an oxide species thereof. The resulting oxide spe
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Method and Apparatus for Making Electrical Connections

A device for making electrical connections is provided, along with a method of use. Other embodiments are also described herein.
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Flexible Identification Systems and Related Methods

Embodiments of flexible identification systems are described herein. Other embodiments and related methods are also disclosed herein.
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Electric Current-Producing Device Having Sulfone-Based Electrolyte

Electrolytic solvents and applications of such solvents including electric current-producing devices. For example, a solvent can include a sulfone compound of R1-SO2-R2, with R1 being an alkyl group and R2 a partially oxygenated alkyl group, to exhibit high chemical and thermal stability and high oxidation resistance. For another example, a battery can include, between an anode and a cathode, an electrolyte which includes ionic electrolyte salts and a non-aqueous electrolyte solvent which includ
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Integrated Optoelectrochemical Sensor for Nitrogen Oxides in Gaseous Samples

A gas-phase detection system based on detecting optochemical and optoelectrochemical signals. The sensing platform is particularly powerful for detection of nitrogen oxides at low ppbV concentrations. The optochemical analysis is based on the color development due to a chemical reaction taking place in an optimized material. The electrochemical analysis can be based on the doping level or redox potential changes of an electrochemical sensor; and optoelectrochemical detection can be based on a co
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Metal-air Low Temperature Ionic Liquid Cell

The present application relates to an electrochemical metal-air cell in which a low temperature ionic liquid is used.
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Porous Metal Catalysts for Oxygen Reduction

A porous metal that comprises platinum and has a specific surface area that is greater than 5 m2/g and less than 75 m2/g. A fuel cell includes a first electrode, a second electrode spaced apart from the first electrode, and an electrolyte arranged between the first and the second electrodes. At least one of the first and second electrodes is coated with a porous metal catalyst for oxygen reduction, and the porous metal catalyst comprises platinum and has a specific surface area that is greater t
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Piezoelectric Polymer Fibers

Piezoelectric fibers include a polypeptide wherein molecules of the polypeptide have electric dipole moments that are aligned such that the piezoelectric fiber provides a piezoelectric effect at an operating temperature. A piezoelectric component provides a plurality of piezoelectric fibers, each comprising an organic polymer. A method of producing piezoelectric fibers includes electrospinning a polymer solution to form a fiber and winding the fiber onto a rotatin target in which the rotating ta
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Thin-layer thermocouple arrangement useful in thermo-generator to generate electrical energy from thermal energy, comprises thermocouple arranged on base layer with connection point and measuring poin

The thin-layer thermocouple arrangement useful in a thermo-generator for generating electrical energy from thermal energy, comprises a thermocouple arranged on a base layer (1) with a connection point (3) and a measuring point (4) for generating an electrical voltage at the connection point with a temperature difference between the connection point and measuring point, a passivation layer on a top side, a substrate arranged below the base layer in partial regions, and a silicon oxide layer arran
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Multi-Input Multi-Output Time Encoding and Decoding Machines

Methods and systems for encoding and decoding signals using a Multi-input Multi-output Time Encoding Machine (TEM) and Time Decoding Machine are disclosed herein.
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Electromechanical Devices and Methods for Fabrication of the Same

A fabricated electromechanical device is disclosed herein. An exemplary device includes, a substrate, at least one layer of a high-transconductance material separated from the substrate by a dielectric medium, a first electrode in electrical contact with the at least one layer of a high-transconductance material and separated from the substrate by at least one first supporting member, a second electrode in electrical contact with the layer of a high-transconductance material and separated from t
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Real-time Time Encoding and Decoding Machines

Methods for decoding a signal encoded by a Time Encoding Machine (TEM) include defining a plurality of time-windows, each time-window corresponding to a portion of a TEM-encoded signal and made up of a plurality of trigger values, at least two of the time-windows overlapping, decoding each of the time-windows using a Time Decoding Machine (TDM) to generate a decoded time-window, and stitching the decoded time-windows together to generate a TEM-decoded signal.
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Self-Diagnosing Transducers and Systems and Methods Therefor

A transducer system that includes a piezoelectric transducer and a self-diagnosis system electrically connected to the transducer. In one embodiment, the self-diagnosis system is configured to detect when a debonding defect has occurred in the bond between the transducer and a host structure and to detect when a crack has occurred in the transducer itself. The self-diagnosis system implements debonding-detection and crack-detection schemes that can distinguish between debonding and cracking, as
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Procedures for Development of Specific Capacitance in Carbon Structures

The present disclosure describes a carbon electrode having a high specific capacitance and method for forming an electrode. The electrode includes a graphitic carbon material having porous nanographene structures with edge-on topology to a plurality of formed pores, dispersed in an amorphous carbon matrix. The graphitic carbon material is formed by pyrolysis of phase separated block copolymers.
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Method for parameterized model order reduction of integrated circuit interconnects

The present invention is a method and apparatus for creating a reduced-order IC interconnect model, which incorporates variations in interconnect process parameters, and models both on-chip and off-chip interconnects. The method is based on mathematically representing an IC interconnect system, including mathematical interconnect process parameter terms, which are manipulated to facilitate simplification of an IC interconnect model. The IC interconnect model is then simplified by using a mathema
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Sodium Ion Based Aqueous Electrolyte Electrochemical Secondary Energy Storage Device

A secondary hybrid aqueous energy storage device includes an anode electrode, a cathode electrode which is capable of reversibly intercalating sodium cations, a separator, and a sodium cation containing aqueous electrolyte, wherein an initial active cathode electrode material comprises an alkali metal containing active cathode electrode material which deintercalates alkali metal ions during initial charging of the device.
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Electromagnetic Emissions Stimulation and Detection System

A system and method for detecting and identifying electronic devices based on their unintended electromagnetic emissions ("UEE") signals is presented. During device classification, UEE signals are measured from a plurality of test devices and characteristic data is obtained from the UEE signal emitted from each test device. Using the characteristic data, a threshold value and ideal pulse template can be determined for each test device and stored in a memory. An ideal stimulation signal is also d
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Microwave and Millimeter Wave Resonant Sensor Having Perpendicular Feed, and Imaging System

A switched-slot sensor for use in a sensor array for microwave and/or millimeter wave imaging. The locations of a plurality of sensors in the array define a spatial domain away from an object for detecting an electric field from the object. Each of the sensors has an out-of-plane transmission line and outputs a signal representative of the measured field and the location of the sensor. A processor decodes the signals and generates an image of the object.
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Circuit and Method to Suppress the Parasitic Resonance from a Dc/dc Converter

A snubber circuit for use with a DC/DC converter broadly comprises a snubber resistor connected in parallel with a snubber inductor. The DC/DC converter may include a voltage source, a first switching element, a second switching element, an output inductor, and an output capacitor. The voltage source may include a positive terminal and a negative terminal connected to a ground node. The first switching element may include a first terminal connected to the positive terminal of the voltage source
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High Frequency Analysis of a Device Under Test

Analyzing a device under test ("DUT") at higher frequencies. A phase shifter varies the phase of a standing wave on a transmission line coupled to the DUT. The standing wave magnitude is sampled at each of the phase shifts and one or more DUT characteristics are determined as a function of the sampled magnitudes and phase shifts. Further aspects include a related phase shifter comprising a waveguide having a plurality of sub-resonant slots formed therein and having active elements for loading th
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Convection Battery Configuration for Connective Carbon Matrix Electrode

Electrode compositions and devices (100) that incorporate the electrode compositions are provided. More specifically, electrode compositions that include carbon that provide a connective network to which metal and/or metal derivatives are deposited are provided. Convection battery devices (100) that incorporate the carbon electrode compositions are also provided.
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Microwave and Millimeter Wave Imaging

A sensor array having a plurality of modulated slots for microwave and/or millimeter wave imaging. The locations of the slots in the array define a spatial domain away from an object for detecting an electric field from the object. Each of the slots outputs a signal representative of the measured field and the location of the slot. A processor decodes the signals and generates an image of the object.
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Sensor Electrode and Method for the Electrochemical Detection of Nucleotides

A sensor electrode for the detection of nucleotides in a biological sample is described. The sensitivity of the electrode is enhanced by the nanostructured sensor architecture that increases the available surface area of the electrode. The electrode detects nucleotides using standard electrochemical methods.
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Ion Deflector for Two-dimensional Control of Ion Beam Cross Sectional Spread

An ion deflector, for deflecting a beam of charged particles along an arc in a deflection plane, includes a pair of non-spherical deflection electrodes adapted for being charged with different voltages. The pair of deflection electrodes are configured to control, in both the deflection plane and in a direction perpendicular to the deflection plane, a cross sectional spread of charged particles in a deflected beam that exits the ion deflector. In some embodiments, a first electrode has a first he
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Methods for fabricating nanoscale electrodes and uses thereof

The present invention relates to methods for fabricating nanoscale electrodes separated by a nanogap, wherein the gap size may be controlled with high precision using a self-aligning aluminum oxide mask, such that the gap width depends upon the thickness of the aluminum oxide mask. The invention also provides methods for using the nanoscale electrodes.
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Systems and Methods for Non-Periodic Pulse Sequential Lateral Solidification

The disclosed systems and method for non-periodic pulse sequential lateral solidification relate to processing a thin film. The method for processing a thin film, while advancing a thin film in a selected direction, includes irradiating a first region of the thin film with a first laser pulse and a second laser pulse and irradiating a second region of the thin film with a third laser pulse and a fourth laser pulse, wherein the time interval between the first laser pulse and the second laser puls
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Lightweight wood-based board and process for producing it

The invention relates to a process for producing a sandwich board, comprising the following steps: providing an upper covering layer, providing a lower covering layer, providing an intermediate layer arranged between the upper and lower covering layers, compressing the upper and lower covering layers, and foaming the intermediate layer, in which process no foaming of the intermediate layer takes place at the start of compacting the upper and lower covering layers.
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Reactant Delivery to a Reactive Surface in a Channel

The present invention provides geometric arrangements for channels through which liquids or other fluids can be made to flow, for enhanced performance of fuel cells or other chemical or biochemical reactors or analyzers. Systems and methods including these improved geometries are described herein for enhanced performance of a variety of devices. Specifically, in one set of embodiments, the reactors comprise one or more microchannels comprising a tapered cross-sectional area and at least one reac
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Detection Circuit for Use in Various Types of Capacitive Transducers and a Transducer Including Such a Circuit

A detection circuit for detecting changes in capacitance. The detection circuit includes a tuned ratio circuit and an alternating current (AC) source AC-coupled to the tuned ratio circuit. The tuned ratio circuit includes first and second tuned circuits that are tuned to, or close, to the frequency of the AC source. Output circuitry is coupled between the two tuned circuits. During use as a transducer, an active capacitive transducer is inductively coupled to the first tuned circuit. Changes in
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Piezoelectric Vibrational Energy Harvesting Systems Incorporating Parametric Bending Mode Energy Harvesting

Vibrational energy harvesting (VEH) structures that include resonant beams each having a fundamental resonance frequency and a parametric mode frequency and including at least one piezoelectric layer for generating electrical charge in response to each of fundamental-resonance excitation and parametric-mode excitation of that beam. Circuitry is provided for harvesting the electrical charge from the resonant beam. In some embodiments, the parametric mode frequency of the beam is tuned to be close
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Zero-Order Energy Smart Antenna and Repeater

The invention is a new device that will improve the radio link quality for low power wireless devices. An example application is for low power, miniaturized wireless sensor nodes that are statically deployed in a slowly varying environment or that have limited mobility. The device is a reconfigurable antenna that is novel in that it operates with very low (zero-order) energy in contrast to existing system that required both significant computational and DC power.
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Complex half-band finite impulse response filter and method of making same

An electrical signal filter for processing a discrete-time real signal having a length N. In one embodiment, the filter comprising a delay line having N taps and a corresponding respective N filter coefficients. Values for the filter coefficients are determined by first shifting an impulse function of length N by a fraction of N so as to obtain a shifted impulse function. An analytic-signal-generating method is then applied to the impulse function so as to output the filter coefficient values. T
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Method of Forming Gated, Self-aligned Micro-structures and Nano-structures

Methods of forming a gated, self-aligned nano-structures for electron extraction are disclosed. One method of forming the nano-structure comprises irradiating a first surface of a thermally conductive laminate to melt an area across the first surface of the laminate. The laminate comprises a thermally conductive film and a patterned layer disposed on the first surface of the film. The patterned layer has a pattern formed therethrough, defining the area for melting. The film is insulated at a sec
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Composition for Energy Generator, Storage, and Strain Sensor and Methods of Use Thereof

Compositions and devices for harvesting electrical energy from mechanical and thermal energy, storing such produced energy, and sensing strain based on low cost materials and processes. In embodiments, the compositions are flexible and include a flexible polymer embedded and coated with a nanostructured piezoelectric material.
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Ultra Low Loss Waveguide for Broadband Terahertz Radiation

An apparatus comprising a parallel plate waveguide (PPWG) comprising two plates separated by a distance that supports a multimode wave, and a transmitter configured to emit a wave having a frequency from about one hundred Gigahertz (GHz) to about ten terahertz (THz) and to couple to one mode of the PPWG. Also disclosed is an apparatus comprising two plates substantially parallel to one another and separated by at least about five millimeters (mm), and an antenna coupled to the two plates and con
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Resonant Cavity Integrated into a Waveguide for Terahertz Sensing

A method comprising polarizing and coupling an electromagnetic beam to a first-order transverse electric (TE1) mode with respect to a parallel plate waveguide (PPWG) integrated resonator comprising two plates and a cavity, sending the electromagnetic beam into the PPWG integrated resonator to excite the cavity by the TE1 mode and cause a resonance response, and obtaining wave amplitude data that comprises a resonant frequency, and obtaining the refractive index of fluids filling the cavity via t
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Dual-ring Silicon Electro-optic Modulator

A device, system, and method for the electro-optic modulation of light. The device includes a substrate having a first ring waveguide and a second ring waveguide on the surface. The device includes a first p-doped region inside the first ring waveguide and a second p-doped region inside the second ring waveguide. The device includes a first n-doped region interposed between the first ring waveguide and the second ring waveguide, a second n-doped region outside the first ring waveguide, and a thi
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High-voltage Impulse Amplifier

A circuit includes a first transistor in a common-collector configuration and a heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) in a common-emitter configuration. The first transistor has a base coupled to an input node for receiving a pulsed signal. A collector of the first transistor is coupled to a first voltage source node. A base of the HBT is coupled to an emitter of the first transistor. A collector of the HBT is coupled to a second voltage source node configured to bias the HBT normally off. The
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Gallium Nitride-based Device and Method

A gallium nitride-based device has a first GaN layer and a type II quantum well active region over the GaN layer. The type II quantum well active region comprises at least one InGaN layer and at least one GaNAs layer comprising 1.5 to 8% As concentration. The type II quantum well emits in the 400 to 700 nm region with reduced polarization affect.
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ABBREVIATED EPITAXIAL GROWTH MODE (AGM) METHOD FOR REDUCING COST AND IMPROVING QUALITY OF LEDs AND LASERS

The use of an abbreviated GaN growth mode on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire substrates, which utilizes a process of using 15 nm low temperature GaN buffer and bypassing etch-back and recovery processes during epitaxy, enables the growth of high-quality GaN template on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire. The GaN template grown on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire by employing abbreviated growth mode has two orders of magnitude lower threading dislocation density than that of conventional GaN template grown on
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Nitride Based Quantum Well Light-emitting Devices Having Improved Current Injection Efficiency

A III-nitride based device provides improved current injection efficiency by reducing thermionic carrier escape at high current density. The device includes a quantum well active layer and a pair of multi-layer barrier layers arranged symmetrically about the active layer. Each multi-layer barrier layer includes an inner layer abutting the active layer; and an outer layer abutting the inner layer. The inner barrier layer has a bandgap greater than that of the outer barrier layer. Both the inner a
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Surface Plasmon Dispersion Engineering Via Double-metallic Au/ag Layers for Nitride Light-emitting Diodes

A double-metallic deposition process is used whereby adjacent layers of different metals are deposited on a substrate. The surface plasmon frequency of a base layer of a first metal is tuned by the surface plasmon frequency of a second layer of a second metal formed thereon. The amount of tuning is dependent upon the thickness of the metallic layers, and thus tuning can be achieved by varying the thicknesses of one or both of the metallic layers. In a preferred embodiment directed to enhanced LE
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Conductive Doped Metal-glass Compositions and Methods

Provided herein are conductive glass-metal compositions, as well as methods of making and using such compositions. In one example, the compositions include gold (Au) doped lithium-borate glasses shown to exhibit a transition from ionic to electronic conduction within the same sample. This is achieved via appropriate heat treatment, and particularly by heat treatment after annealing, wherein the post-annealing heat treatment is performed at temperatures below the glass transition temperature (Tg)
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Vaporization Device and Method for Imaging Mass Spectrometry

Methods and apparatus for analyzing samples are disclosed. The samples are analyzed by vaporizing molecules from a sample in a sample area with a femtosecond laser beam under ambient conditions, ionizing the vaporized molecules wit h electrospray ionization under the ambient conditions to form ions; and analyzing and detecting the ions.
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Multiple Antenna Energy Harvesting

Energy harvesting circuits and associated methods are provided that employ multiple antennas to optimize the amount of energy that is harvested while at the same time making efficient use of tag space. In some embodiments, matching networks are chosen in a manner that optimizes the DC energy that is created from the harvesting process. In other embodiments, phase shifts are introduced into the received signals to allow the signals to be more efficiently combined after they are rectified.
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Recharging Method and Apparatus

The present invention provides apparatus and an associated method for remotely energizing power storage devices. Energization may preferably be effected through the use of RF energy from a base station, ambient energy or ultra-wide band energy. The remote station preferably has at least one antenna having an effective area greater than its physical area. The system may have an antenna and associated circuitry provided on an electronic chip such as a monolithic chip or on a printed circuit with a
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Method for Producing a Magnetic Resonance Image of an Object Having a Short T2 Relaxation Time

A method for producing a magnetic resonance image using an ultra-short echo time. The method includes applying a pulse sequence to an object, detecting a spirally encoded and phase encoded magnetic resonance signal associated with the object, and reconstructing the magnetic resonance image based on the spirally encoded and phase encoded magnetic resonance signal. The pulse sequence includes a slab-selective radiofrequency pulse, a slab-selective gradient pulse, a plurality of variable duration s
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Hand-held Electrical Stimulation Device

Apparatuses and methods for the safe and efficient electrical stimulation of tissue. The apparatuses of the present invention are preferably hand-held and are capable of providing electrical waveforms that are effective in promoting wound healing, improving circulation, stimulating peripheral nerves, administering pharmaceutical compounds via electrophoresis, and electroporating DNA into tissue. The present invention also generally contemplates the safe and efficient transfection of DNA into mam
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Wireless Energy Transfer System

A wireless energy transfer system includes a first energy transfer unit having at least one resonant frequency, a second energy transfer unit having the at least one resonant frequency, and a load. The first wireless energy transfer unit includes a first coil magnetically coupled to a first wireless energy transfer cell, and the second wireless energy transfer unit includes a second coil magnetically coupled to a second wireless energy transfer cell. The first coil receives first energy and thro
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Piezoelectric Powered Vehicles and Motors

One or more piezoelectric elements are employed to generate electrical energy from one or both of the mechanical energy of a moving part of a conventional engine or vehicle or the combustion energy of an internal combustion engine. The generated electrical energy can be stored and used to power an electric motor in order to supplement the power generated by the conventional engine.
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Lead-free Piezoelectric Ceramic Films and a Method for Making Thereof

his invention relates to lead-free piezoelectric ceramic films and a method of making thereof. Specifically, the invention is directed to a method for fabricating lead-free piezoelectric free standing films having enhanced piezoelectric properties. The films may be used for a number of applications including incorporation in microelectronic devices such as energy harvesting devices and sesor technologies.
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Plasma Reactor

A plasma reactor (10) is provided. The plasma reactor (10) includes a reaction chamber (12) formed by a wall (13). Proximate to the first end of the reaction chamber, the plasma reactor includes a feed gas inlet (14) for creating a reverse vortex gas flow (16) in the reaction chamber. The plasma reactor (10) also includes an anode and a cathode connected to a power source for generation of an electric arc for plasma generation in said reaction chamber. The plasma reactor (10) may optionally incl
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Freestanding Films with Electric Field-enhanced Piezoelectric Coefficients

A method to produce low-temperature sinterable powders which are then subsequently used to fabricate freestanding piezoelectric films with very large electric-field-enhanced piezoelectric response is provided. The -d31 coefficient for PMN-PT layers can be as high as 2000 pm/V, larger than that of commercial single crystalline PMN-PT bulk materials, at 10 kV/cm (or 20 V over the 20-micron film thickness). In contrast to single crystals, the polycrystalline freestanding films are easy to fabricate
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Enhanced Detection Sensitivity with Piezoelectric Microcantilever Sensors

A method for enhancing the detection sensitivity of a piezoelectric microcantilever sensor. The method may involve providing a piezoelectric microcantilever and inducing a change in the Young's modulus during detection of a species of interest. The change in the Young's modulus may be induced or enhanced by the application of a DC bias electric field to the piezoelectric layer that enhances non-180 DEG polarization domain switching of the piezoelectric layer. The change in the Young's modulus ma
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Supercapacitor Compositions, Devices, and Related Methods

Disclosed are supercapacitor materials comprising compositions having pores that are optimally sized to maximize capacitance. Also disclosed are related methods for fabricating such supercapacitors.
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A Smooth-walled Feedhorn

A device for at least one of receiving and transmitting electromagnetic radiation includes a feedhorn having a substantially smooth, electrically conducting inner surface extending from an open end to a feed end, the inner surface being substantially rotationally symmetrical about a longitudinal axis, wherein an orthogonal distance from a point on the longitudinal axis to the substantially smooth, electrically conducting inner surface increases monotonically as the point on the longitudinal axis
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Iron Oxyfluoride Electrodes for Electochemcial Energy Storage

The present invention provides electrochemical energy storage systems comprising metallolyte composites, iron fluoride composites and iron oxyfluoride composites. The present invention further provides methods for fabricating metallolyte composites.
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Polyhydrogen Fluoride Based Battery

The described invention relates to primary and secondary electrochemical energy storage systems, particularly to such systems as battery cells, which use materials that take up and release ions as a means of storing and supplying electrical energy, and methods of fabrication thereof.
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System and Method for Measuring Consumption in a Residential Or Commercial Building Via a Wall Socket

A system and method to measure power usage within a residence having a plurality of electrical circuits electrically connected to an over-current protection device may include measuring, by a power measurement device electrically connected to one of the electrical circuits by which power loads draw power, an electrical parameter of t he electrical circuits. The electrical parameter may be modeled as a lumped complex impedance. Alternatively, the electrical parameter may be a complex impedance of
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Electrostatic Screen Device and Method for Emission Control

An electrostatic screen battery for emission control (ESBEC) system includes a plurality of screens. The screens are arranged in an alternating manner so that screens at a first electric potential are interposed with screens at a second electric potential. An ionizer is disposed upstream of the screens. An exhaust stream passes by the ionizer and then through the screens, where particulates are deposited onto the screens. In preferred embodiments the screens have hydrophobic surfaces.
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Metal Fluoride Compositions for Self Formed Batteries

The described invention provides compositions related to an electronically insulating amorphous or nanocrystalline mixed ionic conductor composition comprising a metal fluoride composite to which an electrical potential is applied to form 1) a negative electrode, and 2) a positive electrode, wherein the negative electrode and positive electrode are formed in situ.
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Reactive-power-capable Inverter

In an inverter (1), comprising two input lines (22, 23) for connecting to a direct current source (2), two half bridges (4, 5) connecting the two input lines (22, 23), and two output lines (16, 17) for connecting an alternating current load or an alternating current grid (3), each half bridge (4, 5) comprises two clock-controllable switches (6, 8 or 7, 9) having two diodes (10, 12 or 11, 13) connected in antiparallel, each output line (16, 17) is connected by means of an inductor (18 or 19) to a
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Buck Converter and Inverter Comprising the Same

A buck converter (5) for converting a DC voltage at input terminals into an output voltage at output terminals is disclosed. The buck converter (5) comprises a DC voltage link comprising a series-connection of at least two capacitors (C1 and C2) between the output terminals; and one subcircuit (A, B) per each capacitor (C1 and C2) of the series-connection. Each subcircuit (A, B) includes an inductor (L1, L2) and a freewheeling diode (D1, D2). A first one of the input terminals is connected to a
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Low Resistance Thin Film Organic Solar Cell Electrodes

A method which lower the series resistance of photosensitive devices includes providing a transparent film of a first electrically conductive material arranged on a transparent substrate; depositing and patterning a mask over the first electrically conductive material, such that openings in the mask have sloping sides which narrow approaching the substrate; depositing a second electrically conductive material directly onto the first electrically conductive material exposed in the openings of the
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Post-Processing Treatment of Conductive Polymers to Enhance Electrical Conductivity

A method for enhancing electrical conductivity of a film which includes at least one conductive polymer. The method includes providing the film comprising the at least one conductive polymer and at least one polymer acid, agitating the film in at least one reagent; and, placing the film on a heated surface. The at least one reagent includes a reagent acid that is stronger than the polymer acid. The conductivity of the treated film is significantly greater than the conductivity of the untreated f
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Flexible Piezoelectric Structures and Method of Making Same

A flexible piezoelectric structure and a method of making the structure are disclosed. A piezoelectric film having a relatively high piezoelectric coefficient is attached to a flexible substrate. The piezoelectric film is fabricated on a different substrate and transferred to the flexible substrate by contact.
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Increased open-circuit-voltage organic photosensitive devices

The invention relates to a photosensitive device comprising: an anode and a cathode; and a first organic material and a second organic material forming a donor-acceptor heterojunction electrically connected between the anode and the cathode, wherein the first and second organic materials, as arranged in the photosensitive device, each have a Franck-Condon Shift of less than 0.5 eV.
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Tunable Negative Permeability Based Devices

Negative permeability metamaterials and devices based on negative permeability metamaterials are described. The invention presents a new paradigm for realizing electromagnetic devices utilizing naturally available magnetic materials operating in their negative permeability spectrum. The superior advantages of negative permeability materials are utilized for providing unique electromagnetic devices including, for example, small antennas, array sensors and imaging devices. Since the property of th
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Anisotropic metal-dielectric metamaterials for broadband all-angle negative refraction and superlens imaging

A metamaterial comprises a plurality of metallic nanowires embedded in a dielectric matrix. The metamaterial composite media provide broadband all-angle negative refraction and flat lens, superlens and curved hyperlens imaging in specific spectral regions over a wide range of frequencies including, for example, from deep infrared to ultraviolet frequencies.
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Dielectric and magnetic particles based metamaterials

RF-optical metamaterials with (+-epsilon, +-mu) figures-of-merit of interest are constructed from coupled magnetic and dielectric multi-resonant multi-disks (finite-size cylinders) or multi-sphere lattices arranged in a periodic or a random fashion to offer tailored magnetic and electric dipole moments. The present metamaterials include embedded particles arrays that provide coupled magnetic and electronic modes equivalent to L (inductor) and C (capacitor) circuit models. Novel arrangements of t
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Dual Interleaved Flyback Converter for High Input Voltage

An integrated magnetic flyback converter includes interleaved phases that can be connected in series for an input stage and in parallel for an output stage. An integrated magnetic core has legs with gaps that may weaken a coupling between a primary and secondary of the associated transformer. The primary and secondary of the transformer may be inversely coupled for each phase. The transformer leg gaps permit each phase to be operated with a duty cycle ratio greater than 50%. The interleaved conv
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Nanoscale Interconnects Fabricated By Electrical Field Directed Assembly of Nanoelements

The invention provides a fast, scalable, room temperature process for fabricating metallic nanorods from nanoparticles or fabricating metallic or semiconducting nanorods from carbon nanotubes suspended in an aqueous solution. The assembled nanorods are suitable for use as nanoscale interconnects in CMOS-based devices and sensors. Metallic nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes are assembled into lithographically patterned vias by applying an external electric field. Since the dimensions of nanorods a
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Pulse Electrothermal Deicing of Complex Shapes

A pulse electrothermal deicing apparatus comprises at least one complex shape characterized by a thickness profile configured to generate uniform power per unit area to melt an interfacial layer of ice. A method of optimizing thicknesses of complex shapes for a pulse electrothermal deicing system includes assigning initial estimates of the pulse electrothermal deicing system parameters. A temperature distribution, a temperature range and a refreezing time produced by a deicing pulse are modeled.
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System and Method for Post-exposure Dosimetry Using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

An apparatus and method for triaging patients according to radiation exposure operates by measuring electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of fingernails, toenails, and/or teeth. When operating in vivo, radiation induced spectra are obtained from intact fingernails, toenails, or teeth placed within a magnet and with pickup coils located over nails between the cut edge at the end of the fingernail and skin proximal to the nail or placed adjacent to at least one tooth. When operating in vitro wit
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System and Method Using Coupler-resonators for Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

A coupler-resonator for electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy in subjects has a wire loop formed into a coupling loop, a central transmission portion, and sensor loops. The sensor loops hold EPR sensor materials and are coated with biocompatible plastic. The coupler-resonator is implanted in a subject, the subject in a nonuniform magnetic field with a pickup coil for RF response measurement apparatus near the subject's skin and inductively coupled to the coupling loop. Resonances ar
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Multilayer Foil-wound Inductors Having Alternating Layers

A multilayer foil winding in a foil-wound magnetic circuit component (200) has conductors (202, 204, 402, 408) that alternate at various points such that the conductors share current more effectively than multiple non-alternating conductors. AC resistance of the multilayer winding is therefore decreased relative to a single, thicker, layer of foil conductor or a multilayer winding that does not alternate layer positions.
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Systems and Methods for Windshield Deicing.

Cost efficient, lightweight and rapid windshield deicing systems and methods are disclosed. The systems utilize step-up converters or inverters, or dual-voltage batteries, to provide a voltage high enough to deice a windshield in less than thirty seconds.
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System and method for deicing of power line cables

A system and method for deicing power transmission cables divides the cable into sections. Switches are provided at each end of a section for coupling the conductors together in parallel in a normal mode, and at least some of the conductors in series in an anti-icing mode. When the switches couple the conductors in series, an electrical resistance of the cable section is effectively increased allowing self-heating of the cable by power-line current to deice the cable; the switches couple the con
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Conductive Formulations for Use in Electrical, Electronic and Rf Applications

Metal flakes, an organic metal precursor, an organic solvent and either no binder, or a volatile or a thermally decomposable binder are combined to form a paste. The paste is deposited in a circuit pattern on a substrate and the circuit pattern is cured. While curing, the organic metal precursor decomposes to leave an electrically conductive path, and the printed circuit is thus formed. A precursor to an electrically conductive circuit material includes an organic metal precursor, metal microp a
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Chiral Metamaterials

A metamaterial includes a dielectric substrate and an array of discrete resonators at the dielectric substrate, wherein each of the discrete resonators has a shape that is independently selected from: an F-type shape; an E-type shape; or a y-type shape. A parameter of a chiral metamaterial is determined and a chiral metamaterial having such a parameter is prepared by the use of a model of the chiral metamaterial. The metamaterial model includes an array of discrete resonators. In one embodiment,
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Solar Thermoelectric Conversion

Systems and methods utilizing solar-electrical generators are discussed. Solar- electrical generators are disclosed having a radiation-capture structure and one or more thermoelectric converters. Heat produced in a capture structure via impingement of solar radiation can maintain a portion of a thermoelectric converter at a high temperature, while the use of a low temperature at another portion allows electricity generation. Thus, unlike photovoltaic cells which are generally primarily concerned
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Method and Apparatus for Generating Electricity While a User Is Moving

The present disclosure provides for systems and methods for generating electricity while a user is moving. More particularly, the present disclosure provides for improved systems and methods for generating electricity while a user is walking or running. In exemplary embodiments, the present disclosure provides for improved systems and methods for generating electricity while a user is moving, wherein the systems and methods for generating electricity while a user is moving are portable, and wher
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Detecting and Revoking Pirate Redistribution of Content

Disclosed are methods, systems and articles for tracing and disabling one or more unauthorized distributors of content originally transmitted by a distribution center. In some embodiments, a method includes receiving rebroadcast transmissions of a data segment previously transmitted by the distribution center, the received segment including embedded information associated with a subset of recipients that includes at least one of the unauthorized distributors, and identifying the subset based on
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Increased Activity of Catalyst Using Inorganic Acids

The present disclosure provides for improved electrochemical devices (e.g., fuel cells, metal air batteries, ultra capacitors, etc.) and components therefore. More particularly, the present disclosure provides for improved systems and methods for producing materials, membranes, electrode assemblies (e.g., membrane electrode assemblies) and electrochemical devices employing the membranes and/or electrode assemblies. The present disclosure provides for improved systems and methods for producing hi
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Reconfigurable Magnetic Logic-circuit Array and Methods for Producing and Operating Such Logic Devices

The invention relates to a reconfigurable magnetic logic-circuit array having at least two magnetoresistive elements, each composed of at least two magnetic layers, which are separated from one another by an intermediate layer, in each instance, whereby one of the magnetic layers, as a reference layer, does not substantially change its magnetization under the influence of external magnetic fields, and the other magnetic layer, as a free layer, changes its magnetization perceptibly under the infl
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Integrated Mems and Ic Systems and Related Methods

An integrated MEMS and IC system (MEMSIC), as well as related methods, are described herein. According to some embodiments, a mechanical resonating structure is coupled to an electrical circuit (e.g., field-effect transistor). For example, the mechanical resonating structure may be coupled to a gate of a transistor. In some cases, the mechanical resonating structure and electrical circuit may be fabricated on the same substrate (e.g., Silicon (Si) and/or Silicon-on-Insulator (SOW and may be prox
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Electro-mechanical Oscillating Devices and Associated Methods

Electro-mechanical oscillating devices designed to convert the frequency of electrical signal(s) and methods associated with the same are described. One example of such a frequency converting device is a mixer.
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Positive Peak Detector

The invention relates to a positive peak detector (1') that has been specially designed to operate at high frequencies with low power consumption, formed by a cell Gm (2'), a current mirror (3') formed by two CMOS transistors (M'6 and M'7) and a capacitor assembly (4'), in which a capacitor (C) stores the peak voltage (V'p) and is discharged progressively by means of a current source (l'4). The invention comprises the use of a high-performance cell Gm (2') formed by five CMOS transistors, four (
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Method for Protecting Human Beings Against Electric Discharges

The present invention relates to a method for protecting human beings against electric shocks. The method is used to detect power being passed through a human body that is insulated from the earth or has no earth connection, said method comprising the following steps consisting in: applying a train of low-intensity pulses over a line in service, and comparing the echoes of the pulses returned by the line over time. In this way, the first echo can be compared with subsequent echoes in order to el
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Device for Generating Electric Power from Small Movements

The present invention relates to a device for generating electric power from small movements, comprising: a magnet in the form of a solid of revolution including at least one pair of poles (N, S) arranged about the axis of rotation thereof; and a duct with a cross-section that complements the shape of the magnet and a winding coiled transversely therearound. According to the invention, the magnet is placed inside the duct, such that, when the duct is tilted, the magnet rolls along the inside of
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A Piezoelectric Drive Assembly

A piezoelectric drive assembly (10) comprises a frame (11) supporting at least two piezoelectric actuator stacks (12), the frame (11) including a plurality of frame elements (13, 16, 19) and the actuator stacks (12) protruding from a first said frame element (13) in adjacent relation to one another so as to provide for a stepper-type piezomotor action caused by operation of sets of the piezoelectric actuator stacks (12) in clamping and shearing modes respectively. The assembly (10) also includes
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Oscillator Circuit for Generating an Alternating Voltage

Oscillator circuit for generating an alternating voltage (VAC), comprising an oscillator according to a micro-electromechanical system (MEMS-oscillator) to be manufactured as integrated circuit and comprising at least a substrate on which are arranged - a first strip of a thin film of an electrically conductive material extending parallel to the substrate and spatially separated therefrom, - a first electrode, - a second electrode separated spatially from the first strip for supplying a direct v
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Inductor Type Ac Generator

This invention presents inductor generator with multiphase armature and excitation winding. Generator consists of toothed, non-wound rotor 1 and toothed stator 2 with coils of basic multiphase armature windings 3, additional armature micropower windings 4, basic excitation windings 5 and additional micropower excitation windings 6. Coils of additional windings against basic windings are designed bifilarly, having no mutual inductance with basic windings, but same connection diagram. The basic ar
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Radial Electric Distribution Line with Branches

The invention refers to the field of electrical engineering and could be applied for electric network supply out of cities. The purpose of the invention is to improve the electic power indices in the branched electric distribution lines. A radial electric distribution line with branches includes consumers of active as well as reactive power. Voltage 2 and current converters 3 give a possibility for phase defining scheme 4 to define phase shift angle ? as a control signal, compared with a stabili
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Diagnostic System for Determination of Railway Switch Fault Probability

The invention relates to electrical engineering, particularly to transportation sector. Its goal is to create a diagnostic system to be capable from actual measured runtime parameters conclude about technical condition of railway switch and rise warning in case of fault probability. Goal is achived so, railway switch is equipped with set of sensors measuring runtime parameters. Measurement results are transferred to evaluation and database unit. Database contain standard set of parameters and se
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Asynchronous Motor Drive

The invention refers to electrical engineering and it could be used in electric drives. Its purpose is to stabilize the electromagnetic torque in the case of power supply network voltage and frequency deviation. The power supply network is connected to the induction motor stator windings 1, 2, 3 connected in series with controlled bridge rectifier 4, which output is connected to the supercapacitor 5. The choke 6 and controllable switch 7, which has parallel connected three phase net inverter 9,
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Dc Electrical Drive of Ac Electrical Train

Invention corresponds to electrical engineering and more precisely to electrical drives of AC electrical trains. Target of invention is to improve energetic parameters of AC electrical trains DC electrical drives in respect to the supply contact network. Target is reached to introduce in system of multi-level controlled rectifier of traction motor drive with supply from input transformer with several sections of the secondary winding connection of the one section through reactor to a single phas
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The Distance Determinig Method of the Single-phase Earth Fault in Electric Distribution Networks

The invention relates to the electrical power sector protective relaying and automation, used for determining the location of earth fault in power line networks with isolated neutral and compensated neutral. For determining the distance from the busbar till the single-phase earth fault, then an emergency mode measured in the damaged phase voltage U PH, damaged phase I PH and undamaged phases I FL currents, zero sequence current I 0 as well as a current in transformer neutral I TR, but pre-fault
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Bar Inductor Machine

The invention is devoted to contactless electric machines and can be applied on alternative power engineering. Its goal is to increase the generated power at low rotation frequencies and to decrease the starting torque. The offered bar-type inductor machine contains magnetic circuit (1) of the stator, anchor winding (2), rotor shaft (7), and ferromagnetic bars (6) of the rotor and springs (8). The invention is characterised by the fact that the number of stator's teeth (3) in the magnetic circui
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Method for Verification of Electrical Coreless Coils

The invention applies to electrical engineering and more specifically to the electrical coils insulation research. Its aim is to create a verification system, in which the coreless coil shortly is exposed to high voltage, and high frequency sinusoidal voltage in resonant chain, recognizing the fact of withholding regime within a specified time interval, identifies non-demaged insulation in the form of coil voltage amplitude unchanged, which confirms the resonance regime. If the insulation is dam
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Multipolar Synchronous Generator with Permanent Magnets

The multipolar synchronous generator with permanent magnets has been proposed. The generator contains a stator having Zs number of evenly placed teeth with a pitch distance between teeth ts, which are embraced by winding of an armature. Rotor of the generator is toothed, without winding and has permanent magnets between teeth, with a direction of magnetization perpendicularly to lateral faces of teeth. Thus there can be a little number of teeth between magnets, the number of which is nm and the
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Device for Control Parameters of Magnetically Linked Windings

Invention relates to electrical engineering and can be used for diagnostics. Its aim is to extend the control equipment functionality. The equipment contains a unipolar pulsed power generator 1, switch 2, magnetically linked primary winding 3, magnetically linked secondary windings 5, and core 4. First outlets of both windings are attached to oscilloscope 6, but second clip of a power generator, second outputs of winding 3 and 5 and oscilloscope 6 common terminal are connected to zero. Rectangul
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Autonomous Invertor of Current

Invention relates to electrical engineering, and it can be used for the electrical drive. Its aim is to improve the current form factor. Invention contains two autonomous dc sources 1 and 9, each connected in a series with controlled switches 2 and 10. At least two controlled frequency generators 5, 6, and 11, 12 are attached to each of the switches, said generators being associated with programmable timers 7, 8 and 13, 14. Surge limiter 3 is connected in parallel to RL load 4. In a certain rang
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Device for Control of Magnetically Connected Windings

The invention is devoted to electrical engineering, and it can be applied in diagnostics. The goal of the invention is to extend functional possibilities of control devices. The device contains single-pole pulse generator 1, switch 2, magnetically connected with primary winding 3, magnetically connected with secondary winding 5, and core 4. One of the windings and clamps are connected to oscilloscope 6, but the second clamp of generator 1, the second clamps of windings 3 and 5 and general clamp
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Electromechanical Generator

Invention relates to mechanical human motion energy converter to the electric energy. It is proposed the electromechanical generator which operates on the principle of electromagnetic induction and consists of a flat coil and magnet. The mechanical energy of the periodic motion of human body that occurs during walking is used for electric power creation. Human motion-induced periodic force or human body parts relative motion induces periodic movement of the magnet parallel to coil. Periodic moti
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System of Bidirectional Dc Power Flow At the Electric Transport Track Substations

The invention is related to electrical engineering and to the supply systems of electric transport network in particular. The goal of the invention is to simplify the realization of bidirectional DC power flow at the electric transport track substations. The basic idea of the invention is that in the electrical transport track substation system containing the three-winding three-phase transformer, the primary winding of which is connected to the symmetrical three-phase voltage supply network, th
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Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter

Disclosed is ground fault circuit interrupter comprising a summation current transformer (RK, W, SC) for lines (L1, N) that are to be monitored and are led across the contacts of a first multipole switch (S1) which is retained by a breaker mechanism (SC) in the closed position thereof. The breaker mechanism (SC) trips the switch by opening the contacts thereof when a predefined current difference is exceeded in the lines. The ground fault circuit interrupter further comprises a second switch (S2
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Blue light emmiting polythriphenylene dendrimers, methods of preparation and uses thereof

The present invention relates to novel blue light emitting polytriphenylene dendrimers, methods of preparation and uses thereof. The present polytriphenylene dendrimers comprise a core unit with linked diphenyltriphenylene repeating units of the following formula (1) The present invention further provides a method for preparing such dendrimers via a series of Diels-Alder cycloadditions reacting an alkinyl-functionalized compound with a diphenylcyclopentaphenanthrenone of formula (2) Also provide
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A Flexible Patch Antenna

According to a first aspect of the present invention, a flexible patch antenna is provided. The flexible patch antenna comprises a first dielectric layer of a flexible elastomer material, the first dielectric layer having a first surface and a second surface. It furthermore comprises a first flexible patch element being mounted contiguous to the first surface of the first dielectric layer. It also comprises a flexible ground plane being mounted contiguous to the second surface of the first diele
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Sensorless Control of Salient-pole Machines

A controller (100) for controlling a salient-pole machine (200) is disclosed. The controller (100) is adapted to determine at least one operational parameter of the salient-pole machine (200), such as for example a rotor position, a rotor angle or a steady-state voltage. The controller (100) comprises a calculating unit for calculating test pulse properties for test pulses for supply to phase inputs of the salient-pole machine. The test pulse properties thereby comprise a pulse width and the cal
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Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Machine

Permanent magnet synchronous machines (100) are described having good efficiency, as well as corresponding methods for making a stator (110) or stator teeth (114) for such machines. A method for fabricating a stator (110) for an axial flux permanent magnet synchronous machine is for example described comprising obtaining several sets of substantially identical laminates (302), and stacking the sets of substantially identical laminates (302) so that a subsequent laminate has a part overlapping (3
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Resonance-based Rotor Position Estimation

The present invention relates to sensorless rotor position estimation of a salient machine, such as a switched reluctance machine or a salient brushless DC machine. The invention relates to a test system (200) for a salient machine (230) to be driven using an inverter (220). Periods of zero current may occur in the phases of the salient machine. The test system (200) comprises a test pulse generator (210) for applying a voltage test pulse with the inverter of the salient machine. The voltage tes
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Circuit for Converting a Pulsed Input Voltage to a DC Voltage

The present disclosure presents a circuit for converting a pulsed input voltage to a DC output voltage. The circuit comprises input nodes for receiving the pulsed input voltage and output nodes for outputting the DC output voltage. The circuit further comprises a first transistor and a second transistor connected between the input and the output nodes in a synchronous rectifier configuration. The first and second transistors each have a gate connected to a driving circuit configured for alternat
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Circuit for End-of-Burst Detection

A circuit for end-of-burst detection in a portion of a received bit stream is disclosed. The circuit comprises: a first counter for counting the number of bits in the portion, a second counter for counting the number of bit value transitions in the portion, and a circuit for comparing the counted number of bits in the portion and the counted number of bit value transitions therein with preset values, the circuit for comparing is further arranged for generating a signal indicative of end-of-burst
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Stepping Actuator and Method of Fabrication

The current invention provides a stepping actuator, achieving large range up to +-35 mum with low operating voltages of 15V or lower and large output forces of up to +-110 muN. The actuator has an in-plane-angular deflection conversion which allows achieving step sizes varying from few nanometers to few micrometers with a minor change in the design. According to certain embodiments of the invention, the stepping actuator comprises a geometrical structure with a displacement magnification ratio o
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Solution Processing Method for Forming Electrical Contacts of Organic Devices

The present invention relates to a method for forming, on an organic semiconductor layer, an electrical contact layer comprising a metal, the method comprising the steps of: (a) providing a charge collecting barrier layer on the organic semiconductor layer; (b) providing a liquid composition comprising a precursor for the metal on the charge collecting barrier layer; and (c) performing a sintering step; wherein the charge collecting barrier layer is substantially impermeable to the components of
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Triplet Excitation Scavenging in Solid-state Organic Materials

The present invention is directed to solid state organic light emitting devices and to methods for triplet excitation scavenging in such devices. More particularly, the present invention relates to a method for substantially reducing a triplet population in a solid state organic material, the method comprising providing molecules exhibiting non-vertical triplet energy transfer in the solid state organic material or at a distance smaller than a triplet exciton diffusion length from the solid stat
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Electrostatically actuatable MEMS device

Electrostatically actuatable MEMS device comprising: a substrate (103) of which at least a top layer (106) comprises a dielectric material; a first conductor (102) fixed to the top layer of the substrate, forming a fixed electrode of the device; and a second conductor (100) fixed to the top layer of the substrate, the second conductor being electrically isolated from the first conductor and comprising a movable portion (100') which is suspended at a predetermined first distance (D1) above the fi
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Patterning and Contacting of Magnetic Layers

A method according to embodiments of the present invention comprises providing a magnetic stack comprising a magnetic layer sub-stack comprising magnetic layers (41) and a bottom conductive electrode (43) and a top conductive electrode (44) electrically connecting the magnetic layer sub-stack at opposite sides thereof; providing a sacrificial pillar (46) on top of the magnetic stack, the sacrificial pillar (46) having an undercut with respect to an overlying second sacrificial material (45) and
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Two Layer Transformer

One aspect of the invention relates to a symmetrical transformer with a stacked coil structure comprising two coils each having at least two turns, said coils being located in two conductive planes. The structure comprises four identical basic elements, each basic element providing a conductive path for part of said coils. The terminals of the transformer are located at opposite sites of the structure so that the structure can be easily connected in a chain. The invention also relates to a semic
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Organic light-emitting device with field-effect enhanced mobility

A two-terminal organic light-emitting device structure is presented with low absorption losses and high current densities. Light generation and emission occur at a predetermined distance from any metallic contact, thereby reducing optical absorption losses. High current densities and thus high emitted light intensity are achieved by combining two types of conduction in one device: by combining space charge limited conduction and field-effect conduction or by combining ohmic conduction and field-
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Method and Device for Reducing Power Consumption in Application Specific Instruction Set Processors

A method and device for converting first program code into second program code, such that the second program code has an improved execution on a targeted programmable platform, is disclosed. In one aspect, the method includes grouping operations on data for joint execution on a functional unit of the targeted platform, scheduling operations on data in time, and assigning operations to an appropriate functional unit of the targeted platform. Detailed word length information, rather than the typic
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Method and Device for Producing and Storing Energy

The invention relates to a method and a device for producing and storing electrical energy using iron complexes, using a molecular complex of iron + III as well as a photoreduced iron +II complex, both complexed chemically by a ligand of the benzoic hydrazide type.
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Energy Conditioner

Electrical circuitry comprising a load (3) able to be powered by an electricity network (2), said electrical circuitry comprising an energy conditioner (1) positioned between said electricity network (2) and said load (3), characterized in that said conditioner (1) comprises a first converter (6), called series converter, able to generate an injection voltage making it possible to compensate the disturbances on the power supply supplied to said load (3) by said electricity network (2), said cond
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Radiation Detectors and Autoradiographic Imaging Devices Comprising Such Detectors

The invention relates to a radiation detector through which flows a gas mixture of rare gas and carbon dioxide and which comprises an amplifying structure (7) including an input electrode (8) and an output grid (9) separated from one another by at least 500 [mu]m.
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Intermetallic Compounds, their Use and a Process for Preparing the Same

The present invention relates to new intermetallic compounds having a crystalline structure of Ni3Sn2 type for the magnetic refrigeration, their use and a process for preparing the same. The present invention further relates to new magnetocaloric compositions for the magnetic refrigeration and their use.
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New Intermetallic Compounds, their Use and a Process for Preparing the Same

The present invention relates to new intermetallic compounds having a crystalline structure of Ni3Sn2 type for the magnetic refrigeration, their use and a process for preparing the same. The present invention further relates to new magnetocaloric compositions for the magnetic refrigeration and their use.
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Sensor for Non-contact Electric and Magnetic Field Measurements

The present invention relates to a probe and a sensor for measuring electric fields, more specifically to a probe that in combination with an electrometer allows measurement of an electric field with high sensitivity, large bandwidth and low frequencies without making electrical contact. Thereto the probe for measuring electric fields, comprises: a means for concentrating the electric field to be measured; and a signal capacitor, wherein the means for concentrating the electric field to be measu
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Programmable Gate Array, Switch Box and Logic Unit for Such an Array

A switch box (2) for a programmable gate array including input ports grouping a plurality of inputs (I, I') and output ports grouping a plurality of outputs (O, O'), with the inputs and the outputs being connected to a downstream connection tree structure from the inputs toward the outputs and including routing elements (4, 5, 6) organized according to several levels for connecting by a single path each input of all the input ports to at least one output of each output port. Switch boxes, logic
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Device for Generating Clock Signals for Asymmetric Comparison of Phase Errors

The invention relates to a device for generating clock signals, comprising a phase locked loop (100) including: - a controlled oscillator (101) capable of outputting a clock signal, - a plurality of phase comparators (102.1-102.4) capable of comparing a clock signal output by the controlled oscillator with a plurality of clock signal phases applied to the input of the phase locked loop, - means (110) for weighted summing of the output signals from the plurality of phase comparators such that one
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A Power Amplifier

A switched mode class- S power amplifier comprises a sigma-delta modulator with a digital input, a power switch connected to the output of the sigma-delta modulator providing the power amplifier output, and a feedback mechanism. The sigma-delta modulator has a high-pass transfer function and uses an offset switching frequency to remove an unwanted image over half of the switching frequency. The amplifier may have a filter to remove unwanted fold-over image. There may be at least two modulators a
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Microelectromechanical System Tunable Capacitor

The present invention provides a new type of microelectromechanical capacitor, that allows ' a first selective deflection of a movable capacitance electrode to form an arched shape over a fixed capacitance electrode upon the application of an electrostatic force between the movable capacitance electrode and fixed bias electrodes, and a second deflection of the arched movable capacitance electrode upon the application of a second electrostatic force between the movable capacitance electrode and f
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A system level power evaluation method

This invention relates to a system level power evaluation method in which detailed power macro-models (PMM) are created for operations of modules. These PMMs are stored in memory. A system level circuit description (SLCD) is evaluated using the PMMs stored in memory that are relevant to that SLCD and using other PMMs that are generated for operations of modules that do not have PMMs stored in memory. In this way, a highly accurate and computationally efficient power evaluation of the SLCD is pos
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Electroluminescent Device

The present invention relates to an electroluminescent device (1). The device comprises a transparent substrate (6), formed from a mouldable material. The device also comprises a transparent electron transport layer (4) on the substrate and at least one inorganic semiconductor light-emitting component (3) in contact with the electron transport layer. The semiconductor may be a copper halide, or an equivalent wide- bandgap semiconducting UV or blue/UV light-emitting material. The invention also r
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Adaptive clocking system for a packet classifier

An adaptive clocking system 100 for a packet classifier is described. The system provides for control of the clocking frequency of the packet classifier dependent on the traffic within the packet based network. By operating the packet classifier at a frequency commensurate with the traffic encountered it is possible to match fluctuations in the traffic and effect power savings during periods of low traffic. The system comprises a buffer 120 for storing the packet header information of received p
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Power Splitter

A power splitter comprising a transmission line and having at least one secondary winding(s) arranged about the transmission line, the transmission line operably providing a magnetic field which inductively couples power into the secondary winding(s) to provide a splitting of the power from the transmission line. The power splitter may be provided as a broadband, passive, divide by N power splitter that may be advantageously employed in providing power to multiple electrodes within a plasma sour
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System for analysing plasma

A system 400 for analysing plasma comprises at least one sensor 125 which is co-operable with a plasma generator for sensing a characteristic of plasma generated by the plasma generator and generating an analogue signal representative thereof. The system also includes an analogue-to-digital converter in communication with the sensor for converting the analogue signal to a digital signal which is suitable for digital processing 130. The at least one sensor may be capacitive such as a capacitive c
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An Optical Wavelength Comb Generator Device

The present application relates to comb frequency generator devices generally and more particularly to the use of comb generators for use in fibre optic communications. More particularly, the application provides a frequency comb generator device. The device comprises a laser, a biasing circuit 26 for providing a DC bias current, an RF circuit 22 providing a RF signal and a drive circuit 28 for combining the RF signal with the DC bias current to provide a drive current to the laser. The bias cur
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Electrode for Electrochemical Cells

The invention relates to an electrode for oxygen reduction comprising a porous organic material and at least one inherently conducting polymer such as a charge transfer complex or a conductive polymer, optionally combined with a non-conducting polymer. A current conductor may be located intermediate the porous organic material and the inherently conductive polymer. The electrode is suitable for use with an ion-conducting membrane and fuel such as hydrogen, an alcohol or borohydride to form a fue
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An Imaging Detector for a Scanning Charged Particle Microscope

The present disclosure provides a component for an imaging detector of a scanning charged particle microscope. The scanning changed particle microscope has a column for providing a scanning beam of the charged particles. The imaging detector is arranged for detecting off-axis electrons at a position outside the column and comprises an electron receiving element that is arranged to generate a signal in response to an intensity of received electrons. The detector component also comprises a filter
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Improved Method and Apparatus for Dimming a Lighting Device

The present invention relates to a method and an apparatus for controlling illumination of a light device such as a high power light emitting diode. Electrical power is alternately switched to the HP-LED via an energy storage arrangement, such as an inductor, and away from the HP-LED. Energy is conserved in the inductor by applying a short circuit across the inductor as the power is switched away from the HPA-LED.
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A Single Photon Emission System

The present disclosure provides a method of forming a single photon emission system and a single photon emission system. The method comprises providing a single photon source arranged for single photon emission at a predetermined wavelength in response to a suitable excitation. The single photon source comprises a particle for generating the single photons. The method also comprises providing an optical pump source arranged to provide the suitable excitation in the form of suitable photons. In a
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Method of Forming an Electrical Circuit Using Fullerene Derivatives

The present invention resides in a method of forming an electrical circuit, comprising forming on a substrate a non-conducting film having as its major constituent one or more fullerene derivatives, followed by exposing a selected region of said film to actinic radiation whereby to cause said selected region to become conductive. At least one electrical contact is provided (at any stage of the process) in physical contact with said selected region. The invention also reides in an electrical circ
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Integrated Cell Voltage Measurement and Equalization System for Series-connected Batteries and Method for Operating Same

A battery pack management system comprises a power supply adapted to be connected to a battery pack. The battery pack includes a plurality of cells, where each cell is interconnected in a series arrangement to other cells in the battery pack. Each cell has a cell charge characteristic and a voltage potential characteristic. An electronic control unit (ECU) measures the voltage potential characteristic of each cell. An equalizing circuit (EQU) equalizes the voltage of each cell individually relat
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System for Selectively Filling Pin Holes, Weak Shunts And/or Scribe Lines in Photovoltaic Devices and Photovoltaic Cells Made Thereby

A system for selectively filling pin holes, weak shunts and/or scribe lines in photovoltaics devices and photovoltaic cells made thereby is described.
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System and Method for High Yield Deposition of Conductive Materials Onto Solar Cells

A system for reducing damage to solar cells during a process for depositing a conductive material on a solar cell is disclosed where an electrical bias or floating potential is applied to the solar cell; and/or an electrical bias is applied to an external electrode(s) so that charged particles of a certain type are redirected away from the solar cells, avoiding the creation of a sufficiently high reverse bias on the solar cell to breakdown the cell.
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Method and Device for Controlling the Operation Op Power Sources At the Point of Maximum Power

Provided herein are a control method and a control device for controlling a supply unit, which enable supply of the maximum power that can be delivered by a power source, said method being characterized by the presence of an absolute maximum on1 the curve of the power as a function of the voltage at the connection terminals; the supply system set betwee'n the power source and the load is preferably a DC/DC switching converter. The control circuit identifies the optimal operating point, using the
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Method for Controlling an Electric Power Generation System Based on Energy Sources, in Particular Renewable Energy Sources, and Related Controller Device

The present invention concerns a method, and the related controller device, for controlling an electric power generation system, based on at least one energy source, in particular a renewable energy source, preferably a photovoltaic or fuel cell source, said system operating according to operating performance representable by at least one performance indicative function (P; ?P) having at least one optimal value (P target), operation of said system being dependent on at least two controllable par
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Enhancing Signals

A method of testing a sample comprising the steps of: applying an excitation to the sample; detecting a response signal from the sample; processing a first part and a second part of the response signal; and determining from the second part of the response signal information with which to enhance the first part of the response signal.
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Light emitting diode

AC LED according to the present invention comprises a substrate (51), and at least one serial array having a plurality of light emitting cells connected in series on the substrate. Each of the light emitting cells comprises a lower semiconductor layer consisting of a first conductive compound semiconductor layer formed on top of the substrate (55), an upper semiconductor layer (59) consisting of a second conductive compound semiconductor layer formed on top of the lower semiconductor layer, an a
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Light emitting diode having well and/or barrier layers with superlattice structure

A light emitting diode (LED) having well and/or barrier layers with a superlattice structure is disclosed. An LED has an active region between an N-type GaN-based semiconductor compound layer and a P-type GaN-based semiconductor compound layer, wherein the active region comprises well and/or barrier layers with a superlattice structure. As the well and/or barrier layers with a superlattice structure are employed, it is possible to reduce occurrence of defects caused by lattice mismatch between t
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Transmission Cable

A transmission cable has multiple signal lines 2 formed on one side of an insulation layer 1 and a ground line 3 between the signal lines 2. The ground line 3 is electrically connected to a shield layer 4 formed on a back surface side of the insulation layer 1 and to a noise suppressing layer 6 having a high electric resistance value than the shield layer 4 via a metal bump 5 embedded and formed in the insulation layer 1. The noise suppressing layer 6 has a function to suppress an unwanted emiss
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Mounting Method

A mounting method is provided for mounting electric components on both faces of a substrate. Because the electric components 32, 33 on a front face and a rear face of the substrate 31 are simultaneously pressed with first and second pressing rubbers 15, 25, the electric components 32, 33 can be connected to the front face and the rear face of the substrate 31 at a time. Because the peripheries of the first and second pressing rubbers 15, 25 are surrounded by a dam member 16 when the first and se
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Mounting Method, Board with Electrical Component, and Electrical Apparatus

An electric device having high reliability is to be produced. An adhesive layer 20 includes a thermosetting resin and a radiation-curable resin, and a portion of the adhesive layer 20 is protruded outwardly from an edge of the electric part 15. Radiation rays 29 do not pass through the electric part 15, and the radiation-curable resin is cured in the protruding portion 26, while the radiation-curable resin in that portion of the adhesive layer 20 which is positioned right behind the electric par
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Method for Manufacturing Substrate Having Electric Component

A simple method of producing an electric component-mounted substrate having a cavity structure is provided. Because a supporting substrate 20 and electric components 31 and 32 are connected together to a first face of a base substrate 10, the number of steps for the connection is reduced to shorten the producing time. When electric components 32 and 33 are to be connected to a second face 14, the base substrate 10 is supported by the supporting substrate 20, and the electric components 31 and 3
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Light emitting diode and method for manufacturing the same

Provided are a light emitting diode (LED) and a method for manufacturing the same. The LED includes an n-type semiconductor layer, an active layer, and a p-type semiconductor layer. The active layer includes a well layer and a barrier layer that are alternately laminated at least twice. The barrier layer has a thickness at least twice larger than a thickness of the well layer.
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Thermocompression Bonding Head and Mounting Device Using the Same

The present invention provides a thermocompression bonding head capable of mounting an electric component on a wiring board in a short time with high connection reliability, and provides a mounting device using the same. A thermocompression bonding head 3 includes a heatable metal head body 5 having an elastic pressure-bonding member 7 made of elastomer and a metal pressing member 5b. The metal pressing member 5b, corresponding to an electric component 20 as a target to be bonded with pressure,
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Mounting Method Using Thermocompression Head

The present invention provides a mounting method using a thermocompression head which can mount an electric component in a short time with high connection reliability. The method is provided for mounting an electric component (20) on a wiring board (10) by using a thermocompression head (3) having an elastic pressure bonding member (7) composed of an elastomer on a heatable metal head main body (5). In the method, after arranging an adhesive agent on a mounting region on the wiring board (10), a
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Method and Apparatus for Mounting Electric Component

Provided is an electric component mounting apparatus for greatly reducing a quantity of electric component warpage generated at the time of mounting a thin electric component having a thickness of 200&mgr;m or less on a wiring board by using a nonconductive adhesive which does not contain conductive particles and has a low lowest melt viscosity. On a wiring board (100) placed on a base (11) in the mounting apparatus, a nonconductive adhesive film (300) having a lowest melt viscosity of 1.0x103Pa
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Method and Apparatus for Mounting Electric Component

Provided is an electric component mounting apparatus for greatly reducing a quantity of electric component warpage generated at the time of mounting a thin electric component having a thickness of 200&mgr;m or less on a wiring board by using a nonconductive adhesive which contains conductive particles and has a low lowest melt viscosity. On a wiring board (100) placed on a base (11) in the mounting apparatus, an anisotropic conductive adhesive film (300) having a lowest melt viscosity of 1.0x103
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Hexacyanoferrate Modified Electrode

An electrode comprising a modified electrically conductive element comprising an electrically conductive element having a surface and a coating of a polyelectrolyte on said surface, and a transition metal hexacyano transition metallate derived material contained within the polyelectrolyte coating.
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Electrical Tomography Apparatus and Method and Current Driver

Electrical tomography apparatus comprises: a first electrode; a second electrode; and current driving means for driving an electrical current between the first electrode and the second electrode through a medium, wherein the current driving means comprises: a first transformer having a first winding and a second winding, the second winding having a first terminal and a second terminal; and means for generating an alternating current through the first winding so as to generate an alternating volt
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High voltage insulation monitoring sensor

A sensor for condition monitoring the high voltage insulation of an electrical, generation, transmission or distribution system and/or an item of plant is described. The sensor comprises an impedance measurement unit that connects directly, via a single point of connection, to the electrical system to be tested. The electrical components of the impedance measurement unit are arranged so that high frequency partial discharge signals and low frequency power cycle information signal are preferentia
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Electrode, Decontamination Apparatus and Method

An electrode comprises a surface region, in which at least a first portion of the surface region has been changed to generate a roughened surface profile, and in which the roughened surface profile satisfies a constraint on the variability of the roughened surface profile.
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Plasma Generation and Use of Plasma Generation Apparatus

A plasma generating apparatus comprises a first, powered electrode and a second electrode structure located in front of the first electrode. An insulating layer is interposed between the first electrode and the second electrode structure. The second electrode structure has a plurality of second electrode portions defining gap portions there between. The width of the gap portions is w. The second electrode portions each have a forward surface and the gap portions each having a forward surface, th
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Ultrasound Transducer Array

An ultrasonic transducer array and method of making an ultrasonic transducer array. The array comprising a plurality of individual array elements made from a piezoelectric composite which is made from a plurality of individual piezoelectric segments; a passive filler between the piezoelectric segments; and, one or more electrodes for driving the array elements formed from the piezoelectric segments; wherein the spatial pattern of the piezoelectric segments of the piezoelectric composite defines
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Protective Element

The present invention provides a protective element capable of stopping heat generation of a heat generation resistor after all of fuse elements are surely blown out in a case where the power is distributed from a specific power distribution path. The protective element can be configured to control blowout times of a plurality of respective fuse elements 12a, 12b in such a manner that other fuse elements are blown out prior to the blowout of a specific fuse element in a case where the power is d
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Electric Devices and Methods of Manufaturing the Same

A process for manufacturing an electrical device, the process comprising the steps: providing a substrate; bringing a stamp into contact with the substrate whereby areas of the substrate contacted by the stamp have decreased wettability; and depositing a liquid comprising an electrically active material over areas of the substrate located between the areas of decreased wettability.
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Terahertz Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs)

Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs), and methods of manufacture of QCLs, comprising an active portion. In some embodiments, the active portion can comprise: a plurality of tensiley strained quantum barrier layers, each comprising Ga y In1- y As; and a plurality of compressively strained quantum well layers, each comprising Ga x In1- x As. In some embodiments, the active portion can comprise: a plurality of compressively strained quantum barrier layers, each comprising Al y In1- y As; and a plurality o
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High temperature superconductors

A high temperature superconductor composition includes a matrix of a high temperature superconductive oxide. Non-superconductive particles are distributed in the matrix. At least some of the non-superconductive particles comprise either a rare earth transition metal oxide or a barium or strontium transition metal oxide. The non-superconductive particles are ferromagnetic, superparamagnetic, ferrimagnetic or antiferromagnetic at a temperature of 77K. Suitable compositions include a superconductiv
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Semiconductor Material

A semiconductor device which comprises a channel layer formed from a semiconductor channel component material in the form of crystalline micro particles, micro rods, crystalline nano particles, or nano rods, and doped with a semiconductor dopant.
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Solid Imaging Device and X-ray Ct Device Including the Solid Imaging Device

The present invention relates to a solid-state imaging device, etc. having a structure for capturing a high-resolution image even when any row selecting wiring is disconnected. The solid-state imaging device (1) comprises a photodetecting section (10), a signal reading-out section (20), a row selecting section (30), a column selecting section (40), an overflow preventing section (50), and a controlling section (60). The photodetecting section (10) has M&times;N pixel portions P 1,1 to P M,N two-
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Terminal device and base station device

A base station (50) measures a signal to interference power ratio using a control signal received from a terminal device (10) through wireless communication, and decides an MCS value indicating a combination of a modulation scheme and a channel code rate. The base station (50) includes the decided MCS value in uplink-channel transmission information and transmits the MCS value to the terminal device (10) by using a control channel including downlink scheduling information. The terminal device (1
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Semiconductor Device, Light Emitting Device and Method of Manufacturing the Same

Disclosed are a semiconductor device, a light emitting device, and a method of manufacturing the same. The semiconductor device includes a substrate, a plurality of rods aligned on the substrate, a metal layer disposed on the substrate between the rods, and a semiconductor layer disposed on and between the rods. Electrical and optical characteristics of the semiconductor device are improved due to the metal layer.
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Light emitting device, light emitting device package, and lighting system

Provided are a light emitting device, a light emitting device package, and a lighting system. The light emitting device comprises a first semiconductor layer comprising a plurality of vacant space parts, an active layer on the first semiconductor layer, and a second conductive type semiconductor layer on the active layer. Each of the plurality of air-lenses has a thickness less than that of the first semiconductor layer.
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Method for Forming an Electronic Device in Multi-layer Structure

A method for forming an organic or partly organic switching device, comprising: depositing layers of conducting, semiconducting and/or insulating layers by solution processing and direct printing; defining microgrooves in the multilayer structure by solid state embossing; and forming a switching device inside the microgroove.
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Wide band gap semiconductor device including junction field effect transistor

A wide band gap semiconductor device has a transistor cell region, a diode forming region, an electric field relaxation region located between the transistor cell region and the diode forming region, and an outer peripheral region surrounding the transistor cell region and the diode forming region. In the transistor cell region, a junction field effect transistor is disposed. In the diode forming region, a diode is disposed. In the electric field relaxation region, an isolating part is provided.
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Blended Polymer Fets

A method for forming a semiconductor body, the method comprising: forming a mixture of an organic semiconducting material and a binder material; causing the semiconducting material to at least partially solidify; and causing the binder material to crystallize in such a way as to cause the semiconducting material to at least partially segregate from the binder material.
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Aligned Polymers for an Organic TFT

A method for forming an electronic device having a semiconducting active layer comprising a polymer, the method comprising aligning the chains of the polymer parallel to each other by bringing the polymer into a liquid-crystalline phase.
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Self-calibrating multiplication circuit for stationary reference current - produces most significant bit currents from parallel current cells switched to comparison and correction current rails

Each circuit cell (A1-An) includes a FET (1) gated from a control amplifier (4), whose noninverting input is connected to a capacitor (5) and current switch (6), and the inverting input to an equalising current source (2) and to the source electrode of the FET (1). The drain electrode is switched (7) to a comparison current rail (8) while the other switch (6) connects the amplifier (4) to a correction current rail (12) from the output (11) of an evaluation circuit (B). USE/ADVANTAGE - Esp. in mo
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Finely-crystalline soldered joint for joining semiconductor chips to support - using solder foil, temp. of which is held just below the liquids after wetting support

A process is disclosed for mfg. a mechanically stable, finely crystalline soldered joint, particularly for power electronics components. Amorphous, finely-crystalline or conventional solder materials are used. Soldering is carried out using a solder foil inserted between the metallic or metallised support and the metallised semiconductor chip in an inert gas atmos. The solder foil is applied as a previously-mfd. item to the support. The temp. in the plane of the joint is reduced to 20-30 deg.K b
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Operating discharge lamps esp. HP lamps for large spaces - superimposing wide band of higher frequencies on basic drive frequency to give smooth running of discharge lamps

The wide band of higher frequencies is self generated by a resonance alternating effect between the discharge lamp and a resonant circuit tuned externally related to its parameters. The circuit for operating the discharge lamps, consists of a mains connection device coupled with the discharge lamp (1), with the discharge lamp having a differential negative, non-linear resistance, is arranged in an oscillatory circuit. The choke (3) with the inductance (L) is connected in series to the discharge
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Generating gas discharge for sputter process - extending electron paths using permanent magnet set into cylindrical cathode to generate field cutting field lines of anode

The method involves using a magnetic cylindrical cathode (1) with an aperture (4) which is axially aligned with the anode (2). Within the cylindrical cathode body is a permanent magnet (5), again axially aligned and fixed to the end wall. The geometry is selected such that the permanent magnet field lines emanate radially and cut the field lines from the anode entering the chamber. ADVANTAGE - Stable discharge conditions with low gas pressure, e.g. under 5 Pa.
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Light-emitting semiconductor devices having variable emission wavelengths

An inventive semiconductor device for emitting light when applying a voltage comprises: a first semiconductor region ( 3 ) whose conductivity is based on charge carriers of a first type of conductivity, e.g. electrons; a second semiconductor region ( 5 ) whose conductivity is based on charge carriers of a second type of conductivity, e.g. holes, which have a charge opposite that of the charge carriers of the first type of conductivity and; an active semiconductor region ( 7 A 7 C), which is situ
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Electrophoretic separation of particle fractions, especially protein fractions, in microfluid system with independently controllable flow of auxiliary buffer in control channel and sample buffer in sa

Electrophoretic separation of a particle fraction in a microfluid system with microchannels involves: (i) passing an auxiliary buffer (AB) through a control channel (CC) (22); (ii) passing a sample medium (SM) (i.e. sample buffer (SB) plus sample particles (SP)) through a sample channel (SC) (21), running in the longitudinal direction of CC and separated from CC by an intermediate region of material (27) permeable to electrically charged particles from SB and optionally at least part of SP; (iii
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Semiconductor Device for Emitting Light

A semiconductor device according to the invention for emitting light when a voltage is applied includes a first ( 3 ), a second ( 5 ) and a third active semiconductor region ( 7 A- 7 C). While the conductivity of the first semiconductor region ( 3 ) is based on charge carriers of a first conductivity type, the conductivity of the second semiconductor region ( 5 ) is based on charge carriers of a second conductivity type, which have a charge opposite to the charge carriers of the first conductivi
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Electrical filter i.e. electromagnetic compatibility line filter, for supply arrangement at power terminal for supply of electrical system, has coordinated circuit arrangement influencing filter chara

The filter (101) has a main filter circuit filtering unwanted frequency portions e.g. electromagnetic compatibility relevant disturbances, and a coordinated circuit arrangement (102) e.g. resonant circuit, influencing a filter characteristic of the filter circuit. The circuit arrangement is fixed in series connection with a throttle (L-B) i.e. current-compensated throttle, and a capacitor (C-B). The throttle is wound on a core of the main filter circuit. An additional coil is attached on the cor
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Electronic device

The device has a cooling body (2) for removing heat from an electronic component (1) e.g. processor, during operation of the device. Air ducts are arranged in a conical form or a hyperboloid form above the cooling body and are made of non heat-retaining material. The air ducts have a cross section with four symmetrical axes e.g. quadratic cross section, and arranged in matrix or web shape. An inner wall of the air ducts is provided with a dirt-repellent coating. The cooling body is formed by a p
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Method and device for measuring the electric current supplied by a high-voltage line to a railway vehicle

The present invention relates to a device of measurement of the electric current provided by a line high voltage to a railway vehicle as well as a process implementing the aforementioned device and such as according to the invention the aforementioned device of measurement comprises means of connection (2) ready to connect the device in at least two points known as of junction (4) of the bus of power (3) of the vehicle, means of measurement (7) allowing the measurement of a potential difference
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Device indicating a radiofrequency field and manufacturing method

The invention relates to a device including/understanding an electric/electronic component (8, 2,12a, 13) connected to at least an antenna radio frequency (3, 19,20) likely to be traversed by a current generated in the circuit of antenna and an indicator of generated current; The device is distinguished in what the aforementioned indicator includes/understands a luminescent compound (6, 16), arranged in the device so as to be directly activated under the effect of the current (I) and/or tension
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Multi-wire Electron Discharge Machine

A multi-wire electron discharge machine includes a first wire electrode for creating an electrical discharge between the first electrode wire and a semiconductor ingot, a second wire electrode for creating an electrical discharge between the second electrode wire and the semiconductor ingot, and a wire guide for maintaining the first wire electrode in a spaced apart and generally parallel orientation with respect to the second wire electrode across a semiconductor ingot slicing area. This inv
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Electret and Electrostatic Induction Conversion Device Comprising the Same

To provide an electret whose surface potential is improved and an electrostatic induction conversion device comprising the same, an electret is formed by spin-coating a fluorine-containing polymer composition for coating which contains a fluorine-containing polymer having a ring structure in its main chain, a silane coupling agent, an aprotic fluorine-containing solvent, and a fluorine-containing alcohol as a protic fluorine-containing solvent on a copper substrate and baking it.
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Image Forming Apparatus and Image Forming Method

Provided is an image forming apparatus which, even after the print speed thereof has been switched, correctly determines the necessity for cleaning of corona wire. When printing, the image forming apparatus (20) determines, on the basis of a threshold voltage based on a print speed in the printing, whether or not corona wire (221) of a charger (22) needs to be cleaned. On the basis of whether or not a monitoring voltage corresponding to the current value of a charged bias, which is applied to th
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Electrolytic Copper Foil and Copper-clad Laminate

To provide an electrodeposited copper foil having flexibility and bending property equivalent to or better than that of rolled copper foil, an electrodeposited copper foil wherein regarding a crystal structure after heat treatment is applied to the electrodeposited copper foil wherein LMP defined as formula 1 is 9000 or more, either color tone of a red system or a blue system occupies 80% or more in a surface in the EBSP analysis is provided. LMP = T + 273 * 20 + Log t wherein 20 is a material c
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Insulating Medium and Its Use in High Voltage Devices

An insulating composition for use in high voltage devices is formed from a soft dielectric casting compound, such as a silicone gel, comprising ferroelectric particles such as barium titanate dispersed within it. Low levels of particles, from 1% to 20% by volume of the insulating composition, are highly effective yet do not cause excessive thickening of the soft dielectric casting compound when it is in its liquid state. The insulating composition is particularly effective for coating, enrobing
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3-dimentional advertising means

Signage in forms letter, digit or other sign having inside ligts and connected to outside clamps installed on bars as electrical connectors. We built prototype as pre-manufactured LED channel letters with self installation by buyers. Letter is light, compact, good quality, consuming power 1.5-2 W/pcs.Very bright. Waterproof. Non-dismantling. Easy to install. Very convenient for small businesses, schools, residential purposes. Signage is portable, easy to install on facades, to hang insi
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Extremely High Voltage DC Electric Energy Storage System - Seamless Power for the National Grid!

A patented soft-switching inverter designed especially for de-energizing high-voltage, high-energy capacitors is revealed in US Patent 7,157,884 (Hacsi) and used in conjunction with a very large in-ground conventional capacitor (a PIT capacitor) to convert high-voltage AC electricity from a nearby generating station into DC at one million volts. In words, a high-voltage rectification system is first used to convert AC to DC and energize the capacitor to one million volts at night with electrica
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Digital Watermarking

2 patent pending digital watermarking systems for sale.
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Electronic Device for Communication with Living Cells (Golden Brain)

Highlights Electrical and chemical communication (functional linking) between cells such as neurons and the surfaces of substrates that are part of electronic devices Generic technology can serve as the basis for the construction of biomedical devices that can, for example, be used to link nerves to a robotic prosthesis, allowing prosthesis to be controlled by the brain Our Innovation Tight physical linkages are formed between cells and surface substrates by taking advantage of the cell’
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Use of Surfactants to Control Unintentional Dopant Incorporation in Semiconductors

The surface properties of semiconductors can be controlled by the use of surfactants. Our technology shows the use of surfactants that lead to a decrease in concentration of harmful impurities incorporated into the semiconductors during the organometallic vapor phase epitaxial growth. In particular, Sb and Bi are shown to reduce the concentration of carbon and oxygen in GaP and GaIN layers. <i>Benefits</i> Carbon and oxygen, as dopants in semiconductor industry, have been identified as ha
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Precision Machining of Shaped Semiconductor Boules for Minimization of Surface Microcracking

Boule-shaping, wafer sawing, slicing and grinding are some of the processes involved in the specialty semiconductor manufacturing process. Non-silicon materials used as substrates in specialty semiconductor applications are mechanically very sensitive to aggressive (abrasive) machining techniques, resulting in surface flaws which reduce both component yield and reliability. This technology describes a precise machining method that customizes the boule-shaping technique to sensitive materials to
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A Virtual Electrochemical Laboratory

This software-based invention simulates a laboratory environment that enables students to understand how common electrochemical experiments are performed. Easily installed on a Microsoft Windows platform, the virtual lab allows students to explore a research environment, conduct experiments by trial and error, and develop an electrochemical setup to acquire data and analyze results. The software includes common electrochemical experiments under a wide variety of physical and chemical condition
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Conductive and Magnetic Phases in an Electron Trapping Semiconductor Array

Nanotechnology is a rapidly evolving field where the race is on to develop self-organizing structures that can be used as active circuit elements. This technology describes a semiconductor array that can be configured so as to exhibit a number of distinct physical phases, each of which has its own distinct electrical and/or magnetic characteristics. <i>Benefits</i> The strip array can be incorporated into MOSFET (metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistors) geometry and utilized in am
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A Current Steering Folding Amplifier

The analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is a key functional building block in most analog/digital VLSI systems. Most applications require high-speed ADC�s with low power consumption. Our technology provides a novel current steering folding amplifier that significantly reduces the power dissipation of a folding A/D converter and also reduces the number of reference current sources. <i>Benefits</i> The current steering folding amplifier has several advantages when compared to conventional am
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Formation of AIFeCu Quasicrystalline Thin Films by Solid State Diffusion

This technology describes the fabrication and coating of quasicrystalline films (less than about 3000 A� thick) of AlCuFe on different substrate materials such as strontium titanate, and sapphire by radio-frequency sputtering and subsequent anneal. The applications of this technology are quite broad based; from electronic devices to medical devices. AlCuFe quasicrystals offer great mechanical and electrical performance, especially when deposited over soft materials. The high hardness and low f
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Quantitative Inversion of Scanning Capacitance Microprobe (SCM)

With the shrinkage of semiconductor devices to the sub-micron level, a great need exists for direct, quantitative, two dimensional dopant profile measurements on a nanometer scale. Direct measurement of 2-dimensional dopant profile provides a means for improving very large scale integrated process and electrical device simulators. They are also needed to accurately calibrate and verify models built into simulators. They give rapid feedback to improve manufacture control and decrease process deve
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Improvements to the Quasi-1D SCM AC to Dopant Density Conversion Algorithm and a New Quasi-3D SCM AC Bias to Dopant Density Conversion Algorithm

State of the art integrated circuit technology demonstrates that it is possible to create active and passive electrical and electronic components on a semi-conductive substrate at the sub-micron level. This ability requires accurate knowledge of the spatial extent of dopant impurities that are incorporated into the semi-conductive substrate. This knowledge is necessary because of the scale at which the concentration, and thus variation or profile of the dopants is operating. Essentially, in ord
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Lab-On-A-Chip: Microfluidic Flow Cytometry

Seemingly identical cells are often quite heterogeneous in their chemical composition and biological activity, and in the timing and magnitude of their responses to external stimuli. Determining the chemical composition of individual cells and measuring how that composition changes in response to external stimuli, is therefore key to better understanding basic cellular functions and intra/intercellular communication. Flow cytometry is a common analysis tool used in modern biology f
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Real Time Monitoring of Power Grid Stability

This technology provides a novel method to estimate power grid stability by measuring in real time, with a single time-point, instabilities and drift at a power grid node, such as a power substation. The algorithm allows an estimation of the Thevenin equivalent of the grid as seen from local substation busses in a power station. Voltage stability, angle stability, system islanding and other predictors of system behavior can be estimated using this technique. The method can be implemented with cu
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High Throughput μ-Electro-Discharge Machining

Researchers at the University of British Columbia have developed a novel method for high throughput micro-electro-discharge machining (μEDM). This method eliminates the need for numerical control (NC) machines to control the EDM process and enables parallel micro-machining, dramatically reducing costs and time to machine. The University of British Columbia is seeking partners to co-sponsor further development of this technology and/or to licence the technology on an exclusive or non-exclusive b
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Tandem Mass Spectrometry Filter with Improved Resolution

Researchers at the University of British Columbia have developed a method of operating a mass spectrometer with multiple mass analysis stages operating in tandem to provide improved resolution. The multiple mass filters can be individually operated at relatively low resolution, yet such that the combined resolution is much greater than the resolution of any individual mass filter. The method thus allows for high resolution to be obtained with the use of lower cost quadrupole mass filters and can
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Real Time Monitoring of Power Grid Stability

This technology provides a novel method to estimate power grid stability by measuring in real time, with a single time-point, instabilities and drift at a power grid node, such as a power substation. The algorithm allows an estimation of the Thevenin equivalent of the grid as seen from local substation busses in a power station. Voltage stability, angle stability, system islanding and other predictors of system behavior can be estimated using this technique. The method can be implemented with cu
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Low-power Passive Sigma-delta Converter

A low-power passive S - D converter with a built-in mixer has been developed for direct conversion of IF signals. Low-power consumption is achieved by adopting a passive loop filter for the S - D converter together with merging the sampling and mixing functions utilizing a specially designed mixer. With a passive loop filter, the only gain element in the loop is a high gain, high speed, low noise comparator. The mixer can be located outside of the feedback loop, although in one aspect of the pre
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DC or LOW FREQUENCY SUB-ATTOFARAD (<10-18 F) CAPACITANCE MEASUREMENT CIRCUIT

The University of Waterloo has developed a novel capacitance based measurement technique and associated circuitry that increases capacitance resolution sensitivity by three orders of magnitude to the sub-atto (10-18) farad range. The technique and circuitry allows for the coupling of any capacitance or charge based transducer to this novel capacitance based measurement circuit. The measurement circuit has a known functionality thus allowing a charge or variable capacitance based transducer in
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Regenerative Snubber Circuit for High-power DC\DC Boost Converters

Advanced transportation technologies, such as hybrid-electric vehicles, battery-electric vehicles, and fuel cell vehicles, rely on high-power DC/DC converters to interconnect and manage their power systems. Quite often boost converters are used to step-up the voltage from a battery or fuel cell to match the electric motor voltage range. Traditionally these boost converters are large and heavy due to the need for large inductors which negatively affects vehicle fuel economy and represents spac
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Imaging Objects in a Dissipative Medium by Nearfield Electromagnetic Holography--3D Metal Detector

A unique time-domain electromagnetic system and data processing technique which, using low frequency electromagnetic fields, can localize, in three-dimensions, the position of buried metallic objects is disclosed. The measurement system uses time-domain electromagnetic techniques on a scanning frame similar to a X-Y plotter. The system collects magnetic data over a large area above the buried object. The spatial information of the field detected on the ground is then processed with a unique 'nea
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Magnetometer Based on an Oscillator Made with Magnetorestrictive Material

There is an increasing need for miniature magenetometers for mapping magnetic fields in space and in industrial and environmental applications. The trend has been constantly toward smaller size, lower power consumption, and lower cost models having similar or better performance. Recent developments in piezoresistive cantilevers and micro magnetometers have produced devices that in some stages require intricate processing. Sensitivities, defined as the minimum detectable field change are in the r
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Various Networked and Distributed Configurations for Power Distribution Protection System

The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab has developed technology for protective systems for power switchboards. It continuously monitors the physical environment of the switchboards for arcing faults. Should a protective system detect an arc, it trips the circuit breaker that supplies power to extinguish the arcing fault. Additionally, the system monitors a collection of sensors to allow it to recognize conditions that, if left unattended, will lead to switchboard failures. Warnings of
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Battery Health Monitor

Existing methods of battery health monitoring often rely on periodic testing and therefore miss long time intervals when a battery’s health can be degraded. Many battery systems are connected together, so when one battery in the chain malfunctions the entire system is made non-functional. Finding that one failed battery can take time and cause potential downtime when the system is required to operate. This could be disastrous to applications such as critical electronic, communications and medi
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Laser Serration of Envelopes for Efficient Liberation of Enclosed Pathogens and Directed Release into Collectors

The U.S. mail system has proved to be a vulnerable target for sabotage by including a toxic substance in a plain envelope. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory has a concept for the efficient extraction of toxic substances from envelopes to increase the probability of detection. The first is to use a laser drill / air jet to cut a small hole in envelopes while they are going through a standard mail sorter. Edge sensors in the sorter can trigger the laser or it can run in a
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Advanced Thin Flexible Microelectronic Assemblies and Methods for Making Same

Reseachers at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) have developed advanced processes to produce thin, flexible microelectronic assemblies that are 100-mm (0.004-inch) thick, only slightly thicker than the diameter of a human hair. These processes are highly reliable, high-yielding, and highly manufacturable. Relying on established expertise and using new, innovative techniques, APL researchers have recently advanced their ability to develop these thin, flexible microelec
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Data analysis software for data collected by Driver Monitoring System

According to the Administration on Aging, persons 65 years or older numbered 35.6 million in 2002. They represented 12.3% of the U.S. population and are expected to grow to be 20% of the population by 2030. In the last twenty years, the percentage increase in older drivers has been three times greater than the growth of the total driving population. The aging U.S. population generates considerable concern about driver safety, as crashes per mile driver are more frequent in older drivers compared
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Efficient Ultra Low Voltage Regulation Electronics

Rad-hard Ultra Low Power (ULP) flight components operate at voltages as low as 0.5VDC, significantly reducing system dynamic power losses which are proportional to power supply voltage squared. Dedicated power conditioning electronics for ULP based spacecraft systems and instruments must provide regulated output voltages as low as 0.5vdc without forfeiting significant portions of the ULP based power savings. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHUAPL) is developing two sp
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Rad Hard, Low Power Galvanically-Isolated Signal Buffer

Inventors have designed and fabricated a 4-channel digital isolation buffer in a 0.5pm Silicon-on-Saphire (SOS) technology, by taking advantage of the isolation properties of the SOS substrate. The individual isolation channels can operate in the excess of 100 Mbps using a differential transmission scheme. The device can tolerate ground bounces of 1V/us and isolate more the 800 V. The device uses an isolated charge pump circuit to power the input circuit from the isolated output side and thus ca
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Long Coherent Integration of Deep-fade GPS Signals During the Handover Word (HOW) Portion of the GPS Message

The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab has developed an invention that uses the predictability of the GPS Handover Word (HOW) to simplify prediction of GPS message bits. It allows long, coherent correlation of GPS signals in deep-fade environment.
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Authentication of Injection Molded Epoxy-Based Electronics Packages Using Molecularly Imprinted Taggants

The international market place has been flooded with a variety of counterfeit merchandise. The use of counterfeit can compromise the function of a critical piece of equipment and result in failure and possible loss of life. This places a responsibility on manufacturers to provide a means of authentication for their products for ethical reasons as well as to avoid false claims of liability. There usually is a trade-off between ease of operation and ease of subversion. The Johns Hopkins Univers
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Driver Monitor System

According to the Administration on Aging, persons 65 years or older numbered 35.6 million in 2002. They represented 12.3% of the U.S. population and are expected to grow to be 20% of the population by 2030. In the last twenty years, the percentage increase in older drivers has been three times greater than the growth of the total driving population. The aging U.S. population generates considerable concern about driver safety, as crashes per mile driver are more frequent in older drivers compared
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Method and Apparatus for Accurate, Digital Monitoring a Receiver Frequency via Telemetry without the Need for Calibration of Analog Components

The novel feature of this invention is that it uses digital hardware that is added to the receiver for the specific purpose of monitoring the frequency and then it produces a calibrated value of the receiver frequency. Present methods for monitoring the frequency of a phase-locked receiver require calibration that can be invalidated by aging, temperature changes, or other physical effects. The APL approach is not subject to variations in analog components, other than the frequency reference.
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Lorentz Force Assisted MEMS-based Microwave Switch

A Lorentz force assisted microelectromechanical switch is provided which is configured to have a capacitive switch and an electrical conductor placed in transversely extending electric and magnetic fields to generate the Lorentz force sufficient to operate the capacitive switch.
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Bit Depth Reduction for Analog to Digital Conversion in Global Positioning System Receivers Operating in High Jamming Environments

Disclosed is a system and method for reducing a bit-depth requirement for an A/D converter in a GPS receiver having an antenna for receiving an analog input signal and a low noise amplifier for amplifying the input signal, comprising a filter for filtering about a bandwidth B the amplified signal; a down-conversion module centering the frequency of the filtered signal about a center frequency f0; an automatic gain controller (AGC) for setting a set point of the input signal; an adder for adding
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Weak Signal and Anti-jam GPS Receiver Using Full Correlation Grid

Global Positioning Systems (GPS) are widely utilized in both commercial and military applications. Along with the increased reliance upon the GPS comes a growing need to provide more accurate and reliable GPS positioning. GPS signals can be adversely affected by various factors including, for example, low signal strength, noise and GPS jamming devices. Each of these causes the GPS system to provide false and inaccurate positioning data in the particular applications. In turn, this inaccurate or
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The Time of Flight System on a Chip (TOF Chip)

This single mixed analog-digital, low-power, precise time interval measurement chip will be a valuable enabling technology for next-generation small spacecraft, particularly for spacecraft constellations, for spectrometry, imaging and range-finding instruments. The remote input/output (RIO) smart sensor chip is JHU/APL’s mixed analog-digital, radiation-hardened, low-power, data acquisition device suitable for spacecraft and instrument data collection. The chip communicates over a standard
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Optimal Ensembling of Ultrastable Crystal Oscillators

Conventional systems, such as satellite systems, disadvantageously use complex and expensive atomic oscillators, such as rubidium or cesium oscillators, to provide precise and stable reference frequencies. In such systems, there is a need to provide reference frequencies approaching the accuracies available from atomic standards, without using the atomic standards. An embodiment of the present invention includes an ensemble clock or oscillator that provides an accurate output frequency. The
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Universal Adapter for Integrated Circuit

A semiconductor die adapter assembly includes a semiconductor die cut from a wafer, the die having an active surface including bond pads. A die adapter, also having bond pads, is bonded to the semiconductor die. Die-to-adapter connectors electrically connect the die bond pads to the adapter bond pads. Finally, adapter-to-substrate connectors electrically connect the adapter bond pads to a device substrate. Having bond pads on the die adapter eliminates the need to break and remake the electrical
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Ka-Band Digital Phase MMIC

broadband, 4-bit MMIC phase shifter for use in a phased array antenna is provided. The four bit selectable phase shifter for use in a phased array antenna of the present invention, which selectably causes an input signal to be shifted in phase, includes a first bit for selectively providing a 180.degree. phase shift, wherein the first bit is a line/reflected bit; a second bit for selectively providing a 90.degree. phase shift, wherein the second bit is a reflected bit; a third bit for selective
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Digital Video Authenticator

Researchers at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) have developed a system that can accurately detect digital video that has been tampered with. The JHU/APL system is designed to attach to, rather than be embedded in a video system due to the rapid obsolescence of camcorders. The JHU/APL Digital Video Authenticator (DVA) relies on computer generated secure digital signatures on information available from standard off-the-shelf digital video camcorders. When a commer
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Area of Interest Selection Circuit for Image Sensor and/or Position Sensing Detector

Many proposed missions depend on the use of “micro-satellite” constellations to make simultaneous measurements at different orbital locations. Numerous new technologies are required to make the micro-satellite concept viable from a mass and power standpoint. The apparent position of the sun is an important spacecraft attitude measurement that is used by virtually all attitude determination and control subsystems. This measurement is commonly made with a sensor called a digital solar attitude
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Single Event Upset Immune Logic Family

The JHU/APL technology contains a collection of circuits implementing static CMOS logic gates that provide Single Event Upset (SEU) immunity. SEU immunity is obtained by building each logic element with a redundant set of inputs (each input is duplicated), and using two copies of each such logic element to provide redundant outputs.
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Dual Frequency Scanning Harmonic Radar for Detection and Identification of Concealed Metallic Weapons and Electronics

A radar system that can rapidly detect and reliably identify targets such as concealed weapons and electronics. Persons either walking through a fixed portal/doorway or walking or congregating in a foyer, entranceway or other open area can carry the targets. The systems needs to be able to achieve a high probability of detection with a low false alarm rate and automatically discriminate between weapons, electronic assemblies and clutter. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory
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Micro-Machined Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MISFET) with an Air-Gap Insulating Layer

A process for fabricating a semiconductor device having, for example, a MISFET transistor, is provided which comprises the steps of (a) providing a partially fabricated semiconductor device comprising a substrate and a first and second polysilican layer insulatively spaced from the substrate by an insulating layer, the insulating layer having an opening therein which exposes the surface of the first polysilicon layer positioned below the second polysilicon layer and (b) exposing the partially fa
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Electronic Safety for Semi-Automatic Handgun

Nearly all Semi-Automatic Handguns use a slide to load a round into the chamber from the magazine. If this action can be stopped, the gun cannot be fired. This invention discusses an automatic systems which senses the proximity of a unique RF tag and controls a lever into the slide making it impossible to chamber a round. The implementation can be constructed to fit into the handle stock of any semi-automatic handgun and can be retrofitted to earlier guns. The cost is very low (~$25) and it i
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Anti-Backfeed Circuit Breaker

External circuit breaker boxes and associated wiring, while allowing the user to select circuits to be powered by the generator using existing circuit breakers and existing house wiring, are costly. As is the needed power company rental collars or other rental devices. An easily installed device is described which allows for hook-up of portable generator-supplied power to existing home AC wiring. Failsafe mechanical means are provided to prevent backfeed of generator power into commercial mai
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Rechargeable Shoe

The invention comprises a means for generating energy while walking or running for storage in a rechargeable battery. One embodiment uses lever arm movement in the heel of a shoe resulting from normal walking or running to generate energy from a built-in generator. The linear or rotational motion of the lever arm engages the circular gear assembly and turns the generator/motor/turbine, thus generating power. The second embodiment uses fluid reservoirs embedded in the shoes. Pressure changes resu
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Chip Technology

The ability to perform in situ testing and characterization of both integrated circuits and their interconnecting substrates in complex multi-chip packaging structures is becoming increasingly important as the packages become smaller. An electro-optic probing instrument makes point-to-point electric field measurements internal to microwave circuits instead of limiting the information to that gathered at the input or output ports of a circuit. Although this technique is popular and polyimide is a
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Automatic Battery Power Switch

An automatic battery power switch circuit that switches from n to n+m cells, where n and m are integers, in a battery. The circuit delivers a relatively constant voltage over a wide range of load current conditions. One-embodiment switches are based on load current. Another embodiment of switches is based on the output voltage of the circuit. The circuit provides a high-speed automatic switch used in devices that require at least two power states, that can function as a voltage regulator, and th
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Microelectromechanical (MEMS)-Based Magnetostrictive Magnetometer

A microelectromechanical (MEMS)-based magnetostrictive magnetometer that uses, as an active element, a commercial (001) silicon microcantilever coated with an amorphous thin film of a giant magnetostrictive alloy Terfenol-D and a compact optical beam deflection transduction scheme. A set of Helmholtz coils is used to create an AC magnetic excitation filed for driving the mechanical resonance of the coated microcantilever. When the coated microcantilever is placed in a DC magnetic filed, the DC f
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Integrated Power Source

self-contained, small, lightweight, portable, renewable, modular integrated power source. The power source consists of solar cells that are laminated onto a solid-state polymer battery, which in turn is laminated onto a substrate containing circuits that manage the polymer battery charging. Charging of the battery can occur via solar energy or, alternatively, via RF coupling using external RF-charging equipment or a handheld generator. For added support, the integrated power source is then bond
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Video-Centroid Chip

An analog, single integrated circuit for providing centered video images. A light detector array that can be, a CCD or an array of phototransistors or silicon retinas, is scanned out to provide a video signal. Current summing lines along each row and column of the array are used as inputs to x and y position sensitive (computation) circuitry located on the edge of the pixel array. When the array utilizes silicon retinas, an absolute value circuit is added to restore low frequency information rem
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Optical-Digital Method and Processor for Pattern Recognition

An automatic battery power switch circuit that switches from n to n+m cells, where n and m are integers, in a battery. The circuit delivers a relatively constant voltage over a wide range of load current conditions. One embodiment switches based on load current. Another embodiment switches based on the output voltage of the circuit. The circuit provides a high speed automatic switch used in devices that require at least two power states, that can function as a voltage regulator, and that can sig
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Adaptable Multiport Test Fixture System

During the process of manufacturing an electric circuit or before placing the circuit in operation, the circuit usually is tested. Typically, the circuit is mounted in a custom fabricated test fixture with each different type circuit to be tested requiring its own custom fixture. Given the immense variety of electrical circuits, fixture fabrication is time consuming and expensive. The present invention is a fixture used to support electrical circuits for testing. It is particularly useful for
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Electron Density Storage Device and Method Using STM

An apparatus and method were developed that permit the transmission of secure communications. The invention uses quantum mechanical effects to establish nonlocal correlations between a pair of photons. This is analogous to an automatic encryption code that exists at only one location and is immediately destroyed after either of the photons is detected. This latter feature also provides a means for detecting any unauthorized tap on the transmission line. The invention is a method and device provi
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Short-Circuit-Proof DIP Test Clip

The invention consists of a connector clip, particularly useful in testing a dual in-line packaged (DIP) integrated circuit (IC), comprising a plurality of connector elements which are in contact with and serve to extend corresponding terminals of the IC, wherein at least one connector element includes a resistance which prevents damage to the IC or such other circuit in the event that connector elements are inadvertently short-circuited.
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Accumulating Arithmetic Memory Integrated Circuit

An accumulating arithmetic memory (AAM) integrated circuit or AAM chip that includes a set of accumulators or registers was developed. Once an accumulator is selected, e.g., by using a look up table, a multiplexer retrieves the data from the selected accumulator. Then, as input data are presented to the AAM chip, an adder adds, subtracts, or multiplies the input data with the data retrieved from the selected accumulator. The resulting output is returned to the originally selected accumulator. Th
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Method for Detection of Weak Links in the Current Path of Electrically Continuous Superconductors

Weak links in superconductors are detected by observing the effect of magnetic field modulation on the microwave resistance of superconductors. The phase-detected response to the magnetic modulation can show a peak at Tc. The presence of peak(s) at temperatures below Tc indicates the presence of weak links in the superconductor.
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Discrete Automatic Gain Control with High Stability, High Speed and Low Distortion

High-speed automatic gain control (AGC) circuitry, capable of use in pulse of CW systems, incorporates hysteresis for improving the stability and distortion characteristics of the AGC. After a gain setting is selected, the built-in hysteresis feature prevents an adjustment in that gain setting until the amplitude of the input signal varies more than a predetermined amount. Sampling of the amplitude of the input signal and gain adjustments are accomplished by digital circuitry. In one embodiment,
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Computer Aided Design for TE01 Mode Circular Waveguide

Prior work cannot be directly extrapolated to compact, optimized bends, structures with less overmoding, and limited dielectric material selection for high power application in radar and radio communications. Accordingly, the need exists for practical circular overmoded waveguide of optimum design and for some mechanism to facilitate the determination of appropriate design for diverse practical applications, in order to accurately predict performance given selected design and material input para
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Phase Sensitive Differential Polarimetry Technique and Apparatus

A differential polarimeter is disclosed for detecting changes in optical rotation between a test cell and reference cell. The test cell contains a fluid sample exposed to an analyte specific enzyme; the reference cell contains a fluid sample not exposed to the enzyme. To enhance the sensitivity of the system, a phase-sensitive differential polarimetric technique is taught. In this technique, the phase difference between two resulting sine wave voltages is a measure of analyte concentration.
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Overmoded Waveguide Elbow and Fabrication Process

The invention provides a process for fabricating a sheathed-helix circular overmoded waveguide bend comprising an inner helical wound insulated wire, a dielectric lining, and an outer conductor layer surrounding the dielectric lining. The inner winding is wound on a removable hollow rigid core, the dielectric liner or sheath is then molded onto the outer surface of the winding, and the outer conductor is then attached to the outer surface of the dielectric liner. The core is made removable (from
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Apparatus for Winding Wire Onto an Arbor

The invention is a wire-winding apparatus for winding wire about an arbor having a straight or curved center line and having either a circular or nearly circular cross-section. The wire-winding apparatus includes a frame having two parallel spaced-apart triangular shaped ends, a spool holder disposed between the frame ends for holding at least one spool of wire, a wire straightening device disposed between the frame ends for straightening the wire as it comes off the spool, wire-laying apparatus
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Air Inlet for Internal Cooling for Overmoded Waveguide

For high power application of overmoded waveguide, applying airflow to the overmoded waveguide either directly or indirectly, through an air inlet, which does not significantly disturb the internal electromagnetic field, provides air-cooling.
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Multiport Rectangular TE10 to Circular TE01 Mode Transducer Having Pyrimidal Shaped Transducing Means

The invention provides a method and device for transducing multiple rectangular TE10 modes to circular TE01 mode. Multiple TE10 modes are transitioned into an intermediate mode, which is transitioned into a circular TE01 mode and vice versa. Unique pyramidal structure provides overmoded high power operation without cooling and/or pressurization.
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Reconfigurable Induction Coil for Metal Detection

With an estimated 100 million mines and countless millions of acres of land contaminated with unexploded ordnance (UXO) world- wide there is a need for a sensor system and methods that can detect and identify large and small metal objects buried in the soil. In addition, during armed conflict, there is a need for mine detection and neutralization in real-time or near real time. A commonly used sensor for mine and UXO detection is the electromagnetic induction (EMI) metal detector. Conventional E
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Variable Damping Induction Coil for Metal Detection

Pulse induction metal detector (PIMD) antennas come in two basic types. First is a single transmit and receiver coil. The second use separate transmitter and receiver coils. Two basic problems exist with existing PIMD’s. First is the high kickback voltage of the transmitter coil, which temporally blinds the receiver coil from the amplifying metal target signals near the turn-off time of the transmitter coil. Second is that the protection circuitry typically has a delay time that also temporall
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L and N can not be a member of the same team.

Pulse induction metal detector (PIMD) antennas come in two basic types. First is a single transmit and receiver coil. The second use separate transmitter and receiver coils. Two basic problems exist with existing PIMD’s. First is the high kickback voltage of the transmitter coil, which temporally blinds the receiver coil from the amplifying metal target signals near the turn-off time of the transmitter coil. Second is that the protection circuitry typically has a delay time that also temporall
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An Embeddable Corrosion Rate Meter for Remote Monitoring of Infrastructures

Corrosion of infrastructure and fluid containing vessels and pipelines is a continuing situation if the United States for both government agencies and industry. Existing methods, which include implied monitoring techniques and sacrificial coupons are both costly and labor intensive. The need is for a direct reading sensor, which emulates the actual corrosion occurring to the metal surfaces. The sensor needs to be long life, miniature, wireless and accessible to periodic readout techniques. Th
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Breakthrough in Voltage-to-Thrust Technology ()

Abstract: In the past, inductive technology has been needed to create thrust, rotational motion, or step an actuator using electricity. This new technology accomplishes these tasks and more by using high potential, low current asymmetrical capacitor modules. The dielectric material of a capacitor under high voltage experiences a force. Based on the geometry of the capacitor, its material properties, and ambient conditions, the force can be predicted and utilized to move the entire capacitor and
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Low-Cost Brushless DC Motor Rate Sensor (MFS-31143)

Abstract: The new brushless DC motorbased rate sensor addresses the drawbacks associated with other rotation sensor technologies. The mechanical brushes on brush-type tachometers produce electrical arcing and wear out relatively quickly, requiring that the device be replaced. Although prior technology using brushless DC motors/tachometers addresses this issue, most alternatives must be used in conjunction with position sensors and require that wires be added to excite the position sensor. Resol
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Large Area Vacuum Ultra-Violet Sensors (GSC-14777)

Abstract: This is, to the best of our knowledge, a first time report of Pt/n-type GaN Schottky diodes with very large active areas, up to 1cm x 1cm, which exhibit extremely low leakage current at low reverse biases. Very large area Pt/n-GaN Schottky diodes of size 0.25cm2 and 1cm2 have been fabricated from n-/n+ GaN epitaxial layers grown by low pressure metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy on single crystal c-plane sapphire, which showed a leakage current of 14pA and 2.7nA respectively at 0.5V re
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Foil Wound Inductors

Foil windings for magnetic circuit elements such as chokes, coils, transformers, and inductors are used in a wide variety of power conversion applications. Foil-wound magnetic devices are particularly useful in high-efficiency switching power supplies operating at frequencies between 20 kHz and 1 MHz, including those within personal computers. For high currents, foil windings are more practical than very large litz-wire bundles, and they can have lower AC resistance than solid wire. Bu
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Photonic Switching Devices Using Light Bullets (TOP1-477)

Abstract: A unique ultra- fast, all-optical switching device or switch is made with readily available, relatively inexpensive, highly nonlinear optical materials, which includes highly nonlinear optical glasses, semiconductor crystals and/or multiple quantum well semiconductor materials. At the specified wavelengths, these optical materials have a sufficiently negative group velocity dispersion and high nonlinear index of refraction to support stable light bullets. The light bullets counter-pro
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Radiant Temperature Nulling Radiometer ()

Abstract: Developed at NASA Stennis Space Center, the radiant temperature nulling radiometer provides high-accuracy, self-calibrating temperature measurement. NASA Stennis’ enhanced technology offers significant advantages over current infrared (IR) radiometers that often are imprecise and costly to operate. These advantages include high thermal resolution and the elimination of drifts, offset gains, and emissivity errors using a single black body. The improved accuracy and operation cost off
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High-Efficiency RF Power Amplifier (MFS-0012)

Abstract: Researchers at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have developed a new power amplifier to convert direct current (DC) electrical power to a radio frequency (RF) signal. By increasing the DC-to-RF conversion efficiency, this innovation dramatically reduces power consumption, thus decreasing solar array requirements for satellites and increasing battery life for portable electronics.
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Environmental Barrier Coatings (EBCs) for Ceramic Gas Turbine Components (TOP3-00165)

Abstract: In gas turbine engines, EBCs protect engine components from the volatilization and the resulting recession caused by water vapor.
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A Process for Preparing 'Melt-Textured Growth' YBCO High Temperature Superconductors at Temperatures Below the Melting Point of Silver

Description A low temperature melt-textured growth (MTG) process for bulk Yttrium-Barium-Copper-Oxide (YBCO) below the melting point of silver (960 degC). The inventors have been able to melt starting precursors at 950 degC with the resulting product being YBCO with silver addition (using techniques such as powder-in-the-tube). This allows the inventors to overcome the two major material problems that prevent large scale applications of high temperature superconductors, specifically limited supe
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Silicon Chip Color Spectrometers: Integrated Microspectrometers for Optical Spectroscopy and General Wavelength Division Management Applications

Description These optical systems span diverse optical microspectrometer and wavelength-division applications. The spectrometers separate optical energy according to wavelength in a manner enabling of general spectroscopy, general wavelength division demultiplexing applications and optical system integration. These wavelength-separating devices represent a new class of integrated optical spectroscopy products. In general, the devices take an input optical beam and spatially separate the beam int
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Method of Using DC Photocurrent Measurements to Sense Wavelength or Color of Light or to Characterize Semiconductor Materials

Description Figure 1. Absorption coefficient versus wavelength for amorphous silicon. The data points were established using the invented method and the dashed line represents approximate values reported in literature. Figure 2. Depletion width versus reverse bias. Shown are the results of both stsandard capacitance-voltage measurements (closed circles) and the invented method (solid line). Figure 3. Color chart showing the actual color (open circles) of an incident light source and
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High-Efficiency RF Power Amplifier (MFS-0012)

Abstract: NASA Marshall Space Flight Center developed this technology to reduce the power consumed by S-band microwave power amplifiers, which typically are the largest consumers of the limited power available aboard NASA spacecraft. Prior S-band microwave amplifier biasing arrangements, such as Class-A, -B, and -C, have typical conversion efficiencies of between 10% and 20%. These efficiencies are much lower than those obtained with Class-D power amplifiers in the VLF-HF band (85% to 90%). MSF
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Production of Fullerenes Using Concentrated Solar Flux

Technology Description The refrigeration system includes a compressor-pump unit and/or a liquid-injection assembly. The refrigeration system is a vapor-compression refrigeration system that includes an expansion device, an evaporator, a compressor, a condenser, and a liquid pump between the condenser and the expansion device. The liquid pump improves efficiency of the refrigeration system by increasing the pressure of, thus subcooling, the liquid refrigerant delivered from the condenser to the e
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Electrochromic Projection and Writing Device

Technology Description A display and projection apparatus includes an electrochromic material and a photoconductive material deposited in tandem used in conjunction with a light filtering means for filtering light transmitted through the electrochromic material. When an electric field is applied across the electrochromic material and the photoconductive material, light that is incident onto the photoconductive material through the surface of the projection apparatus causes the photoconductive ma
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Combined Refrigeration System with a Liquid Pre-Cooling Heat Exchanger

Technology Description A compressor-pump unit for use in a vapor-compression refrigeration system is provided. The compressor-pump unit comprises a driving device including a rotatable shaft. A compressor is coupled with a first portion of the shaft for compressing gaseous refrigerant within the vapor-compression refrigeration system. A liquid pump is coupled with a second portion of the shaft for receiving liquid refrigerant having a first pressure and for discharging the received liquid refrig
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A New Method of Trapping Ions Injected into the Quadrupole Ion Trap and Construction

Abstract (Set) This is a method in which ions formed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and other methods which form ions outside an ion trap mass spectrometer are then transmitted into and held by the ion trapping field. The method involves a dynamic trapping field in which the trapping voltage is increased during ion introduction. Description (Set) Proposed Use (Set) ion trap mass spectrometers, biological research instrumentation, bioagent and chemical detection
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Space Division Multiple Access with a Sum Feedback Rate Constraint

Background For a multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) communication system, by exploiting the spatial degrees of freedom, space division multiple access (SDMA) supports simultaneous uplink/downlink communication between a base station and multiple users in the same time and frequency slots. This technology presents multiple algorithms intended for use in a SDMA wireless communication network, to enable a sum feedback rate of the CSI (Channel State Information) for each user without overloading
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RICE: Rapid Interconnect Circuit Evaluator

Background Existing software being used for timing analysis falls into two cateqories: 1) extremely slow and very accurate (e.g., SPICE) or 2) verv fast, inaccurate, and topology-limited. RICE bridges this problem, in that it is very fast while retaining accuracy comparable to SPICE. Additionallv, it does not restrict the complexity of the RLC circuit models. Invention Description RICE is a software tool that allows a verv rapid characterization of RLC interconnect circuit models for the pri
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Multiple Via Structures for Reliability Improvement of Copper Damascene Interconnects

Background The semiconductor industry is actively developing copper (Cu) damascene structures for on-chip interconnects. Electromigration (EM) is a major reliability concern for copper damascene interconnects. Statistical studies have revealed multi-mode failures in the copper oxide dual damascene structures, with the early failures dominated by void formation at the via interface. Early failures are of primary concern since they dominate the lifetime of the chip as device scaling continues with
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Method for Low-Temperature Deposition of Boron Carbo-Nitride as a Barrier and Etch Stop for Copper Interconnect Manufacturing

Invention Description A method of forming boron carbo-nitride layer for use as a barrier and etch stop layer in copper interconnect structures used in integrated circuit manufacturing has been developed. The boron carbo-nitride films are deposited by a thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process at temperatures below 450° Celsius to minimize thermal exposure of substrate. The films are deposited conformally on interconnect structures and offer desirable electrical properties with a dielectr
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Improved Oxide Cathodes for Rechargeable Batteries

Background Cordless portable electronic devices are proliferating in our mobile, fast-paced world, and they need better batteries. One way to enhance a rechargeable battery?s capacity, cycle life, and rate of charge is to develop improved oxide battery cathodes. While attempts have been made to use conducting polymers as electrode materials for rechargeable batteries, numerous disadvantages were encountered, including low specific capacity (amount of lithium per gram that can be absorbed reversi
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Hetero-barrier Tunnel Field-Effect Transistor (HetTFET) for Low Voltage Logic

Background A great challenge facing CMOS is power consumption. Increased energy efficiency is not only important for its own sake but also to allow continued transistor scaling and an associated increase in computational power. As device densities increase, the power used by each transistor must decrease to prevent circuit overheating. For many years, this per-device power reduction has been accomplished in large part through reduction in power supply voltages. But there is a limit to such v
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Electrostatic Electrochemistry

Background Electrostatic charges produced by the contact of two dissimilar insulator or dielectric materials have been studied for a thousand years. The principles of electrostatics have been instrumental in the development of semiconductors, biomaterials, charged insulators, etc. By combining traditional electrostatic method with electrochemistry, the researchers have developed a method to quantify these charges and carry out chemical reactions that can generate hydrogen or induce chemiluminesc
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Analog-to-Digital Conversion Methods and Apparatus Enabled by Active and/or Passive Variable Delay Transmission Lines

Background Technology scaling adversely affects most parameters relevant to analog design, and ADCs are no exception. To achieve a high linearity, high sampling speed, and high dynamic range with low supply voltages and low power dissipation in ultra-deep submicron silicon technology is a major challenge. Moreover, as scaling continues, the intrinsic gain keeps decreasing, indicating that the device performance for precision analog devices decreases with continued scaling. Also, the explosive gr
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Mutual Inductance Force Sensor – “MIFS” (20084)

Consumers operate numerous devices and machines to assist in daily activities. This requires some form of contact with an interface sensor as to translate the human intent into an electronic response. Typical interface or input sensors range from simple push buttons to highly sensitive strain gauge type controls. The invention NU 20084, "MIFS", offers a new design in input sensor technology. This novel and robust, multi axis, force input sensor is based on the principal of mutual inductance.
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Thin Membrane Transducer (22102/23074)

Northwestern´’´s Thin Membrane Transducer (TMT) invention is an ultra sensitive biosensor. The TMT has significant advantages over the cantilevered biosensor – another approach that has been previously implemented: Highly Sensitive: The TMT detection sensitivity is on the order of a picomolar (10-12 molar) with capability in the sub-picomolar range. Low-Cost and Compact: The TMT does not require optical detection. The more sensitive cantilevered biosensors do require optical detection
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Biochip Detection System (23072)

The “BioChip” invention electronically detects biomolecules and toxic agents. When a target species chemically binds to the surface of a tiny cantilever probe, the probe deflects and the BioChip electronically measures and reports that deflection. The BioChip presents the following advantages over current detection methods: · It can continuously monitor bio-affinity interactions. It is label free. · It is highly sensitive – able to detect 5 nm of cantilever deflection. · It can b
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VOC Sensor (26062)

The invention is a low power light assisted sensor to detect Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC’s). BACKGROUND: Metal oxide gas sensors must normally operate at high temperatures. This is undesirable in applications where safety and power consumption are primary concerns. Moreover, sensors operating at high temperatures require periodic calibration to compensate for changes in microstructure properties over time. By illuminating metal oxide surfaces with light, Northwestern has successfu
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Rare Earth Doped Barium Titanate Thin Film Optical Working Medium for Optical Devices ( 94001)

Rare Earth Doped Barium Titanate Thin Film Optical Working Medium for Optical Devices ( 94001) Patent No-6122429
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n-Type Thiophene Semiconductor Devices (20024

This invention demonstrates the use of n-type thiophene semiconducting films in the construction and operation of organic light-emitting diodes (OLED), thin film transistors (TFT), field effect transistors (FET) and related devices. Thiophene oligomers (nTs) and polymers (PTs) are known that operate as p-type semiconductors. However comparable electron transporting (n-type) organic materials are relatively rare as are stable n-type thiophene semiconductors. The invention of n-type thiophene con
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Commercial-Scale Synthesis of p-type Transparent Conductors (21006

A new process affording a single step route to polycrystalline samples of any delafossite-like (ABO2) material with phase purity has been developed. These materials exhibit luminescence, catalysis, and p-type conducting properties. These materials can be employed as sputtering targets in thin film fabrication, p-type transparent conducting oxides (TCOs), and in opto-electronic and photo-voltaic applications. ADVANTAGES: The synthesis of solid solutions, previously unattainable via other synth
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Superconducting Mg-MgB2 and Related Metal Composites and Methods of Preparation (21029)

This invention provides superconducting magnesium diboride (MgB2) materials and methods for their production that overcome present day synthesis limitations. Magnesium diboride has recently been found to be superconducting at the critical temperature Tc of 39°K, much higher than the best low-temperature intermetallic superconductors. However, widespread use of MgB2 as an economical superconducting material has been limited because it is a brittle ceramic and difficult to use in bulk form as a s
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Organic Light-Emitting Diodes and Methods for Assembly and Enhanced Charge Injection (22012)

The integrity of electrode/organic interfacial contact is crucial to the performance and stability of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). This invention addresses the problem by employing a well defined self-assembly strategy that improves the ITO anode / hole transport layer (HTL) interface morphology and integrity, hence device performance and thermal robustness. These self-assembling interlayer materials may be readily applied to enhanced performance and stability in OLEDs, organic FETs, a
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Group III-V Diluted Magnetic Semiconductor Materials and Related Methods of Formation (22025)

The present invention provides a growth technique to achieve epitaxial, single-phase films of III-V diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs) with large Mn concentrations that exhibit ferromagnetic order at room temperature. The III-V DMS compositions and/or methods of this invention are suitable for device applications and utility in the fabrication of non-volatile magnetic random access memories (MRAM) integrated with semiconductor circuitry; spin-polarized transport devices such as read heads in
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Enhanced Performance of Blue Light Emitting Polymer Diodes via Anode Modification (22103)

Researchers at Northwestern University invented a process that significantly improves Blue polymer light emitting diode (PLED) performance, efficiency, and stability. Blue PLED devices generally require anode coating with a conductive polymer hole transport layer (HTL), which can adversely impact device fabrication, useful spectral range, performance and stability. This invention replaces the conductive polymer with an ultra-thin siloxane-derivative that enhances the ITO anode / HTL interface, t
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New Hole Transport Layer Materials for Polymer Light Emitting Diodes (23071

Northwestern University researchers invented a new hole transport system for polymer light emitting diodes (PLEDs) with negligible visible light absorption, stability to ITO, solvent resistance and tunable electronic properties. ADVANTAGE: Superior PLED performance and efficiency is observed versus conventional PEDOT-PSS based hole transport layer (HTL) devices. ITO interface stability promises enhanced device life and solvent resistance accommodates emissive layer (EML) coating. SUMMARY
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III-V Ferromagnetic/Nonmagnetic Semiconductor Magnetodiodes for Use in Magnetic Field Sensors, Gaussmeters, and Other Magnetoresistive Devices (25014)

A novel "spintronic" magnetodiode based on a III-V ferromagnetic semiconductor and a III-V nonmagnetic semiconductor heterojunction has been created by Northwestern researchers. The diodes exhibit a large junction magnetoresistance that is linearly dependent on the applied magnetic field at room temperature, offering potential for new magnetic field sensor, gaussmeter, or other magnetoresistive devices. ADVANTAGES: A new magnetodiode that can be integrated into present day semiconductor struc
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Semiconducting Aerogels from Chalcogenido Clusters with Broad Applications (27012)

Northwestern chemists have created a novel family of chalogenide based hydrogels which readily afford a wide range of new aerogels. The materials exhibit high surface area, broad porosity range and narrow band gap properties with significant environmental, catalytic, electronic and sensor application potential. ADVANTAGES: New chalogenide aerogel compositions providing a wide range of surface area, porosity, and electronic properties significantly different from known oxide based silica, alum
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Method of Making Silver Vanadium Oxide Material Useful as a Battery Cathode (27115/27058)

Ag2V4O11 (SVO) and Ag4V2O6F2, (SVOF) are important cathode materials for medical battery applications such as defibrillators. A one-step process has been developed affording crystalline SVO and SVOF by reaction under ambient conditions, eliminating the need for superambient pressure and temperatures. ADVANTAGES: Superior performing medical battery cathode materials can be produced with significant cost and environmental advantages. SUMMARY: The current standard cathode material in medic
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SMOFC Battery Cathode (27151/27059

A novel battery cathode composition having a higher discharge capacity available from silver reduction at a potential above 3V compared to that of the current standard medical battery cathode SVO material. ADVANTAGES: Batteries incorporating the new cathode exhibit a potential above 3 V for extended periods of time, critical to medical devices such as defibrillators. The cathode is devoid of vanadium, provides chemical stability and electrochemical performance. SUMMARY: The medical batte
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Controlled Nanoscale Doping of Transparent Conducting Oxides by Focused Ion Beam Implantation (28091)

An effective method for the spatially-controlled writing of embedded, optically transparent, electrically conducting oxide nanowires and other patterns via focused ion beam implantation into highly resistive transparent metal oxide thin films. ADVANTAGES: Nanoscale, spatially-controlled doping of highly resistive indium oxide films enables the fabrication of embedded, optically transparent, electrically conducting wires. The dimensions achieved combined with the electrical properties of the
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Nonlinear Muscle-Like-Compliant Controller ( 97068

This controller can provide compliance capability without using force sensors. It also possesses non-linear damping property and adapts to a wide range of loads without having to adjust the gain. U. S. Patent No. 6,243,624
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Simulated Environment to Prototype Manufacturing Concepts & to Train Personnel (20023

This invention presents a uniquely simulated environment to prototype manufacturing concepts, to train personnel, to design new systems, and to secure operator feedback concerning prototype design. The invention offers significant advantages when compared to existing systems on the market. The invention is extremely quick and easy to configure and use. It executes quickly, and presents operating personnel with superior visualization of the manufacturing environment that is being prototyped. The
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Electrical Damping for Haptic Displays (24093/24111

The invention applies electrical damping in order to improve haptic display performance. A challenge of virtual environments is that a haptic system can become unstable near the "virtual walls," where high frequency oscillations result. The invention uses electrical damping to damp over a range of high frequencies. Electrical damping for haptic displays has the following advantages over mechanical damping: It can damp oscillations over a range of high frequencies that occur at or near virtua
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Programmable Parts Feeder (25111)

The invention is a vibratory device that programmably conveys, sorts, orients, and feeds multiple parts simultaneously, in parallel. To the best of our knowledge, it is the only commercially viable vibratory device that can perform this variety of functions without large numbers of actuators in an actuator array. The invention uses vibration of a rigid horizontal plate on which parts rest. The vibration of the plate effectively creates a force field on the plate, and parts on the plate move
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Method of Doping Barium Titanate Ferroelectric Oxide ( 94001A

In this invention, thin film modulators are made with ferroelectric materials that offer higher bandwidth and lower voltage operations compared to lithium niobate and indium phosphide. U. S. Patent No. 6,303,393
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Oriented Niobate Ferroelectric Thin Films for Electrical and Optical Devices ( 94019DIV

Thse films can be used in electronic, electro-optic and frequency doubling components. U. S. Patent No. 6,208,453
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Thin Film Electro-Optic Modulator for Broadband Applications ( 97028

This invention addresses thin film, BaTiO3 channel waveguide structures with the potential for traveling-wave electro-optic modulator applications. U.S. Patent No. 6,118,571
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Optimizing Launch Points for Dispersion-Managed Solitons ( 97054)

: Researchers at Northwestern have developed an effective analytic tool for predicting the behavior of dispersion-managed solitons, and a dispersion map design configuration specially optimized for WDM systems. U. S. Patent No. 6,462,849
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Tunable Fiber-Optic Parametric Oscillator ( 98091)

This invention relates to a tunable FOPO which employs a nonlinear-fiber Sagnac interferometer as a parametric amplifier. U. S. Patent No. 6,501,591
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Oxide Thin Films and Composites and Related Methods of Deposition ( 99070/99020)

The synthesis of epitaxial functional oxide thin films on silicon is required for large-scale integration of microelectronic, microwave, and optical devices. This invention provides deposition techniques overcoming limitations of the prior art. Metal organic molecular beam epitaxy (MOMBE) is employed for the deposition of nanometer dimension metal oxide thin films of desired composition and morphology on Si, Ge and other substrates. The technology enables the production of a thin highly uniform
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Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembly of Large Response Molecular Electro-Optic Materials by a Desilylation Strategy (20010)

A new efficient "one-pot" synthesis of organic self-assembled superlattices having excellent electrooptic response properties. The method provides thermally and photochemically robust thin films that adhere to glass, silicon and ITO coated substrates. The technology is suited for the assembly of photonic and electronic components employed in modulators and non-linear optical (NLO) systems. ADVANTAGES: A single reactor self-assembly process affording polar superlattices of large response mole
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High Performance Self-Assembled Electro-optic Materials and Modulating Devices (20042)

Electric field poled polymers are currently used to fabricate organic based modulators. The present invention provides a chemical process, employing self-assembly molecules to create the electro active layer in organic based modulators,without electric field poled polymers. This affords greater device stability atpotentially reduced fabrication cost. ADVANTAGES: Robust,adherent, intrinsically acentric microstructures are produced without electric field poling. The self-assembly process is
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Refractive Index Tuning of Siloxane-Based Electro-Optic Self-Assembled Superlattices (21001)

A “wet-chemical” process affording molecule-based electro-optic (EO) material refractive index tuning in self-assembled superlattice (SAS) organic structures. The process retains essential microstructural acentricity, without electric field poling. Application potential exists in a wide range of EO devices including modulators, waveguides, switches, emitters and detectors. ADVANTAGES: Robust, adherent, intrinsically acentric microstructures are produced without electric field poling. The
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Commercial-Scale Synthesis of p-type Transparent Conductors (21006

A new process affording a single step route to polycrystalline samples of any delafossite-like (ABO2) material with phase purity has been developed. These materials exhibit luminescence, catalysis, and p-type conducting properties. These materials can be employed as sputtering targets in thin film fabrication, p-type transparent conducting oxides (TCOs), and in opto-electronic and photo-voltaic applications. ADVANTAGES: The synthesis of solid solutions, previously unattainable via other synth
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A System to Prevent Power Outages in Optical Transmission Lines (21073)

This breakthrough method provides the only known practical means by which to predict power outage probabilities and bit-error rates in fiber optic lines caused by "polarization mode dispersion (PMD)." Today’s stringent standards permit only very infrequent power outages, so system designers need to have a way to predict and prevent such outages. The Northwestern invention provides a way to do this. It has been used in the form of software, but potentially can be implemented in hardware. Co
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Organic Light-Emitting Diodes and Methods for Assembly and Enhanced Charge Injection (22012)

The integrity of electrode/organic interfacial contact is crucial to the performance and stability of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). This invention addresses the problem by employing a well defined self-assembly strategy that improves the ITO anode / hole transport layer (HTL) interface morphology and integrity, hence device performance and thermal robustness. These self-assembling interlayer materials may be readily applied to enhanced performance and stability in OLEDs, organic FETs, a
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Efficient, Compact Device for All-Optical Processing (22091)

The invention is a series of devices, including an optical parametric oscillator, that are compact and efficient because they exploit phenomenon of a new kind of commercially available microstructure optical fiber. Competing all-optical devices require powerful sources and extremely long lengths of fiber. For this reason, competing devices are not commercially viable. By exploiting newly discovered phenomena, the invention enables devices to operate using a few watts of optical power and a f
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Enhanced Performance of Blue Light Emitting Polymer Diodes via Anode Modification (22103)

Researchers at Northwestern University invented a process that significantly improves Blue polymer light emitting diode (PLED) performance, efficiency, and stability. Blue PLED devices generally require anode coating with a conductive polymer hole transport layer (HTL), which can adversely impact device fabrication, useful spectral range, performance and stability. This invention replaces the conductive polymer with an ultra-thin siloxane-derivative that enhances the ITO anode / HTL interface, t
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Vapor Deposited Electro-Optic Films Self-Assembled Through Hydrogen Bonding (22107/22065)

Northwestern researchers created a new family of designed molecular chromophores that afford acentric films essential to non-linear electro-optic applications. These novel materials exhibit excellent physical and non-linear optical properties for waveguiding modulator applications. Intermolecular hydrogen bonding is utilized to produce stable non-centrosymmetric films with unique orientation normal to the substrate plane. Vapor film deposition supports scalable device manufacture. ADVANTAG
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New Hole Transport Layer Materials for Polymer Light Emitting Diodes (23071

Northwestern University researchers invented a new hole transport system for polymer light emitting diodes (PLEDs) with negligible visible light absorption, stability to ITO, solvent resistance and tunable electronic properties. ADVANTAGE: Superior PLED performance and efficiency is observed versus conventional PEDOT-PSS based hole transport layer (HTL) devices. ITO interface stability promises enhanced device life and solvent resistance accommodates emissive layer (EML) coating. SUMMARY
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Low-Voltage Organic Electro-Optic Modulators Using Transparent Conducting Oxides As Electrodes (23080)

A novel organic electro-optic modulator using transparent conducting oxide electrodes has been created by Northwestern University scientists. The modulator functions at significantly lower switching voltages than conventional metallic electrode modulators. Modulation frequencies of 10-20 GHz are potentially attainable with this new construct. ADVANTAGE: Modulators fabricated with transparent conducting oxide (TCO) electrodes exhibit low optical loss and operate at significantly lower switchin
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Individually Addressed Large Scale Patterning of Conducting Polymers by Localized Electric Fields (23097)

A new multiplexed and parallel polymer patterning process, with individual addressability, via electropolymerization within the gap of electrodes has been developed at Northwestern University. The technology permits the scaleable and controlled patterning of conducting polymer structures on the micro-nanometer scale, desirable for fabricating optical, electronic, opto-electronic and sensing devices, such as light emitting devices, polymer transistor junctions, chemical sensors, among many others
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Batio3 Thin Film Waveguides and Related Modulator Devices (24060)

A low-voltage, wide bandwidth, strip-loaded BaTiO3 thin film electrooptic amplitude modulator for use in high-speed optical communication networks has been created by Northwestern researchers. Broadband modulation out to 40 GHz has been demonstrated, offering the potential for low power electrooptic waveguide modulators with high EO coefficient. ADVANTAGES: The new modulator construct indicates 3-dB operational bandwidth in excess of 40 GHz is achievable through optimized design. SUMMARY:
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Nanoscale Self-Assembled Organic Dielectrics for Ultra-Low Voltage High-Speed Electronic Devices (24062)

Self-assembling siloxane fabrication of extremely thin nanostructurally ordered, pinhole-free, ultra-high-capacitance/low leakage organic dielectrics has been achieved by Northwestern University scientists. These organic nanoinsulators can be efficiently integrated into large thin film transistor (TFT) structures using a variety of substrates. ADVANTAGE: The organic nanoinsulators overcome the dielectric limitations of conventional "high k" dielectric materials and in turn enable the construc
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FOCUS Focalized Carrier Augmented Sensor (25015

The invention is a novel avalanche-free single photon detector in the short infrared range that is suitable for ultra-sensitive high-density infrared imaging arrays. The pixel element is low voltage and operates at near room temperatures, does not depend on a large power supply/source, and has near zero excess noise. The ability to perform fast imaging with star light sensitive infrared photon counting arrays (PCAR) promotes a decisive advantage in many infrared imaging applications. This techno
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Intercalated Metal Oxide Superlattice Dielectrics (25092)

A family of intercalated metal oxide self-assembled superlattice dielectrics providing extraordinary insulative and capacitance properties for thin film transistor and organic electronic devices. ADVANTAGE: Dielectric materials that enable low voltage operation of thin film transistors with wide potential for electronic, photonic and display applications. SUMMARY: Integrated circuits (IC) fabricated from organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) offer the potential of cheap, logic circuits wi
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Catalytic Synthesis of High Energy Density Nanocomposite Dielectric Materials (26136)

process affording homogeneously dispersed ceramic nanoparticles within the matrix of processable, high-strength polymers. The high energy density polymer-metal oxide composites provide effective high energy storage in capacitor and insulator applications. ADVANTAGES: Polymer-metal oxide composite materials exhibiting excellent permittivities and high breakdown strength insulator properties in a readily processable matrix for high energy dielectric applications. The scaleable preparation prom
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Organic Light-Emitting Diodes and Methods for Assembly and Emission Control (99027)

This invention presents a new route to the fabrication of multilayer heterojunction devices useful for large and small, multicolored display applications by means of molecular self-assembly techniques. The technology addresses major coating issues in organic light-emitting diode (OLED) construction, and promises improved device performance and stability. The invention ADVANTAGE: Devices with uniform conformal layers, high light generation efficiency, emission wavelength control, and enhance
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Scanning Near-Field Ultrasound Holography (SNFUH) (23061)

The invention is a revolutionary approach which provides non-invasive nanoscale imaging capabilities for deeply buried and embedded structures in physical sciences, engineering systems as well as biological structures under physiologically viable conditions. The invention has operated in near-contact mode, which has enabled it to image biological structures. The technique, termed: Scanning near field Ultrasound holography (SNFUH) synergistically integrates three disparate approaches: a uniqu
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Diamond Probes and Method of Making (24098)

The invention is an ultra-hard, ultra-sharp diamond probe and tip for applications such as AFM and Nano-Lithography. A single stage fabrication process integrates tip and probe chip body as a single contiguous piece of diamond. The invention’s advantages over currently available methods include: Durable, Wear-Resistant Low Cost Scalable to Arrays Uses both conductive and non-conductive diamond Operates in both fluid or gas Currently available methods entail manually gluing tip to probe
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Cryogenic Variable Temperature Scanning Tunneling Microscope (24108)

An advanced cryogenic variable temperature ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) scanning tunneling microscope (STM) has been developed at Northwestern University. Incorporation of a new design and materials provides a robust instrument capable of high atomic resolution at 8.2 to 300 K, critical for single molecule surface studies. ADVANTAGES The cryogenic UHV STM provides excellent thermal and vibrationally stable operation at 8.2 to 300 K. Unit design accommodates direct optical access to the tip-sample i
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FOCUS Focalized Carrier Augmented Sensor (25015)

The invention is a novel avalanche-free single photon detector in the short infrared range that is suitable for ultra-sensitive high-density infrared imaging arrays. The pixel element is low voltage and operates at near room temperatures, does not depend on a large power supply/source, and has near zero excess noise. The ability to perform fast imaging with star light sensitive infrared photon counting arrays (PCAR) promotes a decisive advantage in many infrared imaging applications. This techno
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Controlled Nanoscale Doping of Transparent Conducting Oxides by Focused Ion Beam Implantation (28091)

An effective method for the spatially-controlled writing of embedded, optically transparent, electrically conducting oxide nanowires and other patterns via focused ion beam implantation into highly resistive transparent metal oxide thin films. ADVANTAGES: Nanoscale, spatially-controlled doping of highly resistive indium oxide films enables the fabrication of embedded, optically transparent, electrically conducting wires. The dimensions achieved combined with the electrical properties of the
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Carbon Dioxide Capture by Aqueous Piperazine

Background The conventional process for CO2 absorption/stripping uses aqueous amines such as monoethanolamine (MEA). Piperazine has previously been identified as a very reactive amine. It is an attractive alternative to MEA because it reacts with CO2 thirty times faster than MEA. However, piperazine is a solid at ambient temperature that has a limited soubility in water. Furthermore, the boiling point of liquid piperazine is less than that of MEA, so it is expected to have a greater volatility t
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A Manual Scan Imaging Sonar

Background Sonar systems of similar application as this invention fall into three categories: single-beam mechanical scan, single-beam hand-held, and multiple-beam hand-held. Existing mechanically scanned single-beam sonars require a stable platform and stepper motor controls, which prevents their use by a diver. Hand-held single-beam sonars provide range-only information to the diver, who is then required to remember where targets are located. Existing multiple-beam sonars continuously display
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An Electrochemical Storage Cell Containing At Least One Electrode Formulated from a Fluorophenyl Thiophene Polymer

This present invention relates to a battery or a electrochemical storage cell, 'typically a secondary cell, containing as at least one electrode prepared fromat least one electrically conductive polymer. In charge storage, applications such as electrochemical secondary cells, electrode materials should be able to undergo multiple doping and undoping cycles with high utilization efficiency and chemical stability. In addition, the two electrode materials should have a high charge capacity and comb
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Carbon/Ceramic Composite Electrodes for Charge Storage Units

The present invention relates to charge storage devices, such as electrochemica supercapacitors and lithium ion intercalation batteries, and the method of preparation thereof. In particular, the invention relates to carbon/ceramic composites produced by sol-gel technology wherein composites pretreated with a solvent and an electrolyte salt form an electrode for charge unit. This invention is specifically focused on obtaining a high active carbon surface area in order to optimize this process for
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Polarization Phase-Based Method and Apparatus for Material Classification

This novel invention is an important advance for two distinct environments in which it is necessary to differentiate between electrically conducting and nonconducting materials - - inspection processes such as quality assurance, and high-level object recognition. As an example of the inspection application, this invention can be implemented for circuit board inspection, to determine and verify the placement of metal and insulator parts. An example of the object recognition application is automat
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A Completely Polymeric Charge Storage Device and Method for Producing Same

This invention relates to the fabrication of a quasi-solid state charge storage device capable of being repeatedly charged and discharged to yield high capacities. The storage device has one or more electrochemical cells comprised entirely of a layer of ionically conducting polymer gel electrolyte separating opposing surfaces of doped or dopable electronically conducting conjugated polymeric anode and cathode electrodes supported on lightweight porous substrates. One or more of the electrochemic
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Ultra low loss waveguide for broadband terahertz radiation

This invention is a device which transports terahertz radiation over long distances with much less attenuation than current technology allows. The device incorporates a new concept for guiding THz radiation, which exploits the properties of the lowest-order transverse electric mode of a parallel plate waveguide. Advantages Because of the unique frequency-dependent loss characteristics of this mode, terahertz radiation can propagate for distances of kilometers rather than meters. The device
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Metal Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles (MCMNP) and their application to chemical/biochemical detection

This technology is a new synthetic method for manufacturing MCMNP. MNMNP are an enabling component of optical spectroscopic techniques, which are currently limited because of their relative susceptibility to spectral interference from chemicals present in the sample matrix and/or from low detection sensitivity. Thus, costly and lengthy sample purification and concentration/magnification is a common requisite to optical detections. Advantages High detection sensitivity: Three factors work co
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Fast wavelength tuning technique for external cavity lasers

This invention is a novel external cavity – quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL) architecture. The current state of the art uses mechanical translation and rotation stages to synchronously control EC length and diffraction grating angle, which are the two factors that determine tuning speed. This invention employs a compact piezo-actuated tilt platform for mirror steering so that EC length and diffraction grating angle are controlled individually and simultaneously. Advantages This new architec
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Resonant optothermoacoustic detection of optical absorption

Technology This technology is an improvement to optothermal spectroscopy and photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS). The proposed method of resonant optothermoacoustic detection (ROTA) is based upon the following processes: (1) excitation of a fluid region or object under study by a modulated optical radiation, where the energy input frequency is equal to the resonant mechanical frequency of the detector (2) energy transfer from the optically excited region or object to the sensing element via th
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Modulation cancellation method (MOCAM) in modulation spectroscopy

Technology The invention is a new process to acquire analytical spectral data using two optical sources. It is based on balancing the optically excited response of the analyzed media for certain conditions. As a result, small deviations from these conditions (such as a chemical or isotopic composition of the medium) can be detected with high sensitivity. Advantages The proposed technique will allow one to directly monitor the deviation of the spectroscopic parameters of the analyzed sample
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Piezo activated mode tracking system for widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity mid-IR lasers

Technology Rice researchers have developed a novel architecture of a widely tunable external cavity lasers (primarily in mid-Infrared), which allows performing continuous mode-hop free wavelength scans applicable for high resolution spectroscopy and trace-gas detection. It features a QC laser spectrometer that is suitable for high-resolution spectroscopic applications and multi-species trace-gas detection in the mid-IR. Through the implementation of a novel EC-QCL architecture, the device avoid
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Selectivity Enhancement in Photoacoustic Gas Analysis via Phase-sensitive Detection at High Modulation Frequency

This invention is a new spectroscopic method of distinguishing molecular species with overlapping absorption spectra. Spectroscopic distinguishing between two species having overlapped optical absorption spectra is difficult and at times impossible. However, photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) allows the measurement of another physical property of a molecule in a gas mixture, namely its relaxation rate. This is the V T transfer rate if the molecular vibration is optically excited, or it can be the
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Synchronized Computer Control for Pulsed Quantum Cascade Laser Frequency Scanning

Technology Professor Frank Tittel and Dr. Anatoliy Kosterev, at Rice’s Quantum Institute, have developed a tool for flexible and reproducible control of pulsed quantum cascade (QC) laser frequency scans for laser absorption spectroscopy. A pulsed mode of operation for QC lasers is used to enable their use at near-room temperature, with thermoelectric temperature control. The short (3 to 50 ns) pulses of high current (1.5 – 10 A) are applied to the laser at a repetition rate of < 1 MHz to ac
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A Method for Measurement of Pipe Wall Thickness using Magnetic Flux Leakage Signals

The proposed technique uses magnetostatic Maxwell's equations to model the magnetic fields associated with the magnetizing device and the magnetized pipe. Given certain geometric and magnetic parameters of the magnetizing device and the pipe, the proposed technique yields reference plots of the simulated axial magnetic flux leakage (MFL) signal versus wall thickness. These reference plots can then be used to determine the wall thickness of pipe specimens from experimentally obtained axial MFL si
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Sensor Elements for Aqueous Samples (SEAS)

Chemical sensor arrays are low cost, compact, robust and versatile alternatives to large analytical tools and hence drive the need to rapidly fabricate reusable chemical sensor arrays for simultaneous multi-analyte quantification. This invention includes the rapid fabrication of reusable chemical sensor arrays for simultaneous multi-analyte quantification by machining a novel array of minature spherical sensor dots atop an LED. The array can be specifically tailored for any known class of a
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Temporally Addressable Biochemical Sensor Arrays

Chemical sensor arrays are low cost, compact, robust and versatile alternatives to large analytical tools and hence drive the need to rapidly fabricate reusable chemical sensor arrays for simultaneous multi-analyte quantification. This invention includes the rapid fabrication of reusable chemical sensor arrays for simultaneous multi-analyte quantification by machining a novel array of minature spherical sensor dots atop an LED. The array can be specifically tailored for any known class of a
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CMOS Optical Detectors and Lock-In Amplifiers Used for Detection of Emission from Sensor Array Platforms

Chemical sensor arrays are low cost, compact, robust and versatile alternatives to large analytical tools and hence drive the need to rapidly fabricate reusable chemical sensor arrays for simultaneous multi-analyte quantification. This invention includes the rapid fabrication of reusable chemical sensor arrays for simultaneous multi-analyte quantification by machining a novel array of minature spherical sensor dots atop an LED. The array can be specifically tailored for any known class of a
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Low Power Solid-State Sensor Device

This invention describes the design of a novel sensor to quantify molecular Oxygen (O2) based entirely on solid-state electronics. A derivative compound of Ruthenium II has been found to exhibit luminescence of a very specific quality. Upon reacting with molecular O2, the characteristics of the luminescence are found to change (quenching). This technology detects the change and enables quantification of the amount of Oxygen present. The method involves: Immobilizing the ruthenium complex within
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Novel Polarimetry Scheme to Monitor Phase-polarization Characteristics of Light Under Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensing

Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) sensor technology has been commercialized rapidly as a tool for bimolecular interaction analysis, drug discovery and life science research. However, phase detecting technology has not been utilized in commercial produc ts although it offers higher sensitivity. One of the reasons being, the non-linear relation between phase and refractive index change on the sensor surface, which may lead to a difficult calibration in bio-sensing applications. In this invention,
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Holographic formation of periodic polymeric photonic bandgap structures for visible to IR wavelengths

Chemical and biological sensor developers have held an interest in nanoscale construction of periodic structures. Numerous optical fiber products that utilize nanoscale periodic etching are available for stress/strain sensing. Chemical sensing usi ng affinity coatings on optical fibers is still an early technology. The invention offers a simple new platform, independent of fiber optics, for stress or chemical sensing. The invention is a simple and inexpensive process to produce very contro ll
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Diversified Chemical Responses from a Single Chemical Sensor

Chemical sensor arrays are low cost, compact, robust and versatile alternatives to large analytical tools and hence drive the need to rapidly fabricate reusable chemical sensor arrays for simultaneous multi-analyte quantification. This invention includes the rapid fabrication of reusable chemical sensor arrays for simultaneous multi-analyte quantification by machining a novel array of minature spherical sensor dots atop an LED. The array can be specifically tailored for any known class of a
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Chemically Responsive Nanosensors with Integrated Light Sources

Employing xerogel based sensor arrays in microdot form, wherein recognition chemicals (luminophores) are sequestrated, for detection and quantification of multiple analytes is described earlier in technology no. 5729. Till date, determining concentra tions of multiple target analytes within a sample in a spatially defined manner requires sensors outside the sample domain. This invention, a Chemically Responsive Nanosensor with an Integrated Light Source (CRNLS) has the xerogel based nanosensor l
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Tailored Pins for High Density Microarray Production

Chemical sensor arrays are low cost, compact, robust and versatile alternatives to large analytical tools and hence drive the need to rapidly fabricate reusable chemical sensor arrays for simultaneous multi-analyte quantification. This invention includes the rapid fabrication of reusable chemical sensor arrays for simultaneous multi-analyte quantification by machining a novel array of minature spherical sensor sensor dots atop an LED. The array can be specifically tailored for any known cla
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Diverisfied Xerogel-Based Sensors to Improved Analyte Detection and Quantification

Chemical sensor arrays are low cost, compact, robust and versatile alternatives to large analytical tools and hence drive the need to rapidly fabricate reusable chemical sensor arrays for simultaneous multi-analyte quantification. This invention includes the rapid fabrication of reusable chemical sensor arrays for simultaneous multi-analyte quantification by machining a novel array of minature spherical sensor sensor dots atop an LED. The array can be specifically tailored for any known cla
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In-Situ Stress-Strain Sensor

This invention describes a technology that provides a new class of strain/stress sensors. The sensors are short fiber composites. They provide a reversible electrical response to strain/stress application. The sensing material can function as the structure material at the same time, so no embedding or attaching of sensors to or on a structure is needed. The sensing material is low cost and durable. Categories: Sensors, Materials & Chemicals
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Calibrated Low-Loss Phase Shifter with Negative Resistance Circuit and Sigma-Delta PLL for Multiple-Antenna Receivers

Introduction Variable Phase Shifters are used in many applications such as adaptive smart-antenna receivers. In adaptive antenna receivers, antenna paths are linearly combined in an RF stage after being adjusted in both amplitude and phase. Variable-gain low-noise amplifiers and variable phase shifters are used to adjust the amplitude and phase of each received signal, respectively. Due to a lower noise figure and zero dc power dissipation, passive phase shifters are more attractive than their a
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Application of Grating Light Reflection Spectroscopy in Analytical Sensors

Introduction There are a number of methods for measuring bulk fluid compositions in statics and flow by visible light reflection characteristics from the optically inhomogeneous wall of a vessel. Surface Plasmon Spectroscopy (SPS) on gratings and randomly rough surfaces has proven to be especially sensitive to fluid composition near the wall. However, SPS techniques have inherent drawbacks when used as analytical sensing techniques. Grating Light Reflection Spectroscopy (GLRS) relies on an optic
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Method of Detecting, Characterizing, and Quantifying Bulk, Light-Element Materials Using High-Energy, Penetrating X-Rays

Introduction X-rays have long been used in the characterization of a wide variety of materials. However, conventional techniques for dealing with light-element (or low-Z) materials, such as those containing nitrogen and carbon, are too low in energy to penetrate significant distances into enclosing material or into the bulk of the material of interest. A higher energy technique is required to solve this problem. Technology Description Researcher Elam at the University of Washington has developed
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Crosslinkable Hole Transporting Materials for Organic Lightemitting Diodes

Introduction High-performance organic or polymer light-emitting diodes comprise multilayer configurations having hole-transporting, emissive and electron-transporting layers to balance the injection and transport of both holes and electrons. In general, holetransporting material is the first applied layer onto the anode upon sequential layerby- layer fabrication of a device. This hole-transporting layer (HTL) plays a very important role in the efficiency of multilayer PLEDs. Technology descripti
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Design of Thermal Interface Material Based on High Temperature Shape Memory Alloy for Connecting Two Thermoelectric Legs

Introduction Efficient heat management is crucial for electronics to optimize performance and to avoid premature component deterioration. An area of primary concern is at the interface of adjoining thermal components, such as with heatsink interfaces and with connections between thermoelectric legs. Problems arise due to the inability of the two surfaces, necessarily of differing metals, to fully connect because of imperfections. This issue is addressed by using thermal interface material (TIM)
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Design of Active Materials and Structures based on Composites of Shape Memory Alloy and Shape Memory Polymer

Introduction Shape memory alloys (SMA) and shape memory polymers (SMP) have shown tremendous promise for a wide variety of applications because of their ability to “remember” a previous state when heated. However, they can only remember a single shape. The ability to remember two shapes would make these materials much more useful as morphing or “smart” materials in which the change of shape is reversible between the two “remembered” states. Technology Description Professor Taya at
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Smart Ladder

Introduction A leading cause of worker injury in the fruit tree industry involves orchard ladder stability and the level of awareness of the user when climbing and dismounting the ladder. Due to cultural and economic reasons, industry acceptance of all-new designs has been low. Rather than radically changing ladder design to address these issues, a better approach is to design safety features into currently-used ladders. Technology description Researchers at the University of Washington have dev
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Application of Grating Light Reflection Spectroscopy in Analytical Sensors

Introduction There are a number of methods for measuring bulk fluid compositions in statics and flow by visible light reflection characteristics from the optically inhomogeneous wall of a vessel. Surface Plasmon Spectroscopy (SPS) on gratings and randomly rough surfaces has proven to be especially sensitive to fluid composition near the wall. However, SPS techniques have inherent drawbacks when used as analytical sensing techniques. Grating Light Reflection Spectroscopy (GLRS) relies on an optic
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Safe last step

Introduction A common cause of injury among orchard workers in Washington state occurs when the user dismounts the ladder. The user often cannot accurately gauge the last step of the ladder because the line of sight is obscured by the apple bag when descending the ladder, with their back facing the ladder. The user may inadvertently step off the ladder at an upper rung causing falls that can be dangerous, especially with loaded fruit bags. Technology description Researchers at the University of
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Electric Microcontact Printing

Summary This invention has utility in data storage and in preparing surfaces to receive other materials in specific predetermined patterns, such as in nanoxerography. A variant of a microcontact-printing stamp lays down a pattern of charges on an electret substrate. The technique can cover a substrate with an area of one square centimeter with multiple charges from 110 nm - 100 micrometers in size in less than 20 seconds, providing an area density of up to 7 Gbits/sq. cm., 140 times larger than
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Vapor Deposition of Silica Nanolaminates

Summary This invention concerns a very efficient atomic layer deposition (ALD) method to make extremely smooth and highly conformal silica thin films with excellent step coverage. As microelectronic circuits become more and more dense, with decreasing distances between active elements and interconnects, better methods of laying down dielectrics as insulation are required to retain performance. This invention is such a better method. Prior art ALD methods, while known to produce highly conformal
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Microlens for Projection Lithography and Method of Preparation Thereof

Summary This invention claims a lithographic technique that can inexpensively produce simple, repetitive micropatterns over large areas of at least several square centimeters. It uses an illuminated array of micrometer-scale lenses to generate an array of optical patterns in an image plane located within micrometer distances from the lens array. A layer of photoresist, placed in the image plane, records the patterns. Microleneses with different sizes, profiles, compositions and indices of refrac
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Microscale Electromagnetic Device

Summary This invention concerns devices and methodology to control the positioning and movement of magnetic and non-magnetic nanoparticles in a fluid with nanometer precision. The devices allow for the independent and simultaneous control of many particles. The devices utilize a grid of current carrying wires or an array of charged posts to create isolated and continuously moveable magnetic field maxima or electic field maxima, respectively, which trap and hold the particles. The devices have ma
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Highly Conformal Tungsten Nitride Thin Films

Summary The invention describes a method of producing a uniform, smooth and conformal coating of tungsten nitride, synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The silver-colored coating (or film) is metallic and a good electrical conductor. Suitable applications in microelectronics include barriers to the diffusion of copper and electrodes for thin film capacitors and field-effect transistors (FETs). Similar processes deposit molybdenum nitride, which is suitable for layers alternating with si
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Nanoscale Electrically Driven Lasers

Summary This invention is the first demonstration of an electrically driven nanoscale laser. A CdS nanowire, comprising a Fabry-Perot cavity, in contact with an electrode distributed along its length or crossing a Si nanowire, lases above a threshold current. Changing the material the nanowire is composed of can change the wavelength. This invention opens up new realms of applications in nanoscale electrical systems - including anywhere LEDs and lasers are used now and many new applications such
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Atomic Layer Deposition Using Metal Amidinates

Summary This invention relates to materials and processes for d eposition of conformal films containing metals on solid substrates. Examples include copper, cobalt and iron metals or their oxides or nitrides. Suitable applications include electrical interconnects in microelectronic and magnetoresistant layers in magnetic information storage devices. Applications Atomic Layer Deposition, semiconductors For Further Information Please Contact the Director of Business Development Bob Benson Emai
...

Water-Soluble Sacrificial Layers for Surface Micromachining

Summary Sacrificial layers are temporary structures used as substrates on which other permanent structures are formed and then the layer is etched away freeing the permanent structure. They are ubiquitous in surface micromachining and the microfabrication of MEMS. Sacrificial layers currently in use are almost exclusively inorganic materials such as silica which are etched with corrosive substances such as hydrofluoric acid. Such etchants severely limit the types of substrates and materials one
...

Active Optical Antennas

Summary Background Optical antennas are single or coupled metallic nanoparticles in which optical excitation of surface plasmons can produce very high intensities in the optical near field. The field enhancement relative to the incident field is maximum when the wavelength is suitably matched to the size of the resonant nanoparticle. Of particular interest are resonant optical antennas comprised of a pair of strongly coupled metallic nanorods. This design leads to a large intensity enhancement l
...

Controlled Synthesis of Millimeter-Long Silicon Nanowires with Uniform Electronic Properties

Summary Background Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and semiconducting nanowires (NWs) are attractive building blocks for fabricating numerous functional nanodevices such as FETs, light emitting diodes, laser diodes, and biological sensors. Even though very long SWCNTs have been achieved, dramatic change in electrical properties accompanying the change of chirality and diameter impedes control over their electrical properties along the tubes. Millimeter-long SiNWs and oxide NWs have al
...

General Synthesis and Properties of Hetero-Branched Nanostructures

Summary The bottom-up assembly of nanostructures from individual building blocks offers distinct advantages over traditional top-down fabrication techniques including greatly simplified and cost-effective fabrication and the enablement of unique properties only available at the nanoscale. There is a need for the development of nanostructures of increased compositional complexity to serve as building blocks for more advanced nanostructures and nanodevices. For the first time branched nanowire str
...

Improved Metal Complex Chemical Precursors for Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) and Chemical Vapor Depostion (CVD) using Bicyclic Guanidines

Summary Continued improvements in semiconductor technologies rely heavily on advanced material compositions such as high-k dielectrics, low-k dielectrics, and electrically conductive metal nitrides. These materials enable the continued progression of Moore’s Law, allowing ever-smaller components to be integrated onto a microelectronic chip. In current device fabrication facilities, vapor deposition is a preferred method for making these materials, allowing precise control over material un
...

POVM Receiver for Quantum Cryptography

Summary Quantum cryptography relies on the impossibility of ascribing definite values to non-communicating variables in order to assure secrecy of communication. Theoretical and experimental efforts in this area have been concentrated mainly on one of the basic cryptographic techniques, namely key distribution. Conventional cryptography provides no tools to guarantee the security of the key distribution. Any encoding by means of classical objects is vulnerable to passive interception. Quantum
...

Using Electro-magnetically Induced Transparency in Photonic Crystal Cavities to

Summary This invention describes a photonic crystal system which uses electro-magnetically induced transparency (EIT) as the non-linear medium in photonic crystal cavities to obtain devices of unprecedent non-linear sensitivity, with operating power requirements many orders of magnitude smaller than in most non-linear optics devices. Implementation is not limited to EIT and can use any kind of cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). This invention also describes a method of forming a microcavit
...

Production of Digitized Stereoscopic Polarizing Images by Inkjet Printing

Summary The Technology The Stereo Imaging Research Group developed methods, materials and applications for stereoscopic hardcopy. The group's StereoJet process forms polarizing images by inkjet printing, using commercial desktop printers without modification. Key inventions include specialized substrates, inks and procedures. Each StereoJet print or transparency consists of a pair of superimposed, oppositely polarizing digital images, one representing the left-eye view and the other repre
...

An Ultra Low Power System Architecture for Sensor Network Applications

Summary Ultra-low-power chip for sensor network applications Application and Benefits: Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are used in a wide variety of applications including environmental monitoring, vehicle tracking, health-care, and business supply-chain management. Often such networks must provide continuous sensing for long periods of time, resulting in a need for inexpensive, long-lasting, highly reliable devices. Power consumption is usually the most important design constraint, as energ
...

Controlled Synthesis of Millimeter-Long Silicon Nanowires with Uniform Electronic Properties

Summary Background Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and semiconducting nanowires (NWs) are attractive building blocks for fabricating numerous functional nanodevices such as FETs, light emitting diodes, laser diodes, and biological sensors. Even though very long SWCNTs have been achieved, dramatic change in electrical properties accompanying the change of chirality and diameter impedes control over their electrical properties along the tubes. Millimeter-long SiNWs and oxide NWs have al
...

Portable and Inexpensive Chemical and Biological Sensors

Summary The broadly tunable quantum cascade laser (QCL) described in this invention enables the production of a small, portable chemical and biological sensor that can detect a range of molecules within a single, compact device. Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs) are intraband semiconductor lasers that can emit within the mid-infrared and terahertz spectral regions, in particular, the molecular ‘fingerprint’ range where many molecules have tell-tale absorptions. The broadly tunable QCL u
...

Production of Digitized Stereoscopic Polarizing Images by Inkjet Printing

Summary The Technology The Stereo Imaging Research Group developed methods, materials and applications for stereoscopic hardcopy. The group's StereoJet process forms polarizing images by inkjet printing, using commercial desktop printers without modification. Key inventions include specialized substrates, inks and procedures. Each StereoJet print or transparency consists of a pair of superimposed, oppositely polarizing digital images, one representing the left-eye view and the other repre
...

Coating Methods and Compositions for Production of Digitized Stereoscopic Polari

Summary The Technology The Stereo Imaging Research Group developed methods, materials and applications for stereoscopic hardcopy. The group's StereoJet process forms polarizing images by inkjet printing, using commercial desktop printers without modification. Key inventions include specialized substrates, inks and procedures. Each StereoJet print or transparency consists of a pair of superimposed, oppositely polarizing digital images, one representing the left-eye view and the other repre
...

Portable and Inexpensive Chemical and Biological Sensors

Summary The broadly tunable quantum cascade laser (QCL) described in this invention enables the production of a small, portable chemical and biological sensor that can detect a range of molecules within a single, compact device. Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs) are intraband semiconductor lasers that can emit within the mid-infrared and terahertz spectral regions, in particular, the molecular ‘fingerprint’ range where many molecules have tell-tale absorptions. The broadly tunable QCL u
...

POVM Receiver for Quantum Cryptography

Summary Quantum cryptography relies on the impossibility of ascribing definite values to non-communicating variables in order to assure secrecy of communication. Theoretical and experimental efforts in this area have been concentrated mainly on one of the basic cryptographic techniques, namely key distribution. Conventional cryptography provides no tools to guarantee the security of the key distribution. Any encoding by means of classical objects is vulnerable to passive interception. Quantum
...

Spatial Light Modulator

Summary This is a fluidic all-optical switch that alters the path of a light beam by controlling the geometry of a reflective surface that is defined by the interface between two fluids. The device has also been described as a "deformable mirror," since it employs conducting polymers and fluids. The key to the device's operation is the interface between the first fluid and the second fluid, which defines a "tunable" reflective surface. By applying an electrical field across the second fluid,
...

Electric Microcontact Printing

Summary This invention has utility in data storage and in preparing surfaces to receive other materials in specific predetermined patterns, such as in nanoxerography. A variant of a microcontact-printing stamp lays down a pattern of charges on an electret substrate. The technique can cover a substrate with an area of one square centimeter with multiple charges from 110 nm - 100 micrometers in size in less than 20 seconds, providing an area density of up to 7 Gbits/sq. cm., 140 times larger than
...

A method for Fabricating Optical waveguides and other Optical Devices in Three D

Summary This invention describes a method to directly write optical elements in three dimensions inside a transparent material using an unamplified femtosecond laser. Ultrashort pulses from a laser oscillator are tightly focused into the material, causing localized heating and subsequently producing refractive index changes in the bulk of the material. Applications The present invention uses an unamplified femtosecond laser oscillator to write waveguides or other optical devices by creation o
...

Vapor Deposition of Silica Nanolaminates

Summary This invention concerns a very efficient atomic layer deposition (ALD) method to make extremely smooth and highly conformal silica thin films with excellent step coverage. As microelectronic circuits become more and more dense, with decreasing distances between active elements and interconnects, better methods of laying down dielectrics as insulation are required to retain performance. This invention is such a better method. Prior art ALD methods, while known to produce highly conformal
...

Microlens for Projection Lithography and Method of Preparation Thereof

Summary This invention claims a lithographic technique that can inexpensively produce simple, repetitive micropatterns over large areas of at least several square centimeters. It uses an illuminated array of micrometer-scale lenses to generate an array of optical patterns in an image plane located within micrometer distances from the lens array. A layer of photoresist, placed in the image plane, records the patterns. Microleneses with different sizes, profiles, compositions and indices of refrac
...

Highly Conformal Tungsten Nitride Thin Films

Summary The invention describes a method of producing a uniform, smooth and conformal coating of tungsten nitride, synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The silver-colored coating (or film) is metallic and a good electrical conductor. Suitable applications in microelectronics include barriers to the diffusion of copper and electrodes for thin film capacitors and field-effect transistors (FETs). Similar processes deposit molybdenum nitride, which is suitable for layers alternating with si
...

Atomic Layer Deposition Using Metal Amidinates

Summary This invention relates to materials and processes for d eposition of conformal films containing metals on solid substrates. Examples include copper, cobalt and iron metals or their oxides or nitrides. Suitable applications include electrical interconnects in microelectronic and magnetoresistant layers in magnetic information storage devices. Applications Atomic Layer Deposition, semiconductors For Further Information Please Contact the Director of Business Development Bob Benson Emai
...

Using Electro-magnetically Induced Transparency in Photonic Crystal Cavities to

Summary This invention describes a photonic crystal system which uses electro-magnetically induced transparency (EIT) as the non-linear medium in photonic crystal cavities to obtain devices of unprecedent non-linear sensitivity, with operating power requirements many orders of magnitude smaller than in most non-linear optics devices. Implementation is not limited to EIT and can use any kind of cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). This invention also describes a method of forming a microcavit
...

Keyboard Having Touch Sensor Keys for Conveying Information Electronically

Summary This invention uses an array of sensors, which enable a human to use his fingers or tongue to convey information electronically. The sensors are arranged to produce signal patterns by responding to the positioning of the finger or tongue within the action area, with finger or tongue pressures as small as zero. Each signal pattern produced by the sensors is translated to an information signal corresponding to an item of information to be conveyed. The circuitry includes a background noise
...

Magneto-Luminescent Transducer

Summary This invention provides a one step process for reading magnetic data and converting the magnetic digital signal directly into an optical signal. This invention enables an electronic system, which includes a three terminal device having a light emitting portion and a magnetically sensitive portion. The magnetically sensitive portion is for modulating light emission from the light-emitting portion. The device is a spin valve transistor having a light-emitting quantum well in its collector.
...

Fully-integrated 2D microelectromagnet coil arrays in silicon for magnetic manipulation and RF imaging of cells and magnetic particles

Summary The invention comprises a novel method and an apparatus to manipulate, segregate, detect and analyze biological samples on a microfluidic CMOS chip. This technique offers sub-micrometer precision and fast processing speeds for a cheap, easily accessible lab-on-a-chip system. The technology is based on a microcoil array, built into the front end of the CMOS chip, which creates varying electric and/or magnetic fields that can be used to manipulate the system. A microfluidic chamber is phot
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Asynchronous Circuit Techniques for Memory Error Correction

Summary This invention describes a circuit technique for rapidly and efficiently correcting for read and write data errors in a digital semiconductor memory. More specifically, it involves the design of an error-correcting circuit (ECC) as applied to high density and low latency memories, especially NOR Flash and DRAM. More generally, this can also be in any type of digital memory or digital communication channel. As semiconductor memories get smaller and smaller, memory cells are subject to hig
...

A Self-sustained Soliton Oscillator Utilizing Nonlinear Transmission Lines and Spectrum-preservice Nonlinear Amplification

Summary Background Conventional traveling wave oscillators that require high-speed clock signals generally employ a linear transmission line over which sinusoidal waves are propagated. In such systems, linear amplifiers are employed to overcome resistive losses present in the transmission line so as to maintain the signal strength of the traveling sinusoidal wave and permit oscillation. While such linear oscillator systems have enjoyed wide acceptance in the communications industry, system de
...

Nanowire-Based Nonvolatile Memory

Summary This invention concerns a novel non-volatile super dense computer memory. The memory is based on ferrooxide material coated inorganic semiconductor nanowires, such as barium titanate coated silicon. The nanowire is used to make a FET composed of the nanowire core in ohmic contact with the source and drain electrodes and a gate in contact with the ferrooxide coating similar to an industry standard MRIS planar FET. A great advantage of the nanowire-based FET of the invention over the prior
...

Water-Soluble Sacrificial Layers for Surface Micromachining

Summary Sacrificial layers are temporary structures used as substrates on which other permanent structures are formed and then the layer is etched away freeing the permanent structure. They are ubiquitous in surface micromachining and the microfabrication of MEMS. Sacrificial layers currently in use are almost exclusively inorganic materials such as silica which are etched with corrosive substances such as hydrofluoric acid. Such etchants severely limit the types of substrates and materials one
...

Active Optical Antennas

Summary Background Optical antennas are single or coupled metallic nanoparticles in which optical excitation of surface plasmons can produce very high intensities in the optical near field. The field enhancement relative to the incident field is maximum when the wavelength is suitably matched to the size of the resonant nanoparticle. Of particular interest are resonant optical antennas comprised of a pair of strongly coupled metallic nanorods. This design leads to a large intensity enhancement l
...

Microscopy Methods and Apparatus for Manipulation and/or Detection of Biological Samples and Other Objects

Summary Invention The invention is an integrated circuit(IC)/microfluidic hybrid system that combines the biocompatibility of microfluidic systems with the programmability of IC chips. The hybrid system consists of an IC and a microfluidic system fabricated on top of the IC. Biological cells attached to magnetic beads are suspended inside the microfluidic system where biocompatibility is maintained. The IC contains an array of microcoils which produces spatially-patterned magnetic fields on t
...

General Synthesis and Properties of Hetero-Branched Nanostructures

Summary The bottom-up assembly of nanostructures from individual building blocks offers distinct advantages over traditional top-down fabrication techniques including greatly simplified and cost-effective fabrication and the enablement of unique properties only available at the nanoscale. There is a need for the development of nanostructures of increased compositional complexity to serve as building blocks for more advanced nanostructures and nanodevices. For the first time branched nanowire str
...

Strain Measuring Transducer

Summary A strain-sensing transducer designed for detecting small forces in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) and nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS) has been reduced to practice and awarded a patent. Because it is fabricated with piezoelectric semiconducting materials, this transducer achieves higher speed and sensitivity than commercial transducers, which are typically made from piezoresistive materials. The transducer is built with a field-effect transistor (FET) made from a GaAs/AlG
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Error Correcting Sigma-Delta Modulation Decoding

Summary Conventional sigma-delta analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) systems may be significantly enhanced by using a recently developed novel design approach. The technique involves instrumenting an ADC’s modulator subsystem with an observation circuit to provide quantized estimates of the modulator’s state values. This observation circuit provides a limited precision estimate of the modulator state values (delay stages), but leaves the modulator’s input/output relationship
...

POVM Receiver for Quantum Cryptography

Summary Quantum cryptography relies on the impossibility of ascribing definite values to non-communicating variables in order to assure secrecy of communication. Theoretical and experimental efforts in this area have been concentrated mainly on one of the basic cryptographic techniques, namely key distribution. Conventional cryptography provides no tools to guarantee the security of the key distribution. Any encoding by means of classical objects is vulnerable to passive interception. Quantum
...

Spatial Light Modulator

Summary This is a fluidic all-optical switch that alters the path of a light beam by controlling the geometry of a reflective surface that is defined by the interface between two fluids. The device has also been described as a "deformable mirror," since it employs conducting polymers and fluids. The key to the device's operation is the interface between the first fluid and the second fluid, which defines a "tunable" reflective surface. By applying an electrical field across the second fluid,
...

Electric Microcontact Printing

Summary This invention has utility in data storage and in preparing surfaces to receive other materials in specific predetermined patterns, such as in nanoxerography. A variant of a microcontact-printing stamp lays down a pattern of charges on an electret substrate. The technique can cover a substrate with an area of one square centimeter with multiple charges from 110 nm - 100 micrometers in size in less than 20 seconds, providing an area density of up to 7 Gbits/sq. cm., 140 times larger than
...

A method for Fabricating Optical waveguides and other Optical Devices in Three D

Summary This invention describes a method to directly write optical elements in three dimensions inside a transparent material using an unamplified femtosecond laser. Ultrashort pulses from a laser oscillator are tightly focused into the material, causing localized heating and subsequently producing refractive index changes in the bulk of the material. Applications The present invention uses an unamplified femtosecond laser oscillator to write waveguides or other optical devices by creation o
...

Vapor Deposition of Silica Nanolaminates

Summary This invention concerns a very efficient atomic layer deposition (ALD) method to make extremely smooth and highly conformal silica thin films with excellent step coverage. As microelectronic circuits become more and more dense, with decreasing distances between active elements and interconnects, better methods of laying down dielectrics as insulation are required to retain performance. This invention is such a better method. Prior art ALD methods, while known to produce highly conformal
...

Microlens for Projection Lithography and Method of Preparation Thereof

Summary This invention claims a lithographic technique that can inexpensively produce simple, repetitive micropatterns over large areas of at least several square centimeters. It uses an illuminated array of micrometer-scale lenses to generate an array of optical patterns in an image plane located within micrometer distances from the lens array. A layer of photoresist, placed in the image plane, records the patterns. Microleneses with different sizes, profiles, compositions and indices of refrac
...

Compressed Bloom Filter

Summary A Bloom filter is a simple space-efficient randomized data structure for representing a set in order to support membership queries. Compressed Bloom filters improve performance when the Bloom filter is passed as a message; its transmission size is a limiting factor. Bloom filters have been suggested as a means for sharing Web cache information. In this setting, proxies do not share the exact contents of their caches, but instead periodically broadcast Bloom filters representing their cac
...

Microscale Electromagnetic Device

Summary This invention concerns devices and methodology to control the positioning and movement of magnetic and non-magnetic nanoparticles in a fluid with nanometer precision. The devices allow for the independent and simultaneous control of many particles. The devices utilize a grid of current carrying wires or an array of charged posts to create isolated and continuously moveable magnetic field maxima or electic field maxima, respectively, which trap and hold the particles. The devices have ma
...

Production of Digitized Stereoscopic Polarizing Images by Inkjet Printing

Summary The Technology The Stereo Imaging Research Group developed methods, materials and applications for stereoscopic hardcopy. The group's StereoJet process forms polarizing images by inkjet printing, using commercial desktop printers without modification. Key inventions include specialized substrates, inks and procedures. Each StereoJet print or transparency consists of a pair of superimposed, oppositely polarizing digital images, one representing the left-eye view and the other repre
...

Highly Conformal Tungsten Nitride Thin Films

Summary The invention describes a method of producing a uniform, smooth and conformal coating of tungsten nitride, synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The silver-colored coating (or film) is metallic and a good electrical conductor. Suitable applications in microelectronics include barriers to the diffusion of copper and electrodes for thin film capacitors and field-effect transistors (FETs). Similar processes deposit molybdenum nitride, which is suitable for layers alternating with si
...

Nanoscale Electrically Driven Lasers

Summary This invention is the first demonstration of an electrically driven nanoscale laser. A CdS nanowire, comprising a Fabry-Perot cavity, in contact with an electrode distributed along its length or crossing a Si nanowire, lases above a threshold current. Changing the material the nanowire is composed of can change the wavelength. This invention opens up new realms of applications in nanoscale electrical systems - including anywhere LEDs and lasers are used now and many new applications such
...

Atomic Layer Deposition Using Metal Amidinates

Summary This invention relates to materials and processes for d eposition of conformal films containing metals on solid substrates. Examples include copper, cobalt and iron metals or their oxides or nitrides. Suitable applications include electrical interconnects in microelectronic and magnetoresistant layers in magnetic information storage devices. Applications Atomic Layer Deposition, semiconductors For Further Information Please Contact the Director of Business Development Bob Benson Emai
...

Using Electro-magnetically Induced Transparency in Photonic Crystal Cavities to

Summary This invention describes a photonic crystal system which uses electro-magnetically induced transparency (EIT) as the non-linear medium in photonic crystal cavities to obtain devices of unprecedent non-linear sensitivity, with operating power requirements many orders of magnitude smaller than in most non-linear optics devices. Implementation is not limited to EIT and can use any kind of cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). This invention also describes a method of forming a microcavit
...

Keyboard Having Touch Sensor Keys for Conveying Information Electronically

Summary This invention uses an array of sensors, which enable a human to use his fingers or tongue to convey information electronically. The sensors are arranged to produce signal patterns by responding to the positioning of the finger or tongue within the action area, with finger or tongue pressures as small as zero. Each signal pattern produced by the sensors is translated to an information signal corresponding to an item of information to be conveyed. The circuitry includes a background noise
...

Magneto-Luminescent Transducer

Summary This invention provides a one step process for reading magnetic data and converting the magnetic digital signal directly into an optical signal. This invention enables an electronic system, which includes a three terminal device having a light emitting portion and a magnetically sensitive portion. The magnetically sensitive portion is for modulating light emission from the light-emitting portion. The device is a spin valve transistor having a light-emitting quantum well in its collector.
...

Nanometer patterning with Ice

Summary Harvard Cases 2331 and 2440 These inventions involve the use of gases directly solidified onto cryogenically cooled substrates to form conformal thin films as resists for lithographically patterning the substrates. Examples of such gases are water vapor and rare gases such as argon. Water as a resist is placed on the substrate directly from the gas phase, patterned with an energetic beam (electron, ion or light), and then the rest is removed by sublimation. This has numerous advantage
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Microfluidic liquid-core, liquid-cladding optical waveguides

Summary Background: Optical detection and spectroscopic analysis are important in a wide variety of systems. Typical methods used for delivery of electromagnetic radiation to the microchannels of microfluidic systems, such as lab-on-a-chip systems, rely on the coupling of external sources of light to microfluidic devices that typically consist of optical fibers made by a glass core and a glass cladding. The use of optical fiber causes limitations on possible designs as it requires multiple so
...

Asynchronous Circuit Techniques for Memory Error Correction

Summary This invention describes a circuit technique for rapidly and efficiently correcting for read and write data errors in a digital semiconductor memory. More specifically, it involves the design of an error-correcting circuit (ECC) as applied to high density and low latency memories, especially NOR Flash and DRAM. More generally, this can also be in any type of digital memory or digital communication channel. As semiconductor memories get smaller and smaller, memory cells are subject to hig
...

A Self-sustained Soliton Oscillator Utilizing Nonlinear Transmission Lines and Spectrum-preservice Nonlinear Amplification

Background Conventional traveling wave oscillators that require high-speed clock signals generally employ a linear transmission line over which sinusoidal waves are propagated. In such systems, linear amplifiers are employed to overcome resistive losses present in the transmission line so as to maintain the signal strength of the traveling sinusoidal wave and permit oscillation. While such linear oscillator systems have enjoyed wide acceptance in the communications industry, system designers
...

A Microconcentrator and Microfilter for Suspensions such as Blood

Summary Background: In healthcare, chemical analysis, environmental testing and other fields it is useful to separate particulate substances that are suspended in a fluid. For example separating cells from body fluids. So far, these techniques have typically required substantial capital equipment that can be both expensive and bulky, thus limiting where and when the separation can take place. Novel technology: The technology provides a microfluidic filter and concentrator that is cap
...

Generation of Monodisperse Particles using Microfluidics: Control over Size, Shape and Composition

Summary The invention constitutes microfluidic methods of forming particles that are substantially monodisperse. The technology builds on the technology disclosed in Harvard Case: 2215 – "Method and Apparatus for Fluid Dispersion", which creates monodisperse fluid droplets in a microfluidic flow focusing device. The present invention expands that invention by: a) showing that monodisperse solid particles can be made from liquid droplets of material above its melting point by lowing the te
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Bubble Micromixer for Microfluidic Systems

Summary Background: One of the hardest problems to solve in microfluidic systems has been related to the mixing of fluids in a simple manner. The flow in microfluidic systems is generally laminar, restricting mixing to diffusion which is typically too slow when one wants two adjacent streams to mix to homogeneity quickly. The technologies that have been developed to solve this problem to date have a number of disadvantages. More precisely the techniques used to fabricate those mixers can be c
...

Nanowire-Based Nonvolatile Memory

Summary This invention concerns a novel non-volatile super dense computer memory. The memory is based on ferrooxide material coated inorganic semiconductor nanowires, such as barium titanate coated silicon. The nanowire is used to make a FET composed of the nanowire core in ohmic contact with the source and drain electrodes and a gate in contact with the ferrooxide coating similar to an industry standard MRIS planar FET. A great advantage of the nanowire-based FET of the invention over the prior
...

Correlated Mutation Analysis-assisted Chimeric-Engineering/Directed-Evolution of Novel Portein/Enzyme Function

Summary Chimeric protein engineering and directed-evolution are increasingly popular methods to obtain enzymes with desired activities and substrate specificities. Chimeric-engineering goes about this by grafting select components of two homologous enzymes together (preserving activity while combinatorially affecting substrate specificity), whereas directed-evolution mutagenizes ligand-binding pockets to perturb substrate specificity and/or catalytic sites to modify activity. The major experimen
...

Water-Soluble Sacrificial Layers for Surface Micromachining

Summary Sacrificial layers are temporary structures used as substrates on which other permanent structures are formed and then the layer is etched away freeing the permanent structure. They are ubiquitous in surface micromachining and the microfabrication of MEMS. Sacrificial layers currently in use are almost exclusively inorganic materials such as silica which are etched with corrosive substances such as hydrofluoric acid. Such etchants severely limit the types of substrates and materials one
...

A Low-threshold, High-efficiency Microfluidic Waveguide Laser

Summary Background: A common type of optical waveguides has been optical fibers which have been used to guide electromagnetic waves in the optical spectrum. They are mainly used as components in integrated optical circuits or as a transport medium in distant communication systems. A typical optical fiber consists of an inner solid glass core and an outer cladding with a refractive index lower than the core causing light to propagate throughout the fiber. Variations of the waveguide have em
...

Devices and Methods for Improving the Injection of Liquid Samples in Microfluidic Systems

Summary Principal Investigator: Max Narovlyansky, Graduate student, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University Background: Separation and detection of substance in fluids require injection of a plug of sample fluid into a separation column. Chip-based injections of samples for chemical and biological analysis have traditionally relied on open channel geometries like double-T and double-L methods to define the injection zone or upon isoelectric focusing (IEF), also calle
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Scanning Dielectrophoretic Tweezers for Particle Manipulation and Sensing

Summary Invention This invention is capable of positioning and sensing particles with intense localized electric fields. In one implementation of the invention, closely spaced electrodes on a tip generate a local radio frequency (RF) electric field at the end of the tip. In one aspect, the tip can be positioned by a manipulator or by a scanning probe microscope (SPM). In another aspect, the dielectrophoretic (DEP) force produced by the FR field is used to trap microscopic objects and particles.
...

Active Optical Antennas

Summary Background Optical antennas are single or coupled metallic nanoparticles in which optical excitation of surface plasmons can produce very high intensities in the optical near field. The field enhancement relative to the incident field is maximum when the wavelength is suitably matched to the size of the resonant nanoparticle. Of particular interest are resonant optical antennas comprised of a pair of strongly coupled metallic nanorods. This design leads to a large intensity enhancement l
...

Microscopy Methods and Apparatus for Manipulation and/or Detection of Biological Samples and Other Objects

Summary Invention The invention is an integrated circuit(IC)/microfluidic hybrid system that combines the biocompatibility of microfluidic systems with the programmability of IC chips. The hybrid system consists of an IC and a microfluidic system fabricated on top of the IC. Biological cells attached to magnetic beads are suspended inside the microfluidic system where biocompatibility is maintained. The IC contains an array of microcoils which produces spatially-patterned magnetic fields on t
...

Nanobioelectronics: Building functional hybrid nanoelectronic/cell circuit elements

Summary Background: The determination of electrophysiological properties is important for understanding signal propagation through individual neurons and neuronal networks as well as muscle tissue. However, previously existing technologies are relatively crude: micropipette electrodes poked into cells are invasive and harmful, and microfabricated electrode arrays are too bulky to detect activity at the level of individual cells or in the case of neurons, discrete axons and dendrites. Novel T
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Fastlock Integer/Fractional-N Hybrid PLL Frequency Synthesizer

Summary Settling time is an important performance metric in the phase-locked loop (PLL) frequency synthesizers. To achieve a fast settling time, the PLL loop bandwidth should be increased. In the widely used charge pump PLLs, however, the loop bandwidth cannot be undoubtedly large, but rather, is limited to about 10% of the reference frequency to maintain the loop stability. Due to the 10% bandwidth rule, for a given frequency resolution, fractional-N PLLs have a faster settling time than integ
...

An Ultra Low Power System Architecture for Sensor Network Applications

Summary Ultra-low-power chip for sensor network applications Application and Benefits: Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are used in a wide variety of applications including environmental monitoring, vehicle tracking, health-care, and business supply-chain management. Often such networks must provide continuous sensing for long periods of time, resulting in a need for inexpensive, long-lasting, highly reliable devices. Power consumption is usually the most important design constraint, as energ
...

A Low Cost and Versatile Microbial Fuel Cell

Summary A novel, low-cost microbial fuel cell (MFC) capable of delivering high power, high-efficiency energy. The MFC takes advantage of an easily accessible and ubiquitous carbon source. The organic carbon source can be metabolized by a wide number of microbial types and the Girguis laboratory has identified many microbial types that can grow on a fuel cell’s anode and stimulate power production. Thus, using extremely simple electronics, they can configure the microbial fuel cell to sele
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Controlled Synthesis of Millimeter-Long Silicon Nanowires with Uniform Electronic Properties

Summary Background Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and semiconducting nanowires (NWs) are attractive building blocks for fabricating numerous functional nanodevices such as FETs, light emitting diodes, laser diodes, and biological sensors. Even though very long SWCNTs have been achieved, dramatic change in electrical properties accompanying the change of chirality and diameter impedes control over their electrical properties along the tubes. Millimeter-long SiNWs and oxide NWs have al
...

Creating Nano-Wrinkles of Virtually any Design on the Surface of Polymers

Summary Creating Nano-Wrinkles of Virtually any Design on the Surface of Polymers Elevator pitch: A new method has been developed at Harvard to design and create virtually any type of nano-wrinkle patterns on the surfaces of polymers. Anticipated applications for these hard-skin nano-wrinkled surfaces include tissue engineering, where the wrinkles can create custom-designed scaffolds for optimizing cell growth, and microfluidics, where customized wrinkle patterns can enable complex fluidic
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General Approach to Large Area, Controlled Density, Aligned Films of Nanowires and Carbon Nanotubes via Bubble Expansion

Summary Background Central to many proposed electronic device-based applications of nanowires and carbon nanotubes is the development of methods that enable organization over large areas with controlled orientation and density. While progress has been made in studies of individual or small numbers of nanowire and nanotube devices prepared by directed assembly and centimetre scale assembly of nanowire field effect transistor arrays by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique, it is unclear if these can be
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STORM - Fluorescence Optical Microscopy with 20 nm Resolution

Summary Elevator pitch: For cell biologists who need to image spatial distributions of proteins, protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions, and structural features of subcellular organelles, STORM is a high-resolution optical fluorescent microscopy method developed at Harvard that delivers imaging resolution of 20nm which is more than 10x better than conventional fluorescence microscopy. Unlike other high-resolution approaches, STORM is relatively low in complexity, simple to operate
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General Synthesis and Properties of Hetero-Branched Nanostructures

Summary The bottom-up assembly of nanostructures from individual building blocks offers distinct advantages over traditional top-down fabrication techniques including greatly simplified and cost-effective fabrication and the enablement of unique properties only available at the nanoscale. There is a need for the development of nanostructures of increased compositional complexity to serve as building blocks for more advanced nanostructures and nanodevices. For the first time branched nanowire str
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A Framework for Wavelet-Based Analysis and Processing of Color FIlter Array Images

Summary Background In digital imaging applications, data are typically obtained via a spatial subsampling procedure implemented as a color filter array (CFA). CFA assigns a separate primary color to each pixel by placing a filter of that color over the pixel. The most well known CFA is the Bayer pattern which uses a checkerboard pattern with alternating rows of filters. The Bayer filter has twice as many green pixels as red or blue and takes advantage of the human eye’s tendency to see
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A Novel Color Filter Array Design

Summary Background In digital imaging applications, data are typically obtained via a spatial subsampling procedure implemented as a color filter array (CFA). CFA assigns a separate primary color to each pixel by placing a filter of that color over the pixel. The most well known CFA is the Bayer pattern which uses a checkerboard pattern with alternating rows of filters. The Bayer filter has twice as many green pixels as red or blue and takes advantage of the human eye’s tendency to see
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Portable and Inexpensive Chemical and Biological Sensors

Summary The broadly tunable quantum cascade laser (QCL) described in this invention enables the production of a small, portable chemical and biological sensor that can detect a range of molecules within a single, compact device. Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs) are intraband semiconductor lasers that can emit within the mid-infrared and terahertz spectral regions, in particular, the molecular ‘fingerprint’ range where many molecules have tell-tale absorptions. The broadly tunable QCL u
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Biological Computers: in Vivo Autonomous Doctors that Diagnose and Treat Disease

Summary Background: The promise of computers made from biological molecules lies in their potential to operate within the biochemical environment of a living organism and to interact with that environment through inputs and outputs with other biological molecules. For example, a biomolecular computer might act as an autonomous "doctor" within a cell. It could sense signals from the environment indicating disease, process them using its preprogrammed medical knowledge, and output a signal for the
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A Device for Allocation of Frozen Biological Samples Such as Blood and Tissues

Summary The frozen sample aliquotting instrument will extract aliquots from frozen samples such as plasma and serum without thawing the sample. This represents a new approach for biorepositories that will ensure that samples will experience only one freeze/thaw cycle, and dramatically reduce the labor and time required to process orders for samples while also cutting order fulfillment by five weeks. Additionally, the frozen aliquotter will reduce the amount of freezers and freezer space needed i
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Novel and Efficient Algorithm for Analyzing Large Genotypic and Phenotypic Data Sets in Clinical Trials

Summary Background: Recent technologies such as genotype sequencing and gene expression arrays result in datasets that typically have many more variables than data points. As a consequence, these variables have a complex, high-dimensional dependency structure that is most likely unknown. As such, practical methods for investigating the association between multi-way combinations of multiple predictor variables (genotype) and one or more phenotypes may be useful in many areas of scientific researc
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DNA Nanotube Liquid Crystals for NMR Structure Determination

Summary Scientists at the Harvard Medical School and the Dana-Farber Cancer institute have discovered how to make DNA nanotubes of a uniform length that will self-assemble into liquid crystals. A solution comprising liquid crystalline DNA nanotubes is resistant to detergent and enables liquid-crystal NMR spectroscopy of membrane proteins solubilized in detergent. The DNA nanotube liquid crystans can be manufactured on a large-scale to achieve economies of scale, and then sold in aliquots to solu
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Microfabricated, Chip-Based, Low-Power Optical Tweezers

Summary Since they were first demonstrated over twenty years ago, optical tweezers have been widely used for the manipulation and measurement of many microscale particles, particularly in the biological sciences. However, many of these systems require large, high-powered laser systems along with bulky and expensive optical objectives. With growing interest in microfluidics and other chip-based systems for high-throughput biological studies, a compact and integrated optical tweezer would be highl
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Slowing Down Light for Enhanced Detection of Biomolecules

Summary Allows for optical sensing and chemical and biological detection using extremely small and highly-sensitive devices. Also allows for fabrication of exceptionally small lasers for applications in displays and telecommunications, quantum optical devices, and barcoding. Applications The photonic crystal device is a novel method for localizing and trapping light, where the light can be utilized for a wide-variety of chemical, biological, and optical applications. Traditional chemical and
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Method of Thick Specimen Imaging

Summary Conventional light microscopy can be used to visualize fine details of complex structures at or within microns of the surface of histological specimens. To see below the surface of a specimen, histologists currently slice it into thin sections to bring deeper structures to the surface. The precise spatial relationship between structures represented in different slices can be difficult or impossible to determine, however, because of distortions introduced by conventional tissue processing
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New high-mobility, air-stable molecules for organic electronics

Summary With traditional silicon microelectronic fabrication facilities costing billions of dollars, alternative technologies offering both affordability and performance have become increasingly attractive. The development of widespread access to computing power and pervasive electronics in the public and consumer applications requires a technology that can offer a low-cost, large-area, flexible electronics with lower power consumption by reducing wasteful leakage currents. Organic materials suc
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Microfabricated, Chip-Based, Low-Power Optical Tweezers

Summary Since they were first demonstrated over twenty years ago, optical tweezers have been widely used for the manipulation and measurement of many microscale particles, particularly in the biological sciences. However, many of these systems require large, high-powered laser systems along with bulky and expensive optical objectives. With growing interest in microfluidics and other chip-based systems for high-throughput biological studies, a compact and integrated optical tweezer would be highl
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Low cost method for measuring the frequency content of a signal above the acquisition rate

Summary Markets/Needs Addressed: There is a substantial need in science and engineering to accurately characterize various processes involving fluctuations (e.g. Brownian motion, mechanical vibrations, electronic noise). However, measurements of these fluctuations via the ubiquitous power spectral density (PSD) are restricted in frequency by instrument limitations stemming from the acquisition rate and detector frequency response. While common to all instruments, these limitations can be especia
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3-Dimensional Self-Assembly of mm-scale Components

Summary Self-Assembly of Mesostructures From the Laboratory of George M. Whitesides Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology This portfolio of patent filings concerns innovative methods of fabricating structures too large for chemical synthesis and too small or too difficult for normal microfabrication techniques in the mesoscale range between 100 nm and millimeters. By the clever use of functionalized surfaces, interlocking shapes and natural forces such as capillarity, the inventors
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HBPA Photoaffinity Probe

Summary This invention describes a photolabeling reagent p-(4-hydroxybenzoyl)phenylalanine (HBPA) which overcomes many difficulties associated with BPA. Patent protection includes this compound's synthesis and use in photolabeling. Harvard's intellectual property portfolio includes the following patent: US 5,986,136 issued November 16, 1999. Applications Determination of intermolecular interactions in biological systems: -receptors for bioactive peptides -immunoreceptors -cell signalling
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Three-Dimensional Self-Assembled Electrical Networks

Summary Self-Assembly of Mesostructures From the Laboratory of George M. Whitesides Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology This portfolio of patent filings concerns innovative methods of fabricating structures too large for chemical synthesis and too small or too difficult for normal microfabrication techniques in the mesoscale range between 100 nm and millimeters. By the clever use of functionalized surfaces, interlocking shapes and natural forces such as capillarity, the inventors
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Techniques for high yield synthesis of macrocyclic compounds

Summary Many useful pharmaceuticals, including natural products, have a macrocyclic structure that can be a challenge when exploring synthesis methods. The Walsh Laboratory has discovered a new process using of a solid-phase resin to synthesize macrocycle compounds, including polyketide synthase (PKS), non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) and fatty acid synthase (FAS). The peptidic precursor molecules are connected to the solid-phase resin using a specific linker, and macrocyclization is achi
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Vapor Deposition of Silica Nanolaminates

Summary This invention concerns a very efficient atomic layer deposition (ALD) method to make extremely smooth and highly conformal silica thin films with excellent step coverage. As microelectronic circuits become more and more dense, with decreasing distances between active elements and interconnects, better methods of laying down dielectrics as insulation are required to retain performance. This invention is such a better method. Prior art ALD methods, while known to produce highly conformal
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Production of Digitized Stereoscopic Polarizing Images by Inkjet Printing

Summary The Technology The Stereo Imaging Research Group developed methods, materials and applications for stereoscopic hardcopy. The group's StereoJet process forms polarizing images by inkjet printing, using commercial desktop printers without modification. Key inventions include specialized substrates, inks and procedures. Each StereoJet print or transparency consists of a pair of superimposed, oppositely polarizing digital images, one representing the left-eye view and the other repre
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Production of Improved Digitized Stereoscopic Polarizing Images

Summary The Technology The Stereo Imaging Research Group developed methods, materials and applications for stereoscopic hardcopy. The group's StereoJet process forms polarizing images by inkjet printing, using commercial desktop printers without modification. Key inventions include specialized substrates, inks and procedures. Each StereoJet print or transparency consists of a pair of superimposed, oppositely polarizing digital images, one representing the left-eye view and the other repre
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Coating Methods and Compositions for Production of Digitized Stereoscopic Polari

Summary The Technology The Stereo Imaging Research Group developed methods, materials and applications for stereoscopic hardcopy. The group's StereoJet process forms polarizing images by inkjet printing, using commercial desktop printers without modification. Key inventions include specialized substrates, inks and procedures. Each StereoJet print or transparency consists of a pair of superimposed, oppositely polarizing digital images, one representing the left-eye view and the other repre
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Highly Conformal Tungsten Nitride Thin Films

Summary The invention describes a method of producing a uniform, smooth and conformal coating of tungsten nitride, synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The silver-colored coating (or film) is metallic and a good electrical conductor. Suitable applications in microelectronics include barriers to the diffusion of copper and electrodes for thin film capacitors and field-effect transistors (FETs). Similar processes deposit molybdenum nitride, which is suitable for layers alternating with si
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Enabling Nanotube Developments at Harvard University

Summary A suite of four technologies has been developed by Roy Gordon, Charles Lieber, and Jene Golovchenko at Harvard University involving carbon nanotubes which allow for a multitude of applications, including sensor applications. This IP enables carbon nanotubes to be used for extremely sensitive gas and chemical detection, taking advantage of their extremely high electron mobility, small dimensions, and reduced power consumption. Background Since their discovery over a decade ago, carbon
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Atomic Layer Deposition Using Metal Amidinates

Summary This invention relates to materials and processes for d eposition of conformal films containing metals on solid substrates. Examples include copper, cobalt and iron metals or their oxides or nitrides. Suitable applications include electrical interconnects in microelectronic and magnetoresistant layers in magnetic information storage devices. Applications Atomic Layer Deposition, semiconductors For Further Information Please Contact the Director of Business Development Bob Benson Emai
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Methods for Coating Nanotubes and Devices Produced by such Methods

Summary Micro- and nanoelectronics based on semiconductor carbon nanotubes (CNTs) require methods of controlling their properties and of preserving those properties once gained. The inventors have shown for the first time that both p-type and n-type CNTs (semiconducting) can be predictably and repeatebly produced and preserved by coating CNTs with selected materials. It has been further demonstrated that efficient and reliable dielectric coating of CNTs can be performed by vapor deposition techn
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Nanometer patterning with Ice

Summary Harvard Cases 2331 and 2440 These inventions involve the use of gases directly solidified onto cryogenically cooled substrates to form conformal thin films as resists for lithographically patterning the substrates. Examples of such gases are water vapor and rare gases such as argon. Water as a resist is placed on the substrate directly from the gas phase, patterned with an energetic beam (electron, ion or light), and then the rest is removed by sublimation. This has numerous advantage
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A Microconcentrator and Microfilter for Suspensions such as Blood

Summary Background: In healthcare, chemical analysis, environmental testing and other fields it is useful to separate particulate substances that are suspended in a fluid. For example separating cells from body fluids. So far, these techniques have typically required substantial capital equipment that can be both expensive and bulky, thus limiting where and when the separation can take place. Novel technology: The technology provides a microfluidic filter and concentrator that is cap
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Generation of Monodisperse Particles using Microfluidics: Control over Size, Shape and Composition

Summary The invention constitutes microfluidic methods of forming particles that are substantially monodisperse. The technology builds on the technology disclosed in Harvard Case: 2215 – "Method and Apparatus for Fluid Dispersion", which creates monodisperse fluid droplets in a microfluidic flow focusing device. The present invention expands that invention by: a) showing that monodisperse solid particles can be made from liquid droplets of material above its melting point by lowing the te
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"'Armored"' Bubbles and Droplets

Summary Background: Colloidal particles absorbed on liquid interfaces have long been reported to stabilize emulsions and foams. Recently, individual droplets densely covered with small particles have been proposed as a possible means of obtaining a variety of composite particles and hollow locked shells. Such interfacially structured and protected materials offer new opportunities in many fields as diverse as optics, encapsulation, biomedicine, non-wetting droplets, stabilizing gas bubbles, m
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Nanowire-Based Nonvolatile Memory

Summary This invention concerns a novel non-volatile super dense computer memory. The memory is based on ferrooxide material coated inorganic semiconductor nanowires, such as barium titanate coated silicon. The nanowire is used to make a FET composed of the nanowire core in ohmic contact with the source and drain electrodes and a gate in contact with the ferrooxide coating similar to an industry standard MRIS planar FET. A great advantage of the nanowire-based FET of the invention over the prior
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Water-Soluble Sacrificial Layers for Surface Micromachining

Summary Sacrificial layers are temporary structures used as substrates on which other permanent structures are formed and then the layer is etched away freeing the permanent structure. They are ubiquitous in surface micromachining and the microfabrication of MEMS. Sacrificial layers currently in use are almost exclusively inorganic materials such as silica which are etched with corrosive substances such as hydrofluoric acid. Such etchants severely limit the types of substrates and materials one
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Lift-off Patterning Processes Using Solid-Condensed-Gas Layers As Resists

Summary Harvard Cases 2310 and 2440 These inventions involve the use of gases directly solidified onto cryogenically cooled substrates to form conformal thin films as resists for lithographically patterning the substrates. Examples of such gases are water vapor and rare gases such as argon. Water as a resist is placed on the substrate directly from the gas phase, patterned with an energetic beam (electron, ion or light), and then the rest is removed by sublimation. This has numerous advantage
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ALD Coaxially Coated Carbon Nanotubes as Transistors

Summary Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs) have remarkable electrical and optical properties that have not yet been extensively commercialized because of difficulties making robust and high quality devices containing them. One current difficulty is the lack of a good technique for uniformly coating SWCNTs with dielectrics, which is required to make devices such as transistors, while retaining the SWCNTs remarkable electrical and optical properties. Atomic layer deposition (ALD), a promising
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Array of Micro Differential Scanning Calorimeters for Combinatorial Studies

Summary Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a primary technique for measuring the thermal properties of materials. A typical DSC system requires relatively large amounts of test material, making thermal measurements on nano-scale samples difficult if not impossible. Thus, while traditional DSC has proved a very useful technique, its application in nanotechnology is rather limited. Since the properties of materials on the nano-scale may differ significantly from their bulk counterparts, a
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Selective Sealing of Porous Dielectric Materials

Summary As the sizes of microelectronic ICs decrease and metal interconnects become closer together and operating frequencies climb, cross talk between adjacent interconnects negatively affects the overall performance of the IC. A promising approach to this challenge is the use of porous low-k materials as the dielectric insulating layer. A problem with porous low-k materials is that metal atoms diffuse from the interconnect or barrier layer into the insulating layer which lowers its performance
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General Synthesis and Properties of Hetero-Branched Nanostructures

Summary The bottom-up assembly of nanostructures from individual building blocks offers distinct advantages over traditional top-down fabrication techniques including greatly simplified and cost-effective fabrication and the enablement of unique properties only available at the nanoscale. There is a need for the development of nanostructures of increased compositional complexity to serve as building blocks for more advanced nanostructures and nanodevices. For the first time branched nanowire str
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Improved Metal Complex Chemical Precursors for Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) and Chemical Vapor Depostion (CVD) using Bicyclic Guanidines

Summary Continued improvements in semiconductor technologies rely heavily on advanced material compositions such as high-k dielectrics, low-k dielectrics, and electrically conductive metal nitrides. These materials enable the continued progression of Moore’s Law, allowing ever-smaller components to be integrated onto a microelectronic chip. In current device fabrication facilities, vapor deposition is a preferred method for making these materials, allowing precise control over material un
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Basic Soft Lithography/Microcontact Printing

Summary These patents and applications cover the basic techniques of soft lithography and microcontact printing. They allow one to pattern a surface, with micrometer precision, with SAMs (Self-Assembling Monolayers) and then to carry out numerous other process steps to produce functionalized surfaces with numerous applications. They are available for non-exclusive licensing in the biomedical field. US Patent 5,512,131 entitled "Formation of Microstamped Patterns on Surfaces and Derivative Ar
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Process for Structural Alteration of Selected Material ("Micro-Engraving")

Summary This invention is comprised of methods and apparatus required to record and read-out a two- or three- dimensional, information-bearing image (pattern) inside a transparent material, with sub-micron features. The technique involves using an ultra-fast (100 femtosecond) laser to induce localized, high-contrast changes in the material's refractive index, without causing damage to the surrounding material. The method has been demonstrated using various glasses, fused silica, sapphire, ionic
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Transformation of a Semiconducting Nanowire into a Conducting Nanowire in a Controllable Way

Summary This invention describes a nanowire that changes from a semiconductor to a conductor along its length and a method of making it. The method involves reacting a semiconductor nanowire with a metal to form a single crystal nanowire composed of the reaction product. The reaction product is a conductor. By masking selected portions of the semiconductor before reaction with the metal a nanowire composed of semiconductor areas and conductor areas can be produced. One can first grow or place se
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Cooling System for High Power Diode Laser Bar

Introduction There are currently a number of approaches being used to package (cool) high power laser diode bars. The most standard is a simple copper heat spreader below the diode. For high power laser diodes, this is problematic due to thermally induced stresses that result in a short lifetime. Technology description Researchers at the UW have developed a device to cool a high power laser diode bar that generates 60 to 100 Watts of thermal power in a footprint of 0.1 square centimeter, for an
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Miniaturized Fluorescence Analysis System

Introduction Fluorescent dyes are widely used in biological assays to measure the concentration of DNA, RNA, and whole cells, and to measure other properties such as enzyme activity and cell health. As PCR and other molecular diagnostics methods become the standard of care in the diagnosis and monitoring of diseases, new methods for exciting and detecting fluorescent molecules will be needed. These new methods will need to have significantly reduced power, size, and cost with a simple user inter
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Three-Dimensionial Imaging System for Three-Dimensional Velocity and Temperature Measurement

Introduction Turbulent convective heat and mass transfer is one of the most frequently encountered physical processes in applied engineering, and can be inherently difficult to study and to predict. These flows are a combination of turbulent fluid dynamics, heat or mass transfer, and their interaction as affected by the complex geometries in which they occur. While laminar convective heat transfer is well understood, turbulent convective heat transfer is not, making its prediction using
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Multilevel Modulation for Free Space Optical (FSO) Communications and Error Correction Methodology

Introduction Wireless optical links, or free space optics (FSO), enable point-to-point, high-speed communication with low installation costs and high levels of security, and they are especially useful in situations where fiberoptics are impractical. Unfortunately, this technique suffers from signal scattering and attenuation during certain weather conditions—such as rain, fog, or smog—that can deteriorate or even sever the connection. More universally robust methodologies would better positi
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Influencing the orientation of chromophores to increase the opticelectric effect

Introduction The electro-optic effect, important for optical communications and quantum optics, occurs in materials that alter their refractive index in the presence of an electrical field. One of the more important specific electro-optic effects is known as the Pockels effect. Materials exhibiting the Pockels effect show a change in the refractive index that is linearly proportional to the electric field. The alignment of dipolar chromophores enhances this effect. Traditional methods of perform
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Inductive Salinometer with Data Logging Capabilities and Toroidal Sensor

Introduction Salinity levels in seawater are not constant and can vary dramatically both temporally and spatially due to phenomena such as temperature, precipitation, deep-water upwelling, and tidal action. These variations are especially pronounced in coastal and estuarine waters where seawater interfaces with land and fresh water. While technologies do exist to measure salinity, they do not currently exist to monitor it over time and space while unattended. Technology Description Professor Bus
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Crosslinkable Hole Transporting Materials for Organic Lightemitting Diodes

Introduction High-performance organic or polymer light-emitting diodes comprise multilayer configurations having hole-transporting, emissive and electron-transporting layers to balance the injection and transport of both holes and electrons. In general, holetransporting material is the first applied layer onto the anode upon sequential layerby- layer fabrication of a device. This hole-transporting layer (HTL) plays a very important role in the efficiency of multilayer PLEDs. Technology descripti
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Application of Grating Light Reflection Spectroscopy in Analytical Sensors

Introduction There are a number of methods for measuring bulk fluid compositions in statics and flow by visible light reflection characteristics from the optically inhomogeneous wall of a vessel. Surface Plasmon Spectroscopy (SPS) on gratings and randomly rough surfaces has proven to be especially sensitive to fluid composition near the wall. However, SPS techniques have inherent drawbacks when used as analytical sensing techniques. Grating Light Reflection Spectroscopy (GLRS) relies on an optic
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Electrospray Evaporative Spray Cooling (EESC)

Introduction As electronic devices get increasingly more powerful and more compact, there are an increasing number of semiconductor components that emit an increasing amount of heat. In order to ensure that these devices remain long-lived and reliable, more efficient methods of dissipating heat buildup is essential. Conventional cooling techniques, such as heat sinks and convective airflow, are becoming less and less appropriate for the evolving electronics landscape. However, evaporative spray
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Self-Assembled, Fixed Heterojunctions in Organic Semiconducting Polymers

Introduction Polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) are experiencing increasing scientific and industrial interest as solid-state sources of luminescence, thanks to their good electroluminescence efficiency, low driving voltages and ease of fabrication. While LECs as initially proposed are promising for low-cost display applications, a practical light-emitting device would feature a fixed, rather than dynamic, junction. This would allow for instantaneous light emission upon applicat
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Self-Bias and Digitally Tunable Conduction Angle Circuits for Differential RF Non-linear Power Amplifier Employing Low-Voltage Transistors

Introduction Transistor feature sizes are scaling to smaller and smaller dimensions in order to maximize the level of integration and operating speed of system-on-chip solutions. Unfortunately, lower breakdown voltages of the transistors accompany the smaller physical dimensions. This is problematic for the continuing development of wireless communications devices, especially RF power amplifiers. A highefficiency RF power amplifier (PA) is one of the major unsolved challenges inhibiting the deve
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Connector-Nut Driver

Introduction With the growing importance placed on compactness, it becomes increasingly difficult to install and maintain necessary equipment. This can be especially problematic with connectors, such as with electrical tubing connectors and nuts, that require hands-on tightening. The connector’s location often prohibits its effective manipulation using conventional tools and using makeshift methods can lead to damage to self and equipment. Technology Description At the University of Washington
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Charge-based frequency measurement BIST

Introduction Analog and mixed-signal testing is an important issue that affects both the time-to-market and product cost of many modem electronic systems. One key to the success of products with these properties is Built-In Self-Test (BIST) of circuits and systems. Although BIST for digital integrated circuits (IC) is widely used, manufacturers of mixed-signal IC's continue to search for an appropriate BIST solution. An important concern of IC manufacturers is the “overhead” required to imp
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An Electrochromic Smart Window Based on a Three-electrode Configuration

Introduction Electrochromic (EC) polymer films in an electrolyte solution are generally electrochemically switched between states using a standard three-electrode configuration. Devices made from these films, however, are operated using a twoelectrode configuration. When the potential drop between the electrodes is significant, the applied potential must be adjusted or control is lost. Technology description Researchers at the UW have developed a polymer electrochromic device that is designed an
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Auto-Tuning Amplifier

Introduction In wireless communications and wireless products, architectures can be complex and space-consuming due to the need for circuitry that receives signals from multiple bands. System complexity and increased size leads to higher costs; thus, design improvements that save space and decrease complexity are valuable. Technology description Researchers at the University of Washington have developed an amplifier that is capable of locking its tuning to a reference frequency. Thus, the same a
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Low-Gain Double-Sampling Switched-Capacitor Circuitry

Introduction In the electronic circuit industry, there is a continuing effort to increase circuit speeds as well as decrease circuit device sizes. As circuit designs become more advanced, circuits become faster, smaller and are able to operate with less voltage and power. In switched-capacitor circuitry, there is a technique known as double-sampling, which enables faster analog-to-digital conversion. The idea behind double-sampling is that in an analog switched-capacitor system, twice the amount
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Design of Thermal Interface Material Based on High Temperature Shape Memory Alloy for Connecting Two Thermoelectric Legs

Introduction Efficient heat management is crucial for electronics to optimize performance and to avoid premature component deterioration. An area of primary concern is at the interface of adjoining thermal components, such as with heatsink interfaces and with connections between thermoelectric legs. Problems arise due to the inability of the two surfaces, necessarily of differing metals, to fully connect because of imperfections. This issue is addressed by using thermal interface material (TIM)
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Solution Processable n-Type polymers

Introduction Conjugated polymers and organic semiconductors promise great advances in electronics because of the benefits they offer over silicon, including being cheaper with less demanding manufacturing requirements and allowing for larger, more flexible, and more robust materials that are more responsive to chemical and biochemical stimulus. A critical roadblock in developing this technology, however, is the lack of easily synthesized n-type polymers and, subsequently, the lack of effective p
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Self-Assembly of Hybrid Components for OLED and Flexible Displays

Introduction The market for flat panel displays is projected to reach $125 billion by 2012. Flexible displays are a fast-growing segment of this market, forecast to reach $120 billion by 2020. Cost-effective methods for low cost, high volume production of these displays at increasingly larger sizes are of interest to all major manufacturers. Technology description Researchers at the UW have developed a method for high-efficiency assembly of flexible and OLED displays. The display consi
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Projection Display for Small Handheld Devices

Introduction At present, the size of the display screen in handheld electronic devices is limited by the overall size of the device itself. With continuing miniaturization of cellphones, MP3 video players, PDAs, bar code scanners and similar mobile devices, display of legible information and useful images is a growing problem. Technology description Researchers at the UW have developed a projection technique that can be incorporated into small handheld electronic devices. It utilizes a scanned l
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Method of Detecting, Characterizing, and Quantifying Bulk, Light- Element Materials Using High-Energy, Penetrating X-Rays

Introduction X-rays have long been used in the characterization of a wide variety of materials. However, conventional techniques for dealing with light-element (or low-Z) materials, such as those containing nitrogen and carbon, are too low in energy to penetrate significant distances into enclosing material or into the bulk of the material of interest. A higher energy technique is required to solve this problem. Technology Description Researcher Elam at the University of Washington has developed
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Electrospinning of Hollow Nanofibers

Introduction One of the problems associated with nanoscale fabrication is the ability to manufacture hollow nanofibers made of polymers, ceramics, and composite materials. Other challenges include making the hollow nanofibers at varying lengths and aligning the completed fibers into specific orientations. Technology description Our researchers have developed new methods to manufacture polymeric, ceramic, and composite nanofibers through the use of electrospinning. These nanofibers can be made to
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Design and Fabrication of Optical Probes that use Photo- Chemical Neural Stimulation or Inhibition

Introduction Stimulation of neural tissue is typically done with electrodes inserted into or in close proximity to the neurons. Excitation or inhibition of a neural pathway is accomplished by electrically stimulating the neighboring neurons. The lack of longterm functionality of these electrodes is well known. For example, only 20 to 40% of the electrodes in a microwire array of neural stimulators are functional after implantation. Technology description Researchers at the UW have developed an
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Neutral Conjugated Surfactants as Electron Injection Layer in Polymer Light-emitting Diodes

Introduction Significant improvements have been made in polymer light-emitting diode (PLED) technology, including improved efficiency, high brightness, and low drive voltage. Despite advances, operational stability remains a challenge for PLED technology. There still remains a need for an efficient electron injection material that is compatible with high work-function cathodes but does not degrade device performance during operation. Technology description Alex Jen’s laboratory has developed
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Electrochemical Printing for 2 & 3 Dimensional Rapid Fabrication

Introduction Electrochemical Fabrication is the process of manufacturing a wide array of devices by either electrodeposition of pure metal/alloys on substrates or by selectively producing and/or removing material from the substrate through the use of spatially controlled electrochemical reactions. Most conventional fabrication techniques require the use of Masks to define the shape of fabricated structures. There are several limitations to the use of this technique, such as: the initial design a
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Carbon Nanotube-based Thermal Interface Material

Introduction Thermal management is an increasingly serious challenge for the semiconductor device industry as the density of circuit elements continues to increase in accordance with Moore’s Law. Effective methods to remove heat are essential to proper packaging and operation of next generation integrated circuits. Technology description A process has been developed at the University of Washington to capitalize on the high thermal conductivity of carbon nanotubes by incorporating them in a pol
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Mechanosensor Based on Arrayed Dome-shaped Flemion

Introduction Mechanosensors are found throughout nature, for example, in both plant and animal tissue, specific cells are capable of sensing mechanical movement. Remarkably, some cells sense mechanical forces in three dimensions. Mimicking these types of sensors with human-made materials represents an exciting breakthrough in mechanosensor technology. Technology description Researchers at the University of Washington have developed a new set of flexible mechanosensors using electroactive polymer
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Improved Design of FSMA Inchworm Actuator

Introduction There is great demand for new, compact, but powerful actuators in a variety of industries which can replace heavy actuators, such as the hydraulic actuator and the electrical motor with gear box. Technology description Researchers at the UW have developed an improved design of a ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) inchworm actuator based on a hybrid mechanism and FSMA composite springs. The hybrid mechanism is based on a stress-induced martensitic phase transformation produced b
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Electrochromic “Smart” Windows

Introduction Coatings for optical glass and vision products have been on the market for several decades. The older coatings change from transparent to colored under the effect of ultra-violet radiation. Newer coatings have been developed whose transparency can be changed electrically. But these inorganic coatings are slow to transition, costly to produce, and are limited to only a grey-blue color. Technology description Researchers at the University of Washington have developed polymer-based ele
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A New Protocol of Diels-Alder Lattice Hardening for Highly Efficient Electro-optic Materials Showing Outstanding Temporal Stability over 200 Degrees C

Introduction Organic electro-optic (EO) materials have attracted much interest in the past two decades because of their extensive potential applications in various fields, ranging from waveguides, switches, emitters, and detectors. Though EO materials have a huge potential in Photonics and Electronics devices, the fact that chromophores are not thermally robust enough to survive the device fabrication steps (short-term excursions to the order of 250oC) limits their application range. Technology
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Method of High-Performance CMOS Design

Introduction Dynamic circuit families such as domino are commonly used in today’s highperformance microprocessors for obtaining timing goals that are not possible using static complimentary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuit. Their increased performance is due to reduced input capacitance, lower switching thresholds, and circuit implementations. However, dynamic circuits have notable disadvantages. Perhaps the main disadvantage is its increased noise sensitivity. Technology description R
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Thermo-reversibly Crosslinked Cladding Materials with Highly Tunable Conductivity for Nonlinear Optical Polymer-based Devices

Introduction A typical electro-optic waveguide device includes a lower electrode layer, a lower cladding layer, an active guiding layer, an upper cladding layer, and an upper electrode layer. The purpose of the cladding layers in an electro-optic device is to confine light in the active guiding layer and to isolate the guiding layer from poling and device operating electrodes. Once particular problem associated with optimizing the nonlinear optical (NLO) activity of an active guiding layer in a
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Microcellular Electrical Wire Coatings

Introduction In microcellular plastic foams, inert gas is dissolved in thermoplastic under high pressure. The forced evacuation of this gas during processing creates pores (or cells) within the final hardened plastic. These cells are small enough that clarity of the plastic is unaffected, and because of the cells, much less starting material is required for creating low-density microcellular plastics than for conventional plastics, greatly reducing weight and cost. These plastics also have a gre
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High-efficiency Light-emitting Diodes Using Neutral Surfactants and Aluminum Cathode

Introduction Light emitting diodes (LED) are desirable for displays due to their high energy efficiency, as compared to more traditional technologies like liquid crystal displays (LCD), which require a backlight. However LEDs are expensive to manufacture. Organic light emitting diodes (OLED), are any LED that uses a thin film of organic compounds as the electroluminescent layer. OLEDs have the same efficiencies as LEDs with reduced costs. However they are not perfect (for example they have shor
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Stabilized Plasma Light Source for EUV Lithography

Introduction Researchers at the UW have developed a novel technique to produce a gas discharge plasma with a lifetime up to 2000 times longer than conventional methods. The plasma can serve as a stable light source for extreme ultraviolet lithography processing of microelectronic devices. Technology description Using a flow-stabilized Z-pinch approach, a stable plasma has been produced using hydrogen and other materials. The stabilized plasma emits light radiation at wavelengths that can be tune
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Micro-Fabricated Heat Exchanger for High-Power Diode Laser

Introduction Diode bars, a type of high-power semiconductor laser, are finding increasing use due to their decreasing costs and high output power. However, they produce a significant amount of heat, and this can cause degradation and early failure of the laser and its mount and can complicate integration with other devices. Conventional methods of heat dissipation include simple copper heat spreaders, which suffer reduced lifetime due to thermal stress; micro thermal electric coolers, which cur
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Advanced Thermoelectric Materials of High Efficiency

Introduction Efficient heat management takes the form of both energy harvesting and cooling, and both are crucial in many applications, such as with electronics in order to optimize performance and to avoid premature component deterioration. In order to ensure that the constantly evolving electronics landscape remains long-lived and reliable along with other technology that relies on proper heat management, improved methods of heat transfer and heat dissipation are essential. Technology Descript
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Bright white electroluminescent (EL) devices

Introduction Solid state lighting technologies are being used in both specialized lighting applications and as a replacement for incandescent and fluorescent bulbs within the $12 billion lighting market. Polymer-based solid state lighting devices promise a number of key advantages including high energy efficiency, long-life, conformable shape, light weight, and an ease and flexibility of processing. Some of the obstacles to the adoption of solid-state lighting devices to date have been the inabi
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Energy Based Stability Control of Haptic Devices

Introduction Humans interact with their world through the five senses, but the sense of touch is primarily used in the manipulation of objects. The word haptic refers to the sense of touch, and a haptic device is one that uses the sense of touch to convey information to the user. These devices provide force feedback to a user, and this quality allows for virtual reality simulations that “feel real”. One problem in the design of haptic systems is to minimize vibrations without sacrificing fid
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Design of Energy Harvestor Based on Piezo-shape Memory Alloy Composites

Introduction Shape memory alloy (SMA) materials act as an energy harvestor in locations where temperature fluctuates between high and low readings (e.g. 0C – 150C for TiNi SMA). Stress change in the piezo-phase generates a voltage change and electrical power. Technology description Researchers at the University of Washington have developed applications for SMA materials, such as TiNi, to effectively harvest electrical power by converting stresses in SMA materials induced by temperature changes
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Development of Large Bandgap Host Materials for Phosphorescent Emitters

Introduction The performance of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) has improved dramatically over the past decades. However, the efficiencies of conjugated polymer-based phosphorescence devices usually are much lower than those of small-molecule based devices. Although external efficiencies of greater than 10% have been demonstrated by blending conjugated polymers with red phosphors, high efficiency polymer-based OLEDs using green- or blue emitting phosphors as dopants still have not been rea
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Tubular Electronics

Introduction As the demand for smaller and more portable consumer electronics increases, new designs and fabrication techniques must constantly be developed in order to accommodate and take advantage of the changes. Power supplies and adapters, for instance, are now often larger than the devices for which they service. These components must also evolve, and one way is to utilize the unused space in the insulating wire coating on power cords. This coating is relatively thick and this space could
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Implementing Mimo in Mobile Devices By Means of Virtual Receive Antennas

BACKGROUND MIMO (Multiple-Input Multiple-Output) technology is increasingly viewed as a solution to the ever increasing data rates required in mobile devices and its use is taking off, particularly in wireless LAN networks and future cellular communication systems. Among the existing MIMO schemes, spatial multiplexing could directly increase the data transfer rate by employing more transmit antennas. However its applicability is currently limited in mobile devices due to the requirement to have
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High Power Transistors for Use At High Frequencies

BACKGROUND Prof. Mo Missous at the School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, the University of Manchester has developed a family of prototype high power high frequency transistors with high breakdown voltage (>20V). They are InP-InGaAs/InAlAs. pseudomorphic High Electron Mobility Transistors (pHEMTs). The pHEMT is the transistor of choice in millimetre wave frequency applications (> 40 GHz) requiring ultra low noise (such as radio astronomy, defence, medical imaging and telecommunications
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Three-dimensional (3-D) Thin-Film Microbattery

The Invention The 3-D Thin-film Microbattery is a, lithium or lithium-ion battery conformally formed on all exposed surfaces of a perforated substrate. The extended area provides an increase of 1-2 orders of magnitude in specific energy (per volume and weight) and capacity vs. conventional planar thin-film microbatteries. 3-D Microbatteries will be of great importance to self powered semiconductor devices, autonomous MEMS, nanosystems, and implantable micro-medical devices requiring energy in l
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A novel system for rapid fluorescence detection of non-amplified nucleic acid sequences

The Invention A new homogeneous technique which utilizes fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to directly detect and distinguish specific DNA sequences without requiring either an amplification step or a separation step has been developed. The detection system is capable of detecting very low abundant point mutations directly from unamplified genomic DNA. Furthermore, the system is able to separate the fluorescence signal from the background noise, thus achieving a dramatic improvemen
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Transparent X-ray Beam Diagnostics

BACKGROUND Today X-ray beams are used in many areas in science and engineering. Their unique properties give a wealth of information in a non-destructive manner. Research with highly collimated beams such as produced by synchrotron and electron laser facilities provide powerful probes for microscopic samples. Precise localisation and control of these pencil x-ray beams that illuminate samples with ever decreasing dimensions is becoming extremely difficult. Devices that can accurately measure bea
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Electroluminescent Yarns

BACKGROUND The concept of electroluminescent (EL) materials is based on the exposure of an electroluminescent substance to a high frequency electrical field, in contrast to photoluminescence in which a light source is needed to provide stimulation. EL polymer sheets are created using micro-encapsulated phosphors and by screen-printing the above on to plastic sheets. Current EL sheets are manufactured by sandwiching the EL ink (electro-conductive polymer binder and micro-encapsulated EL powder) b
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Photonic Devices Having Degenerate or Split Spectral Band Edges

Background: The manipulation of electromagnetic energy can be advantageous to numerous applications within many industries. For instance, much effort has been focused on reducing the velocity of electromagnetic energy, such as light and microwave pulses. The reduced velocity of electromagnetic energy can facilitate manipulation of electromagnetic waves. It can also enhance the light-matter interaction essential in numerous optical and microwave applications. One common photonic device explo
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Concurrent Mode Antenna System

Background: With advances of radio communication technology, various radio communication services available using wireless terminals such as mobile phones, personal digital assistants, personal computers, and notebook computers are under development. For example, Global System for Mobile communication (GSM), Personal Communication Services (PCS), World Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX), Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), Wireless Broadband Internet (WiBro), and Bluetooth. The GSM u
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Compact Atomic Magnetometer and Gyroscope

Background: Magnetometers are used for sensing magnetic fields. Applications include geophysical surveying, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magneto-encephalography and perimeter surveillance. Gyroscopes sense rotation. Together, these instruments are used in inertial navigation and platform stabilization such as anti-roll systems in cars. A variety of commercial magnetometers exist with various application areas. Superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDS) are highly sensiti
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Integrated Biomedical Multimodality Imaging Probe - Optical Coherence Tomography/Ultrasound/Photoacoustics Imaging System

Background: In clinical applications for the examination of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, leg and other vessels, ultrasound imaging (USI) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are two of the most widely used imaging modalities. USI and OCT both measure cross-sectional tissue profile. OCT measures tissue surface profile and cross-sectional image within a few millimeter depth range under the skin with a superior image resolution of 10 micrometers; high frequency USI also measures cross-sectio
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Method and System of Elasto-Optical Tomography for Breast Cancer Imaging

Background: Currently, X-ray mammography is the widely accepted method for the detection of changes in the breast that may be cancer. However, this screening technique lacks specificity to determine whether detected abnormalities are either benign or malignant. A significant number of suspicious masses referred by mammography for surgical biopsy are in fact, found to be benign. These false-positive mammograms may cause patient anxiety and lead to increase healthcare costs. Technology: To ove
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Environment to Environment Connection

Background: Most common communication involves interaction directly from a person to another person. When technology started mediating communication, devices started playing a more important role and much device to device (D2D) communication was introduced. For example, a telephone, land or mobile, is connected to another telephone. In video conferencing, a camera is connected to a display. The inherent problem, is that traditional forms of communication limit the experience of communicating wi
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Methods of Manufacturing Microdevices in Laminates, Lead Frames, Packages, and Printed Circuit Boards

Background: Microelectrical-mechanical systems (MEMS) are miniature mechanical devices intended to perform non-electronic functions such as sensing or actuation. These devices are typically built from silicon using lithographic techniques borrowed from the semiconductor industry. This manufacturing technique is expensive and limited. Furthermore, almost all micromachined devices must eventually be placed in a protective housing so that electrical connections can be made to the devices, and to p
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Rescanning Laser Scanning Confocal Microscope

Background: The laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) is widely used as a confocal microscopy technique for imaging fluorescent objects in a manner that removes out of focus fluorescent light and thus provides increased axial resolution and better imaging compared to a standard fluorescence microscope. A laser is used since it can generate a very intense spot of light on the specimen. A problem with this detection method is that it requires measuring a rapidly changing low level of light an
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A New Analog Hardware-Efficient Multi-Antenna Receiver Architechtur for Spatial Multiplexing, Spatial Diversity and Beamforming

Background: Multi-antenna communications have demonstrated remarkable performance improvements in wireless systems and hold a promising future for applications that demand higher data rate, enhanced quality of service, and better reliability. However, in systems where multiple transmit and multiple receive antennas (also known as MIMO) are utilized, multiple RF chains, baseband blocks, and analog to digital converters (ADC) in the multi-antenna receiver need to be replicated. This mandates subs
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Optimizing Sound to Suppress Tinnitus

Background: Tinnitus is the perception of sound in the absence of corresponding external sounds. Although known for its high-pitched ringing, tinnitus is an internal noise that varies in pitch and frequency. Tinnitus affects approximately 50 million people in the United States. Treatments such as drugs, surgeries and masking exist, but none are consistently effective and may have significant side effects. UC Irvine researchers have found that optimized sounds complementary to tinnitus can be us
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A Multi-Band, Inductor Re-Use Low Noise Amplifier

Background: In recent years, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems have proven to enhance data rate and provide robust signal reception under a variety of environmental settings. However, its employment of multiple antennas in turn require multiple branches of RF front ends resulting in increased power consumption and increased component costs. Additionally, with the advent of multi-band, multi-standard, and multi-mode radios in conjunction with MIMO techniques, the number of required R
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Eco Wireless Sensor Node

Background: Many wearable wireless sensor systems have similar looking architectures. To reduce unnecessary redundant design effort, modular, expandable platforms have been proposed. They include features such as snap-on connectors to make the interface pins accessible. End users can then customize the platform by simply swapping in another board with a different sensing device or system performance. Unfortunately, expandable platforms today are still relatively bulky for many body-area network
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Integrated Direct Electron Imaging Sensors

Background: Conventional charged particle imaging sensors use film and charged couple device (CCD). CCD has poor radiation tolerance and records images indirectly while the film is an analog recorder, unsuitable for high throughput digital imaging. What is needed then, is a direct, digital imaging sensor for high throughput digital imaging. Technology: University of CA researchers have developed a CMOS sensor dedicated to and optimized for direct imaging in electron microscopy. The invention
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High-Velocity, Ion-Driven Wind Generator

Background: A fluid can be accelerated to high velocities using electrostatic forces and no moving parts. This concept, termed "ion-driven", "ionic", "Chattock", "electrohydrodynamic", "electrokinetic" or "corona" wind, has been known for over a hundred years. However, only a few meters per second have been obtainable for all designs until now. Typically, a strong electric field is applied between a sharp and rounded electrode separated by some distance and submerged in a fluidic medium (gas or
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Novel Distributed Direct Conversion Receiver for UWB Systems

Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) wireless broadcasts are capable of carrying huge amounts of data up to 250 feet with extremely little transmit power and high immunity to interference and multipath fading. The spread spectrum characteristics of UWB wireless systems, and the ability of UWB wireless receivers to highly resolve the signal in multi-path fading channels make them a desirable wireless system of choice in a variety of high-rate, short- to medium-range communications. The ability of UWB systems to
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Distributed RF Front-End for UWB Receivers

Background: Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) wireless broadcasts are capable of carrying huge amounts of data up to 250 feet with extremely little transmit power and high immunity to interference and multipath fading. The spread spectrum characteristics of UWB wireless systems, and the ability of UWB wireless receivers to highly resolve the signal in multi-path fading channels make them a desirable wireless system of choice in a variety of high-rate, short- to medium-range communications. The ability of U
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Real-Time Electrochemical Detection of Targets Using Phage-Displayed Polypeptides

Background: With up to 10^12 unique members, phage-displayed libraries provide a vast pool of candidate receptors to essentially any target. Despite this tremendous potential of phage-displayed libraries for universal molecular recognition, the technique has found only limited application in biosensors. Detecting molecular recognition between phage and target requires the target to be immobilized by using methods such as quartz crystal microbalance, microelectrode arrays, fluoroimmunoassays, an
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Transmit Beamforming for a Large Reconfigurable Antenna Array

Background: Many space-time transmission schemes have been proposed recently to exploit the high channel capacity of MIMO communication systems. However, algorithms for a large antenna array (LAA) remain an open research problem. The standard channel estimation and space-time modulation schemes are not practical for LAAs due to high implementation complexity. Technology: University researchers have developed a novel transmit beamforming scheme based on a reconfigurable LAA. Compared to the t
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Wafer-Level Micro-Glass Blowing

Background: Large scale confinement chambers have been created in the past using traditional glass-blowing techniques. However, conventional glass-blowing can only be used to create large components and requires the components to be made one at a time. Micro-glass spheres have previously been fabricated by letting glass particles fall through a temperature-controlled drop tower. While it is possible to create hollow spheres by introducing a blowing agent in the glass, these micro-spheres are no
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Universal Gain Cells for Broadband Amplifiers

Background: Designing distributed amplifiers by using heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) is a great challenge compared with using field effect transistors. The reasons causing this challenge are a) the input capacitance, C?, of HBT is typically an order of magnitude larger than input capacitance, Cgs, of FET for the same operating current leading to lower bandwidth, b) the HBT lossy input characteristic is the shunt resistance, r?, compared with FET having infinite value of input shunt r
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Successive Transmit Beamforming Algorithms for Multiple-Antenna OFDM Systems

Background: In this paper, we focus on the design and evaluation of new transmit beamforming algorithms for the multiple-input single-output (MISO) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. The OFDM technique is very effective in combating frequency selective fading since it converts the broadband channel into several parallel flat fading channels. However, to implement transmit beamforming, the channel state information on each individual subcarrier has to be conveyed from the
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Novel Successive Beamforming Schemes for Multiple Antenna Systems

Background: A new trend in wireless communications is to use multiple transmit and receive antennas such as those found in MIMO wireless systems, to attain higher data rate, better signal quality, and superior system flexibility. Transmit beamforming has been widely adopted for wireless systems with multiple transmit antennas. For a block fading channel, the Grassmannian beamformer has been shown to provide the best performance for given amount of feedback. However, the original Grassmannian be
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Single-Mask Fabrication Process for Linear and Angular Piezoresistive Accelerometers

Background: Piezoresistive accelerometers are traditionally fabricated by doping selected areas of wafer to achieve isolated pn-junctions. Often, two separate doping steps are employed to obtain both highly-doped conductors as well as lightly-doped piezoresistors. Once the piezoresistors and conductors have been defined, additional fabrication steps are required to etch the suspension system as well as the free-standing proof mass, which normally deflects in the out-of-plane direction. Norma
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Broadband Power Amplifier with a Novel Tunable Output Matching Network

Background: In the past decade, InGaP/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) have been the key technology in delivering solutions for both high efficiency and high linearity monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) power amplifiers in various wireless communication systems, such as GSM, DCS, PCS, CDMA and WLAN. Traditionally, these MMIC power amplifiers are designed for narrow band operation and cannot be used as a broadband solution covering multiple bands in wireless communicati
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Environmentally-Sensitive Reconfigurable Antenna

Background: With the exception of light-based sensors, that change their light interaction properties, all sensors require some power in order to operate and provide a signal to a remote source. Light-based systems are readily blocked by typical obstructions such as buildings, trees, and vegetation. Some wireless systems require the use of on-board circuitry that temporarily charges up a battery or capacitor in the presence of an externally applied RF radiation, then use this electrical energy
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Applications of Photonic Crystals with Degenerate Spectral Band Edge

In a vacuum, light propagates with a constant velocity, while in an optically transparent non-dispersive media, the speed of light propagation can be different. At optical frequencies, the refractive index of transparent materials usually does not exceed several units, and the speed of light propagation is of the same order of magnitude as the speed of light in vacuum. The situation can change dramatically in strongly dispersive media. Although the phase velocity of light is still determined
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Method and Apparatus of Using 3D Conductive Structures in Dielectrophoretic Separation Applications

Background: Researchers estimate that 80% of all machine failures are due to wear and that 1.3~1.6% of the GNP is lost to degradation of machinery due to friction-related wear. The abnormal abrasive wear due to lubricant contamination in marine diesel engines eclipses that of normal wear and the gap becomes wider with time. It was found that although oil filters used in automotive engines are designed to filter particles in the 15-30 µm range, particles with diameters below 10 µm caused 44% o
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Methods for Making 2D Nanoscale PN Junctions and Junction Arrays

Background: Silicon-based device structures capable of laser emission are highly desirable since they allow realization of integrated opto-electronic circuits. Unfortunately, it is generally believed that silicon's inherent bandgap prevents its use, alone, as lasing media. Numerous approaches to overcoming this difficulty have been attempted with mixed results. Recently, high efficiency electroluminescence from silicon light-emitting diodes corresponding to silicon's bandgap energy has been rep
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New Multiphase LLC Resonant Voltage Regulators for Next Generation Microprocessors

Background: Recent developments in semiconductor manufacturing technology have resulted in unprecedented density of transistor elements per silicon area. This new technology facilitates a dramatic increase in circuit complexity of the modern computer and communication hardware. With transistors dimensions as low as 90nm, operation frequencies in the 5GHz range are possible and will surely be surpassed by the next generation of 60 nm devices. Increased switching frequency inevitably causes highe
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Composite Transistors for Compensation of HBT Self-heating Effect and Enhancement of HBT Linearity

Background: Heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBT's) are the key components in the high output power densities circuits at microwave frequencies and are increasingly being utilized for large signal applications such as power amplifiers, oscillators, and mixers. These high power densities in HBT can easily lead to significant operating temperatures when the transistors are working under the large signal operation. Although the temperature sensitivity of transistor parameters is significant for
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A Broadband Amplifier with Huge Gain-bandwidth Product and Low Power Consumption

Background: Without a distributed amplifier, most broadband amplifier bandwidths can be achieved around 1/10 to 1/3 of their fT only. Therefore, a high bandwidth amplifier requires high fT (at least 3-10 times of the amplifier bandwidth) transistors in order to achieve high bandwidth. Unfortunately, the current device technology is limited and in very high fT transistors, yield is still low. This leads to high cost and low yield. Even if high gain-bandwidth product could be achieved by a dis
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Immunoassay Apparatus and Method Using Flow Induced Electrical Admittance

Background: There remains a need for new immunoassay techniques and related devices for performing immunoassays with improved simplicity, efficiency and/or accuracy. The present invention provides for a new immunoassay method, namely, a flow induced electrical admittance immunoassay (FIEAI). This present invention takes advantage of the innovation of UC case no. 2004-146-2 which is a method and apparatus for using electrical admittance to measure flow rate and/or for determining the presence of
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Microfluidic Flow Transducer Based on the Measurement of Electrical Admittance

Background: The development of multifunctional, high throughput lab-on-a-chip depends heavily on the ability to measure flow rate and perform quantitative analysis of fluids in minute volumes. Traditionally, there have been many microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based flow sensors for gaseous flows. In recent times, there is some advancement in measuring micro flows of liquids. Examples of sensing principles explored in the measurement of microfluidic flow are heat transfer detection molecul
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Optimal Spatial Sub-channel Resources Allocation Mechanism for Sustainable Bit Rate Wireless Conduits

Background: The latest video compression standard (MPEG-4) has moved the wireless industry one step closer to the world of high quality multimedia services. Commercial wireless MPEG-4 video codec systems can already support up to Level 3 of the MPEG Simple Visual Profile. However, the issue of how to effectively transport such high quality multimedia streams across fluctuating radio channels remains a challenge because highly compressed data is very susceptible to low quality fluctuating channe
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Photonic Slab with Axially Frozen Mode

Background: A unidirectional gyrotropic photonic crystal allows electromagnetic wave propagation in a certain direction at a certain frequency and at the same time, impedes electromagnetic wave propagation in the opposite direction. The electromagnetic wave with impeded propagation, called the "frozen mode", ideally has zero group velocity and does not transfer the electromagnetic energy. A unidirectional gyrotropic photonic crystal is a periodic composite, incorporating a component displaying
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RF MEMS Technology for Fabricating RF MEMS Switches

University researchers have invented a low-cost, high performance, and substrate independent RF MEMS technology for RF MEMS switch fabrication with high yield and reliability. It is compatible with well established printed circuit board (PCB) technology and allows the choice of any substrate with desired electrical and mechanical properties for a specific communication application, to enhance its performance and reduce cost. Utilizing this process for example, allows for the integration of RF ME
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Ion Optical Element for Use in Controlling Charged Particle Beams

Background: Previously, reflectrons consisted of stacks of discrete electrodes. These stacks can be expensive to manufacture and contain inherent imperfections - the field over the assembly of electrodes is not precisely linear. Technology: UC researchers have devised a solution that replaces the entire stack assembly with a single cylinder of conductive material. This volume conductive electrode can be used to control charged particle beams in TOF mass specs and other devices requiring prec
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A Laser System for the Generation of Pulses with Duration in the Pico-second Range and a Narrow Bandwidth

UCI researchers have developed a laser system for the generation of pulses with duration in the picosecond range and a narrow bandwidth. The laser system produces pulses with a duration of about 25 ps. The radiation can be tuned between 410 nm and 2000nm. The bandwidth of the radiation is spectrally narrow, close to the theoretical limit (the Fourier limit). Technically this system is an optical parametric oscillator (OPO); amplification is obtained in a parametric process rather than by populat
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Gyrotropic Phontonic Crystals and their Applications in Microwave Technology

By proper spatial arrangement of magnetic and dielectric components, one can construct a magnetic photonic crystal with strong spectral asymmetry (nonreciprocity). The spatial asymmetry, in turn, results in a number of interesting phenomena, in particular, one-way transparency when the magnetic photonic crystal, being perfectly transparant for a Bloch wave of frequency omega, "freezes" the radiation of the same frequency omega propagating in the opposite direction. The design can be used as an i
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High Speed Circuit Board Writing

A method of printing lines on circuit boards from computer information in a manner similar to using an inkjet printer. Utilizing capillary stream break-up of molten metal droplets, this novel approach is capable of printing very fine lines on the order of 10 microns wide and many centimeters long at very high speed, thus resulting in a system that is faster and cheaper than other current methods of circuit board writing such as traditional etching, chemical vapor deposition, focused ion beam wri
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A General Constant Frequency Pulse-Width Modulator and Its Applications

Background: Switching converters are commonly used to provide DC to DC, DC to AC, AC to DC, and AC to AC conversion of electrical waveforms. These converters are often categorized by applicable circuit configuration and/or capabilities, and include buck converters (where the load voltage is less than the source voltage), boost converters (where the load voltage is greater than the source voltage), Cuk converters, Watkins-Johnson converters, and A, B, and C quadratic converters. All of these con
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One Cycle Control of Bipolar Switching Power Amplifiers

Researchers at the Power Electronics Laboratory at University of California, Irvine, received a U.S. patent for a device that uses one cycle control for controlling DC-to-AC switching converters. This is achieved by forcing the average of a controlled switched variable to be exactly equal to the control reference in each switching cycle. Potential subharmonic oscillations in a switching power amplifier, which occurs in the DC-to-AC application of this method is prevented by adding an offset volt
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Data Compression of Time-Varying Images

Background: Current methods of transmitting time-varying images involve encoding the digital image information into a set of still frames. To reduce the bandwidth necessary to transmit the full image, compression techniques are used to eliminate statistically redundant information in the pixel intensity distribution in each image frame and between each pair of successive image frames. These spatial compression techniques have now reached their compression limits with compression ratios of sever
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Fail-Safe, Inexpensive Electrochemical Device Stack Design

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Small scale fuel cell applications (auxillary power units) Small scale syngas production Small scale gas separation ADVANTAGES: Improved stack efficiency (10% more power output than a single cell of the same active area) Potentially over ten times less expensive to manufacture than existing stack designs Redundancy is built into the system so that it continues to function despite cell failures ABSTRACT: Craig Jacobson, Steven Visco, and Lutgard DeJong
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Control System for a Power Supply

FEATURES Power supplies are used in numerous devices and applications as sources for voltage and/or current. In some devices, such as mass spectrometers, the accuracy of the voltage output of a power supply is a consideration in the overall performance of the device. Voltage drift and noise can adversely affect the accuracy of the voltage output. The invention is a control system for a power supply that includes a control circuit and a feedback circuit. The feedback circuit is configured to
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